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Sample records for lithuanian native coarsewooled

  1. Reorganization of Lithuanian Airspace

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    Vaidotas Kondroška

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of the article is considering problems related to ensuring the required capacity of Lithuanian airspace and organising the provision of air traffic services in the most efficient way. The paper presents the results of analysis and experimental research on several scenarios of Lithuanian airspace models that are the most appropriate from the point of view of air traffic control. To allow for a realistic comparison between the scenarios and traffic samples, the current route network, a real traffic sample and the existing traffic dynamics have been used. Furthermore, all other related aspects such as flight level occupancy, flight time, aircraft type and traffic flows have been taken into consideration. The results of analysis will form a basis for ensuring the required capacity of Lithuanian airspace. Article in Lithuanian

  2. The Major Obstacles of Correct Pronunciation: for Lithuanians Learning Spanish and for Spanish Learning Lithuanian

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    Loreta Alešiūnaitė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When a person starts learning a new foreign language and tries to speak to a native speaker, it is a common situation when he/she is asked to repeat (sometimes more than once because the listener does not understand the speaker‘s pronunciation. As a consequence, the speaker’s confidence in his/her language competence is shaken as well as motivation for the use of this foreign language. This situation shows the importance of correct pronunciation which is one of the significant components of successful foreign language learning. Recently, the learning of Spanish and Lithuanian as foreign languages has become increasingly popular in Kaunas. From 2009 a quarter of LUHS foreign students are Spanish students, and Spanish is the first most chosen from 26 of those taught as a second foreign language at VMU. During the analysis of Spanish and Lithuanian phonetic similarities and differences, the main purpose is to discuss, compare and identify the major obstacles in pronunciation for Lithuanians learning Spanish and for Spanish students learning Lithuanian. The experimental mirror principle reveals the main obstacles to correct pronunciation which indicate the cases where Spanish students make pronunciation mistakes in the Lithuanian language, and, respectively, those cases are the same where the pronunciation obstacles for Lithuanians speaking Spanish arise. Learning of phonetics is one of the most important parts of communicative competence – that is why it is recommended to pay attention to the orthoepy in foreign languages and begin to develop pronunciation from the very first levels of language learning, because the positive results appear in the long run and after much practice.

  3. Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement

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    Simona Mačiukaité

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

  4. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

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    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  5. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

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    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  6. Pecularities of French Pronoun on Usage in Lithuanian Scientific Discourse

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    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists studying personal identifiers in French scientific discourse incorporate the personal indefinite pronoun “on” into the paradigm. The semantics of the pronoun depends on the genre of scientific discourse. The pronoun “on” can acquire four meanings denoting or including the author. The current paper, based on two databases of native French and Lithuanian authors’ articles, aims at comparing the tendencies of the pronoun “on” usage and its functions in scientific discourse. The analyses has shown that the Lithuanian authors use the personal pronoun almost twice less frequently to mark an author or authors’ denotative or inclusive meaning. In the articles of Lithuanian authors, the pronoun “on” performs fewer pragmatic functions than in scientific discourse of French authors.

  7. Priešpriešos konektorių vartojimas besimokančių anglų kalbos ir anglakalbių studentų rašto darbuose. Contrastive connectors in advanced Lithuanian learners’ and native speakers’ English writing

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    Lina Bikelienė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje siekiama apžvelgti anglakalbių ir besimokančių anglų kalbos studentų priešpriešos konektorių vartojimą. Medžiagą sudaro šiuo metu Vilniaus universiteto Anglų filologijos katedroje kaupiamas besimokančiųjų anglų kalbos tekstyno (ICLE –International Corpus of Learner English lietuviškasis potekstynis (LICLE ir pagal analogiškus kriterijus sudarytas gimtakalbių anglų kalbos vartotojų tekstynas (LOCNESS – Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays. Kontrastyvinės analizės metodu atliktame tyrime siekiama išsiaiškinti: (1 ar tiesioginis priešpriešos žymėjimas konektoriais yra vienodai paplitęs anglų kaip svetimojoje ir gimtakalbių kalboje ir (2 ar tiriamuose darbuose konektoriai yra vartojami tose pačiose sakinio ir teksto vietose. Ypatingas dėmesys skiriamas LICLE tekstyne dažniausiai pasitaikančiam konektoriui however ‘vis dėlto, tačiau’. Gauti rezultatai rodo, kad nors kiekybiniai priešpriešos konektorių vartojimo skirtumai nėra statistiškai reikšmingi, šios kategorijos konektorių pasiskirstymas tekste ir sakinyje LICLE ir LOCNESS tekstynuose skiriasi. Kai kuriais atvejais LICLE tekstyne pastebimos interkalbai būdingos vartojimo tendencijos. ------ This paper shows an attempt to present the analysis of contrastive connectors in advanced Lithuanian learners’ and native speakers’ English writing. For the purpose of the study LICLE corpus (Lithuanian subcorpus of ICLE (International Corpus of Learner English was used. A comparison is made with the native speakers’ data obtained from the British segment of LOCNESS (Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays. Several comparisons are made with the American and the A-level segments of LOCNESS as well. The central research questions are (1 whether advanced Lithuanian learners openly mark contrastive relations in the same way to natives and (2 whether text and sentence distribution of contrastive connectors is the same in the corpora

  8. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

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    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  9. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

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    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  10. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

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    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  11. THE LIBRARY OF THE LITHUANIAN CULTURAL INSTITUTE

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    Hermann, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lithuanian Cultural Institute (Lietuviu Kulturos Institutas, LKI in Lampertheim-Hüttenfeld is an institution of the Lithuanian Community in Germany. It was founded 1981 in order to foster,conserve und study the Lithuanian cultural heritage in Germany. In the first years the institute has developed an archive and a library for Lithuanian literature. The library is based on extensive andvaluable collections of books donated by scholars in exile. Since 1991, an agreement assures the delivery of important new book releases by the National Library of Lithuania. Today the libraryconsists appoximately 10.000 titles. It includes an excellent selection of exile literature and literature of Lithuania since 1970. The library contains the largest collection of Lithuanian booksin Europe outside of Lithuania. The collection is databased in the Heidelberg library system HEIDI (http://www.uni-eidelberg.de/helios/kataloge/heidi/html. Since 1997, the library has been registered in the library system of southwestern Germany Südwestverbund (http://pollux.bsz-bw-de and is connected to the Karslruher Virtuellen Katalog (http://www.ubka-uni-arlsruhe.de/kvk.html, making it accessible online throughout the world. All titles can be ordered directly or via interlibrary loan. Since the library is staffed by volunteers, the hours of operation are irregular. The library of LKI is sonsidered as a supplement of other libraries in Germany which contain little or non Lithuanian literature. In addition, the library serves as important resource of information for the Lithuanian Cultural Institute and its conferences.

  12. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age) from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania). During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993) picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysi...

  13. Lithuanian energy security : annual review 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The publication “Lithuanian Energy Security. Annual Review 2013– 2014” presents the problems of Lithuanian energy security, energy security research methods and methodology the application of which enables the determination of Lithuanian energy security level. The research is of interdisciplinary character – energy security problems integrate the aspects of energy, economics, politics and sociology. The dynamics of Lithuanian energy security level is covered and compared with the dynamics of ...

  14. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

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    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  15. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

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    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels.Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages.For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture.Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness.The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral characteristics

  16. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  17. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

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    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02

  18. Evoliution of Castle Palaces in Lithuanian Renaissance

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    Inga Genytė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article author examines the problem of architecture history associated with the evolution of castle palaces in the current territory of Lithuania in the Lithuanian Renaissance period. The article is based on research papers thematically close to the publication, other literature and archive documents. After prehistory review of castle palaces at a theoretical level and clarifying the conditions for their occurrence, significant development trends of castle palaces during the Renaissance period in current Lithuania territory is revealed. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Italian, Flemish and Flanders Renaissance reached Lithuania and merged with the local tradition; in the light of the Lithuanian Renaissance castle palaces reached their prosperity period in Lithuania. Castle palaces were distinguished by the diversity of their structural and architectural forms, relatively meaningful connection between function and artistic expression and a sustainable link with the components of environment.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

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    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  20. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  1. Lexical bundles in learner language: Lithuanian learners vs. native speakers. Leksinių samplaikų vartojimas mokinių kalboje: kontrastinis lietuvių ir gimtakalbių anglų kalbos vartotojų tyrimas

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    Rita Juknevičienė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpus studies of recurrent word sequences, also known as lexical bundles, have outlined new directions in ELT/EFL research. The fact that naturally produced English consists of prefabricated multi-word units gave rise to the question of chunkiness in learner language. This study was thus designed to compare and contrast language produced by learners of three different levels of proficiency in terms of the use of lexical bundles. The analysis of lexical bundles retrieved from three corpora of written learner English showed that many more different bundles were established in the corpora representing less proficient learners which is interpreted as an indication of a more limited lexical repertoire which leads to more repetition. Furthermore, structural and functional analysis of lexical bundles showed that the language of non-native learners bears more resemblance to spoken English than the language of native speakers. These findings may be particularly useful to EFL practitioners as they seem to give new insights into the development of learner language. ------ Leksinių samplaikų arba pasikartojančių žodžių sekų tyrimai anglų lingvistikoje atvėrė naujų tyrimo krypčių anglų kaip svetimosios kalbos studijoms. Tekstynų tyrinėjimai parodė, jog autentiškoje anglų kalboje itin dažnai pasitaiko pasikartojančių žodžių sekų, kurios produkuojant kalbą atkuriamos kaip nedalomi vienetai. Todėl tikėtina, jog kintant kalbos vartotojų pasiekimams tokių sekų kiekis ir pobūdis jų kalboje taip pat gali kisti. Straipsnyje pristatomas kontrastinis mokinių kalbos (angl. learner language tekstynų tyrimas, analizuojantis leksinių samplaikų vartojimą skirtingų pasiekimo lygių mokinių kalboje. Keliama hipotezė, kad samplaikų vartojimo skirtumai gali lemti kokybinius įvairių lygių mokinių kalbos skirtumus. Tyrimo duomenys rinkti iš trijų tekstynų, kurių du (AFK1 ir LICLE tekstynai reprezentuoja lietuvių gimtosios

  2. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

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    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  3. "Sunrise" and "Sunset" of Lithuanian Agencies

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    Vitalis NAKROŠIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transformative approach, the NPM and post-NPM models this article explains the proliferation, autonomy, control and innovative behavior of Lithuanian agencies and other public sector organizations in the 1990-2010 period. While the expansion of governmental functions during Lithuania’s transition to democracy and its accession to the EU brought agencification in 1990-2004, the adoption of government-wide organizational reforms during the economic crisis marked the start of de-agencification in 2009- 2010. The degree of autonomy and control of the Lithuanian public sector organizations is largely explained by their legal basis and political salience of their tasks. Finally, in line with the post-NPM model, structural capacities and participation in networks have a strong impact on innovative behavior of these organizations.

  4. Lithuanian Publisher’s Needs for Training

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    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey on the training and professional development needs of Lithuanian publishers was designed and conducted. The pilot research showed that publishers in Lithuania have an interest in professional training. According to the results, the need for training among the employees of Lithuanian publishing houses depends on the previous training experience: the more training courses the employee had before, the greater need for training he/she expresses. 82% of publishing house employees from four different fields agreed and strongly agreed on the need for training. Very few employees would like to pay for training by themselves. The identified need for training appears to reflect the nature of the problems encountered in the publishing field in Lithuania: Copyright, Law & Rights is the most wanted training topic among managing directors. The list of preferred topics for training can be used as the grounds for creating a supply of publishing training courses.

  5. Lithuanian Students' Choice of University: A Consumer Value Approach

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    Bartkute, Darija

    2017-01-01

    Increasing competition within the Lithuanian educational market has paved the way for an analysis of the complex choice processes enrollees undergo in selecting a higher education institution. This research examines the concept of consumer value and its interpretation in the Lithuanian higher education setting. Based on data collected from 445…

  6. The Analysis of English and Lithuanian Idioms and the Problems of Their Translation

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    Jelena Suchanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems associated with comprehension and translation of idioms within the framework of the theory of linguistic relativity and the translation theories. The main statements of these theories used for explaining the difficulties of idioms’ translation from/into the English or Lithuanian language are presented. The considered problems are analysed from various perspectives. Case studies, demonstrating different nomination principles used in English and Lithuanian due to different approaches of the native speakers of these languages to the same objects or ‘pieces’ of reality are provided. The comparative analysis of English and Lithuanian idioms as the most interesting and peculiar expressions of a language, showing its unique character, is performed and the arising difficulties and the available techniques of idioms’ translation are demonstrated, taking into account the main statements of the theories of linguistic relativity and translation. Special attention is paid to idioms, whose main ideas are expressed differently in the considered languages and, therefore, present many difficulties to non-native speakers. The influence of traditions, culture, the environment and other factors on the form and contents of the idioms in each of the considered languages is also shown. The analysis performed demonstrates the effectiveness of the theory of linguistic relativity in explaining the nature and causes of the arising comprehension and translation problems, as well as its possibilities to give a translator a native speaker’s insight and help him\\her avoid some typical errors. The recommendations of how to make a translation of idioms more accurate and authentic by using the appropriate translation techniques are also given.

  7. Country Report: Citizenship Education: Lithuanian Mapping

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    Irena Zaleskene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical concepts of globalisation and citizenship are discussed in the article as well as changing role of citizenship education in transforming Lithuanian Society. The author points out that many problems in contemporary Lithuanian society arise from the fact that the relationship between individuals and the state is changing fundamentally. The state should broaden “positive” choices and support an individual by ensuring principles of equality in basic human rights and access to opportunities. On the other hand, an individual has to take the responsibility for his/her own life becoming a decisive factor in choosing personal life style and in building up civic community. In this respect, it is expected that Citizenship Education would lay an important role in educating competence and attitudes towards own responsibilities, in educating mental and practical skills for positive civic participation. Current status and new approaches of citizenship education in Lithuania are presented in the light of international developments. The article concludes that changing role of citizenship education has significant implications for professional development of teachers and for the national teacher training system as a whole.

  8. LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

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    Ovidija EIČAITĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and analyze Lithuanian consumers’ attitudes and purchasing behaviour towards domestic livestock products. In order to get necessary information, Lithuanian residents were interviewed. A multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents. This study draws on a survey of 1009 respondents. The analysis of collected data was performed using the methods of mathematical statistics. The results suggest that the vast majority of Lithuanian consumers regularly buy domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for purchasing are freshness, good taste and favourable prices. Only a small share of Lithuanian consumers rarely or never buys domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for not purchasing are unfavourable prices, short shelf-life and insufficient range of products. Domestic livestock products buyers tend to be older, higher educated and have higher level of income than non-buyers.

  9. Historical Concept of the Representativeness of Lithuanian City Squares

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    Gintautas Tiškus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the historical development of the town squares from antiquity to the present day: patterns, location in the city plan structure, functions and the change in its architectural environmental. It examines the spatial structure of Lithuanian historic cities, shape of squares, dimensions and architectural environment. Finally, the change in functions and artistic expression of Lithuanian squares is discussed as well as attributes that determine representativeness.

  10. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  11. Evidence of probable tuberculosis in Lithuanian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombino-Mascali, D; Jankauskas, R; Tamošiūnas, A; Valančius, R; Gill-Frerking, H; Spigelman, M; Panzer, S

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis has affected Europe for millennia and continues to be a burden upon modern society. It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of this condition. Despite the introduction of control strategies, the disease continues to be one of the most common causes of death globally. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, seven spontaneously mummified human bodies from a church crypt in Vilnius, dating from the 18th and 19th century, were CT-scanned to assess the presence of tuberculosis or other lung diseases. We encountered pulmonary lesions suggestive of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, one case might have been affected by extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This report replicates the image findings from previous studies on ancient mummies that provided evidence of tuberculosis in soft tissues, thus helping reconstruct the history of this disease over time.

  12. Management changes in the Lithuanian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclovas Miskinis; Rimantas Deksnys [Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). Lithuanian Energy Institute

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania was invited at the end of 2002 to become a member of the European Union and to join NATO. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state. In order to transform the management in the energy sector, it was necessary to perform a lot of significant changes. Positive changes are based on the implementation of experience in other Central and Eastern European countries and many studies prepared by national specialists in cooperation with foreign experts. This paper describes the main alterations in management of the Lithuanian economy and energy sectors and recent changes in the power sector. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and necessary improvements in the near future. (author)

  13. Interoperability Guidelines for Lithuanian E-Learning Management Systems

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    Eugenijus Kurilovas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the paper aims to analyse e-learning content and repositories along with the problems of learning organisation interoperability. The main objective of the paper is to analyse scientific research results and the newest international experience in the area and to provide interoperability guidelines and recommendations for the implementation of appropriate Lithuanian state programmes. The learning content and repositories recommendations are designed for the implementation of the Lithuanian education portal project as well as Lithuanian Virtual University (LVU programme’s information services’ (LABT / eLABa and e-learning services’ (LieDM sub-programmes. The whole education institution recommendations are designed for the maintenance and development of LVU programme’s management services’ (LieMSIS system.Design/methodology/approach – methods used for the general analysis of proposed interoperability guidelines (reccomendations were bibliographic research and comparative analysis of Lithuanian and foreign scientific works published in periodicals and large-scale EU-funded interoperability projects deliverables. System analysis and comparative analysis methods were used in order to formulate and analyse systems’ interoperability guidelines and recommendations. The author employed the experimental research method while working in the appropriate EU-funded interoperability projects to form the guidelines (recommendations. In order to summarize the results, the evaluative research method was used.Findings – the international guidelines and recommendations presented in the paper could be suitable for implementation while developing Lithuanian state education information systems such as the Lithuanian education portal, the Lithuanian academic libraries’ (eLABa system, the Lithuanian distance learning system (LieDM, and the Lithuanian universities’ management system (LieMSIS.Research limitations/implications – the paper

  14. Integration of Economics and Information Terminology into the Lithuanian and International Market

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    Elvyra Tadauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the integration of economics and information terminology into the Lithuanian inter-national market. The occurrence of the terminology was predetermined by the historical conditions, i. e., the expansion of international economical links with foreign countries. Economics and information terminology gets integrated when translating international words into Lithuanian with the help of adequate Lithuanian substitutes or borrowings. As long as the borrowing has not completely taken root, its Lithuanian equivalent is considered to be more preferable.

  15. Seasonal Trends in Lithuanian Stock Market

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    Žaneta Simanavičienė

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to disentangle different calendar effects which leave efficiency holes in Lithuanian market. This paper presents and tests if commonly described seasonal patterns exist in Lithuanian stock market. Analysis of three different sections: period-of-the-year; week-of-the-month and day-of-the-week, suggests that calendar effects do exist in this market. The multitude of explanations for the seasonal effect leaves the reader confused about its primary cause(s: is it tax-loss selling, window dressing, information, bid-ask bounce, or a combination of these causes? The confusion arises, in part, because evidence has generally been presented in support of a particular hypothesis though the same evidence may be consistent with another hypothesis. Methodology/methods are logical and systemic analysis of research literature based on the comparative and generalization methods as well as statistical methods. Scientific aim of the article is the lack of arguments questioning if market prices operating system is fully effective. Novelty of the paper is to the answer to the question what seasonal anomalies are also present in the stock market of new open economy countries. Findings show that using this modified strategy investor could achieve 20.7% compounded annual growth rate versus 7.8% achieved using simply holding stocks throughout. The hypothesis asserts that returns generally will be greater following the “January effect”. There is limited amount of data for constructing robust seasonal strategies so we modified Buy and Hold strategy with simple rules of using best and worst months to show how they influence OMXV index performance. In the conclusions, empirical results using stock index returns for 2000 - 2010 support the hypothesis in Lithuaian stock market. Abnormal activity of OMXV index’s performance is found in the end of summer and throughout autumn. August is best performer of the year while October is

  16. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  17. Relationship between Lithuanian Sovereign Credit Risk and Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Abazoriūtė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse relationship between Lithuanian sovereign credit risk and equity market. The aim of the paper is to find the impact of the sovereign credit risk, which is expressed in the terms of Credit Default Swaps (CDS, on the movements of stocks prices of Lithuania. We use VAR (vector autoregression model in order to find the relationship between Lithuanian CDS spread and OMX Vilnius index. We use impulse reaction method to investigate the impact of CDS spreads on the OMX Vilnius index. After analysis of equity index OMX Vilnius and Lithuanian CDS price relationship it was found out that there exists an opposite relationship between these two variables. When the CDS prices are rising, the equity prices decrease and vice versa. The main finding is that Lithuanian capital market returns reacts immediately to the changes of credit risk of Lithuania which is set by the global capital market and expressed by the CDS prices and Lithuanian capital market is under the great foreign pressure.

  18. Sustainable Development of Lithuanian Seacoast Recreational Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Abromas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational architecture is a branch of architectural activity whose main object is formation of recreational spaces (territories, buildings, complexes and equipment. The goal of recreational architecture is to create optimal (comfortable, lovely and realizable environment for all recreation types and forms. This goal is realized by projects which are based on scientific research and recommendations. This activity needs more than casual work and living environment. It needs special space and equipment: territory, water area, buildings, and rooms. Everything can be called recreational environment. Recreational environment can be of various dimensional scales: enormous seaside or lake areas intended for recreation, resorts, recreational institution complexes and many single buildings, beaches, forest parks, pools. Recreational environment is possible not only out of town but in town as well. Beginning of recreational architecture is observed in antique cultures, but as a separate specific architectural activity branch it rapidly began to spread in last century first half and in Lithuania – in the last four decades. In this work, analysis of evaluating recreational architecture is made seeking to reveal recreational architecture evaluating criteria and their use .Article in Lithuanian

  19. Lithuanian export competitiveness before economic recession

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    Jone Kalendiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research paper discusses the concept of competitiveness of economy and analyzes export as an indicator of it. The analysis is started by the historical review of export development. Statistical data show that three Baltic countries have been following different path of export growth since Russian crisis. Different export market orientation and manufacturing sector's longer reorientation process provide an explanation. Furthermore, the historical analysis shows that export growth relation with foreign demand growth and GDP growth is not as strong as it might be expected. In order to estimate possible long-run GDP growth prospects, the structural analysis of trade is performed. The conclusions of the latter revealed high dependence of trade on conjuncture in foreign markets and supported the need of further price and non-price competitiveness analysis. Surprisingly, the results of the former indicate that price indicators do little to explain export development. Conversely, the results of the latter, based on CMSA methodology, show that market orientation of Lithuanian exports adds the most to its competitiveness; meanwhile the product orientation is generally unfavorable. Finally, the relation between FDI structure by countries and trade flows of processed industrial supplies is analyzed. Although data analysis does not reject the existence of such hypothesis, a more detail analysis should be conducted in the future.

  20. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

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    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  1. Lithuanian Education System Problems: Senior Class Students' Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lamanauskas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Various changes are taking place in Lithuanian comprehensive schools in recent years. Not all of them can be considered positive and making the system’s work effective. The changes taking place encourage natural interest in them. It is necessary not only to fix the current state, but to search for the ways how to optimize the changes taking place and to control them. Education is a complex, manifold phenomenon, the researches of which are complicated and complex as well. In this article Lithuanian comprehensive school senior class pupils’ position on current education questions is analysed: preparation and teaching/learning process evaluation, the identification of advantages and disadvantages of education system and other. It is revealed how Lithuanian comprehensive school pupils value current education system, teacher provided knowledge quality and ability to prepare students for further studies at universities and other higher schools.

  2. Liquidity Risk and its Management in Lithuanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bareikaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the main part of financial sector in each economy and strength of banking system becomes vital for ensuringfavourable economic stability and growth. Recent failure of two commercial banks in Lithuania showed that managershaven’t evaluated liquidity risk or haven’t dealt with it properly. The tasks of the paper are to investigate Lithuanian banksposition towards liquidity risk, analyse what kind of management tools banks use for ensuring favourable position towardsliquidity and to explore the liquidity influence to profitability in Lithuanian banking sector. The article examines liquidity andits management processes in Lithuanian banking sector. Description of liquidity importance is presented. Liquidity risk and itsmeasurement as well as the ways of managing the above mentioned risk is analysed in the article. In order to analyse the relationshipbetween liquidity risk and profitability of banks, analysis of scientific literature, research synthesis and generalizationshave been made.

  3. Teaching Lithuanian as a second/foreign language: Current practicies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiluté Ramoniené

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the restitution of the independence of Lithuania in 1990, one of the key questions of the national language policy in Lithuania was the development and enforcement of a successful language education model. Newly emerging needs have encouraged re- form in learning Lithuanian as a second language at all levels. This paper provides a broad overview of teaching, learning and assessment of Lithuanian as a second/foreign language – an important educational element of the language policy in Lithuania. It focuses on general principles and main problems as well as real practices and changes in 1990–2005.

  4. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2010-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO) is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the…

  5. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Šaulienė

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT, which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05. Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008. Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  6. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  7. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  8. Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health: evaluation of competencies and needs among Polish and Lithuanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive

  9. Lithuanian Consumer`s Willingness to Pay and Feed-in Prices for Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the willingness to pay (WTP for renewable electricity of Lithuanian households and to compare WTP of Lithuanian consumers with support provided for renewable by Lithuanian government in terms of Feed-in prices. The paper reviews the situation of renewable electricity generation and consumption in Lithuania and presents the results of empirical study aiming at assessment of Lithuanian household’s willingness to pay for electricity produced from renewables. The results of study indicated that the WTP of Lithuanian households is significantly lower than subsides for renewable electricity provided in the form of Feed-in prices in Lithuania. Therefore feed-in prices need to be revising taking into account WTP of Lithuanian consumers

  10. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Mark Avery, -; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. Material and Methods. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondent...

  11. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

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    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  12. FPGA-Based Implementation of Lithuanian Isolated Word Recognition Algorithm

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    Tomyslav Sledevič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the FPGA-based implementation of Lithuanian isolated word recognition algorithm. FPGA is selected for parallel process implementation using VHDL to ensure fast signal processing at low rate clock signal. Cepstrum analysis was applied to features extraction in voice. The dynamic time warping algorithm was used to compare the vectors of cepstrum coefficients. A library of 100 words features was created and stored in the internal FPGA BRAM memory. Experimental testing with speaker dependent records demonstrated the recognition rate of 94%. The recognition rate of 58% was achieved for speaker-independent records. Calculation of cepstrum coefficients lasted for 8.52 ms at 50 MHz clock, while 100 DTWs took 66.56 ms at 25 MHz clock.Article in Lithuanian

  13. A comparison of the Lithuanian and Russian Biotechnology sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincentas Giedraitis; Alina Alekseyko

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the development of the Lithuanian and Russian biotechnology sectors. In case of Lithuania we tried to uncover what are the circumstances surrounding the favorable development of the biotechnology sectors in Lithuania. In case of Russian Federation we looked at encouraging as well as discouraging circumstances surrounding this segment of economy. Drawing upon Schumpeter’s ideas of innovation and Porter’s business cluster theory, we argue that Lithuania is “...

  14. Weaves and Colours of Lithuanian Folk Skirts Fabrics

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    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article weaves and colours of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics are analysed. The investigation objects are the skirts from funds of three Lithuanian Museums: 258 skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art, 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum and 16 skirts from A. and A. Tamošaitis gallery “Židinys”. Distribution of skirts fabrics according to weaves was estimated, and it shows, that fabrics of plain weave are most widespread (53 %, combined and twill weaves are less popular (19 % and 18 %, respectively. The weaves of fabrics are determined during investigation and plans of weave were made proposing recommendations for manufacturing of similar fabrics. Also distribution of colours and number of colours in the fabrics were analysed. The biggest number of colours is in fabrics of simple weaves (plain and twill, and the most characteristic are green, red, black and blue colours. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5240

  15. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

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    Jūratė SKŪPIENĖ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the given input data and manual (for programming style, written motivation of an algorithm grading. However, it is based on tradition and has not been scientifically discussed and motivated. To create an improved and motivated evaluation model, we put together a questionnaire and asked a group of foreign and Lithuanian experts having experience in various informatics contests to respond. We identified two basic directions in the suggested evaluation models and made a choice based on the goals of LitIO. While designing the model in the paper, we reflected on the suggestions and opinions of the experts as much as possible, even if they were not included into the proposed model. The paper presents the final outcome of this work, the proposed evaluation model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads.

  16. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  17. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  18. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  19. The Financing and Personnel of the Lithuanian Army

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    Jokubauskas Vytautas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, at the beginning of the crisis in Ukraine and Russia‘s aggression against this neighboring country, Lithuania became concerned about the strengthening of its military capabilities, augmenting the National Defense System (NDS budget by almost 50% in two years. This may be considered unprecedented, if seen against the background of the presidential elections and those to the European Parliament, the fiscal discipline, the introduction of euro, as well as Russia‘s economic sanctions, the political decision in the course of 2014 on increasing the defense assignation by 130 million litas and in 2015 the increase by planned additional 356 million litas. This article analyzes two closely related problems of the Lithuanian NDS capabilities. First of all, changes in the NDS financing are explored in the context of permanent agreements of Lithuanian political parties concerning the allocation of 2% of the GDP for defense. This is followed by the discussion of the issues of military personnel staffing and training of the reserve as well as future challenges. This research contributes to the assessment of the critical NDS financing and staffing not only within academic circles but particularly among politicians and society in general. Additionally, it contributes to the awareness of the problems the army encountered in seeking to implement the objective set for it: to ensure the military security of the state. In the presence of the emerging threats in the region, this is of particularly great significance to the demilitarized and pacifist society of Lithuania. The article aims at identifying financing and personnel planning problems throughout a quarter of the century, ranging from the restoration of the Army of the Republic of Lithuania to 2014 inclusively. At the same time, the study encourages a discussion by the academic community on issues of the military security of the Lithuanian State and provides analyses as well as possible

  20. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Giriunienė, Ramutė; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkunienė, Živilė

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  1. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

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    Roman Roszko

    2015-11-01

    To analyse both the languages there is used the method of theoretical contrastive studies, which the most important features are: (1 orienting the studies from the content grounds to the formal grounds, (2 using a semantic interlanguage as tertium comparationis. First of all, the content of hypothetical modality and its definition and paraphrase is given here. Next, the gradational character of this category is discussed. There are distinguished six groups of lexemes expressing the corresponding degrees of hypothetical modality — from a shadow of uncertainty (minimal degree of probability to an almost complete certainty (maximum degree of probability. The experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus is widely applied in the studies.

  2. Assessment of the Knowledge Acquisition Process in Lithuanian Insurance Sector

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    Jurgita Raudeliūnienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the development of favourable globalization conditions, the demand for and importance of knowledge in the insurance sector are rapidly growing, which is characterized by the variety of insurance services and offered products as well as by a permanent change in efforts to efficiently meet the needs of society. Therefore, knowledge is becoming a unique factor that leads to the increased exclusivity of the organization in this particular sector when the recently acquired knowledge helps the employees of the company with efficiently performing work activities and creating for consumer advantages that can be hardly imitated by other insurance organizations. However, the process of knowledge acquisition will be worthless without efficient instruments for assessing the procedures leading to obtaining the necessary knowledge on demand and time. Every insurance organization in Lithuania tries to acquire the necessary knowledge on time in the most convenient way; however, researchers and business representatives feel a lack of tools for assessing and improving the knowledge acquisition process. According to scientific literature, a lack of complexity evaluating the knowledge acquisition process creates a precondition for developing instruments for the assessment of this process. The object of research is the evaluation of the knowledge acquisition process in the organizations of Lithuanian insurance sector. The goal of the article is to offer an integrated instrument of the knowledge acquisition process for the organization working in Lithuanian insurance sector. To achieve this goal, the following tasks have been implemented: the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the factors and methods of the knowledge acquisition process; the establishment of the factors specific to organizations in Lithuanian insurance sector for the purposes of assessing the knowledge acquisition process; the identification of the problematic areas of the knowledge

  3. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

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    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  4. Equivalence of Lease and Tenancy Terminology in English and Lithuanian

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    Rackevičienė Sigita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by globalization and the importance of international communication in the legal sphere, legal language acquires an increasing importance. Contract law draws special attention in the EU and worldwide, and raises a demand for harmonization of the legal terminology of different languages and legal systems. Contracts in Anglo- Saxon and Lithuanian law have similar basic elements; however, they also contain significant differences which are determined by the regulations of the legal systems in which contracts are formed. The terminology used in the contracts also presents important peculiarities. The article focuses on the terminology of lease and tenancy agreements and provides results of the contrastive semantic analysis, the aim of which is to establish the degree of equivalence of the collected English terms and their Lithuanian counterparts. All investigated English terms have synonyms, which makes the task even more complex, as most of such synonyms have certain semantic differences and may be used interchangeably only in certain contexts. The findings of the research are believed to be valuable to legal translators, as well as compilers of legal dictionaries and databases.

  5. Implementation of CLIL in Lithuanian Secondary Schools: a Case Study

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    Vilma Bijeikienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the existing research into the implementation of CLIL in Lithuania, it can be claimed that this wellestablished and globally applied teaching and learning methodology has already had some due appreciation in Lithuanian secondary schools. Nevertheless, there still exist numerous obstacles to the broader and more intensive application of CLIL which is strongly lagging behind in comparison to many other countries in Europe and world-wide. The present study aims at exploring the rich experience in CLIL implementation accumulated by Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and examining their multifaceted CLIL module which could be an important source of knowledge and practical know-how for other Lithuanian secondary education institutions planning to start implementing CLIL. The research follows a synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methodology including interviews with CLIL teachers, students and school administration. The study results in a SWOT analysis of implementing CLIL in Lithuania on the basis of CLIL practices at Šiauliai Didždvario gymnasium and sets forth some guidelines for its further advancement.

  6. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  7. Smoking and attitudes towards its cessation among native and international dental students in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Volkyte, Aiste; Narbutaite, Julija; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2017-07-11

    Dental professionals are uniquely positioned to discourage smoking among their patients. However, little is known about the role of cultural background and attitudes towards smoking in the education of these professionals. Our study aimed to compare native Lithuanian and international dental students' smoking habits, knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking and attitudes towards smoking cessation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of smoking and its cessation among dental students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (Kaunas, Lithuania) in 2012. All Lithuanian and international dental students in each year of dental school were invited to participate in the survey during a compulsory practical class or seminar. Altogether 606 students participated in the survey with a response rate of 84.2%. Explanatory factorial analysis (EFA), multivariate Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) served for the statistical analyses. The percentages of occasional/current regular smokers were 41.1% and 55.7% (p = 0.068) among Lithuanian and international male students, and 22.7% and 22.9% (p = 0.776) among Lithuanian and international female students, respectively. The international dental students had a deeper knowledge of the harmfulness/addictiveness of smoking and held more positive attitudes towards smoking cessation among their patients than did the native Lithuanian dental students. The findings of the study underscored the need to properly incorporate tobacco cessation training into the curriculum of dental education. However, consideration of the cultural background of dental students in building up their capacity and competence for intervening against smoking is essential.

  8. Mediatization of Lithuanian politics on social networking sites and its compatibility with social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    Povilaitytė, Živilė

    2014-01-01

    Given the novelty of political campaigning on social networking sites in Lithuania and the critique, it has received from social media experts, the object of the master thesis encompasses mediatization of Lithuanian politics on Facebook, when social media logic becomes adapted in political campaigning and integrated into the political agenda. Accordingly, the MA thesis developed its aim to define in what ways mediatization of Lithuanian politics manifests on Facebook and if public-relatio...

  9. Morphological modifications in Lithuanian child-directed speech

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    Laura Kamandulyte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Child-directed speech (CDS is very important for the language development of a child. When talking to children adults modify their language by simplifying it and adapting it to the language acquisition stage of the child. Words and constructions that are used in CDS are aqcuired earlier by the child.This paper analyses the morphological modifications of Lithuanian CDS.The analysis proves that the most frequent morphological modifications of CDS include: 1 the higher frequency of verb tokens over noun tokens, 2 the low frequency of indefinite pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and adjectives, and 3 the high frequency of diminutives and interjections.Prevalence of the denominative parts of speech has been influenced by the cognitive function; the abundance of verbs is conditioned by short utterances. The high frequency of diminutives is related to pragmatic function, intimacy, and emotions.

  10. Lithuanian on-line periodicals on the World Wide Web

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    Lina Sarlauskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deals with Lithuanian full-text electronic periodicals distributed through the World Wide Web. An electronic periodical is usually defined as a regular publication on some particular topic distributed in digital form, chiefly through the Web, but also by electronic mail or digital disk. The author has surveyed 106 publications. Thirty-four are distributed only on the Web, and 72 have printed versions. The number of analysed publications is not very big, but four years of electronic publishing and the variety of periodicals enables us to establish the causes of this phenomenon, the main features of development, and some perspectives. Electronic periodicals were analysed according to their type, purpose, contents, publisher, regularity, language, starting date and place of publication, and other features.

  11. Preparedness of Lithuanian general practitioners to provide mental healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Sauliune, Skirmante; Jarusevicius, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large unmet need for mental healthcare in Lithuania is partially attributable to a lack of primary care providers with skills in this area. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs) experience in mental healthcare and their perceptions about how to increase...... their involvement in the field. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs in order to investigate current practices in their provision of mental healthcare as well as their suggestions for the improvement of mental healthcare services...... specialists with whom 32% of the respondents discuss the management of their patients with a mental disorder. Collaboration with psychologists and social workers was almost threefold lower (11.6% and 12.5%). Capacity-building of GPs was found to be among the most promising initiatives to improve mental health...

  12. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

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    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  13. Media Literacy Education: Global Tendencies and Search of Lithuanian Path

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    Lilija Duoblienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of information technologies on education. Different viewpoints on information literacy education, which is often assimilated to media literacy education, are presented in the paper. The article investigates both advantages of media literacy, which involve its positive influence on education, and disadvantages, which encompass dishonest ideological purposes of media literacy that are hidden behind the notion of efficient teaching. This work defends the idea that media literacy education is inevitable in modern schooling and that it is step by step replacing traditional ways of learning. Several media education paradigms are discussed: protectionist, media arts education, media literacy education and critical media literacy education. Some of them teach how to utilize modern technologies and develop creativity, whereas others educate how to recognize ideologies and be publicly engaged. The paper evaluates media literacy in Lithuania by exploring the context of media education, i.e. by analyzing Wiki culture, didactic approach of media literacy, relationships among participants of learning process, and influence of information technologies on the development of educational techniques. Prominent questions about Lithuanian readiness for changes in schooling methods are asked. It is argued if the country has a clear and coherent media literacy education philosophy. Answers are found by investigating information literacy programs and media literacy projects in Lithuanian secondary schools. The article arrives to a conclusion that in Lithuania media literacy education is only at the early stage of development, but its progress is quite rapid and omits several stages which were underwent in Western countries. Nevertheless, the work determines that Lithuania lacks new and brave mindset which should be spread together with critical pedagogy and critical media literacy (i.e. transforming education.

  14. Professional burnout and its correlates in Lithuanian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and severity of professional burnout in a sample of Lithuanian neurosurgeons and to analyze its personal, interpersonal, and organizational correlates. Thirty-one out of 79 (response rate 39 %) Lithuanian neurosurgeons participated in the study. Professional burnout was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Participants also answered questions about professional stressors, sources of professional dissatisfaction, life-style factors, sickness absenteeism/presenteeism, and professional practice. The majority of neurosurgeons were between 41 and 60 years of age (48 %), were married (97 %), had children (84 %). Most neurosurgeons had 20 or more years of professional experience (54.9 %), worked from 41 to 60 h per week (58 %), and performed up to 150 surgeries per year (77.4 %). Eight (26 %) neurosurgeons reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, five (16 %) reported high level of cynicism, and eight (26 %) reported low professional efficacy. Correlation analyses revealed that higher number of surgeries per year, more hours devoted to clinical work, opportunities for professional development, intellectual challenges at work, appreciation by the patients and prestige of the profession were related to lower level of burnout. Greater general workload, unpredictability of the work schedule, lack of necessary technical equipment, dissatisfaction with colleagues, and uncertainty about the future were related to a higher level of burnout. Burnout was reported by one-quarter of neurosurgeons who chose to participate in the study. Personal, interpersonal, and organizational factors arising while fulfilling professional duties were important correlates of neurosurgeons' burnout. Due to the moderate response rate, our results should be interpreted with caution. Larger studies evaluating burnout among European neurosurgeons are needed.

  15. CONSTRUCTING SERVICE DISCOURSES IN LITHUANIAN FAMILY SOCIAL WORK

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    Roberta Motiečienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, family social work is constructed through the analysis of social service discourses from the social workers’ perspective. Recent research shows how social workers are dealing with complex and fluid issues, as well as the societal uncertainty in their work with families (e.g., Spratt, 2009; Menéndez et al., 2015. Based on earlier studies, it is vital to analyse family social work in different contextual settings. Societal, political and organisational contexts affect the preconditions of social work, but social work also needs to operate within structures (e.g., Pohjola et al., 2014. This paper provides insights into the Lithuanian family social work. The focus is on what kinds of features construct Socialinis darbas su šeima Roberta Motiečienė, Merja Laitinen 12 family social work by analysing social workers’ discourses. This analysis continues the research of Eidukevičiūtė (2013, who analysed family social work practices in transitional Lithuanian society. This researcher aimed to deepen the knowledge about child protection services in Lithuania, the father’s role in child care and the mother’s performance in it. According to Eidukevičiūtė (2013, social workers are still struggling in the field of family social work. This study continues the research tradition in the field of family social work, paying attention to the different contextual settings where family social work is conducted. The Lithuanian government has stated that family policy is a key component of its mandate where (Social Report, 2014. The Council of Social Work plays a very important role in providing guidance on how to implement the government’s policy in the field of family social work. The European Commission Council (2015 provides recommendations for the implementation of the 2015 National Reform Programme, which should concentrate on the people (30% of the total population who are at risk of poverty. The council recommends working on

  16. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems

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    Žekas Romualdas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities. To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. Discussion In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. Summary The restructuring of health care system

  17. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Darulis, Zilvinas; Zekas, Romualdas

    2005-11-09

    Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships) and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities). To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. The restructuring of health care system in Lithuania should be based on a balance between

  18. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

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    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  19. Applying the Communicative Methodic in Learning Lithuanian as a Second Language

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    Vaida Buivydienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strengths of European countries is their multilingual nature. That was stressed by the European Council during different international projects. Every citizen of Europe should be given the opportunity to learn languages life long, as languages open new perspectives in the modern world. Besides, learning languages brings tolerance and understanding to people from different cultures. The article presents the idea, based on the experience of foreign language teaching, that communicative method in learning languages should be applied also to Lithuanian as a foreign language teaching. According to international SOCRATES exchange programme, every year a lot of students and teachers from abroad come to Lithuanian Higher Schools (VGTU included. They should also be provided with opportunities to gain the best language learning, cultural and educational experience. Most of the students that came to VGTU pointed out Lithuanian language learning being one of the subjects to be chosen. That leads to organizing interesting and useful short-lasting Lithuanian language courses. The survey carried in VGTU and the analysis of the materials gathered leads to the conclusion that the communicative approach in language teaching is the best to cater the needs and interests of the learners to master the survival Lithuanian.

  20. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

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    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  1. The Dynamics of Lithuanian-Polish Strategic Partnership

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    Pukšto Andžej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying relations between the events which influence Lithuanian-Polish strategic cooperation, defining principal aspects of cooperation dynamics, and analysing recent challenges in relations between Lithuania and Poland. For the purpose of analysis the following objectives have been set: 1 to analyse the development of strategic partnership and political dialogue in bilateral relations; 2 to evaluate the importance of security, defence policy, and economic projects in cooperation between the states; 3 to assess the aspect of ethnic minorities in the context of bilateral relations. The authors of the paper seek to review the principal internal and external factors which affect bilateral cooperation between Lithuania and Poland. The following methods of analysis are used in the paper: public statements made by officials, document analysis and discourse formed by the media. The key areas of analysis are the development of political dialogue, strategic cooperation, security and defence policy, economic and energy cooperation, and questions of ethnic minorities in bilateral relations. Presently in the field there is a lack of thorough investigation of similarities and differences of strategic cooperation between Lithuania and Poland.

  2. Specifics of Communication in Lithuanian Voting Campaigns, 2012-2016

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    Mažylis Liudas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the numbers of unaffiliated voters and the internet users caused politicians’ interest in these audiences and the start of their activities in these communication channels by establishing more personalized relationships with voters. This paper aims to analyze the communication of main parties and their candidates in social media channel “Facebook” and in popular Lithuanian internet news media portals, such as delfi.lt, lrytas.lt and others before the Parliamentary elections in 2012 and the forthcoming 2016 Parliamentary elections. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of campaign coverage in the media portals and Facebook are analysed. The paper addresses the following questions: How important are factors such as new party emergence, parallel referendum campaign, and activity of using social media for the final result of elections? How active were the politicians in the Facebook? What content dominated their profiles? How much personalized were their messages? What strategies were used for communication? Did the politicians aim at mobilizing or at persuasion the voters? Involvement of citizens, voters’ turnout and political results are linked with campaign arguments and the value normative environment. We conclude by providing the discussion on the noticed tendencies and possible improvements in the communication of candidates for the future.

  3. Experimental Corpus of the Lithuanian Local Dialect of Punsk in Poland. Examples of the Lexical and Semantic Annotation

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    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Corpus of the Lithuanian Local Dialect of Punsk in Poland. Examples of the Lexical and Semantic Annotation In the article the author describes the experimental corpus of the Lithuanian local dialect of Puńsk in Poland (ECorp-of-Punsk. It is the first corpus of this type for the Lithuanian local dialect. The corpus consists of three subcorpora. The first one (referred to as fundamental contains utterances given by Lithuanians in the local dialect, the second one – utterances given by Lithuanians in Polish, the third one – aligned Polish-dialectal texts.  The texts recorded in the years 1986–2012 have been included in the Ecorp-of-Punsk resources.

  4. Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech: Why do we ask young children so many questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria V. Kazakovskaya; Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to identify and compare the variety and distribution of interrogatives in Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech (CDS) from the perspective of the functional and structural characteristics of questions addressed to young children. The analysis was based on the longitudinal data of two monolingual typically developing children, a Lithuanian girl (2;0–2;8) and a Russian boy (2;0–2;8). The transcribed corpus of conversations between the children and thei...

  5. Information disclosure in corporate social responsibility reports. The case of Lithuanian companies

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    Sviesa Leitoniene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR is closely scrutinized in studies of both Lithuanian and foreign scholars, the problem is the quality of social information disclosed in social re-sponsibility reports. The objective of this article is to analyse the quality of disclosed information in CRS reports of Lithuanian companies. The characteristics of quality of information were comparability, relia-bility, objectivity and sustainability. The research demonstrated that in Lithuania, CSR reports provide unreliable information, which is only partly comparable and objective, however, relatively sustainable.

  6. Forecast of biogas generation in Lithuanian regional land fills

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    Brigita Šalčiūnaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of generated waste in Lithuania ranges from 35,000 tons to 261,865 tons per year. 35% of this quantity is biodegradable waste – i.e. about 27,830 tons/year. 75% of municipal waste in Lithuania is disposed in landfills. Such management of municipal waste is dangerous because of environmental pollution with the biogas and leachate, increased global greenhouse effect, and so on. From 1 ton of landfill waste it is possible to get about 10 m3 of landfill gas, after using it 13 kWh and 50 kWh of thermal energy could be made. There was presented in this article the estimated amount of biogas produced by Lithuanian regional landfills each separately and all co-production of biogas from landfills potential Lithuania, using the software LandGEM. Total volume of gas liberated in landfills ranges from 7.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 107 m3/year of methane and carbon dioxide in an amount ranging from 3.9 × 106 to 2.9 × 107 m3/year. Minimum quantities of biogas generated in Tauragės regional landfill – 7.8 × 106 m3/year, and the highest – Kaunas regional landfill – 5.8 × 107 m3/year. From the generated biogass it would be possible to yield 2,145 × 108 kWh of electricity and 8.25 × 108 kWh of thermal energy.

  7. Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure

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    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.

  8. Comparison of Fitness Levels between Croatian and Lithuanian Students

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    Dario Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and compare the level of individual anthropological characteristics of children in Croatia and Lithuania. The study examined height, weight, BMI and flexibility, explosive power and muscle endurance. The study included a total of 11,258 participants from two different countries. Of the total sample, 8,289 participants were from Croatia between ages 11 and 14 (mean age 12,5±1.5, of which 4,032 were male and 4,157 were female students. The other 2,969 participants were from Lithuania, also in the age range of 11-14 years (mean age 12,4±1.6, of which 1,504 participants were male and 1,456 females. During the 2009-10 school year, reserachers conducted measurements on students at different schools across Croatia. The same battery of tests was conducted in Lithuania during the same year. The results showed that the Croatian students have a higher body-mass, have higher BMI values and score better on tests of flexibility. Lithuanian students achieved better results in the repetitive strength test. Boys are taller, heavier and had higher BMI values as well as achieved better results in tests of explosive power and muscle endurance, while girls were more flexibile. Boys from Lithuania scored highest in all tests except in flexibility compared to boys in Croatia. Girls from Lithuania are thinner, have lower BMI and achieve better results in repetitive test of strength than girls in Croatia. Age was shown as a significant factor in the increase in all tested variables.

  9. Mapping of sensitivity to oil spills in the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depellegrin, D.; Nerijus, B.; Groot, de R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops an integrated environmental assessment tool for Lithuanian coastal area that takes due account of the major oil spill risks posed by the D-6 oil drilling platform, vessel traffic in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, and operation of the Butinge oil terminal. The goal of this paper

  10. Heterogeneous Synonymy: a Regular Stage in the Process of Standardisation of Lithuanian Computer Science Terminology

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    Vilija Celiešienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the least negotiable group of the synonymy of terms – heterogeneous synonyms, i.e. the synonymy of Lithuanian terms and loanwords used in the field of computer science. Specifically, the focus is on the synonymy characteristic of the primary stages of terminology subsystems formation. The aim of the research is to examine the structure of heterogeneous synonymous terms and to analyse the changes of the synonymy in the computer science. In terms of origins, two groups of synonymous terms emerge in the “Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Computer Science”: those of single origins, i.e. purely Lithuanian or exclusively international synonymous terms, and those of various origins, i.e. Lithuanian and international synonymous terms. The terminology of computer science is mostly based on the heterogeneous synonymy. In terms of structure, heterogeneous synonymy in computer science is not uniform and can be divided into three subgroups: 1 lines of single-word synonymous terms; 2 lines of compound synonymous terms; 3 lines of mixed (single-word, two-word and three-word synonymous terms. The results of the analysis carried out show that heterogeneous synonymy is a regular stage in the process of standardization of Lithuanian terminology of computer science. This stage is incomplete and the terminology is still being developed, therefore it is not fully formed and established.

  11. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal Interferometri

  12. PRF Cross-Cultural Psychological Study of Lithuanian Students, Teachers, and Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illovsky, Michael E.; Gintiliene, Grazina; Bulotaite, Laima; Rickman, Jacqueline; Belekiene, Marijona; Janowitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The Personality Research Form (PRF) was used to study the psychological traits of Lithuanian college of education students, teachers, and special education teachers. A sample of American college students was also used for comparison. Chi-square results indicated no statistical differences among the groups. Interpretations of the lack of…

  13. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal

  14. Country of origin (COO) effect in cereal products: A comparative study of Danish and Lithuanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling...

  15. Mapping of sensitivity to oil spills in the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depellegrin, D.; Nerijus, B.; Groot, de R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops an integrated environmental assessment tool for Lithuanian coastal area that takes due account of the major oil spill risks posed by the D-6 oil drilling platform, vessel traffic in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, and operation of the Butinge oil terminal. The goal of this paper

  16. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

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    Rita Remeikiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of the EU structural support in Lithuania require theoretical and practical research to disclose the determinants that have a significant impact on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the EU structural support on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The methods of the research include systematic and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation and linear regression. The research disclosed the main determinants of country’s competitiveness. The results have revealed that EU structural support has the most significant impact on Lithuanian engineering and technological infrastructure. The impact of the support on country’s macroeconomic, scientific and social environment can also be considered as significant. The EU structural support has medium strong impact on education and business environment conditions in Lithuania. It has been established that, in the field of business advancement, Lithuanian should be rated as medium competitive. Hence, the increase in country’s competitiveness by employing EU structural funds should be treated as one of priority aims. In addition, responsible authorities should perform with higher efficiency seeking for higher competitiveness of the country.

  17. Teachers' Decision-Making Processes when Designing EAP Reading Materials in a Lithuanian University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzborska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    A shift from teaching English for general to teaching English for specific purposes has called for changes in English teachers' practices in a Lithuanian university; in line with research in the area of EAP, teachers are thus expected to design their own reading materials that could cater to the special needs of their students. However, while…

  18. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

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    Lionginas Liudvinavichius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  19. Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus In this paper we present applications of a trilingual corpus in language research. Comparative and contrastive studies of Polish and Bulgarian as well as Polish and Lithuanian have been already conducted, but up to the best of our knowledge no such studies exist for Bulgarian and Lithuanian. On the one hand, it is interesting to note that two Slavic languages are compared to a Baltic language (Lithuanian. On the other hand, the three languages are marginally present in the EU because of the later ascension of the three countries to the EU. The paper shortly describes the first electronic Bulgarian–Polish–Lithuanian experimental corpus, currently under development only for research. We also focus our attention on the morphosyntactic annotation of the parallel trilingual corpus according to the Corpus Encoding Standard: we present a review of the Part-of-Speech (POS classification of the participle in the three languages – Bulgarian, Polish, and Lithuanian in comparison to another POS, the adjective. We briefly discuss tagsets for corpus annotation from the point of view of possible unification in the future with some examples.

  20. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

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    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate

  1. THE NEW APPROACH TO THE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: INTERRELATEDNESS OF INTUITIVE EATING, ADLERIAN LIFESTYLE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG LITHUANIAN FEMALE COMPUTER USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Justina Gaubė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – to evaluate the importance of Intuitive Eating for healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) in Lithuanian female computer users sample and explore the Adlerian personality attributes that might be related to the Intuitive Eating. Design/methodology/approach – The study consisted of 724 Lithuanian woman with normal or increased BMI who completed online instruments that included the Lithuanian version of the Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Success - Adult form (BASIS-A) Inventory, Lit...

  2. Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech: Why do we ask young children so many questions?

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    Victoria V. Kazakovskaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to identify and compare the variety and distribution of interrogatives in Lithuanian and Russian child-directed speech (CDS from the perspective of the functional and structural characteristics of questions addressed to young children. The analysis was based on the longitudinal data of two monolingual typically developing children, a Lithuanian girl (2;0–2;8 and a Russian boy (2;0–2;8. The transcribed corpus of conversations between the children and their parents was annotated for multipurpose automatic linguistic analysis, using tools of the program CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System. During the investigation, the functional and structural features of parental interrogatives were analysed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.05

  3. A study of antibiotic prescribing: the experience of Lithuanian and Russian GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Line; Bjerrum, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Globally, general practitioners (GPs) write more than 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions. This study examines the experiences of Lithuanian and Russian GPs in antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections, including their perceptions of when it is not indicated...... clinically or pharmacologically. Methods. 22 Lithuanian and 29 Russian GPs participated in five focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results. We identified four main thematic categories: patients’ faith in antibiotics as medication for upper respiratory tract infections...... for upper respiratory tract infections. Conclusions. Understanding the nature of physician-patient interaction is critical to the effective pursuit of clinically grounded antibiotic use as this study undertaken in Lithuania and the Russian Federation has shown. Both physicians and patients must be targeted...

  4. Analysis of Adaptation of Smartphone Operating Systems for Work in the Lithuanian Linguistic Environment

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    Vilija Celiešienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of linguistic aspects of the lithuanisation of smartphone operating systems (An - droid and Windows Phone and their adaptation for work in the Lithuanian linguistic environment. Having analysed the data of lithuanisation of smartphones, it was established that the aforementioned operating systems could be attributed to partially localised OS. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of linguistic localisation of operating systems in question showed that there were considerably more flaws in linguistic localisation of Android OS than those of Windows Phone OS. Windows Phone OS texts were evaluated as more corresponding to the norms of standard Lithuanian language. Most of the terms used in both Android OS and Windows Phone OS are included in the approved terminology sources. Unapproved, inaccurate, liter- ally translated terms, and non-standard loanwords constituted only a minor part of all terms used in OS texts.

  5. Research Note Effect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalauskiene, G.; Ignatavicius, G.

    In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water.

  6. Research NoteEffect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakalauskiene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water. Keywords: heavy metals, river water quality, Lithuania

  7. Big five personality traits linked with migratory intentions in Lithuanian student sample

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskaitė, Elma; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in response to a consistent upward trend in migration from Lithuania, with the aim to determine what personality traits may be linked with a likeliness to emigrate in a sample of Lithuanian students. Authors investigate the concept of migrant personality as an alternative to the socio-economic causation theory most often used to explain migration behaviour. Method. Empirical data was gathered using a questionnaire including questions on attitudes toward migrati...

  8. English-Lithuanian-English Machine Translation lexicon and engine: current state and future work

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    This article overviews the current state of the English-Lithuanian-English machine translation system. The first part of the article describes the problems that system poses today and what actions will be taken to solve them in the future. The second part of the article tackles the main issue of the translation process. Article briefly overviews the word sense disambiguation for MT technique using Google.

  9. Conception Of Artistic Forms In The 20th Century Based On An Example Of Lithuanian Architecture

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    Aušra Černauskienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses conception of artistic forms in the 20thcentury. Artistic forms are closely connected to tendencies of modern architecture, social transformations and appearance of new materials and technologies.  The analysis of artistic forms is based on an example of the 20thcentury Lithuanian architecture, which reveals the changes of basic forms, proportions, scale and artistic expression of main elements of a building.

  10. Conception Of Artistic Forms In The 20th Century Based On An Example Of Lithuanian Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Aušra Černauskienė

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses conception of artistic forms in the 20thcentury. Artistic forms are closely connected to tendencies of modern architecture, social transformations and appearance of new materials and technologies.  The analysis of artistic forms is based on an example of the 20thcentury Lithuanian architecture, which reveals the changes of basic forms, proportions, scale and artistic expression of main elements of a building.

  11. Creativity Enhancement in Lithuanian Furniture Manufacturing Business According to International Business Development

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    Rita Zybartaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Lithuanian furniture manufacturing business perceptions towards creativity, and creativityenhancement behavior according to its international development. Firstly article focuses on international business development,substantiate need of creativity for international business development, outline creativity influencing factors which operateat individual, team and organizational levels and recommendations how to enhance creativity in methodical way. Secondly,article describes a problem of empirical research, methodology of used methods and instruments, and presents results of surveyresearch.

  12. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Avery, Mark; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondents were asked about their competencies in leadership, teamwork, communication, and conflict management. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing the answers provided in the survey, which used a 5-point rating scale. In addition, the Belbin Team-Role Self-Perception Inventory and the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument were used. RESULTS. The results showed that respondents were reserved or limited in their individual capacities through this evaluation of their leadership competencies. The mean score was 3.47 (SD, 0.71). Skills in competency areas of communication, teamwork, and conflict management were scored higher (3.73 [SD, 0.67], 3.73 [SD, 0.62], and 3.53 [SD, 0.63], respectively). Most of executives preferred to choose action-oriented roles (76.2%). The most common role was "implementer" (69.1%). "Avoiding" (52.7%) was the most common conflict solving strategy. The results showed that 89.1% of executives wanted to improve teamwork; 83.6%, leadership competencies; 81.8%, communication; and 80.0%, conflict management. CONCLUSIONS. The study results suggest that the executives of Lithuanian public health institutions evaluate their leadership competencies moderately. These results indicate the value of leadership training for public health executives.

  13. Teachers’ decision-making processes when designing EAP reading materials in a Lithuanian university setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzborska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    A shift from teaching English for general to teaching English for specific purposes has called for changes in English teachers’ practices in a Lithuanian university; in line with research in the area of EAP, teachers are thus expected to design their own reading materials that could cater to the special needs of their students. However, while designing new materials can be extremely satisfying, both professionally and creatively, it can also be a complex undertaking posing a number of challen...

  14. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  15. Web quality in Lithuanian financial institution : a comparison with the EU results

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsón Ponte, Enrique; Cortijo Gallego, Virginia; Escobar Rodríguez, Tomás

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the navigation quality of the websites of Lithuanian banks. Information completeness for investors ensures the correct functioning of capital markets. In banking environments, this goal is reached by increasing the use of the corporate Website. For this reason, to ensure the quality of these online resources is one of the most important challenges for central banks and financial authorities. The content of the corporate Websites is being regulated by ...

  16. Traditions and Inovations of Yarns in Lithuanian Folk Fabrics (19th Century

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    Inga NĖNIENĖ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is actually for history of textile technologies and Lithuanian culture heritage to investigate deeply peculiarities of manufacturing and appearance of folk textile, to establish local and global tendencies of their distribution. This investigation seeks to discover alternation of home weaving traditions establishing raw material of yarns, types of yarn structure and features of threads colours in authentic folk fabrics used in Lithuanian villages in the 19th century in peasants clothing and showing yarns types territorial distribution in Lithuanian regions Žemaitija and Aukštaitija. It was investigated 468 pieces of clothing of this period from the album saved in National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art. It is unexpected that cotton yarns are very common in warp of hand made clothing fabrics at the end of the 19th century. Cotton yarns replaced flax and wool in warp. It was established that plied yarns dominate in warp and plain yarns – in weft. Fancy dyed, mouline, melange and yarns with multiplex winding were identificated in the fabrics. Also it was innovative to found the metallic thread in weft of two examples of the fabrics. Frequency of colours distribution was established analyzing colours of yarns. The analysis of territorial distribution of fancy yarns types showed the tendency to spread the novelties of yarns and threads in traditional textile from the West part of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4436

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS in a Lithuanian-speaking population

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    Augustinas Rotomskis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be important in understanding worry and may play a key role in the etiology and maintenance of worry. Intolerance of uncertainty is measured using the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS, which has been shown to be reliable and valid in many studies. The aim of the present study was to develop a Lithuanian version of this instrument. 228 university students completed the scale. The Lithuanian version of the IUS was found to have good psychometric properties. The IUS showed high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability over a five-week period, and good convergent and divergent validity when assessed with measures of trait anxiety, situational anxiety, and depression. Factor analysis indicated that the IUS has a two-factor structure that represents the beliefs that “uncertainty about the future is unfair” and that “uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications”. In conclusion, it was found that the Lithuanian version of the IUS is a sound scale for assessing intolerance of uncertainty.

  18. Traditions and Inovations of Yarns in Lithuanian Folk Fabrics (19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga NĖNIENĖ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is actually for history of textile technologies and Lithuanian culture heritage to investigate deeply peculiarities of manufacturing and appearance of folk textile, to establish local and global tendencies of their distribution. This investigation seeks to discover alternation of home weaving traditions establishing raw material of yarns, types of yarn structure and features of threads colours in authentic folk fabrics used in Lithuanian villages in the 19th century in peasants clothing and showing yarns types territorial distribution in Lithuanian regions Žemaitija and Aukštaitija. It was investigated 468 pieces of clothing of this period from the album saved in National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art. It is unexpected that cotton yarns are very common in warp of hand made clothing fabrics at the end of the 19th century. Cotton yarns replaced flax and wool in warp. It was established that plied yarns dominate in warp and plain yarns – in weft. Fancy dyed, mouline, melange and yarns with multiplex winding were identificated in the fabrics. Also it was innovative to found the metallic thread in weft of two examples of the fabrics. Frequency of colours distribution was established analyzing colours of yarns. The analysis of territorial distribution of fancy yarns types showed the tendency to spread the novelties of yarns and threads in traditional textile from the West part of the country.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4436

  19. Trends and determinants of social and environmental information disclosure in Lithuanian companies: Literature review

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    Kristina Rudžionienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings of a literature review of the empirical studies on the social and environmentalinformation (SEI disclosure that were carried out in Lithuanian companies in 2000–2015 with theaim to identify determinants of the phenomenon and trends of its development. Having reviewed 14papers included in the national database of scientific journals, Lituanistika, the authors identify bothqualitative and quantitative studies which present the results of content analysis of SEI or corporate socialresponsibility (CSR reports. Content-wise they tend to explore the relationship between SEI disclosureand company profile such as industry sector, company size, financial leverage, profitability, and pollution.The findings are of a mixed character except for the industry sector, which is an unambiguous determinantof SEI disclosure in Lithuanian companies. Disclosed information by Lithuanian companies isless numerous and includes fewer stakeholders (i.e. employees, society and environment compared tothe reports of multinational companies or enterprises operating in advanced economies. As Lithuania isa post-Soviet society with a long tradition of presenting a better reality in reports, the contents of SEIcould be analysed through the integrity perspective which would inevitably draw researchers’ attentionnot only to the text in annual or CSR reports, company websites or press releases, but also to the practices as perceived by the companies’ stakeholders.

  20. Structural-Semantic Analysis and Some Peculiarities of Lithuanian Novelle Tales

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    Radvilė Racėnaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genre diversity of narrative folklore is represented in internationally accepted classification of tales and legends proposed by Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. However, the preparation of national catalogues based on Aarne-Thompson system encounters problems, given that there exist narratives with contradictory genre particularities and they do not easily fall into the limits of one genre group. In her search for more objective criteria for classification, the compiler of the revised “Catalogue of Lithuanian narrative folklore” Bronislava Kerbelytė has taken the above-mentioned imperfections into consideration.She has worked out an innovatory structural-semantic analysis offolk texts, based on the investigation of structural traits and on underlying semantic features of folk narratives. We will base our investigation on the principles of this analysis, as it seems to have prospects. The article aims at disclosing the main structural and semantic peculiarities of Lithuanian novelle tales by means of structural-semantic and comparative method of research.The theoretical statements are illustrated by the so-called “Tales of Fate” / “die Schicksalserzählungen” (AT 930–949, which define some aspects of an attitude towards fate and death in Lithuanian traditional culture. The assumption is proposed that structural-semantic analysis enables to define the function, the boundaries, and the development of folklore genres more precisely.

  1. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupskienė, Inga; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė; Tamošaitis, Donatas; Venterienė, Jūratė; Kuzminskis, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient's blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient's blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.

  2. The Research on Interface between Lithuanian Direct Investment Abroad and Foreign Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anžela Kozlova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research results related to foreign trade and direct investment abroad (DIA are discussed in the article. The relation of the direct investment abroad and foreign trade is still under the discussion as there is no clear answer whether foreign trade is supplemented or replaced by the direct investment abroad. Since 1997 the flows of the direct investment abroad increased greately in Lithuania. Consequently, it is important to define the link between the DIA and foreign trade considering each country separately. Direct investment abroad and trade links in Lithuania in 1997–2014 are analyzed in the article. The research analysis involves Lithuanian direct investments in the developed countries except some countries, such as Belorus, Russia and Ukraine. It is defined that there is a positive bilateral link between Lithuanian direct investment abroad and foreign trade. It is also observed the impact of general development of Lithuanian direct investment abroad (considering certain countries on the countries economy itself – imports can exceed exports. Engle-Granger causality test is applied in the research paper for the purpose of defining the impact of the DIA on the import and export range.

  3. Estimating Potential and Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Lithuanian Buildings

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    Eglė Jaraminienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU is considering increasing the GHG emissions reduction target by 2020 from 20% to 30% by committing each member state to tighten up its emission reduction goals. According to the recent study such decision could cost some 2 365 million LTL to Lithuanian economy. Evaluation and comparison of CO2 abatement costs incurred by the state implementing a variety of measures in different sectors allow choosing a most cost effective policy scenario. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions related to energy use in buildings. First, this paper reviews the role of the Lithuanian building stock in overall GHG emissions. Then the paper examines the existing studies on the CO2 mitigation potential and cost in buildings. Given the limitations of existing evaluation and lack of comprehensive modelling in the existing studies, this paper proposes a framework for examining the technology options aimed to inform policy making on the options to reduce CO2 emissions in Lithuanian housing and service sectors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.680

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

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    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of competitiveness is becoming increasingly significant in the context of modern economics. Considering intensive processes of globalisation alongside with competitive pressure amongst the countries, competitiveness has become a necessary condition for successful economic and social development of any country. Only by creating, enforcing and maintaining international competitiveness of the country, rapid economic growth during the long term is achievable. Amongst the other urgent issues, the European Union (further the EU public policies are also focused on competitiveness. After the failure to implement the Lisbon strategy and become “the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy”, the EU declared its new competitiveness aims in the long-term strategy Europe 2020. Promotion of competitiveness is one of the fundamental aims and priority directions of the EU structural policy. The EU structural support is engaged as one of the public policy measures to promote the competitiveness of the member-states. In this context, it is purposeful to research whether the structural support is used efficiently and whether it actually contributes to the implementation of the defined aims. Under the order of various Lithuanian institutions, numerous studies on the efficiency of the EU structural support have been carried out. Nevertheless, by analysing the impact of the EU structural support, insufficient attention has been paid to the aspect of competitiveness. Considering the fact that Lithuania has entered the third programming period 2014-2020, evaluation of the EU structural investment in the country has become even more topical - for successful implementation of the aims raised for this new period, the analysis of the previous results is relevant. This determined formulation of the research problem: what impact does the EU structural support have on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics? The empirical research has revealed

  5. Economic Importance, Environmental and Supply Risks on Imported Resources in Lithuanian Industry

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    Milda Knašytė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Secure raw material supply is one of the most important topics for industry. Growing economies such as China, India, Brazil and others increase the global demand and in the same time the competition for resources. In order to undertake appropriate actions the most important raw materials should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify the most important raw materials for Lithuanian economy in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental risks. The methodology used in the study relies on three sustainability dimensions accordingly expressed by three indicators: Economic Importance (Economic dimension; Supply Risk (Social dimension; Environmental Country Risk (Environmental dimension. The methodology used to define these indicators on imported resources for Lithuanian industry was adapted from report on critical raw materials for European Union (Report of the Ad-hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials 2010 published by European Commission in June 2010. Critical raw materials are considered to be economically important and the subject to a higher risk of supply interruption. All materials investigated in this study were combined into five groups: chemicals, metals, building materials, paper, paperboard and wood, other materials. Only the imported raw materials were selected for further analysis. The significance of raw material import was considered as important according to the ratio of production and consumption of certain material. After the analysis of statistical information about raw materials import in Lithuania and the actual countries of origin of these resources twenty one raw material was selected for further investigation. According to the results of assessment the list of critical raw materials for Lithuania was indentified. Results of the investigation showed that top five materials in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental country risks for Lithuanian economy are: crude oil, natural

  6. Androgenesis in Anther Culture of Lithuanian Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKAVICIUTE, Rita

    2008-01-01

    An anther culture method was used for the production of doubled haploids (DHs) in Lithuanian barley and potato cultivars that were directly regenerated from embryoids (Caredda´s method) were applied to determine androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green DH regenerants were obtained in 3 Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (´Aidas´, ´Alsa´, and ´Auksiniai´) out of 10 studied. The highest rate of embryoid formation was determined in cv. ...

  7. The spectrum of microdeletian syndromes at the hospital of Lithuanian university of health sciences

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    Cesaityte Karina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdeletion syndrome is a rare condition which can be diagnosed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH method. We analyzed microdeletion syndromes cases during ten years period (2005-2015 at The Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. We report 2 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, 2 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome, 1 patient with Angelman syndrome and 1 patient with Cri du Chat syndrome. All syndromes were confirmed by FISH. These cases contain mainly data about phenotype abnormalities and clinical symptoms.

  8. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  9. Normative multitrial recall performance, metacognitive judgments, and retrieval latencies for Lithuanian-English paired associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Phillip J; Pyc, Mary A; Rawson, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Memory researchers using paired associates have benefited greatly from the Swahili-English norms reported by Nelson and Dunlosky (1994). Given recent increases in the amount and kinds of research using paired associates, however, researchers would now benefit from an expanded set of normative measures for foreign language vocabulary words. We report data for 120 Lithuanian-English word pairs collected from 236 undergraduates. Participants completed three study-test trials and were asked to make metacognitive judgments for each item. We report normative recall performance, recall latencies, and error types for each item across trials, as well as the perceived difficulty of each item on the basis of metacognitive judgments.

  10. Diet and dyslipidemias in a Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64: the CINDI survey

    OpenAIRE

    Petkevičienė, Janina; Klumbienė, Jūratė; Ramažauskienė, Vitalija; Kriaučionienė, Vilma; Šakytė, Edita; Grabauskas, Vilius Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of a Lithuanian rural population and to assess the relationship between diet and dyslipidemias. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in 5 municipalities of Lithuania in 2007. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25- to 64-year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centers (n=1739). The food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall was used for the evaluation of nutrition habits. The ...

  11. The Impact of Intellectual Capital on Business Internationalization Processes in Lithuanian Firms

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    Aistė Kalvionytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital is the main factor contributing to the growth of economy and increasing competitiveness in global market. The need for internationalization of small firms increases in globalization context. Intellectual capital and human capital have significant impact on internationalization of organizations. The paper aims to review the concept of intellectual capital and its assessment, to reveal the significance and importance for internationalization of Lithuanian firms. The investigation is based on analysis and synthesis of prevailing scientific literature, investigating intellectual capital and internationalization.

  12. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  13. Managerial attitude to the implementation of quality management systems in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals

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    Lydeka Zigmas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulations of the Quality Management System (QMS implementation in health care organizations were approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Health in 1998. Following the above regulations, general managers of health care organizations had to initiate the QMS implementation in hospitals. As no research on the QMS implementation has been carried out in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals since, the objective of this study is to assess its current stage from a managerial perspective. Methods A questionnaire survey of general managers of Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals was carried out in the period of January through March 2005. Majority of the items included in the questionnaire were measured on a seven-point Likert scale. During the survey, a total of 72 questionnaires was distributed, out of which 58 filled-in ones were returned (response rate 80.6 per cent; standard sampling error 0.029 at 95 per cent level of confidence. Results Quality Management Systems were found operating in 39.7 per cent of support treatment and nursing hospitals and currently under implementation in 46.6 per cent of hospitals (13.7% still do not have it. The mean of the respondents' perceived QMS significance is 5.8 (on a seven-point scale. The most critical issues related to the QMS implementation include procedure development (5.5, lack of financial resources (5.4 and information (5.1, and development of work guidelines (4.6, while improved responsibility and power sharing (5.2, better service quality (5.1 and higher patient satisfaction (5.1 were perceived by the respondents as the key QMS benefits. The level of satisfaction with the QMS among the management of the surveyed hospitals is mediocre (3.6. However it was found to be higher among respondents who were more competent in quality management, were familiar with ISO 9000 standards, and had higher numbers of employees trained in quality management. Conclusion

  14. The Development of the Model for the Park and Ride System in the Major Lithuanian Cities

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    Vytautas Palevičius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Park and Ride (P&R is the original transport system of public passengers, acting as a traditional supplement of public transport. The system is becoming widely popular in European cities. The central core of this system is composed of parking facilities in the specified parking areas at the approaches to the city with connections to public transport or special buses that allow people reach the city centre. The P&R system is based on a reduction in car density in the city centre as well as on a decrease in traffic noise, air and visual pollution. Furthermore, the P&R system is an economical and time-saving way to travel. This article has been prepared according to structural support provided by the European Union (EU for the purpose of developing the P&R system in five major Lithuanian cities – Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai and Panevezys. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the development and application of the theoretical model of the P&R system to Lithuanian cities according to external good and bad practice.

  15. Spiritual care as perceived by Lithuanian student nurses and nurse educators: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riklikiene, Olga; Vozgirdiene, Inga; Karosas, Laima M; Lazenby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Political restrictions during 50years of Soviet occupation discouraged expressions of spirituality among Lithuanians. The aim of this paper is to describe Lithuanian nursing educators' and students' perception of spiritual care in a post-Soviet context. This cross-sectional study was carried out among student nurses and nursing educators at three universities and six colleges in Lithuania. The questionnaire developed by Scott (1959) and supplemented by Martin Johnson (1983) was distributed to 316 nursing students in the 3rd and 4th years of studies and 92 nurse educators (N=408). Student nurses and their educators rated general and professional values of religiousness equally; although students tended to dislike atheistic behavior more than educators. Four main categories associated with perceptions of spirituality in nursing care emerged from the student nurses: attributes of spiritual care, advantages of spiritual care, religiousness in spiritual care, and nurse-patient collaboration and communication. Themes from nurse educators paralleled the same first three themes but not the last one. Student nurses and nurse educators acknowledged the importance of spiritual care for patients as well as for care providers - nurses. In many cases spiritual care was defined by nursing students and nurse educators as faith and religiousness. Being a religious person, both for students and educators, or having spiritual aspects in students' personal lives influenced the perception of religious reflection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  17. Spread intensity and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests

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    Straigyte L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this study were to estimate seedling abundance, spread intensity, and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests. The species was introduced to Lithuania in 1802, and since then has subsequently become gradually invasive. Seedling understory abundance, colonization and dispersal were investigated in six forest blocks covering the principal sycamore distribution areas in southwestern Lithuania. Seedlings height and densities in the undestory were evaluated, and seedlings assigned to four height groups. Species invasiveness was estimated applying the Pest Plant Prioritization Process (PPPP, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Results showed the average spread distance from the parent tree was 257 m, with a mean seedling number per hectare of 2064. Sycamore maple invasive score was 0.6426 (range: 0-1, the current relative to potential distribution rating was 0.57, and the social, environmental, and economic impact score was 0.1682. Such values were used to assess the Pest Plant Score for sycamore maple, obtaining a value (0.3537 lower than expectations (0.5. Results indicated that the species exhibits invasive properties and a rapid spread in the study area. Some implications of the above results in view of the upcoming climate change and the use of sycamore maple in Lithuanian forest plantations are discussed.

  18. Employment of Lithuanian Statistical Data Into Tax-Benefit Micro-Simulation Models

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    Viginta Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to assess the “best fit” of the existing Lithuanian micro-datasets for constructing a national micro-simulation model. Specifically, we compare and evaluate the potential of two (state level representative micro-data surveys in terms of their potential to simulate Lithuanian (direct taxes, social contributions and social benefits. Both selected datasets contain rich information on the socio-economic and demographical conditions of the country: the Household Budget Survey (HBS for the years 2004 and 2005 and the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in Lithuania for the year 2005. The selected databases offer the most comprehensive range of income and other socio-demographic attributes, needed for simulation of tax and contributions’ payers/amounts and benefits’ recipients/amounts. The evaluation of the dataset capacity to simulate these measures is done by a comparative statistical analysis. Among the comparative categories are definitions (of households, incomes, survey collection modes, level of aggregation of various variables, demographic and incomes variables and corresponding numbers (amounts. The comparative analysis of the HBS and EU-SILC datasets shows, that despite embedded differences and shortages regarding simulation capacities of both surveys, these datasets contain valuable and sufficient information for the purpose of simulation of Lithuanian tax-benefit policies. In general a conclusion could be drawn, that HBS offers higher possibilities of simulating the Lithuanian tax-benefit system. This dataset contains more detailed national income categories (i.e. recipients of maternity/paternity insurance, diverse pensions, etc.— information on which is not available in the EU-SILC. The latter dataset does not contain national policy system specific components, but offer information on income aggregates, such all old-age pensions, social exclusion benefits, etc

  19. Employment of Lithuanian Statistical Data Into Tax-Benefit Micro-Simulation Models

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    Viginta Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to assess the “best fit” of the existing Lithuanian micro-datasets for constructing a national micro-simulation model. Specifically, we compare and evaluate the potential of two (state level representative micro-data surveys in terms of their potential to simulate Lithuanian (direct taxes, social contributions and social benefits. Both selected datasets contain rich information on the socio-economic and demographical conditions of the country: the Household Budget Survey (HBS for the years 2004 and 2005 and the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in Lithuania for the year 2005. The selected databases offer the most comprehensive range of income and other socio-demographic attributes, needed for simulation of tax and contributions’ payers/amounts and benefits’ recipients/amounts. The evaluation of the dataset capacity to simulate these measures is done by a comparative statistical analysis. Among the comparative categories are definitions (of households, incomes, survey collection modes, level of aggregation of various variables, demographic and incomes variables and corresponding numbers (amounts.The comparative analysis of the HBS and EU-SILC datasets shows, that despite embedded differences and shortages regarding simulation capacities of both surveys, these datasets contain valuable and sufficient information for the purpose of simulation of Lithuanian tax-benefit policies.In general a conclusion could be drawn, that HBS offers higher possibilities of simulating the Lithuanian tax-benefit system. This dataset contains more detailed national income categories (i.e. recipients of maternity/paternity insurance, diverse pensions, etc.— information on which is not available in the EU-SILC. The latter dataset does not contain national policy system specific components, but offer information on income aggregates, such all old-age pensions, social exclusion benefits, etc. Additionally

  20. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care: a cross-sectional study of Lithuanian general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-07-01

    We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit of confidentiality protection in patient-provider settings was also assessed. Although 67.5% of the responding GPs (response rate 73.5%) stated that they inform the parents or guardians of adolescent patients about the importance of confidentiality, 82.9% of them only did so if the opportunity arose. When consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law only protects the right to confidentiality for patients who are 18 or older. Our findings indicate that Lithuanian GPs frequently violate adolescents' right to confidential health services. The study highlights the need for a comprehensive strategy to strengthen the confidentiality of sexual and reproductive health services for this group in Lithuanian primary care.

  1. Ar Lietuvos įmonėms reikia daugiakalbių darbuotojų? Do Lithuanian employers need multilingual employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Kalninytė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variety of languages and the level of language competence required in job advertisements in Lithuania. The research is based on the data collected from on-line and hard-copy newspapers; job advertisements under investigation include those written in Lithuanian and other languages. The main findings suggest that in on-line advertisements employers require foreign language competence more often than those in the hard-copy adverts. It has also been observed that competence of two languages is of high demand. If employers require competence of 3 languages, the order of the languages is as follows: national (Lithuanian, lingua-franca (English, and others (Russian or Polish. Lithuanian is of high importance in job advertisements as employers tend to take into consideration the level of written and spoken Lithuanian. Finally, the data have revealed that in job advertisements language knowledge is described in very abstract terms, and references to the CEFR are hardly ever observed in the collected data.

  2. ADDITIONS TO THE RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITHUANIAN BOOKS AND THEIR SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaunas, Domas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The bibliographers of the Lithuanian National Martynas Maþvydas Library have written an open letter to the public asking to provide data about additions to the retrospective bibliography of oldLithuanian publications published in Vilnius in 1969. This act was inspired by the Consorcium of European Research Libraries that started a project of database of the Hand Press Books publishedin 1455–1830. Lithuanian National Library is conducting retroconversion of the retrospective bibliography and provide data to the international database. This task will also lead to the creationof an original database of books and an electronic publication of it on CD-ROM. The specialists expect that bibliophiles and collectors will help to identify the additional publications. The requestto investigate personal libraries looking for the books published before 1864 was made. The data on them should be sent to the creators of the bibliography. This article is a response to the call of bibliographers. It provides information about rare books collected in the personal library of the author. They allow to make changes of the scope of the bibliography and correct some bibliographic records. The data is organised according to the importance and subject: a additions to the retrospective bibliography of books, b copies of the books registered and described in the bibliography using sources, c additional data to some bibliographic descriptions, d unknown copies of rare books, e valuable copies of books. This article also pursues a methodological purpose. It presents the personally acquired experience of data retrieval, acquisition and classification forsuppllementing of the retrospective bibliography as well as the methods of making and arguing the assumptions inevitable in the history of a book. The author believes that the registration of oldbooks from personal libraries in bibliographies is an important task of accounting of the cultural heritage. It is very important

  3. Diet and serum lipids: changes over socio-economic transition period in Lithuanian rural population

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    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since regaining of independence in 1990, Lithuania has been undergoing substantial political, economic, and social changes that affected the nutrition habits of population. Dietary changes might have impact on the trends of dietary related risk factors of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare trends in diet and lipid profile of Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64 during two decades of transition period (1987-2007. Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted within the framework of the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme in five regions of Lithuania in 1987, 1993, 1999, and 2007. For each survey, a stratified independent random sample was drawn from the lists of the inhabitants aged 25-64 years registered at the primary health care centres. Altogether 3127 men and 3857 women participated in the surveys. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Predicted changes of serum cholesterol were calculated by Keys equation. Results The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids has decreased from 18.0 to 15.1 among men and from 17.6 to 14.8 among women over the period of 20 years. The average share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake increased from 5.3% to 7.1% among men and from 4.9% to 7.3% among women. The mean intake of cholesterol declined among women. Favourable trends in fatty acids composition were caused by increased use of vegetable oil for cooking and replacement of butter spread with margarine. Since 1987, the mean value of total cholesterol has decreased by 0.6 mmol/l. Total dietary effect accounts for a 0.26 mmol/l (43.3% decline in serum cholesterol among men and 0.31 mmol/l (50.8% decline among women. Conclusions Improvement in the quality of fat intake was observed in Lithuanian rural population over two decades of transition period. Positive changes in diet, mainly

  4. The Use of the Lexical Exponents of Hypothetical Modality in Polish and Lithuanian

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    Danuta Roszko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of the Lexical Exponents of Hypothetical Modality in Polish and Lithuanian In this article the author focuses on the issue of hypothetical modality[1] in Polish and Lithuanian. A list of the basic exponents of hypothetical modality in both languages is presented. However, the focus is mainly placed on the lexical exponents. On the basis of one of the six groups, which describes a high degree of probability (H5, the differences between the use of the lexical exponents in both languages are examined. In the study, multilingual corpora resources, including The Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus Clarin-PL., are utilized. [1] [In the academic literature, for the notion described herein, the term of epistemic modality is also used.  Nevertheless, in this paper I will continue to use the term of hypotheticality, which I borrowed from the studies on modality, conducted in Polish-Bulgarian cooperation (Slavic Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute for Bulgarian Language of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.]   O użyciu wykładników leksykalnych modalności hipotetycznej w językach polskim i litewskim W artykule autorka porusza zagadnienie modalności hipotetycznej[1]  w językach polskim i litewskim. Przedstawia wykaz podstawowych wykładników modalności hipotetycznej w obu językach. Główną uwagę skupia jednak na wykładnikach leksykalnych. Na przykładzie jednej z sześciu grup, opisującej wysoki stopień prawdopodobieństwa (H5, omawia różnice użycia wykładników leksykalnych w obu językach. W badaniach wykorzystuje wielojęzyczne zasoby korpusowe, w tym Polsko-litewski korpus równoległy Clarin-PL. [1] [W literaturze przedmiotu na oznaczenie opisywanych tu treści stosowany jest również termin epistemiczności. Niemniej jednak w tej pracy autorka pozostaje przy terminie hipotetyczności, który zapożycza z badań nad modalnością, prowadzonych we współpracy polsko-bułgarskiej (Instytut Slawistyki PAN i

  5. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and high blood pressure in Lithuanian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyte, Sandrita; Kuciene, Renata; Medzioniene, Jurate; Dulskiene, Virginija; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2017-09-13

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the influence of environmental factors on HBP in the population of Lithuanian children, although the role of genetic factors in hypertension has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of AGTR1, AGT, and ACE genotypes in the Lithuanian child population and to determine whether these genotypes have an impact on HBP in childhood. This cross-sectional study enrolled 709 participants aged 12-15 years. The subjects were genotyped for AGT (M235 T, rs699), AGTR1 (A1166C, rs5186), and ACE (rs4340) gene polymorphisms using real-time and conventional polymerase chain reactions. Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were measured. The prevalence of HBP was 38.6% and was more frequently detected in boys than in girls (47.9% vs. 29.5%; p AGTR1 genotypes or alleles between boys and girls were observed, except for ACE genotypes. The mean SBP value was higher in HBP subjects with ACE ID genotype compared to those with ACE II homozygotes (p = 0.04). No significant differences in BP between different AGT and AGTR1 genotype groups were found. Boys who carried the ACE ID + DD genotypes had higher odds of having HBP than carriers of the ACE II genotype did (controlling for the body mass index (BMI): ORMH = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11-3.02, p = 0.024; and controlling for waist circumference (WC): ORMH = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.92, p = 0.035). These associations were not significant among girls. The same trend was observed in the multivariate analysis - after adjustment for BMI and WC, only boys with ACE ID genotype and ACE ID + DD genotypes had statistically significantly increased odds of HBP (aOR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.19-3.53 (p = 0.01) and aOR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.04 (p = 0.022), respectively). The evaluated polymorphisms of the AGT and AGTR1 genes did not contribute to the presence of HBP in the present study and may be seen as predisposing factors, while ACE ID genotypes were associated

  6. How the changes in the system affect trauma care provision: The assessment of and implications for Lithuanian trauma service performance in 2007–2012

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    Žilvinas Dambrauskas

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Changes in operational procedures in the Lithuanian pre-hospital care provision and management of trauma patients in emergency departments of trauma centers improved the efficiency of trauma care delivery over the 2007–2012 period.

  7. Sustainability Aspects of Real Estate Development: Lithuanian Case Study of Sports and Entertainment Arenas

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    Rasa Apanavičienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The principles of sustainability have become particularly important in the real estate and construction sector over the past decade. Despite extended efforts to evaluate the sustainability aspects of the real estate development, very few attempts have been exposed in the scientific literature pursuing integrating the investors and real estate developers’ responsibility for the local community, regional economy and environmental problems within their financial expectations. The paper presents methodology enabling evaluating the balance of real estate development sustainability and financial viability issues during the feasibility study process. The Model for Real Estate Investment Evaluation Based on Sustainable Development Aspects proposed by the authors was applied to the case study of Lithuanian sports and entertainment arenas. By using multi-criteria decision analysis sustainability assessment of multi-functional arenas was carried out which disclosed that positive sustainability effects lays down on the owner’s and operator’s monetary liabilities.

  8. Relationships of the Trade Unions with the Media: The Lithuanian Case

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    Asta Krašenkienė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The various practices of different countries show that, in order to achieve trade unions’ goals, working relationships with the media are very important, especially in terms of influencing public (stakeholder opinion, as well as instilling confidence in trade unions. This paper presents some examples and empirical research results that prove the significance of such relationships. The situation in Lithuania is analyzed based on qualitative research results. The results reveal that Lithuanian trade unions do not have effective tools at their disposal for the promotion of their activity. Moreover, their notion of their relationships with the media is limited to a narrow understanding such as “the article or broadcast in media”. Due to this and other reasons, the promotion of employers’ concessions is weak. Different situations can be noticed by analyzing the independent trade unions which use other practices and systems.

  9. Critical Security Studies in the 21st Century: Any Directions for Lithuanian Security Studies?

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    Jakniūnaitė Dovilė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on recent developments and discussions in the field of security studies and aims to suggest new guidelines for the research of Lithuanian security policy. First it covers the main subjects of contemporary security discourse; next it provides evaluation and review of the critical tradition in security studies that frames presuppositions and is the means for analyzing specific security issues as well as that which fosters reflexive thinking about security. The third part deals with three topics of security research (analysis of security through the concepts of risk, exceptionality and media which have become talking-points in recent years and which have provided innovative insights in security studies.

  10. Sovremennaja vneshnjaja politika Litvy: korrektirovki tradicionnogo kursa [Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

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    Batorshina Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substant

  11. Evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation of flight crews of Lithuanian airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkŭnas, Gendrutis; Pilkyte, Laima; Ereminas, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania the average annual effective dose due to cosmic radiation at the sea level is 0.38 mSv. The dose rate caused by cosmic radiation increases with altitude due to the decrease in attenuation of cosmic radiation by atmosphere. Dose rates at altitudes of commercial flights are tens times higher than those at the sea level. For this reason people who frequently fly receive higher doses which might even be subject to legal regulations. The European Council Directive (96/29/Euratom) on basic radiation safety standards requires that doses of aircrews members be assessed and the appropriate measures taken, depending on the assessment results. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential doses, which can be received by members of aircrews of Lithuanian Airlines. The assessment was done by performing measurements and calculations. Measurements were performed in flying aircrafts by thermoluminescent detectors, Geiger Muller counters and neutron rem counter. Such an approach lead to evaluation of doses due to directly ionizing particles and neutrons. Calculations were done with the help of the code CARI-6M. Such parameters as flight route, solar activity, duration and altitudes of flight were taken into account. Doses received during different flights and in different aircrafts were assessed. The results of measurements and calculations were compared and differences discussed. The results were also compared with the data obtained in other similar studies. It was found that the highest doses are received in flights to Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt by aircraft B737. A number of flights causing annual doses higher than 1 mSv was estimated. Despite the fact that only European flights are operated by Lithuanian Airlines the dose of 1 mSv may be exceeded under some circumstances. If it happens some radiation protection measures shall be taken. These measures are also discussed.

  12. The role of parental education and socioeconomic status in dental caries prevention among Lithuanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Bendoraitienė, Eglė Aida; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Andruškevičienė, Vilija; Zūbienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disclose parental attitudes toward their children's dental care and preventive measures used as well as to evaluate their associations with parental education and socioeconomic status. A total of 1248 parents of 7-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from 5 largest Lithuanian cities were enrolled in the study. The questionnaire comprised 34 items, which were grouped into 4 clusters. The parents with a high educational level scored better than those who had a low educational level (2.13 [SD, 0.39] vs. 2.2 [0.43], P=0.002). The parents who reported sufficient-family income scored their child's and their own health significantly better than those reporting insufficient-family income (2.02 [SD, 0.37] vs. 2.27 [SD, 0.41], Pparents cared about their child's health more than about their own (1.53 [SD, 0.51] vs. 2.15 [0.61], Pparents with a high educational level and those receiving sufficient income cared about education on oral hygiene and regular preventive dental check-ups more than those with a low educational level and insufficient income (36.7% and 40.8% vs. 30.2% and 28.7%, Pparents had a high educational level brushed their teeth 2 times a day more frequently than those of the parents with a low educational level (48.5% and 42.4%, respectively, Pparents with a high educational level and sufficient income. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. An Index to Measure Sustainability of a Business Project in the Construction Industry: Lithuanian Case

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    Nomeda Dobrovolskienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous growth of the world population, resource scarcity and the threat of climate change pose numerous environmental and social problems to the world. Therefore, much hope is put in the concept of sustainability. Companies are increasingly coming under strong global pressure to incorporate sustainability considerations into their project decision-making process. Business projects in the construction industry are among the most important, as this sector is one of the largest sectors and of major importance for the national economy and therefore has a huge impact on the environment and society. Thus, we have to explore ways to integrate sustainability into the management of those projects. This paper presents a composite sustainability index of a project (CSIP which has been created following a review of existing literature and a pilot research study. A pilot research study was conducted in the Lithuanian construction industry between January 2015 and June 2015. Sustainability criteria were chosen and grouped on the basis of the analysis of the literature and different standards relating to sustainability applicable in the construction industry. A survey was used to select and rank the most important sustainability criteria. The index was constructed using multi-criteria decision-making methods. The results of the pilot study revealed that practitioners in the Lithuanian construction sector attach most importance to 15 sustainability criteria. A composite sustainability index of a project combining all these criteria may be useful in assessing the sustainability of a business project and making decisions regarding project portfolio selection and financial resource allocation. When addressing the issue of financial resource allocation in a project portfolio, the decision-maker could take into account not only the project’s return and risk, but also its sustainability. The understanding of this study should enable companies to execute

  14. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  15. Barriers to cancer pain management in danish and lithuanian patients treated in pain and palliative care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Samsanaviciene, Jurgita; Liubarskiene, Zita

    2014-01-01

    , the Specific Questionnaire On Pain Communication, and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics in cancer patient samples from both countries explained pain management outcomes in the multivariate regression models. Pain relief and pain medication......-related barriers to cancer pain management in patient samples from Denmark and Lithuania. Thirty-three Danish and 30 Lithuanian patients responded to, respectively, Danish and Lithuanian versions of the Brief Pain Inventory pain scale, the Barriers Questionnaire II, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...... adherence were better in Denmark, and the country of origin significantly explained the difference in the regression models for these outcomes. In conclusion, interventions in emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics may result in better pain management outcomes generally, whereas...

  16. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENERGY SECTOR AND “CITIZEN ENERGY”: INSIGHTS FROM GERMANY WITH COMMENTS ON THE LITHUANIAN CONTEXT

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    Christopher Ball

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Explore the extent to which the Energy Transition in Germany is a social transformation and comment on the Lithuanian context Design/methodology/approach Interviews with German energy entrepreneurs and field notes Findings The Energy Transition in Germany has been driven by “Citizen Energy”, but this is under threat from recent reforms which undermine the potential of “citizen energy” as a social transformation. There remain barriers to the growth of “Citizen Energy” in Lithuania. Research limitations/implications It is, to an extent context-specific with limitations for generalizability Practical implications Findings may be of use to the Lithuanian academic community and policy makers interested in energy policy Originality/Value Energy entrepreneurship is a timely theme in view of concerns about climate change and energy security Keywords: citizen energy, crowdsourcing, entrepreneurship, energy transition. Research type: research paper

  17. The North-West of Russia: the potential and areas of Russian-Lithuanian research and innovation cooperation

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    Fedorov Gennady

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the present state and prospects of Russian-Lithuanian cooperation in the field of research and innovation. The author analyses the tendencies of innovation activities of economic entities in the North-West of Russia in terms of relative innovation activity indicators. Special attention is paid to the role of cross-border and trans-border cooperation in the Baltic macroregion as a mechanism of managing the innovative development of regional economy.

  18. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENERGY SECTOR AND “CITIZEN ENERGY”: INSIGHTS FROM GERMANY WITH COMMENTS ON THE LITHUANIAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Ball

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Explore the extent to which the Energy Transition in Germany is a social transformation and comment on the Lithuanian context Design/methodology/approach Interviews with German energy entrepreneurs and field notes Findings The Energy Transition in Germany has been driven by “Citizen Energy”, but this is under threat from recent reforms which undermine the potential of “citizen energy” as a social transformation. There remain barriers to the growth of “Citizen Energy” in Lithua...

  19. Is self-publishing a salvation for authors? The case of Lithuanian printed bestseller in the digital environment

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    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been much speculation in the past years about self-publishing. Some argue that publishing houses do not have a future as publishing service providers. Others claim that it is very easy to publish a book as an e-book. There are many success stories of self-publishers. More and more authors are wondering if they actually need a publisher and a retailer knowing they always take the biggest cut of the pie. The paper looks at the case of a Lithuanian author bestseller (in print. This book has also received the Lithuanian Book of the Year Award in the Fiction category. The author had the book published in Lithuanian by a traditional publishing house. It was quite successful so he decided to self-publish a digital version in English. The steps taken by the author to publish his e-book on Amazon are described and analyzed. Finally, the paper presents the results of selling and promoting his e-book on Amazon platform and provides some insights into facing the market without professional help.

  20. Age-related changes in central corneal thickness in normal eyes among the adult Lithuanian population

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    Galgauskas S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saulius Galgauskas,1 Grazina Juodkaite,1 Janina Tutkuviene2 1Center of Eye Diseases, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate mean central corneal thickness (CCT and determine whether there are any correlations between CCT, age, and sex in the adult ­Lithuanian population.Methods: A total of 1,650 Caucasians of Lithuanian origin (aged 18–89 years comprising 688 (41.7% men and 962 (58.3% women were examined. Subjects were stratified by age into seven groups. CCT was measured using ultrasonic pachymetry. Correlations between CCT, age, and sex were sought.Results: Mean (± standard deviation CCT for both eyes was 544.6±30.5 µm. Mean CCT was 545.2±30.5 µm in the left eye and 544.6±30.5 µm in the right eye, and was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Mean CCT was 550.8±35.7 µm in subjects aged 18–29 years, 557.5±27.6 µm in those aged 30–39 years, 551.3±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.0±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.2±31.6 µm in those aged 60–79 years, 535.1±27.8 µm in those aged 70–79 years, and 530.1±16.8 µm in those aged 80–89 years. No statistically significant difference in CCT was found between the sexes (P>0.05. However, there was a significant difference in subjects aged 18–29 years; men had higher CCT than women (P<0.05. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CCT and age (r=−0.263, P<0.05 that was stronger in men (r=−0.406, P<0.05 than in women (r=−0.118, P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean CCT in adult Lithuanians was 544.6±30.5 µm, of the left eye 545.2±30.5 µm and of the right – 544.6±30.5 µm. CCT of the right eye was equal to the CCT of both eyes. Mean CCT was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Young men tended to have higher CCT than women. CCT decreases over the

  1. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  2. The Standardized Aspect of the Dictionaries of Lithuanian Terms of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelė Kaulakienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Single physical terms, words which became terms, can be found in the papers of our standard language founders J. Bretkūnas, M. Daukša, D. Kleinas, J. Rėza, S. Vaišnoras, B. Vilentas in the 16th–17th cc. K. Sirvydas’ trilingual (Polish-Latin-Lithuanian dictionary “Dictionarium trium linguarum”, the first edition of which appeared in1620, had a great influence on the development of standard language lexis. However, the terminology of physics began to develop much later. Its evolution can be divided in three stages:1 the middle of the 19th c – the end of the 19th c, when the first articles, published in Keleivis (1849–1880 and Aušra (1883–1886, and the first Lithuanian physics textbook of P. Vileišis “Populiariszkas rankvedis fyzikos” (1899 appeared; 2 the beginning of the 20th c – the middle of the 20th c, when the terminology of this stage was influenced by Ig. Končius’ manuscript of physics textbook for gymnasia, during preparation of which he consulted with K. Būga and J. Jablonskis in 1916–1919, Ig. Končius’ dictionary “Terminai fizikos reikalams”, published in Lithuania (1923–1924, K. Šakenis’ “Fizika” (1920, V. Čepinskis’ “Fizikos paskaitos” (1923–1926; 3 the middle of the 20th c – the beginning of the 21st c, when the majority of physical terms, which are still in use, were fixed. P. Brazdžiūnas’ normative work, which was performed by preparing the textbook for higher schools and colleges “Bendroji fizika” (1960–1965 and preparing and editing with his colleagues FTŽ1, FTŽ2, which became the basis of the newest FTŽ3, had influenced it. FTŽ3 terms are standardized most strongly of all terminographic physical publications. It was influenced by the normative aspect of previous dictionaries of physical terms, which changed at the same time, because the conceptions of different notions and terms changed, there were a lot of fixed terms. Consequently, it can be concluded that

  3. Istoricheskie aspekty razvitija rossijsko-litovskih jekonomicheskih otnoshenij i sovremennost' [The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

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    Kretinin Gannady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  4. Laterality of handgrip strength: age- and physical training-related changes in Lithuanian schoolchildren and conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    Laterality in handgrip strength was assessed by analyzing dynamometric data of the right and left hand in three samples of Lithuanian boys and girls aged 7-20 years. In addition, the influence of general physical training on the laterality of handgrip strength was explored in a sample of conscripts. A negative secular trend in handgrip strength of schoolchildren has been detected since 1965, and with increasing age, right-handedness has become more pronounced. Children that were ambidextrous (by grip strength) showed negative deviations in physical status more often than their right- or left-handed peers. During one year of physical training, the conscripts had a larger increase in grip strength of the left than in the right hand, and a marked shift in handgrip laterality toward left-handed and ambidextrous individuals was observed. The different impact of schooling and physical training on handgrip strength laterality might partly explain variations in the prevalence of handedness in different societies with divergent cultures and lifestyles (e.g., more or less sedentary). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Rodzina w litewskiej etnopedagogice/ Family in the Lithuanian ethno-pedagogy

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    LIBERTAS KLIMKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article approaches the most typical Lithuanian means and methods of folk pedagogy which are aimed at the development of respect for motherhood and positive features of child personality. It becomes obvious that today the traditional folk pedagogy has become not only the object of ethnological studies; many of its elements might also be successfully applied to family and schools‘ teaching practices, next to other endeavours and as a means to the formation of national identity. The importance of identity gains even more significance in the rapidly globalising cultural enviroment.Therefore, some elements of ethnical culture may be efficiently applied to preschool establishments and schools. While being introduced to the enviroment of traditional culture, the child would unconscio usly and easily assimilate moral principles and norms, positive value attitudes, the sense of beauty, creativity in works, respect to the nature and life. Today this could also be excellently combined with the most advanced educational methods.The result is twofold: the both pedagogical aspirations will be realised and the national self-awareness will be formed.

  6. Development of absorptive capacity in a regional innovation system: experience of Lithuanian regions

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    Vita Juknevičienė

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of innovativeness and competitiveness is rising and it is the essential condition for the survival in a global market. Especially it is vitally important for small countries (and their regions, which do not have the exceptional situation and position in the market, acknowledged products (services or resources, even stable long-term traditions of innovation culture, etc. The present paper focuses on absorptive capacity, its development issues in regional innovation systems and well-being creation in a small country’s regions. For the purposes of the research, analyses were carried out, identifying reasons (or barriers, promoting (or limiting innovative activities, impeding organizational propensities and desire to develop activities of knowledge access, anchoring and diffusion at the organizational and inter-organizational level. This paper reveals the experience of Lithuanian regions from the point of view of experts, representing institutions of science, business, innovation and business support. This paper represents the experience of partnerships (successful and failed for the knowledge absorption in Lithuania and their connection to subsequent directions of organizational behavior and decisions. Furthermore, the author suggests main aspects for managers, seeking to maintain (gain organizational absorptive capacity, corresponding to requirements and speed of the modern market.

  7. Application of Information Technologies in Teaching Foreign VGTU Students Lithuanian as a Foreign Language

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    Regina Žukienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian universities are currently undergoing a novel period of social changes, globalization and rapid technological development. A substantial body of relevant international programmes are being implemented. One of them is Erasmus – an international higher education programme aiming to strengthen cooperation at the European level and promote the mobility of students and lecturers, as well as to enhance the interaction between enterprises and higher education institutions. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University attempts to provide foreign Erasmus students with the best scientific, linguistic, cultural and educational experiences. For this purpose, the use information technologies in learning processes proved to be very helpful by opening a unique possibility to learn new languages and to communicate despite cultural differences. Computer aided language teaching tools are modern, effective and flexible alternatives to traditional learning in auditoriums and serve as auxiliary means to increase the effectiveness of studies. The article presents an e-learning programme “First Steps of HERMES” for learning languages. The management of the programme is discussed, the possibilities provided by online learning are assessed and the results of the pilot offering of the programme to VGTU are summarized.

  8. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

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    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  9. Non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species in Lithuanian fresh waters, Part 1: Distributions, dispersal and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbačiauskas K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are of increasing global concern. They impact on biodiversity and may result in high economic loss. This demands improvement in knowledge of the dynamics of species dispersal with the goal of preventing future invasions, and predicting and reducing undesirable impacts. This study reports on non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species (NIMS which have invaded Lithuanian fresh waters. Fifteen NIMS have been recorded during a 12-year study. They include one cnidarian, two molluscan and twelve crustacean species. The deliberate introduction of peracaridans and crayfish for fishery and aquaculture enhancement has substantially contributed to the current NIMS composition. Invaders of Ponto-Caspian origin are dominant, and the collector-gatherers are the largest group with respect to feeding mode. Current NIMS distributions, the history of their primary invasion and patterns of local dispersal are analysed. The main invasion vectors have been inland shipping and deliberate introductions, while secondary spread proceeded both naturally and by various human mediated vectors. The current distribution of most NIMS may remain constant in the future, whilst further expansion of a few NIMS, which possess good dispersal abilities and are well-adapted to freshwater environments, seems very probable. Using multivariate analysis of data from water bodies with established peracaridan invaders, allowed predictions on which unsurveyed water bodies could contain such invaders. Invasions of new NIMS and diversification of donor areas, pathways and vectors are considered.

  10. Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats on two Lithuanian farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadalienė, Inga; Höglund, Johan; Petkevičius, Saulius

    2015-03-19

    This study investigated seasonal changes in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections on two Lithuanian goat farms with different parasite control practices. On both farms, nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) and larval cultures were obtained from 15 adult and 10 young goats at bi-weekly intervals from April 2012 to April 2013. Goats on farm A were dewormed with ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg body weight) in October/November 2012, whereas the animals on farm B were left untreated. Thirteen young goats were slaughtered in August/November 2012 and April 2013 and worm burdens in the gastrointestinal tract were enumerated. In goats from both farms, Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia and Haemonchus were the dominant GIN genera. Herbage contamination with infective third-stage larvae (L3) peaked in July/August and resulted in high FEC in September/October. Parasitological examination at slaughter showed that Teladorsagia spp. and Haemonchus contortus survived the winter, both in the abomasal mucosa as adults and as early fourth-stage larvae (EL4). Deworming on farm A significantly reduced FEC, especially of H. contortus, at the start of the grazing period compared with the untreated farm B (P Goats were heavily infected with several GIN throughout the year. Strategic anthelmintic treatment during housing significantly reduced nematode egg output, in particular by H. contortus, at the start of the grazing season.

  11. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

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    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  12. Determination of genomic variants of the complex aetiology cleft lip and (or) palate in Lithuanian patient group

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    Ambrozaitytė, Laima

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cleft lip and (or) palate (CL/P) varies from 0.4 to 2.0 in 1000 live births across populations. More and more CL/P candidate loci are being confirmed using novel genome-wide methods of molecular genetics and tools of statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the alleles of the candidate genes for cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate in the Lithuanian patient group, applying the molecular genotyping of the genomic markers in 42 CL...

  13. Asmeniniai įvardžiai mokslo kalboje. Personal pronouns in Lithuanian scientific discourse

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    Nijolė Linkevičienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is the use of personal pronouns as a means of author stance expression in the Corpus Academicum Lithuanicum (about 9 million words representing a variety of academic genres in five science areas (Biomedical sciences, Humanities, Physical sciences, Social sciences, Technological sciences. Pronouns in the subject position in Lithuanian may be omitted, as the person/number inflection of the verb already indicates the subject. Therefore, when the pronoun does occur in scientific discourse it might be interpreted as an emphasized expression of the author stance.In this study qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed to reveal distributional information and usage patterns of the personal pronouns I and we. The results of the study indicate cross-disciplinary differences in the use of personal pronouns in different science areas: researchers in the hard science fields tend to use personal pronouns to a much smaller extent than researchers in the soft fields. The study also showed marked differences in the distribution of exclusive and inclusive we. Scientists in the humanities and social sciences prefer the inclusive communal we, whereas researchers in biomedical, physical and technological sciences favour the exclusive we which primarily refers to the authors themselves or to the academic community. A case study of the personal pronoun you revealed its rare usage in scientific Lithuanian. This pronoun is usually employed to refer to the indefinite addressee. ------ Straipsnyje aptariama autoriaus pozicijos raiška asmeniniais įvardžiais lietuvių mokslo kalbos tekstyne CorALit. Pasitelkus kiekybinę ir kokybinę analizę, tiriami asmeninių įvardžių aš ir mes bei jų dažniausių gramatinių formų vartosenos ypatumai biomedicinos, humanitarinių, socialinių, fizinių ir technologinių mokslų srityse. Tyrimas parodė, kad tiek vienaskaitinė, tiek daugiskaitinė autoriaus pozicijos raiška asmeniniais

  14. Problems of Determining Size and Character of Wind Turbines’ Visual Impact Zones on Lithuanian Landscape

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    Jonas Abromas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available landscape variety, time of the day, and other factors (Tsoutsos et al., 2009. In this paper the factors that influence the wind turbine’s visibility are analyzed. One of the most important aspects determining wind turbine’s visual impact is observation distance. The visual impact zones of wind turbines in different countries having been analyzed and the situation in Lithuania taken in, the Table of wind turbine’s visual impact hypothetical degrees is set up. To determine the precision of visual impact degrees, the survey in situ is done and its results have been compared to the theoretical-hypothetical visual impact degrees (a comparative analysis. Visual impact zones of wind turbines are evaluated from ten pre-selected observation points. Six wind turbines (of 2 MW power each, installed in Kretinga district near village Vydmantai, are analyzed. At the end of the study, it is identified that the categorization of visual impact zones of wind turbines should be corrected in accordance with the visual character of Lithuanian landscape. Different observation distances have a great influence on the significance of a visual impact. Being 0-7 km from the wind farm (in this case the wind turbine’s visual impact on the landscape varies from dominants to subdominants, the intervals of observation distances have to be shorter. It is noticed that forests, buildings, and other vertical objects that are located near the observation point change the visual impact significance very much. Weather conditions make significant influence as well, especially on visibility of wind turbine wheels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2363

  15. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

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    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

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    Ostapenko Valerijus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status. Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Results Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Conclusion Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  17. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-06-26

    In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 +/- 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT) group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status). Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients--those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  18. The angiotensin converting enzyme gene i/d polymorphism in ellite polish and lithuanian judo players

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    J Eider

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of this study is to perform preliminary studies to analyze the possible importance of the ACE gene polymorphisms in elite Polish and Lithuanian judo players and sedentary individuals representing the possible relationships with genotype and physical performance. 28 male of elite Polish and Lithuania judo players were recruited for this study. For controls samples were prepared from 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of ACE gene contained either the insertion (I or deletion (D fragment was performed. Compared with sedentary controls, the frequency of I allele differ significantly from that found in judo player’s group: 60.7% vs. 44.3%(p=0.02 and ACE genotype frequency amongst the whole athletes group (28.6% II, 64.3% ID, 7.1% DD was also different from expected values (control group 19.1% II, 50.4% ID, 30.4% DD; p=0.019. Our investigation have proved the ACE I/D allele could be one of the factors influencing the elite endurance exercise performance. The research suggests that those most predisposed to judo are individuals with the allele distribution in the ACE gene that is most significant with regard to the duration of a fight, and not with regard to the character of the performed moves, as could be supposed.

  19. [The burnout syndrome among nurses working in Lithuanian cardiac surgery centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimantaite, Renata; Seskevicius, Arvydas

    2006-01-01

    The burnout syndrome may be defined as a complex phenomenon which is characterized by three components: emotional burnout (physical and psychical exhaustion, incapability to carry on requirements), depersonalization (cynical attitude towards performed work, duties, cold or negative reaction to the patients), and lowered efficiency (reflected by the sense of incompetence, the lack of efficiency and achievements). This process is progressing slowly for a long time and is characterized individually by various psychical and physical symptoms of different intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the manifestation of burnout syndrome and to estimate the influence of the syndrome on the behavior and practice of the nurses in cardiac surgery units of Lithuania (to evaluate physiological and psychological symptoms of the burnout). The study was performed using a questionnaire. A total of 180 questionnaires completed by nurses in Lithuanian cardiac surgical centers (Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipeda) were analyzed. The study revealed that 72.8% of nurses had an excess of workload (exceeding full-time job). Most of the respondents (84.4%) pointed out the emotional stress, unevaluated work and underpayment. Three-fourths of the nurses (75%) indicated that they felt physical fatigue after their work. More than half of nurses (67.2%) felt general fatigue, 63.3% reported the leg pains after the work, and 32.2% feel splitting headaches. Psychological fatigue was stressed by 86.1% of specialists. The main causes of psychological stress are as follows: the communication with the doctors in 57% of the cases, communication with the patient's relatives in 52% of cases, communication with the nursing administration in 49% of cases, and communication with the patients in 40% of cases. The majority of the nurses working in the centers of cardiac surgery experience physical and psychological fatigue, emotional stress. All this determinates the dissatisfaction in the work, conflicts

  20. Life Cycle Based Design and Product Development: Application of LCA to Lithuanian Industry

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    Visvaldas VARŽINSKAS

    2011-01-01

    -family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The paper is based on some of the results of the project "Implementation of Green Product Development in the Baltic Sea Region and Establishment of Green Company Clusters in Latvia, Lithuania and Russia with Strong Links to Sweden". Life cycle assessment (LCA, as a tool for environmental evaluation of the product system has never been used before in Lithuanian industry. The main goal of this study has been to make an attempt of introducing LCA to the product development process. In the first phase LCA is applied to a selected group of products in different industry sectors. In the second phase the LCA results are used for readjusting the product, its eco-design or its environmental performance declaration development. Despite the limited capacity and lack of incentives, the companies have been satisfied with the project results in terms of the acquired knowledge, particularly in respect to the opportunities for cleaner production innovations. The paper presents a new calculation model used in LCA research, a LCA model of an environmental impact of electricity production in Lithuanian national electricity grid and discusses the experience gained in successful implementation of LCA tools in Lithuanian industry

  1. Native Health Research Database

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    ... APP WITH JAVASCRIPT TURNED OFF. THE NATIVE HEALTH DATABASE REQUIRES JAVASCRIPT IN ORDER TO FUNCTION. PLEASE ENTER ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Keywords Title Author Source of Publication ...

  2. Utility of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a Sample of Lithuanian Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinaitytė, Ilona; Laurinavičius, Alfredas; Ustinavičiūtė, Laura; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2017-06-29

    The aim of the current study was to examine the construct validity of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in a correctional setting. More specifically, we examined the associations between MMPI-2-RF scales with external variables relevant for sentence planning as well as the relationship with risk of reconviction assessed with the Offender Assessment System (OASys; Home Office, 2002). A random sample of 228 male offenders from Lithuanian custodial institutions was selected for the study. The results revealed that MMPI-2-RF scale scores differentiated offender groups classified on the basis of external variables, such as history of suicide attempts, violent offending, use of drugs, violence under the influence of alcohol, and early criminal onset, in a manner consistent with conceptual expectations. Moreover, Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction (BXD), Antisocial Behavior (RC4), Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP), Substance Abuse (SUB), and Disconstraint-Revised (DISC-r) scale scores evinced correlations with OASys scores that were moderate in magnitude. Results from regression analyses showed that MMPI-2-RF scale scores accounted for approximately 21% of variance of OASys risk of reconviction scores. Overall, the findings provide support for the utility of the MMPI-2-RF in Lithuanian correctional institutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The BICAMS Battery for Assessment of Lithuanian-Speaking Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Relationship with Age, Education, Disease Disability, and Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedraitienė, Nataša; Kizlaitienė, Rasa; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND Assessment of cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is very useful, but it requires time-consuming expert evaluation with specialized materials. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was created as a brief and specific instrument for the evaluation of CI. The aims of this study were to assess the cognitive status of MS patients by using the Lithuanian version of BICAMS, to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Lithuanian version of BICAMS, and to measure the impact of CI on disability and duration of MS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 50 MS patients and 20 cognitively normal control subjects, matched for age, gender, and level of education. Cognitive functions were assessed by the BICAMS tests, which include the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised, and the California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition. RESULTS MS patients performed significantly worse than controls on the 3 neuropsychological tests of BICAMS (phigher disability scores tended to perform worse on the tests (p0.05). Test-retest reliability was excellent for all 3 subtests (r>0.8, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that BICAMS is a valid and acceptable cognitive assessment tool that can be recommended for routine use in Lithuania for assessing patients with MS.

  4. Influence of Brownfield Conversion on Evaluating Real Estate and Implemeting the Possibilites of Urban Brownfields in Lithuanian Cities

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    Vytautas Bielinskas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.

  5. Autoriaus pozicijos adverbialai ir adverbializacija lietuvių mokslo kalboje. Stance adverbials and adverbialization in Lithuanian academic discourse

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    Aurelija Usonienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the necessity of distinguishing a semantic-functional class of stance adverbials in Lithuanian. Following Biber et al. (1999 and Hasselgård (2010 an attempt is made to show that alongside circumstance adverbials there are also linking adverbials and stance adverbials in Lithuanian. The means of realization of stance adverbials in Lithuanian is not only adverbs but also so called modal words (galbūt ‘maybe’, tikriausiai ‘most probably’, various particles (taigi ‘therefore’, visgi ‘still’, ‘nevertheless’, CTPs (manoma ‘it is believed’, natūralu ‘naturally’, various adverbial clauses (kaip matyti ‘as it is seen, as one can see’, kaip žinoma ‘as is known’ but also prepositional phrases (pasak X ‘according to X’. The article devotes much attention to the semantic classification of the basic types of stance adverbials, which has been illustrated by the language data collected from the Corpus of Academic Lithuanian (Corpus Academicum Lithuanicum – CorALit – http://coralit.lt. The paper also touches upon the process of adverbialization and its relationship to grammaticalization which presupposes the desemanticization and (intersubjectivization of the linguistic expressions under analysis. Many Lithuanian verbal and adjectival CTPs like žinoma ‘it is known’, suprantama ‘it is understood’, tarkim ‘let’s say’ can develop into stance adverbials and further into discourse markers by losing any links to the original lexical meaning of the verb they have evolved from. ------ Straipsnio tikslas parodyti, kodėl reikėtų ir kodėl galima būtų skirti semantinę-funkcinę adverbialų klasę lietuvių kalboje. Pastaroji nėra tapatinama su prieveiksmiais kaip tradicine kalbos dalimi gramatikoje ar aplinkybėmis kaip tradicine sakinio dalimi sintaksėje. Be to, nėra kvestionuojamas aptariamų kalbos reiškinių statusas kalbos dalių ar sakinio dalių po

  6. Zum Ausdruck der Bewertung in deutschen und litauischen gerichtlichen Entscheidungen | Expression of evaluation in German and Lithuanian court judgments

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    Virginija Masiulionytė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the expression of evaluation in German and Lithuanian court judgments in civil cases. The purpose is to analyze lexical and grammatical devices, used by the court – the source of evaluation in this text type – in its judgments to express its opinion towards certain objects of evaluation. The analyzed corpus consists of 10 randomly selected court judgments in German (44 522 words in total and 10 in Lithuanian (38 347 words in total. The actual scope of the paper is a particular part of the judgments, namely, the grounds, in which the court examines the suit, pleadings of the parties, certain issues, facts and circumstances relevant for the decision etc. and gives its reasons for the decision. The respective parts of court decisions make up a subcorpus of 29 274 words in German and 18 693 words in Lithuanian. The main focus of the research are the aspects of evaluation, i. e. particular attributes of the objects evaluated. It has been found that in the analyzed court judgments the objects are evaluated in terms of success, merits, admissibility, veracity, reasonableness, persuasiveness, suitability, extent, probability etc. The research shows that lexical devices used in the court judgments in both languages to express the evaluation are typically formed on the same basis, e. g. tikėtina ‘(it is probable’ and tikimybė ‘probability’, abejoti ‘to doubt’ and abejonės ‘doubts’, unangemessen ‘unreasonable’ and Unangemessenheit ‘unreasonableness’; zweifelhaft ‘dubious’, zweifelsfrei ‘free of doubt’ and Zweifel ‘doubt’. In comparison to the German court judgments analyzed, Lithuanian court judgments contain an wider diversity of specific lexical constructions containing verba dicendi and verba putandi, in which the evaluating subject is encoded explicitly. The constructions found include the following: teismas sprendžia, kad/jog ‘the court rules that’, teismas laiko, kad ‘the court

  7. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying and the Views of 5-12 Grade Pupils and Teachers on Cyberbullying Prevention in Lithuanian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldsnes, Dziuginta

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the views of cyberbullying prevention among 5-12 grade pupils and teachers in Lithuanian schools. It defines the concept of cyberbullying in the context of school pupils, and analyses the theoretical grounds for prevention of this form of bullying. The article also presents the results of the survey (which was conducted in…

  8. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-08-05

    failed to determine whether emotion recognition from non-verbal signs (face pictures) was related to at least one of the previously mentioned indexes. The study revealed that the factors such as subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being were reliable predictors of certain EI indexes. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Event Scale – Revised: psychometric properties of the Lithuanian version in a sample of employees exposed to workplace bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskienė; Lina, Bernotaitė

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is often used as a self-report instrument for symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS). The objective of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Lithuanian IES-R in a sample of employees with exposure to workplace bullying in different occupations. Materials and methods. The original IES-R was translated into Lithuanian, and the comparability of content was verified through back-translation procedures. 294 employees with exposure to workplace bullying (52 teachers from the secondary schools of Kaunas, 56 family physicians, 101 nurses of internal medicine departments, 40 waiters, and 45 seafarers) were administered the Lithuanian IES-R and the General Health Questionnaire – 12 (GHQ-12) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. The exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the construct validity of the IES-R. Results. The reliability of the Lithuanian version of the IES-R was verified. Cronbach’s α of the total scale was 0.95. Exploratory factor analysis showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. Cronbach’s α for subscales of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal were 0.89, 0.85, and 0.88, respectively. The convergent validity was supported by positive correlations between the subscales (intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal) and the GHQ-12. Conclusions. The results suggest that the self-reported Lithuanian IES-R is a valid instrument for assessing the dimensions of post-traumatic stress, has good psychometric properties, and may be applied in prolonged trauma-exposed populations.

  10. Prevalence of C282Y, H63D, and S65C mutations in hereditary HFE-hemochromatosis gene in Lithuanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskas, Laimutis; Juzenas, Simonas; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Cedaviciute, Ruta; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kondrackiene, Jurate; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2012-04-01

    HFE-hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive disease caused by HFE gene mutations and characterized as iron overload and failure of different organs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C282Y (c.845 G>A), H63D (c.187 C>G), and S65C (c.193A>T) alleles of HFE gene in the Lithuanian population. One thousand and eleven healthy blood donors of Lithuanian nationality were examined in four different ethnic Lithuanian regions to determine HFE gene alleles and genotype frequencies. The samples of DNA were analyzed for the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism and validated by DNA sequencing. Among 1,011 blood donors tested, the frequency of C282Y, H63D, and S65C alleles were 2.6%, 15.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. One third of the tested subjects (n = 336) had at least one of the C282Y or H63D HFE gene mutations. The screening of Lithuanian blood donors has detected 13 (1.3%) subjects with a genotype C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D responsible for the development of HFE-hemochromatosis. The prevalence of C282Y mutation was significantly higher among the inhabitants of Zemaitija (Somogitia) at the Baltic Sea area (5.9%) in comparison to the regions of continental part of Lithuania (2.4% in Dzukija, 2.3% in Aukstaitija, and 2% in Suvalkija, p Vikings along the Baltic Sea coast. The first epidemiological investigation of HFE gene mutations in ethnic Lithuanians showed that the frequencies of H63D, C282Y, and S65C of HFE gene alleles are similar to the other North-Eastern Europeans, especially in the Baltic region (Estonia, Latvia), Poland, and part of Russia (Moscow region).

  11. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

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    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  12. Of decentralization of public power Ukrainian land that belonged to Lithuanian (XIII – the early XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Manuilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive crisis in Ukraine and continued military confrontation in the Donbass demonstrated the urgent need to establish effective governance, which would imply decentralization of public power. Note that in implementing the decentralization of power in Ukraine insists the International Monetary Fund; United Nations Development Program; the transfer of authority to the field and decentralization of power in Ukraine is one of the points of the Minsk agreements and obligations of Ukraine to the EU. The article deals with the Ukrainian lands topical issue features the decentralization of public power in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century. The importance of the topic due to the need to study the historical experience of the implementation of decentralization. It was, emphasized that the success of the reforms depends largely because of the historical experience and features of the decentralization of public power in the past. Characterized by the development of local government in the Ukrainian lands was part of the Lithuanian state. The purpose of the article is to clarify the characteristics of decentralization of public authority on Ukrainian lands were part of the Lithuanian state during the XVII century XIII. To address this goal, outline decentralization of public power in the state; analyze, competence of local government in the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Lith uanian State; determine how close to the power of the people. The level of decentralization of public power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century was high. It was, found that Lithuania had not established a centralized state. It is, noted that the Board of the nobility limited the princely power. The effect of delegated deputies from different parts of the Lithuanian statehood solutions nobility Council.Clarified the facts that confirm the existence of decentralization of public power in Lithuania: the functioning of local

  13. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  14. 27 September 2013 -Lithuanian Minister of Culture Š. Birutis in the LHC tunnel with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi. Also present: V. Rapsevicius, CMS Collaboration.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2013-01-01

    27 September 2013 -Lithuanian Minister of Culture Š. Birutis in the LHC tunnel with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi. Also present: V. Rapsevicius, CMS Collaboration.

  15. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  16. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  17. Assessment of theoretical near-shore wave power potential along the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasiulis, E; Punys, P; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gradually increasing interest in utilisation of wave energy through development of wave energy converters is directing more attention to areas of lower energy potential, such as the Baltic Sea, compared to the oceans. In this paper, the theoretical wave power potential in the Lithuanian coast...... is evaluated using available multi-year visual observation data. A brief review of European wave energy resources, focusing more on semi-enclosed seas, is provided, as well as a comparison between wave energy potential and conventional hydropower potential in European countries. A conventional hydrological...... method, designed for calculating a distribution of annual hydrologic variables, was adopted to evaluate the design wave heights. Wave power flux values for monthly, seasonal and annual wave conditions were evaluated for high, median and low intensity years. In addition multi-year annual and seasonal wave...

  18. Genetic diversity and differentiation of sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Lithuanian rivers assessed by microsatellite DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Kontautas, Antanas; Gross, Riho

    2009-11-01

    The genetic diversity and differentiation of sea trout were studied in three river basins in Lithuania: Akmena-Dane, Bartuva, and Nemunas. A total of 282 individuals were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. A similar level of genetic diversity was found in all of the populations studied: mean allelic richness ranged from 3.64 to 5.03, and average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.588 to 0.721. Significant genetic divergence was observed among the different river basins as well as between populations within the drainages. All pairwise F (ST) values were highly significant, ranging from 0.027 to 0.197. The analysis of molecular variance showed rather weak hierarchical population structuring within the Nemunas basin, which may be explained by extensive gene flow among different river basins or, alternatively, reflect the influence of artificial breeding. Information on genetic diversity and differentiation of the Lithuanian sea trout populations will be useful for future management decisions.

  19. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  20. Promoting Entrepreneurship in Higher Education: Analysis of European Union Documents and Lithuanian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stokaitė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chairman of the European Commission J.M Barroso, as the main “Europe 2020” strategic target for the upcoming ten years, indicates the creation of an innovative, stable and integrated economy. Higher education and business communication promotion and synergy are being dedicated as a prior target for all EU and EU member countries to be able to continue increasing employment, productivity, as well as social connections. The research of the enterprise and its stimulation in higher education (using higher education and business collaboration is not deep enough, although the enterprise’s multiple phenomenon were analysed from many perspectives. It is being planned to raise EU’s investments to youth much more compared to other main parts of the budget in 2014-2020. Analysis of European Union documents and Lithuanian case studies was chosen on purpose according to the enterprise’s created added value for European development. Realization, creativity, initiative, motivation, taking risks, planning and reaching personal goals are the main parts of the enterprise. Development of these skills in higher education is becoming very important because of “the advantage of the competitiveness is being determined by country‘s social education therefore the effective usage of human recourses is the most important part seeking to increase stabile economical and social well being.” Research of the EU’s and Lithuania’s national documentation and scientific literature review of entrepreneurship in higher education identifies the current enterprise position in education. According to the analyses of the documentation and the scientific literature review, the enterprise’s evaluation level was appointed. The new beginning of the enterprise in higher education is being started after the research was done and centrepiece’s promotion was critically evaluated in the EU and Lithuania. In October, 2011 the committee of the EU created a new work

  1. The future prospects of Lithuanian family physicians: a 10-year forecasting study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padaiga Zilvinas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When health care reform was started in 1991, the physician workforce in Lithuania was dominated by specialists, and the specialty of family physician (FP did not exist at all. During fifteen years of Lithuania's independence this specialty evolved rapidly and over 1,900 FPs were trained or retrained. Since 2003, the Lithuanian health care sector has undergone restructuring to optimize the network of health care institutions as well as the delivery of services; specific attention has been paid to the development of services provided by FPs, with more health care services shifted from the hospital level to the primary health care level. In this paper we analyze if an adequate workforce of FPs will be available in the future to take over new emerging tasks. Methods A computer spreadsheet simulation model was used to project the supply of FPs in 2006–2015. The supply was projected according to three scenarios, which took into account different rates of retirement, migration and drop out from training. In addition different population projections and enrolment numbers in residency programs were also considered. Three requirement scenarios were made using different approaches. In the first scenario we used the requirement estimated by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique. The second scenario was based on the number of visits to FPs in 2003 and took into account the goal to increase the number of visits. The third scenario was based on the determination that one FP should serve no more than 2,000 inhabitants. The three scenarios for the projection of supply were compared with the three requirement scenarios. Results The supply of family physicians will be higher in 2015 compared to 2005 according to all projection scenarios. The largest differences in the supply scenarios were caused by different migration rates, enrolment numbers to training programs and the retirement age. The second supply scenario, which took into

  2. Charleso Dickenso kūrybos recepcija Lietuvoje: vertimų tradicija ir praktika (I dalis. The Lithuanian Reception of Charles Dickens: The Tradition and Practice of Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rudaitytė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Dickens has been recognized in Lithuania as a world-famous canonical English writer, the most emblematic representative of the Victorian Age. For ordinary and less versed readers his books have been usually associated with the rainy and foggy England, the soot, smog and squalor of London, the plight of the poor and the disinherited, with Christmas sentimen­tality, charity and philanthropy. For many decades in the popular Lithuanian imagination his name alone has been a label, a trade-mark which has stood for everything that is English. Many of his works (albeit not all have been translated into Lithuanian; some of them were printed in several editions and had a wide circulation. On the other hand, however, Dickens’s writing enjoyed a belated discovery and reception in Lithuania if compared with other European countries. It is only after his death that the first and very modest (both in volume and quality translations of his works started appearing. This was determined, first of all, by a set of historical, political and cultural circum­stances as well as specific literary tastes and national literary traditions which prevailed in Lithuania in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and which further shaped a specific reception of English literature in general and of Dickens’s art in particular. The begin­ning of the reception of Dickensian writing in Lithua­nia is traced back only to late nineteenth century.The specific Lithuanian response to Dickens’s writing might be defined as shifting from one extreme to the other: enthusiastic reception in the inter-war years and particularly in the period of Soviet oc­cupation, and declining interest and popularity today. In view of the peculiar character of the response, the article discusses the Lithuanian reception of Dickens focusing on Lithuanian translations of his works which is a very significant factor in the reception. An impressive scope of Lithuanian translations in multi

  3. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  4. Deictic Reference as a Means for Constructing the Character Image in a Dubbed Cartoon Snow Postman: Comparative Analysis of the Lithuanian, Russian and English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Satkauskaitė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at examining how the main character Snowman’s image is constructed by applying an abundant number of deictic expressions in the Lithuanian, Russian and English versions of the cartoon Snow Postman. The research was based on M. Consten’s conception of direct and indirect reference and the model of visual-verbal cohesion proposed by N. Baumgarten. The study has revealed that in both, Russian and Lithuanian versions of the cartoon, the main character’s dialogues are loaded with deictic expressions which mark the same referents. In this way, the main character is shaped as a dull, forgetful being, unable to store and process a huge amount of information in his head. In the English version, deictic instances are sparsely used, thus the character image is quite different here: the snowman is less absent-minded and fuzzy.

  5. Different aspects of oral health, dental treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life In Lithuanian patients with haemophilia – a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilia is a life-threatening inherited bleeding disorder. A rather common complication occurring in patients with haemophilia is excessive and spontaneous bleeding after dental procedures particularly after tooth extraction. There were no previous Lithuanian studies evaluating different aspects of oral health and its related determinants among haemophilia patients. The present study estimated caries experience, dental treatment experience, unmet dental treatment needs, presence of fu...

  6. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying and the Views of 5-12 Grade Pupils and Teachers on Cyberbullying Prevention in Lithuanian Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldsnes, Dziuginta

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the views of cyberbullying prevention among 5-12 grade pupils and teachers in Lithuanian schools. It defines the concept of cyberbullying in the context of school pupils, and analyses the theoretical grounds for prevention of this form of bullying. The article also presents the results of the survey (which was conducted in 2009-2010) and reveals the views of 2064 pupils of 5 -12 grade and their 1062 teachers towards the prevention of cyberbullying...

  7. Data pertaining to the outbreak of the Lithuanian insurrection (25 March 1831, retrieved from Swedish diplomatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin Ciobanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Similarly to the Polish insurrection of November 1830, the Lithuanian one, occurring in March 1831, retained the attention of the Swedish diplomacy from the very beginning. This was made possible, in the first place, by the fact that the events were connected by a strong link of causality, in the sense that they aimed at severing Poland and Lithuania from the political-institutional system of the Russian Empire and at reconstituting the old one, i.e. the Polish-Lithuanian Union. But the latter’s victory would have first resulted in the radical upheaval of the ratio of forces in North-Eastern Europe, which could have also affected the Swedish-Norwegian political-institutional system, since it was assumed that the Norwegians would not have spared any time in following the Lithuanian and Polish example by denouncing the personal union with Sweden. Moreover, the revolutionary wave sweeping over Europe in 1830 was not one to avoid Sweden. Unlike other areas, the Swedes that opposed King Karol XIV Jan’s government went no further than to criticise it, despite the fact that both the criticism and the programme of the opposition kept increasing in boldness. The Swedish diplomacy therefore approached the issue of the Polish and Lithuanian insurrections from the same perspective, taking particular care to observe their evolution, placing itself in a position of reserveless condemnation of such behaviour. The documents transcribed in the following pages are the diplomatic reports of N. Fr. Palmstjerna, the chargé d’affaires of Sweden in Petersburg, and were selected from the Sveriges Riksarkivet, Kabinettet/UD Huvudarkivet, E2D, 702, the Petersburg fund, 1821, Jan.-iuni. They sometimes contain very detailed information pertaining to the early phase of the Lithuanian insurrection. By introducing them to the academic circuit, we express our hope that they will contribute to the expansion of the research horizon of the history of North

  8. Native grasslands fertilize themselves

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article about Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and how the native soils and plants function to stimulate the system, creating a more productive grassland.

  9. THE NEW APPROACH TO THE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: INTERRELATEDNESS OF INTUITIVE EATING, ADLERIAN LIFESTYLE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG LITHUANIAN FEMALE COMPUTER USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Gaubė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to evaluate the importance of Intuitive Eating for healthy Body Mass Index (BMI in Lithuanian female computer users sample and explore the Adlerian personality attributes that might be related to the Intuitive Eating. Design/methodology/approach – The study consisted of 724 Lithuanian woman with normal or increased BMI who completed online instruments that included the Lithuanian version of the Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Success - Adult form (BASIS-A Inventory, Lithuanian version of Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2 and questions that assessed height, weight, and behavioral variables such as healthy eating and weight controlling activities. Findings – The results indicated the significant negative relation between Intuitive Eating and BMI. Almost all the subscales of Intuitive eating were positively related to healthy eating and negatively to weight controlling behaviour. Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons and Reliance on the Hunger and Satiety feelings were found as more significant in the prognostic model of BMI than healthy eating. Some of the Adlerian personality attributes including Belonging/Social Interest, Going Along, Striving for perfection and Softness were positively related to Intuitive Eating. However two personality attributes including Being Cautious and Harshness had an inverse relation with Intuitive Eating scale. Research limitations/implications – Although the online data collection procedures are supported in the scientific literature, the same study with pen and pencil data collection in groups would increase the possibility to generalize the findings. Men should be included in the research sample too in order to explore the gender differences in relation to Intuitive Eating in Lithuania sample. Moreover the longitudinal study would be of benefit for the possibility to predict the weight change in relation to various behaviours. Practical implications – Intuitive Eating seems to

  10. Native listening: The flexibility dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    The way we listen to spoken language is tailored to the specific benefit of native-language speech input. Listening to speech in non-native languages can be significantly hindered by this native bias. Is it possible to determine the degree to which a listener is listening in a native-like manner? Pr

  11. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces....../teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...... fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively...

  12. Application of an Optimized HPLC Method for the Detection of Various Phenolic Compounds in Apples from Lithuanian Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liaudanskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and HPLC analysis was developed and validated for the detection of phenolic compounds in the samples of different apples from popular Lithuanian cultivars “Aldas,” “Auksis,” “Ligol,” and “Šampion.” The conditions for phenol extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 70% (v/v ethanol, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 20 min at the temperature of 40°C. The HPLC mobile phase consisted of 2% (v/v acetic acid in water and 100% (v/v acetonitrile. Using the HPLC technique, 11 analytes were identified, and their specificity was confirmed: procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, (−-epicatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, and phloridzin. Chlorogenic acid was the major component in “Aldas,” “Auksis,” and “Ligol” and procyanidin B2 in “Šampion.” Hyperoside and avicularin were the dominant compounds of all the identified quercetin derivatives in “Aldas” and “Auksis;” hyperoside in “Šampion;” and quercitrin in “Ligol.” The total content of phenolic compounds varied from 1641.0 ± 47.9 μg/g (cv. “Ligol” to 4291.3 ± 154.2 μg/g (cv. “Aldas”.

  13. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  14. Charleso Dickenso kūrybos recepcija lietuvių literatūros kritikoje (III dalis | The Reception of Charles Dickens in Lithuanian Literary Criticism (Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rudaitytė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although traditionally Dickens has always been regarded by Lithuanian critics and literary scholars as an emblematic English writer, one of the great­est representatives of the Victorian realist novel in England, his writing, however, has been given only cursory treatment in Lithuania, almost never until recently crossing the boundaries of biographical ar­ticles, reviews and notices with a biographical slant scattered in the press, particularly, but not only, dur­ing the early stages of reception. There is no book specifically dedicated to Dickens’s art by Lithuanian literary scholars, no comprehensive, fundamental and completely scholarly investigation of his writing. The critical assessment of Dickens’s writing has generally been coming in the form of reviews and articles dedicated to Dickens, in the form of prefaces and afterwords accompanying the translations of his books. In the inter-war years, Dickens was perceived as the great humanist, romanticist, and critic of the social evils of the Victorian England; he was glori­fied for his Christian ethics and his ‘Christmas phi­losophy’ with the focus on goodness and ‘religion of the heart’, with his cult of fireside tranquility. In the Soviet period, it is important to stress the tremen­dous influence of Marxist and communist ideology on the reception of Dickens who was favoured by the Marxist critics. In his writing they found the suit­able object to dissect using the tools, whatever blunt, of the Marxist approach, which was the only possi­ble method of literary analysis in Soviet times.Thus, during the period of Soviet occupation, Dickens was perceived as a typical representative of the social novel and of critical realism in English literature. His novels were popular because of political and social implications; he was the most translated and celebrated of English authors as providing a critique of capitalist society. This communist and Marxist bias was a crucial factor

  15. COMMUNICATION IN THE BORDERLANDS: LITHUANIAN-LIVONIAN ROAD IN THE XVI CENTURY BASED ON THE PERSONAL ARCHIVE OF THE PRUSSIAN DUKE ALBRECHT OF BRANDENBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. BESSUDNOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a brief historical story about forbidden road leading from Livonia to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16 century. This story is very indicative to assess the political importance of the communication paths between neighboring countries in the context of the series of events that took place in Livonia in the 16 century and eventually led to the loss of its independence. The Case of the Lithuanian road as a clear example of the crisis will be considered through the archive materials of the Prussian Duke Albrecht von Brandenburg (1490-1568, which was the elder brother of the Archbishop of Riga Wilhelm. In addition, in the case of the Lithuanian road shown concernment King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II Augustus, who taking advantage of the internal weakening of Livonia, was looking for the best way to incorporate the Livonian land in his state. History of roads in general, is very little known part of history, despite the quite obvious high economic and political importance of communication paths. This article is aimed to illustrate the high value of one particular road in the political life of the Diocese of Riga. Contradictions, tearing apart Livonia prior to its imminent crash, clearly manifested themselves in the case of forbidden Lithuanian road. Unfortunately, in modern historical science history of the road and related historical subjects do not stand out as independent subjects, and are taken for granted, that puts roads on the periphery of the study, which, of course, is unacceptable for the researcher.

  16. Is Nativism Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Martin D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the empiricism-nativism issue, considering present-day intellectual roots of nativist and empiricist inclinations. A schema is proposed for explaining the ontogenetic origin of an innate attribute or principle relevant to language. An attempt is made to explain the origin of primitives as derived by learning. (Contains…

  17. Non-native seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tussenbroek, B.I.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L.L.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamosiunas Abdonas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008. Results The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.75-3.64; in female OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75, 3.64 as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60 have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.03-1.69, poor self-rated health (among male OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15-2.14 and poor quality of life (in male OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.07-2.61; in female OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.92-4.11 were related to lowered cognitive function. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender.

  19. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Case study: Dairy `AB Kupiskio Pienas`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The dairy `Kupiskio pienas` in Lithuania is a medium size dairy in the Lithuanian scale, but is considered a small dairy in Denmark. An analysis of most energy consuming processes has been carried out. The total consumption of raw milk is aprox. 40,000 tons per year, and 90% is used in milk powder and butter production. The milk powder outcome makes a total of 47 weight percentage of the final products. The average amount of incoming raw milk for each of MD Foods 45 production units in Denmark is 70,000 tons/year, and 15 wt. % of the final product is milk powder. 7 out of the 45 units are separated for different kinds of milk powder production. Kupiskis dairy is characterised by a large consumption of water for cleaning and cooling purposes, by relatively new equipment, and by a significant variation in the production during the year. The heat is supplied from the district heating plant as steam. Heat (GJ/year) 53,000 - Water (m{sup 3}/year) 200,000. Of this, 9,000 GJ/year is used for heating of buildings. The energy target (including heating of buildings) found by Pinch analysis is: Heating demand, Pinch Target (GJ/year) 33,600 - Pinch Target (MJ/ton) 840. Cooling demand, Pinch Target (GJ/year) 800 - Pinch Target (MJ/ton) 20. If the demand for heating of buildings is excluded of the analysis, the key figure will be close to 600 MJ/ton of raw milk. (au)

  20. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Baelum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions.

  1. COMPOSITIONAL PECULIARITIES OF IOHANNES BOBROVSKY’S NOVELS “LEVIN’S MILL”, “LITHUANIAN CLAVIERS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гульнара Тавкильевна Гильфанова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to poetics of I. Bobrovsky’s novels, especially to the analysis of their subject-composite structure. The basic idea is concerned with author’s fiction, which is insistently "introduced" in the history, easy deals with it, reworks its artistically.The aim of the article is identifying of the specifics of literary and imaginative reconstruction of historical events and ideological interpretations of German history in the novels of I.Bobrovsky by analyzing specifications of their composition.Method or the methodology of work: Among research material are I. Bobrovsky’s novels "Levin’s mill", "Lithuanian claviers". Analyzing the texts of works on the researched topic were used comparative-historical and structural methods.Results: Our study suggests that in terms of plot and compositional structure both the Bobrovsky’s novels are challenging for perception, this is especially noticeable comparing novels of I.Bobrovsky with other historical novels, which are mainly characterized by clearly outlined plot, sequence of presentation, as calm as history itself course of the narrative. The actual historical material in his novel is followed by mythological folk elements, notably, in an interesting combination, unusual, almost imperceptible transitions. But all this doesn’t diminish the immensity of his novels, but instead talks about specific ways of Bobrovsky’s special ability to penetrate into and cover large scale of life, hidden depths.Practical implications: The results of our research can be used for lectures on the history of foreign literature of XXth century, in the course "History of German Literature" at faculties and departments of Germanic Philology institutes and universities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-1-12

  2. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists from government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally- appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  3. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2001-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  4. Speech intelligibility of native and non-native speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the talker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to acoustic-phonetic limitations of non-native talkers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have l

  5. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  6. Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NPAM is a framework for guiding annual decisions about the management of Service‐owned native prairie parcels that are prone to invasions by non‐native grasses,...

  7. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  8. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  9. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  10. The features of choosing an institutional development trajectory in Eastern Europe in the 16th—17th centuries: Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economic and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economic theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th—17th centuries. The author emphasizes the factors, which affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralization factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to the research on the property rights and Russian economic history.

  11. The features of choosing an institutional development trajectory in Eastern Europe in the 16th—17th centuries: Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economic and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economic theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th—17th centuries. The author emphasizes the factors, which affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralization factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to the research on the property rights and Russian economic history.

  12. Population-Based Screening for Selective Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Deficiency in Lithuanian Children Using a Rapid Antibody-Based Fingertip Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Vaidotas; Sadauskaite, Jolita; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Kaminskas, Arvydas; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle

    2016-12-06

    BACKGROUND Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common inherited immunodeficiency disorder worldwide. An early diagnosis is advocated because of the increased risk of infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. We investigated the usefulness of a rapid point-of-care test in detecting for IgA deficiency in a population with a previously unknown prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 1000 children aged 11-13 years from randomly selected Lithuanian schools were enrolled. A point-of-care test with a fingertip sample was used to screen for the presence of IgA deficiency in children whose parents gave consent. Those with suspected IgA deficiency were referred to hospital for further clinical examination and confirmation of the diagnosis. In addition, their medical histories were compared with those of 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RESULTS IgA deficiency was suspected in one girl and in three boys on the basis of the rapid test, and the diagnosis was confirmed for all four cases (prevalence 0.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.02%). There was no difference in disease history or complications between IgA-deficient children and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS The rapid antibody test is a practical and accurate method to diagnose selective IgA deficiency in children. The prevalence of IgA deficiency among Lithuanian schoolchildren is 1:250.

  13. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  14. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  15. DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR DIFFERENT IDENTITIES OF PROFESSIONAL ROLES: A SURVEY OF LITHUANIAN DOCTORAL CANDIDATES

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    Kristina Kovalcikiene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the availability of social support can help improve the professional identity of Lithuanian doctoral candidates. This is because the lack of support may be detrimental to progress in doctoral studies and conversely, social support may have a significant impact on professional identity development and expression. Methodology. The data were gathered through internet-based survey questionnaire. The instrument to measure doctoral candidates’ professional identity was developed and used. This instrument (27 items, α = 0.841 measures identity expression of 3 professional roles: researcher (α = 0.801, teacher (α = 0.844 and practician (α = 0.730. Also, social support (12 items, α = 0.740 was measured, the subscales are: supervisor support (α = 0.892, colleagues support (α = 0.819, and family and friends support (α = 0.720. Participants in this study were a sample of doctoral candidates (N = 124. The students represent a wide variety of profiles, ranging from technology and engineering to psychology and other social sciences. Findings. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that in contrast to years of doctoral studies and science (study area, social support has a significance in prediction of doctoral candidates’ professional identity (F = 2.91, p < 0.05. Analysis of the results revealed that researcher’s professional role identity was significantly predicted by supervisor support (p < 0.01 and colleagues support (p < 0.01. Also, colleagues support was a significant predictor of teacher’s professional role identity (p < 0.01, and all kind of social support (overall was a significant predictor of practician’s professional role identity (p < 0.05. Research implications. The outcomes of research can help us understand about how doctoral candidates’ professional identity „works”. Also, findings inevitably inspire new questions that lead to further research. Practical

  16. Attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskauskas, Darius; Gudaitytė, Rima; Kiudulaitė, Inga; Adomaitienė, Virginija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors. RESULTS. Smoking (82.8%), use of illegal drugs (81.0%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (80.6%) were most often indicated as addictive behaviors. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages and computer gaming were least often indicated as addictive behaviors: by 67.2% and 57.1% of respondents, respectively. Less than one-third (32.7%) of respondents answered that they had one or more of potentially addictive behaviors: computer gaming (27.8%), consumption of light alcoholic beverages (24.6%), smoking (16.3%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (12.1%). The most significant difference was observed between the answers of schoolchildren of 5th and 9th grades. Friends (38.4%), TV (37.9%), and Internet (24.6%) were most often mentioned as influencing a wish to try and abstain from addictive behaviors. Fear for one's health (74.4%) and possible impediment for the life (71.4%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for abstaining from addictive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Involvement in potentially addictive behaviors and acknowledgement of their risks were found to increase with the age of schoolchildren, most significantly from 5th to 9th grades. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages was the second most prevalent behavior among respondents, highly noticed in advertising, but least often acknowledged as addictive behavior. TV and Internet were most often mentioned by respondents as mass media influencing their wish to try

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  18. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Analysis, registration and recommendations on the existing Lithuanian gas measuring practice. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is recommended that the Lithuanian Gas Industry considers: (1) To adopt a base temperature (T{sub b}) of 15 deg. C in order to uniform with the European preferable base temperature [cf. clause. 3.1]. (2) To use TC domestic gas meters at outdoor located gas meters and even when the gas meter is located just inside the exterior wall, in order to avoid too large error on the annual volume measured. Such TC meters should comply with EN 1359 clause B.23 (or alternatively the more strictly Danish type approval requirements) [cf. clause 3.2]. (3) To carry out supplementary high pressure calibration on turbine gas meters intended to be used at operating pressures of 3 or 6 bar in order to check if used makes and types are sensible to Reynolds number. If so, it would result in a measuring error at operating pressures higher than as determined by calibration with air at atmospheric pressure [cf. clause 3.3]. Similar tests should be considered for the existing Vortex gas meters. (4) To adopt the Danish legislation on legal metrology on gas meters in absence of a similar Lithuanian one due to its up to date requirements towards the distribution companies [cf. clause 3.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the Danish legislation, at least into English. (5) To adopt the Danish in sevice inspection programme on domestic gas meters and on larger gas meters and gas measuring systems as well as on in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices [cf. clause 3.5.2 - 2.5.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the 3 existing Danish manuals on calibration and in-situ check programmes, at least into English. Another approach would be a visit at HNG by 2-3 people from the Lithuanian Gas Industry in order to get acquainted with the Danish practice on laboratory calibration and in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices. However, it should be noticed that in-situ check measuring

  19. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  20. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  1. Physical activity, but not dietary intake, attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkeviciene, J; Smalinskiene, A; Klumbiene, J; Petkevicius, V; Kriaucioniene, V; Lesauskaite, V

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variant with obesity and metabolic syndrome and interactions between FTO alleles, dietary intake and physical activity in Lithuanian adult population. Cross-sectional study. A health survey was carried out in randomly selected municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from the lists of 25-64 year-old inhabitants. The data from 1020 individuals were analyzed. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs9939609, in the FTO gene was assessed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Information on physical activity at work, traveling to and from work and at leisure time was gathered by a standard questionnaire. The carriers of the AA genotype had the highest mean values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). They had 1.72 time higher odds of obesity (P = 0.009) and 1.67 time higher odds of increased WC (P = 0.013) than those with the TT genotype. Carriers of the T allele had lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to carriers of the AA genotype (33.8% and 42.5% respectively; P = 0.018). No interaction between the rs9939609 variant and energy or dietary intakes on weight status was found. Significant effect of the interactions 'genotype×age' and 'genotype×physical activity' on BMI was demonstrated. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was associated with anthropometric parameters and metabolic syndrome in the younger age group (25-44 years) and in individuals having low level of physical activity. Age and physical activity modulated the effect of the FTO polymorphism on weight status and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES. Methods We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189 from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. Results In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusions Based on the food consumption trends observed in Lithuania, increases in consumption of fruits and vegetables should be promoted, along with a reduction in the intake of less healthy choices, such as soft drinks and high-fat, high-sugar snack foods, by diminishing social inequalities in food consumption.

  3. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  4. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  5. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  6. Coyote's Eyes: Native Cognition Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, Terry

    1982-01-01

    Using a Native American parable, compares the Standard Average European (SAE) world view with the Standard Native American (SNA) world view and the effects they have on education. Points out possible areas of interethnic confusion as a result of these two world views in communication dealing with cognitive schemes. (LC)

  7. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  8. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native ... among American Indians: The mythical and real properties. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18(2):121-143. www. ...

  10. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... the linguicism of British pedagogical expertise are generally involved in native speaker export businesses. They underpin a hierarchy with under-qualified native speakers projected as superior to local teachers who are seen as in need of foreign ‘aid’. In view of the British bodies involved openly declaring...

  12. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  13. Severo-Zapad Rossii: potencial i napravlenija rossijsko-litovskogo sotrudnichestva v sfere nauki i innovacij [The North-West of Russia: the potential and areas of Russian-Lithuanian research and innovation cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the present state and prospects of Russian-Lithuanian cooperation in the field of research and innovation. The author analyses the tendencies of innovation activities of economic entities in the North-West of Russia in terms of relative innovation activity indicators. Special attention is paid to the role of cross-border and trans-border cooperation in the Baltic macroregion as a mechanism of managing the innovative development of regional economy.

  14. PROBLEMS OF CUSTOMS LEGAL REGULATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION, RUSSIA AND CHINA: ANALYSIS OF LITHUANIAN JUDICIAL PRACTICE SINCE 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Valantiejus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the aim of this article is: (i to overview the level of the problems and obstacles of international trade between the Republic of Lithuania, as the EU Member State and the BRICS group of countries (Russia, China according to the case-law of the Republic of Lithuania in disputes relating to customs decisions and actions (for the period from 2010-01-01 to 2015-01-01 and (ii to present proposals for development of the regulatory regime for import customs duties. Design/methodology/approach – analysis of relevant issues is based both on theoretical (analysis and synthesis, systematic and in particular empirical methods (statistical analysis of data, analysis of documents, generalization of professional experience, in particular – practice of the courts of Lithuanian Republic in disputes with customs authorities. The article consists of an introduction, three chapters and conclusions. Findings – for more than ten years (since 2004 the Republic of Lithuania is a member of EU and is realizing its economic and trade relations with other foreign countries, and regulating customs duties according to the requirements of the EU common foreign trade policy (Common Commercial Policy. After accession to the EU, more than 20 percent of Lithuanian foreign trade consisted of trade transactions with the Russian Federation, which, despite of some fluctuations, had an overall trend to grow (increase (Bernatonytė, 2011; Slavickienė A., Jatkūnaitė D, 2006. In addition, from 2009 to 2014 Lithuania consistently increased its foreign trade (both imports and exports with the other country of the rapidly growing economic BRICS region of the world, i.e. China. On the other hand, the analysis on practical problems of the foreign trade with these particular countries which have arisen in Lithuania since 2010, justifies that most legal problems of customs regulation are caused by legal matters relating to the tariff classification of imported goods

  15. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  16. Native grassland inventory and monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Benton Lake refuge has nearly 6,000 acres of native western wheatgrass-green needlegrass prairie uplands. This pilot study was designed to assess the condition of...

  17. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  18. Reminių lietuvių kalbos pagrindinių sakinio dalių perteikimas norvegų kalboje. Norwegian Equivalents to Lithuanian Rhemic Subject and Predicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Griškevičienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Norwegian, like in other analytical languages, the distribution of information in terms of Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP is heavily constrained by the grammatically defined word order, whereas the main means of expression of FSP in written Lithuanian is the word order, which is grammatically unrestricted thus enabling to convey the new information by any sentence part. The aim of this article is to summarise and classify expressions of Norwegian equivalents to the rhemic subject and predicate in the Lithuanian language. The analysis resorts for illustrations to the short story “Gyvenimas po klevu” by Granauskas and its translation into Norwegian.The analysis shows, one of the best ways to shift the rhemic from the usual position at the begin­ning of a sentence in the Norwegian language is by applying the passive voice. The subject can equally be made rhemic by the cleft, presentative construction, the reduplication of a sentence part. The subject rhemisation can happen by replacing it with other sentence parts of the same meaning. To retain the rhemic subject in translation, not only can a word order be reshuffled, but even an extra sentence added to convey new information.In Norwegian, the predicate has a strictly defined second position. Therefore, the rhemic predicate is impossible to indicate by a word order. In Norwegian sentences where new information is presented through the predicate, the position of the predicate is considered rhemic, and no other means to express the rhemic predicated are employed. In translation, the rhemic predicate can be expressed through the nominalization, which facilitates the needed shift. As the empiric material demonstrates, the predicate replacement by any other sentence part is the most frequent way for the rhemisation of the predicate. It is also possible to make verb-for-verb replacement. In certain cases, extra themic elements, helping to shift the focus predicate.The use of lexical means

  19. Suicidal tendencies and attitude towards freedom to choose suicide among Lithuanian schoolchildren: results from three cross-sectional studies in 1994, 1998, and 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal behaviour is increasingly becoming a phenomenon associated with young people and an important public health issue in Lithuania. However, there are very few studies evaluating impact of young peoples' attitudes towards suicide to their suicidal behaviour. A better understanding of the relations among the variables associated with suicidal ideation and threats in the normal population of adolescents may eventually result in a better understanding of the more serious forms of adolescent suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate prevalence of suicidal tendencies among Lithuanian schoolchildren and to estimate its association with an attitude towards suicide in 1994 – 2002. Methods Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13 and 15, were surveyed in 1994 (n = 5428, 1998 (n = 4513, and 2002 (n = 5645 anonymously in conformity with the methodology of the World Health Organization Cross – National study on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC. Results About one third of respondents reported about suicidal ideation, plans or attempts to commit suicide. In the study period of eight years, the percentage of adolescents who reported sometime suicidal ideation decreased but the percentage of adolescents who declared serious suicidal behaviour remained on the same high level (8.1%, 9.8% and 8.4% correspondingly in 1994, 1998 and 2002. Moreover, the number of suicidal attempts changed from 1.0% in 1994 to 1.8% in the year 1998 and to 1,7% in the year 2002. The schoolchildren's attitude towards suicide became more agreeable: 36.6%, 41.9% and 62.5% of respondents, correspondingly in 1994, 1998 and 2002, answered that they agree with a person's freedom to make a choice between life and suicide. A multiple logistic regression analysis with low level of suicidality and high level of suicidality versus non suicidal behaviour as dependent variables for gender, age, year of the

  20. High frequency of the c.3207CA (p.H1069Q) mutation in A TP7B gene of Lithuanian patients with hepatic presentation of Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laimutis Kucinskas; Jolanta Jeroch; Astra Vitkauskiene; Raimundas Sakalauskas; Vitalija Petrenkiene; Vaidutis Kucinskas; Rima Naginiene; Hartmut Schmidt; Limas Kupcinskas

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of the ATP7B gene mutation in patients with hepatic presentation of Wilson's disease (WD) in Lithuania.METHODS: Eleven unrelated Lithuanian families, including 13 WD patients were tested. Clinically WD diagnosis was established in accordance to the Leipzig scoring system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole venous blood using a salt precipitation method. Firstly, the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the c.3207CA (p.H1069Q) mutation. Patients not homozygous for the c.3207CA (p.H1069Q) mutation were further analyzed. The 21 exons of the WD gene were amplified in a thermal cycler (Biometra T3 Thermocycler, G6ttingen, Germany). Direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products was performed by cycle sequencing using fluorescent dye terminators in an automatic sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany).RESULTS: Total of 13 WD patients (mean age 26.4 years; range 17-40; male/female 3/10) presented with hepatic disorders and 16 their first degree relatives (including 12 siblings) were studied. Some of WD patients, in addition to hepatic symptoms, have had extrahepatic disorders (hemolytic anemia 3; Fanconi syndrome 1; neurophsychiatric and behavioural disorder 2). Liver biopsy specimens were available in all of 13 WD patients (8 had cirrhosis; 1-chronic hepatitis; 3-acute liver failure, l-liver steatosis). Twelve of 13 (92.3%) WD patients had the c.3207CA (p.H1069Q) mutation, 6 of them in both chromosomes, 6 were presented as compound heterozygotes with additional c.3472-82delGGTTTAACCAT, c.3402delC, c.3121CT (p.R1041W) or unknown mutations. For one patient with liver cirrhosis and psychiatric disorder (Leipzig score 6), no mutations were found. Out of 16 first degree WD relatives, 11 (68.7%) were heterozygous for the c.3207CA (p.H1069Q) mutation. Two patients with fulminant WD died from acute liver failure and 11 are in full remission under penicillamine or zinc acetate treatment. Three

  1. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  2. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  3. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  4. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  5. Teodicėjiniai motyvai lietuvių literatūroje: universalumas ir specifika | Theodic motifs in Lithuanian literature: the universal and the specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Čiočytė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theodicy is a philosophical and theological attempt to reconcile the traditional divine characteristics of omnibenevolence, omnipotence, and omniscience with the occurrence of evil and suffering in the hu­man and natural world. The contradiction between the omnipotence of God and the evil that exists in the world is the main question of the philosophical reflection of God. The article concentrates upon the complicated term of theodicy and actualizes it in the contexts of literature. Literary theodicy is a form of existential search for God: it is literary thinking about the philosophical possibility and impossibility of God’s existence, about the paradox of God’s love and existential evil, about the justification of God in the face of innocent suffering. The works of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Albert Camus are analyzed as the highlands of literary theodicy. In the theodic thought of Lithuanian literature, three main directions are distinguished. They are (1 interpretation of free will (Kristijonas Donelaitis, Vincas Krėvė and others, (2 linking the nation’s sufferings (occupation, exile with the idea of spiritual growth, and (3 the reflecti­on of the mystery of God (Šatrijos Ragana, Bernar­das Brazdžionis, Antanas Škėma.

  6. Speech Recognition of Non-Native Speech Using Native and Non-Native Acoustic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE ACOUSTIC MODELS David A. van Leeuwen and Rosemary Orr vanLeeuwentm .tno. nl R. 0rr~kno. azn. nl TNO Human Factors Research...a] is pronounced closer to the [c] by the vowels . Journal of Phonetics, 25:437-470, 1997. 32 [2] D. B. Paul and J. M. Baker. The design for [9] R. H...J. Kershaw, [12] Tony Robinson. Private Communication. L. Lamel, D. A. van Leeuwen , D. Pye, A. J. Robinson, H. J. M. Steeneken, and P. C. Wood- [13

  7. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  8. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  9. Native Art of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides historical information on native Southwest peoples and their arts to encourage appreciation and understanding of this cultural heritage. Provides instructions and supply lists for age-appropriate craft projects including woven baskets and rugs, clay pots, clay and paper beads, silver bracelets, kachina dolls, sand paintings, dream…

  10. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., traditional languages spoken by Native Americans, consistent with section 103 of the Native American Languages... methods of evaluation will provide performance feedback and permit periodic assessment of progress...

  11. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  12. Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162979.html Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication Kidney failure down by 54 percent over 2 ... Failure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Complications Kidney Failure Native American Health About MedlinePlus Site ...

  13. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  14. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  15. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  16. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  17. Are Family, Neighbourhood and School Social Capital Associated with Psychological Distress Among Lithuanian High-School Students? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Novak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between family, neighborhood and school social capital with psychological distress among Lithuanian adolescents 14-18 years of age. Participants were 1863 high-school students (51.4% females, aged 14-18 years in the 2015/2016 school year. Psychological distress was dependent, while social capital domains independent variables. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of family, neighborhood and school social capital on the risk of high psychological distress. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler-6 scale. Adjusting for gender, body mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, self-rated health and physical activity, high family social capital (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.50, high neighborhood trust (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.63, high vertical school trust (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, high horizontal school trust (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.00 and reciprocity at school (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.74 was each associated with lower odds of psychological distress. When all independent variables were entered simultaneously, high family social capital, high neighborhood trust, high vertical school trust and reciprocity at school remained associated with lower odds of psychological distress. Since family, neighborhood and school social capital were inversely associated with psychological distress, strategies and policies that improve mutual support between the community and children must be implemented within the system.

  18. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... as a realistic plant community with an attractive, low habit and beautiful colors. Phyteuma spicatum is an attractive, novel species for a shady garden site.......Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... maritima were found suitable for cultivation in wholesale-containers and applicable for dry, sunny conditions in gardens. On the other hand, Narthecium ossifragum, Pulsatilla palustris, Drosera rotundifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Eriophorum angustifolium and Sphagnum sp. were cultivated and planted...

  19. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  20. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  1. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  2. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andringa; N. Olsthoorn; C. van Beuningen; R. Schoonen; J. Hulstijn

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation mo

  3. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation in Native/Non-native Speaker English Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Examines a form of other-initiated conversational repair that is delayed within next turn position, a form that is produced by non-native speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Using the framework of conversational analysis, shows that in native/non-native conversation, other-initiated repair is not always done as early as possible…

  4. Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Bradlow, Ann R

    2009-10-01

    Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance.

  5. Autoriaus pozicijos švelninimas: tarpdalykiniai ir tarpkalbiniai raiškos priemonių ypatumai. Hedging in Lithuanian and English research articles: a cross – disciplinary and cross – linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šinkūnienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedging is a linguistic strategy frequently employed in scientific writing to diminish the author‘s commitment to the accompanying proposition and to mitigate claims, thus presenting a proposition as a possibility or probability rather than a fact. This article describes the results of a pilot study on the frequency and variety of hedging devices in Lithuanian and English research articles in two different disciplines (linguistics and medicine. The study is limited to lexical hedges only. The results of a cross – disciplinary study demonstrate that in the field of medicine, researchers tend to hedge less and hence are much more determined in their claims than linguists in both languages. The cross – linguistic study shows that English speaking researchers seem to use significantly more hedging devices than their Li­thuanian speaking colleagues in both disciplines. The variety of hedges used in English was also wider than in Lithuanian. Most frequently used hedges in both languages in linguistic articles were adverbs, whereas in medical articles it was modal verbs.

  6. Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Walkinshaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The English language teaching industry in East and Southeast Asia subscribes to an assumption that native English-speaking teachers (NESTs are the gold standard of spoken and written language, whereas non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs are inferior educators because they lack this innate linguistic skill. But does this premise correspond with the views of second language learners? This article reports on research carried out with university students in Vietnam and Japan exploring the advantages and disadvantages of learning English from NESTs and non-NESTs. Contrary to the above notion, our research illuminated a number of perceived advantages—and disadvantages—in both types of teachers. Students viewed NESTs as models of pronunciation and correct language use, as well as being repositories of cultural knowledge, but they also found NESTs poor at explaining grammar, and their different cultures created tension. Non-NESTs were perceived as good teachers of grammar, and had the ability to resort to the students’ first language when necessary. Students found classroom interaction with non-NESTs easier because of their shared culture. Non-NESTs’ pronunciation was often deemed inferior to that of NESTs, but also easier to comprehend. Some respondents advocated learning from both types of teachers, depending on learners’ proficiency and the skill being taught.

  7. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  8. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  9. Encrusted pyelitis of native kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, A; Duvic, C; Chretien, Y; Jungers, P; Grünfeld, J P; Rieu, P

    2000-06-01

    This study reports the first four cases of encrusted pyelitis involving native kidneys. The clinical features, management, and outcome of these patients were analyzed. Predisposing factors were underlying urologic disease and/or urologic manipulations, debilitating diseases, hospitalization, and prolonged antibiotic therapies. Presenting symptoms were renal failure in three patients with ureteroileal urinary diversion and manifestations of cystitis in one patient. Computed tomography scan of the urinary tract was critical for diagnosis. Presence of struvite was demonstrated by crystalluria and infrared spectrophotometry analysis of the encrusted material. Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary infection was identified in one case. Surgery (one patient) and palliative ureteral diversion (one patient), respectively, led to death and end-stage renal failure. Successful dissolution of encrusted pyelitis was obtained in two patients treated with intravenous vancomycin and local acidification of the renal collecting system. Clinical observation shows that encrusted pyelitis is a threatening disorder that destroys the native kidneys and may lead to end-stage renal failure. Successful treatment of the disease by chemolysis and antibiotics depends on correct and early diagnosis. Diagnosis required recognition of the predisposing factors, computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract, crystalluria, and identification of urea-splitting bacteria with prolonged culture on selective medium.

  10. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  11. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  12. Sakralaus ir demoniško miesto vaizdiniai lietuvių dramaturgijoje | The Images of a Sacral and Demonic City in Lithuanian Dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Martišiūtė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the dramas where the city is depicted as a special place determining the dramatization of a piece of work. The city symbolism is analyzed according to the criteria of the archetypal city images formulated by M. Eliade, and J. Lotman. The first part of the article ”A sacral city – Vilnius” deals with historical dramas (“Gediminas’ Dream” by A. Fromas Gužutis, “Kęstutis’ Death” by Maironis, “Radvila the Thunder”, “The Fate of Twilight ”, and “Barbora Radvilaite” by B. Sruoga, “Živilė” by A. Škėma, “Barbora Radvilaitė” by J. Grušas, “The Cathedral” by J. Marcinkevičius, “The Crown and the Sand” by R. Samulevičius, and etc.. In Lithuanian dramaturgy, Vilnius meets all the criteria of an ideal, sacred city. In poetic dramas, Vilnius is described as a superb creation embodying the plenitude of human existence. The second part of the article “The Demonic City” deals with the dramas in which the city symbolism conveys the opposite of a sacred, ideal city – an eccentric and demonic city localized in the “outskirts” of cultural space. This aspect of the city symbolism is analyzed in separate subsections: “The Doomed City” (“The Sea Bells” by Vydūnas, and “The Shackles” by M. Pečkauskaitė, “The Profane City” (the comedy “Vain Attempts” by P. Vaičiūnas, “Julijana” by A. Škėma, “A Spring Song” by B. Sruoga, “The Mammoth Hunt” by K. Saja and etc., “The Reflections of Identity” (“Liučė is skating” by L. S. Černiauskaitė, “A Neighbour”, “Madagascar”, and “A Close City” by M. Ivaškevičius.

  13. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  14. Immigration, education and native wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpe, Christian; Weigert, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market prospects for different skill groups among natives. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions of natives. We argue that the distributional consequences of immigration with respect to native between-skill-group inequality are ambiguous in general and crucially depend on the host country's level of educational attainment. We show that this result is robust irrespective...

  15. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  16. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  17. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea Economics – Instrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses problems of cluster’s formation in Lithuania. The reasons why clusters in Lithuania are evolving slowly are described in this article. Also cluster’s development process in a logical sequence is submitted. The article accented that the Lithuanian cluster’s policy principles should assess the specific Lithuanian conditions, the positive foreign experience and strategic objectives of competitiveness.Lithuanian status of fisheries sector is estimated. Also the main problems in this sector are named: complexity of management, decreasing of fishing quota, shorter season of cod fishing, economic problems. The article made assumptions that the clustering process should ensure more sustainable development of the sector, a new operational quality creating the ability to compete at lower prices and innovation. Also it was emphasized that clustering processes should assess such factors as: sector’s culture, competitive opportunities and sustainable development of the region.During formation of this cluster it is recommended to assess the fisheries sector as the component of Lithuanian maritime economy. Lithuanian maritime cluster should be developed allowing for common features inherent in clusters, assessing sustainable development principles of the sector. In this way Lithuanian maritime cluster combines not only the fisheries sector but also the activities characterized by Lithuanian maritime economy.

    Keywords: cluster, sea economics, regional development, fisheries sector.

    Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep.

  18. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  19. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  1. Speaking C++ as a native

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroustrup, Bjarne

    2001-08-01

    C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.

  2. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  3. The cases of non-equivalence between English and Lithuanian: a corpus based solution. Ekvivalentiškumo nebuvimo problemos ir jų sprendimai anglų ir lietuvių kalbose pasitelkiant tekstynų tyrimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Cvilikaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Šiame straipsnyje pristatomas leksinių ertmių reiškinys bei jo potipis – morfologinės ertmės. Morfologinių ertmių, kurios atsiranda dėl tam tikrų dviejų kalbų derivacijos potencialų skirtumų (šiame straipsnyje – neigiamos reikšmės perteikimas priešdėlių pagalba anglų ir lietuvių kalbose, analizė parodė, kaip tokia morfologinio pobūdžio sąvokų leksikalizacijos stoka įtakoja vertimą, t. y. domėtasi, kaip morfologinės ertmės perteikiamos vertimo kalboje. Straipsnyje pirmiausia aptariami vertimo atvejai dvikalbiame anglų–lietuvių kalbų žodyne. Pastebėta, kad tokiais atvejais dažniausiai vartojami vertimo metodai yra vertimas sinonimų grupe bei aprašomasis vertimas. Aptariamos su tokiu reikšmės perteikimu susijusios problemos. Žodynų vertimai palyginti su vertimais tekstuose, kurie gauti pasitelkus Lygiagretųjį anglų – lietuvių kalbų tekstyną. Tokių dviejų šaltinių vertimų palyginimas užbaigiamas diskusija apie išplėstinio vertimo vieneto sąvoką ir tekstynų medžiagos panaudojimą vertime bei šiuolaikinėje leksikografijoje. ----- Machine translation systems, machine-readable dictionaries or other computer-oriented electronic lexical resources present a challenging task in the case of the Lithuanian language. Many of them are related to the problem of non-equivalence resulting from cultural and systemic differences and thus existing on various levels of a language – lexical, morphological and syntactic. This paper focuses on instances of non-equivalence between Lithuanian and English on the morphologicallevel. More specifically, the resolution of non-equivalence problems caused by morphological gaps between English and Lithuanian is investigated. Morphological gaps represent a type of lexicalgaps, which are understood as lack of direct lexicalisation for a certain concept.

  4. Influence of native and non-native multitalker babble on speech recognition in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess speech recognition in noise using multitalker babble of native and non-native language at two different signal to noise ratios. The speech recognition in noise was assessed on 60 participants (18 to 30 years with normal hearing sensitivity, having Malayalam and Kannada as their native language. For this purpose, 6 and 10 multitalker babble were generated in Kannada and Malayalam language. Speech recognition was assessed for native listeners of both the languages in the presence of native and nonnative multitalker babble. Results showed that the speech recognition in noise was significantly higher for 0 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR compared to -3 dB SNR for both the languages. Performance of Kannada Listeners was significantly higher in the presence of native (Kannada babble compared to non-native babble (Malayalam. However, this was not same with the Malayalam listeners wherein they performed equally well with native (Malayalam as well as non-native babble (Kannada. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using native multitalker babble for Kannada listeners in lieu of non-native babble and, considering the importance of each SNR for estimating speech recognition in noise scores. Further research is needed to assess speech recognition in Malayalam listeners in the presence of other non-native backgrounds of various types.

  5. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  6. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The syllable

  7. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  8. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  9. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  10. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The

  11. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Olmstead

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  12. Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    High school and college teachers interested in offering units or courses on Native American literature have often had to carve out new teaching strategies because ready resources and guides are scarce. In "Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide," Bruce A. Goebel offers innovative and practical suggestions about how to introduce…

  13. Support for Native Americans with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wylie; Rife, Christine

    This report addresses the high incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) among Native Americans and suggests that there is a lack of comprehensive effort to provide outreach services to the Native American population in Illinois. The report begins with an overview of American Indian history and the migration of…

  14. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  15. The Native Speaker: Membership Has Its Privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskin, H. Jay

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. In her essay, Kramsch forcefully argues against the native speaker construct and exhorts teachers and learners not to abandon their unique…

  16. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  18. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  19. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  20. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  1. Substance Abuse among Native-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncher, Michael S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews social epidemiological data on substance abuse among Native American youth and discusses culturally relevant etiological factors. Highlights strategies for identification of high-risk youth, concentrating on theoretical and methodological aspects appropriate for Native American populations. Issues of sensitive technology transfer and…

  2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus causing native valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño, Eugenio; Márquez, Irene; Beteta, Alicia; Said, Ibrahim; Blanco, Javier; Pineda, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci are a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen, and most of the cases reported are urinary tract infections. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis attributed to this organism. The patient needed valve replacement due to heart failure.

  3. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  4. An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Damron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.

  5. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  6. Nativization processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, B K

    2001-10-01

    The artificial language Esperanto is spoken not only as a second language, by its proponents, but also as a native language by children of some of those proponents. The present study is a preliminary description of some characteristics of the Native Esperanto (NE) of eight speakers, ranging in age from six to fourteen years. As such, it is the first of its kind--previous works on NE are either theoretical treatises or individual case studies. We find, at least for the eight subjects studied, both bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of the tense/aspect system, and pronominal cliticization. The theoretical ramifications are discussed, particularly with regard to universals of language acquisition and the effects of expressive requirements of language.

  7. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  8. Native Generations: A campaign addressing infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutman, Shira; Loughran, Julie; Tanner, Leah; Randall, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality (IM) among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in urban areas. Campaign development included reviews of literature and previous campaigns, an advisory council, and focus groups. Campaign messages are strength-based, encouraging AI/AN caregivers to utilize available Native-specific resources, including health care, support services, and programming as IM protective factors. The primary campaign material is an 11-minute video. Pilot survey data indicate the video may help increase awareness of IM and Native-specific resources, and increase connection to Native identity, culture, and community.

  9. Multilingualism in Lithuanian cities. Daugiakalbystė Lietuvos miestuose: namų kalbų apklausos Vilniuje, Kaune ir Klaipėdoje tikslai ir rezultatai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Extra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the experience gained from the Multilingual Cities Project, carried out in 6 Western European multicultural cities (Extra & Yağmur 2004, a home language survey was carried out at almost all primary schools in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The total sample consists of almost 24,000 pupils, most of them in the age range of 8-10 years old. After an introduction to the aims of the project, the design of the questionnaire and the collection, processing and analysis of the resulting data, information will be provided on the size and composition of the sample and the distribution of reported home languages. The top-9 of reported languages contains the vast majority of all home languages referred to, i.e., Lithuanian, Russian, English, Polish, German, Belarusian, French, Ukrainian, and Latvian. For these 9 languages groups, crosslinguistic perspectives will be offered on language profiles and language vitality in terms of reported language proficiency, language choice, language dominance, and language preference. Pseudolongitudinal perspectives will be offered for each of these four dimensions in the age range of 8-10 years old.                 Straipsnyje analizuojami namų kalbų plataus masto apklausos, 2008 metais atliktos Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos miestų mokyklų pradinėse klasėse, duomenys. Apklausa rėmėsi šešiuose Vakarų Europos miestuose atlikto Daugiakalbių miestų projekto (Multilingual Cities Project patirtimi ir metodologiniais principais. Trijų didžiųjų Lietuvos miestų apklausos imtį sudarė beveik 24 tūkstančiai 8-10 metų amžiaus respondentų. Buvo apklausti 98 % Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos II-IV klasių moksleivių. Sukaupti gausūs kiekybiniai duomenys apdoroti Tilburgo universiteto (Nyderlandai mokslininkų parengta specialia kompiuterine programa ir ten esančia įranga, pritaikyta greitam duomenų skenavimui, tikrinimui ir apdorojimui.Straipsnyje pristatomi namų kalbų analiz

  10. Native bees and plant pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  11. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  12. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  13. Lithuanians to trade kilowatts online

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu elektritootja teatas, et 2005. aasta lõpuks valmib ettevõttel elektrisüsteem, mille kaudu saab elektrienergiat müüa nii Eestisse kui ka Lätti. Leedu Energia koostööprojektidest teiste riikidega

  14. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  15. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross

    1975-01-01

    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  16. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  17. Management Recommendations: Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management recommendations are a product of the decision support tool for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The provides tall and mixed grass management...

  18. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  19. 75 FR 8105 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Native Claims Settlement Act will be issued to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc., Successor in Interest to... these lands will also be conveyed to NANA Regional Corporation, Inc. when the surface estate is...

  20. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross

    1975-01-01

    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  1. Decision Policy: Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A decision support for the Native Adaptive Management Program (NPAM). The documents provide tall and mixed grass decision policies in relation to the management...

  2. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  3. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  4. Multiple conformations of proteins in native state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Examples of protein sequences that can adopt multiple native states are recently accumulated. Characterization of the protein multiple conformations will have important implications for our understanding of the relationship between structure and function, and their folding kinetics. In present review, the experimental evidence for the existence of multiple conformations in the native state of proteins, the molecular basis and the biological significance of multiple conformations of proteins are focused.

  5. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  6. Functional characterization on native starch of Peruvian native potatoes (Solanum phureja)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, P.; Málaga, A.; Betalleluz, I.; Ibarz, A; C. Velezmoro

    2015-01-01

    There are many varieties of native potatoes grown in different regions of Peru, usually for farmers´ consumption. However, the possibility of a commercial use has led this work in order to give them added value. To evaluate the possibility of use of native starch from these potatoes, as an ingredient in the food industry, it was presented as objective to determine the physicochemical, functional and viscoelastic native potato starches obtained from Pampacorral properties (Cuzco, Peru): Puka A...

  7. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  8. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clare; Trompelt, Helena; Felser, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalize to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called "short-distance pronouns"), the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  9. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  10. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  11. Vyryvajas' iz objatij politiki. Issledovanie kul'tur vospominanija kak sposob pooshhrenija istoricheskogo dialoga v litovsko-rossijskih otnoshenijah [An escape from the embrace of politics. A study into the cultures of remembrance as a means to encourage a historical dialogue in Lithuanian-Russian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronovas Vasilijus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the factors inhibiting a productive rethinking of the past in contemporary Lithuanian-Russian relations. The rethinking of the past is understood as a process facilitating the reconsideration of historical meanings through adjusting them to the expectations and values of the contemporary society. The author argues that in this process historical research — as an important tool for encouraging the co-existence of communities —should fulfil certain social functions. Having chosen the Lithuanian-Russian communication space as a case, the author emphasizes the need to develop an interest in mutual knowledge of cultures of remembrance in this space. Outlining the strategies specific to the prevailing cultures of remembrance in contemporary Russia and Lithuania, the author addresses the issue of their proper relationship, as well as that of the appropriateness of historical policy. The criminalisation of certain evaluations of the past and the academic dialogue between historians are regarded as two opposite extremes of historical policy actually existing in the Lithuanian-Russian communication space. The author stresses that research into the values and interpretations of the past peculiar to certain social groups in both Lithuania and Russia may be considered as a basis for further development of the historical dialogue. It is assumed that such research may contribute to the improvement in the field of politics of history.

  12. Gifted Native American Students: Underperforming, Under-Identified, and Overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Marcia; Fugate, C. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited focus among researchers on the nature and needs of gifted Native American students in the past 30 years, and the work that has been done frequently generalizes findings across Native American cultures. This article reviews recent literature on Native American youth and on gifted Native American students; examines the current…

  13. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross...

  14. 20 CFR 632.11 - Designation of Native American grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of Native American grantees. 632... INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Designation Procedures for Native American Grantees § 632.11 Designation of Native American grantees. (a) When designations are required and...

  15. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  16. An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, A J; Holland, O J; McDonald, R A; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2015-05-01

    Invasive, non-native species are one of the major causes of global biodiversity loss. Although they are, by definition, successful in their non-native range, their populations generally show major reductions in their genetic diversity during the demographic bottleneck they experience during colonization. By investigating the mitochondrial genetic diversity of an invasive non-native species, the stoat Mustela erminea, in New Zealand and comparing it to diversity in the species' native range in Great Britain, we reveal the opposite effect. We demonstrate that the New Zealand stoat population contains four mitochondrial haplotypes that have not been found in the native range. Stoats in Britain rely heavily on introduced rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus as their primary prey and were introduced to New Zealand in a misguided attempt at biological control of rabbits, which had also been introduced there. While invasive stoats have since decimated the New Zealand avifauna, native stoat populations were themselves decimated by the introduction to Britain of Myxoma virus as a control measure for rabbits. We highlight the irony that while introduced species (rabbits) and subsequent biocontrol (myxomatosis) have caused population crashes of native stoats, invasive stoats in New Zealand, which were also introduced for biological control, now contain more genetic haplotypes than their most likely native source. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Corpus-Based Study of Adverbial Connectors in Native and Non-native Students’ Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WANG, Yan-jun; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    , this paper firstly makes a comparison to the usage of adverbial connectors in their writings of the native students and non-native students and then exposes a distinctive gap between these two types of writings in usage of adverbial connectors. In order to help Chinese second-language learners acquire...

  18. Patterns of English phoneme confusions by native and non-native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Weber, A.C.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2004-01-01

    Native American English and non-native (Dutch) listeners identified either the consonant or the vowel in all possible American English CV and VC syllables. The syllables were embedded in multispeaker babble at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, 8, and 16 dB). The phoneme identification performance of

  19. No More Mad-Dog Concept Nativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Japola DesVergnes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Jerry Fodor, there are two possibilities with respect to the origin of concepts: a concept is either innate, or it is acquired from experience by means of the process of ‘concept learning.’ Fodor’s view in his 1975 and 1980 is that the empiricist method of concept acquisition, forming and testing hypotheses about objects that fall under a concept, can only work for complex concepts. He claims that we must possess some concepts in order to form hypotheses, so none of our simple (or primitive concepts can be learned. If we have them—then they must be innate. In his 2008 Fodor contends furthermore that no new concepts at all, neither primitive, nor complex, can be learned, and so that all concepts must be innate. I argue that Fodor’s famous mad-dog concept nativism should be rejected because it could only work together with what I call neural nativism, and the latter turns out to be scientifically untenable. In addition, I suggest that one’s position in the empiricism/nativism debate should be a function of one’s account of the architecture of the mind, which, in Fodor’s case, only implies architectural nativism, and so, the existence of innate mechanisms. It neither obviously requires, nor precludes, representational—or concept—nativism.

  20. Diabetic retinopathy in native and non-native Sarawakians--findings from the Diabetic Eye Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallika, P S; Aziz, S; Goh, P P; Lee, P Y; Cheah, W L; Chong, M S; Tan, A K

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among natives and non-natives Sarawakians who were seen at 3 public hospitals and one health clinic in Sarawak. It is a cross sectional study where data on patients with DM were collected by staff at these healthcare facilities and entered into the web-based Diabetic Eye Registry. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine the association factors for DR. DR was significantly less associated with natives (24.4%) compared to non-native Sarawakians (34.1%) (p < 0.001). The odds of getting DR was higher in patients whose duration of DM was more than 20 years (OR = 2.6), who have renal impairment (OR = 1.7) and non-natives (OR = 1.4).

  1. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  2. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  3. Managing the Sacred Lands of Native America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne T. Ornelas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is a review of ten years of sacred lands management and policy in the United States. The author reports from the unique position of having been involved in national and international meetings with communities of indigenous peoples and intergovernmental stakeholders during this time. Discussion includesan historical overview of such topics as environmental justice and the 2001 Native American Sacred Lands Forum, one of the first national meetings in the United States to specifically address the sacred lands of Native Americans. Further discussion draws attention to the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 as a gateway to better sacred lands management and policy for Native Americans in the future.

  4. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  5. Native Darag Chicken Menu Variations: Its Acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.

  6. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  7. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  8. The vowel inherent spectral change of English vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.

  9. Overview of Native-speaker English Teacher Versus Non-native-speaker English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xu

    2015-01-01

    As much more non-native-speaker English teachers teach alongside native-speaker English teachers, either in China or any other non-English-speaking country, research on the differences between native-speaker English teacher and non-na⁃tive-speaker English teacher is necessary. This paper offers an overview of such difference between the two groups of English teachers in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, teaching styles and approaches. The conclusion suggests that cooperation and communication be emphsised and that the two groups of teachers communicate more and exchange their ideas on how to teach the same group of students more effectively.

  10. On the Normative Evaluation and Presentation of Some Phenomena in Lithuanian Syntax: Cases of the Prepositional Construction tikėti į ką (Believe in sb. and Attributive Locative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Valskys

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of issues concerning the relationship of the prepositional construction tikėti į ką (“believe in sb.” and the attributive locative with the codified language norm. On the basis of the polemic and insights by some linguists and theologists as well as the data of contemporary usage, it is argued in the article whether the phrase tikėti į Dievą (“believe in God” should reasonably be treated as a translation loanword, whether it does not possess distinctive semantics typical of the Christian discourse, due to which such a prepositional construction should rather be acknowledged as variant of the norm in Standard Lithuanian. The article also contains a discussion on some cases of expressing an attribute using the locative case, as they also have a nuance of location. Therefore, a question is raised whether they are reasonably attributed to syntactic phenomena that should be avoided in standard language.

  11. Native Americans with Disabilities: Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Deborah J.; Eadens, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    This correlation study examined relationships between special education and standardized testing variables of 100 Arizona secondary school districts with Native American populations, and the archival records for postsecondary outcomes between 2012 and 2014 of students with disabilities, using archival data collected by the Arizona Department of…

  12. 50 CFR 216.23 - Native exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without a permit, if such taking is: (1) By Alaskan Natives who reside in Alaska for subsistence, or (2... complete, true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. I understand that this information is... (including illegal takings and net entanglements but excluding all legally harvested whales) and all...

  13. Nativization, Linguistic Theory, and Deaf Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul; Goodhart, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Considers the acquisition of language by deaf children of deaf parents and by deaf children of hearing parents in the light of such linguistic theories as Andersen's "nativization-denativization" and Bickerton's "bioprograms." Findings both support the theories and bring to light complexities that the theories do not exactly explain. (SED)

  14. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  15. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  16. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  17. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  18. Interpreting Native American Literature: An Archetypal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Mando

    1986-01-01

    Compares two approaches to discussing Indian literature and religion. Demonstrates Jungian archetypal approach as transcultural method of analyzing Indian literature. Relates and analyzes Hopi traditional story. Emphasizes accessibility of Native American literature to the non-Indian while supporting multicultural plurality of interpretations.…

  19. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  20. Digital Natives: Where Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen Johanna; Eynon, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Generational differences are seen as the cause of wide shifts in our ability to engage with technologies and the concept of the digital native has gained popularity in certain areas of policy and practice. This paper provides evidence, through the analysis of a nationally representative survey in the UK, that generation is only one of the…

  1. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  2. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  3. Nativism Does Not Equal Universal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Quintero, Kate

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on nativist theories of language learning and how they apply to second-language acquisition (SLA). The article is seeking a nativism that goes beyond the scope of Universal Grammar and explains the human cognitive capacity for language learning, the learning of all language structures found in natural languages, and SLA. (95 references)…

  4. Two Native American Near-Death Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses two tales of near-death experiences from the Chippewas in Michigan during the 1820s with reference to local origin, influence of White American culture, and universality. One tale has autoscopic, specifically Native American elements while the other contains elements of the transcendental type. (Author/NRB)

  5. Native American Rights Fund: 1982 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native American Rights Fund, Boulder, CO.

    The 1982 annual report of the Native American Rights Fund (NARF), a non-profit organization specializing in the protection of Indian rights, explains the organization, its structure, its priorities, its activities, and its financial status. Opening statements by the chairman, Roger Jim, and the executive director, John Echohawk, note that despite…

  6. THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  7. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  8. American Indian-Alaska Native Youth Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 13,454 rural Native American adolescents. Found 2 percent reported poor physical health and high rates of health-compromising behaviors, which were significantly correlated with physical or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and poor nutrition. Academic risk was strongly associated with physical,…

  9. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  10. Native Culture Issues in Cross-cultural Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万欣

    2012-01-01

      The bi-direction of cross-cultural communication determines culture teaching should include both target culture and native culture. Currently, however, mere emphasis of target culture with ignoring native culture has resulted in“two-skin”phenomenon and“aphasia of Chinese culture”. Therefore, this paper aims to underline native culture teaching, to explore proper techniques for native culture teaching, to achieve integration of target culture and native culture, to enhance students’expressive competence in native culture and finally to carry out effective cross-cultural communication.

  11. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Carlton, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  12. Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern California Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem. PMID:25379790

  13. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  14. Phenotypic traits variation among native diploid, native tetraploid and invasive tetraploid Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monty, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Senecio inaequidens DC. is a rapidly spreading plant invader in Europe. In its native range, it occurs at two co-existing diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. To date, only tetraploids are reported in Europe, even though invasive diploids were recorded in other parts of the world. We compared native diploid and both native and invasive tetraploid populations in common gardens in Europe for a suite of life history traits. Diploids were able to develop, showed high biomass production and produced more flower heads than tetraploids. In contrast, winter survival was null for diploids. It was low for native tetraploids, but reached 40% in invasive tetraploids. Results suggested that diploid cytotype tends to an annual life form when grown in Western Europe, with earlier and more abundant flowering. In contrast, the tetraploid cytotype was mainly perennial which may enhance its invasiveness.

  15. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...

  16. Trophic consequences of non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus for native pond fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Copp, G. H.; Britton, J R; Guo, Z.; Edmonds-Brown, V; Pegg, Josie; L. VILIZZI; Davison, P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduced non-native fishes can cause considerable adverse impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a North American centrarchid, is one of the most widely distributed non-native fishes in Europe, having established self-sustaining populations in at least 28 countries, including the U.K. where it is predicted to become invasive under warmer climate conditions. To predict the consequences of increased invasiveness, a field experiment was completed over a summer peri...

  17. Increased Abundance of Native and Non-Native Spiders With Habitat Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Douglas T.; Beard, Karen H.; Suarez, Andrew; Case, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasive species often contribute to the decline of native taxa. Since the penetration of non-native species into natural habitat may be facilitated by habitat fragmentation, it is important to examine how these two factors interact. Previous research documented that, in contrast to most other arthropod taxa, spiders increased in density and morphospecies richness with decreasing fragment area and increasing fragment age (time since insularization) in urban habitat f...

  18. Food sources of dominant macrozoobenthos between native and non-native mangrove forests: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Yan, Ting; Xiong, Yiyi; Zhang, Yihui; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-03-01

    The macrozoobenthos is an important link of the food web in coastal wetlands. Diet-habitat relationships may significantly depend on qualitative differences and seasonal availability of food sources. Increasing interest has been shown in food web structure altered by non-native plants. In particular, however, a non-native mangrove species from Bangladesh, Sonneratia apetala, has been widely planted in China, but little is known about its possible impact on food sources of macrozoobenthos living in these non-native mangrove forests. Therefore, in this study, we used fatty acid analysis to compare the food sources of one littorinid snail and two grapsid crab species between two native mangrove forests and one non-native S. apetala plantation in the Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve of China. We found that the sediment of all three forests had high diatom and bacteria signals, but low mangrove leaf signals, while the opposite patterns were detected in the three macrozoobenthos. Specifically, the gastropod Littoraria melanostoma relied mainly on mangrove leaves and brown algae as food sources, with significant differences among the three mangrove forests, and showed significant seasonal variation in its diet. The grapsidae species (Perisesarma bidens and Parasesarma plicatum) mainly grazed on mangrove litter, brown and green algae, and occasionally consumed diatoms and bacteria, also showing significant seasonal variation in their diet. Overall, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the fatty acid profiles showed a significant overlapping in food sources among the macrozoobenthos living in the non-native and native mangrove forests, but significant seasonal variations in their food sources. This suggests that the planting of non-native S. apetala near original mangrove forests has had little effect on the feeding behavior of macrozoobenthos some 10 years after planting.

  19. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Facts Heart Disease is the first and stroke ...

  20. 36 CFR 51.83 - Sale of Native Handicrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes any person so defined either or both of whose adoptive parents are not Alaska Natives. It also... whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, was) regarded as an Alaska Native by any village or...

  1. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/ ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times ...

  2. Non-native speech perception in adverse conditions: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lecumberri, M.L.; Cooke, M.P.; Cutler, A.

    2010-01-01

    If listening in adverse conditions is hard, then listening in a foreign language is doubly so: non-native listeners have to cope with both imperfect signals and imperfect knowledge. Comparison of native and non-native listener performance in speech-in-noise tasks helps to clarify the role of prior l

  3. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... marred by violence and tragic mistreatment. For centuries, Native Americans faced cruelty, injustice, and... opportunities for Native American students. It aims to preserve Native languages, cultures, and histories while offering a competitive education that prepares young people to succeed in college and careers. And...

  4. Recruitment of Native American Parents: Ideas for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodluck, Charlotte

    Recruitment of Native Americans to be foster or adoptive parents for Native American children involves careful planning, preparation, and work. In addition to making standard administrative decisions and maintaining required records, social workers must be sensitive to the attitudes, lifestyle, and culture of Native Americans recruited as adoptive…

  5. 76 FR 18759 - Improving Communications Services for Native Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ..., communication adoption opportunities, and incentives for Native Nations. The Commission also seeks government-to... committed to ensuring that all Americans have access to emerging services and technologies, with Native... communications issues affecting Native Nations and Americans living on Tribal lands--the lands of...

  6. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  7. How Scholarship Defames the Native Voice...and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Native voice in academia has provided much outstanding scholarship rising out of analysis of oral histories and textual authority of Native peoples. In the 1990s, however, attempts to discredit Native scholarship included the claim that "I, Rigoberta Menchu" was a willful fraud, debates over the Bering Strait theory…

  8. The Native Forum at the 2000 Sundance Film Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine

    2000-01-01

    This article describes films included in the Native Forum of the 2000 Sundance Film Festival. The forum was created to give Native filmmakers a chance to express a Native point of view, with the hope that such a forum will eventually become unnecessary. The article includes background information, plot summaries, comments, and contact information…

  9. The Future in the Past of Native and Indigenous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrior, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some of the issues of the beginnings of Native and Indigenous studies and suggests that one looks more precisely at what people mean when they talk about those beginnings. The author is not a big fan of Native people emerging vaguely from the mists of time, but he is always tracing a history of Native studies…

  10. Native American Student Resiliency within Southwestern Tribal Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which Native American culture impacts the resiliency of Native American students earning degrees at three tribal colleges in the southwestern part of the United States. This study was a qualitative case study that was based on the following research question: "How does Native American…

  11. Preparing Non-Native English-Speaking ESL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that non-native English-speaking teacher trainees face as they begin teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in Western, English-speaking countries. Despite a great deal of training, non-native speaker teachers may be viewed as inadequate language teachers because they often lack native speaker competence…

  12. When the Teacher Is a Non-native Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pèter Medgyes

    2005-01-01

    @@ In "When the Teacher is a Non-native Speaker," Medgyes examines the differences in teaching behavior between native and non-native teachers of English, and then specifies the causes of those differences. The aim of the discussion is to raise the awareness of both groups of teachers to their respective strengths and weaknesses, and thus help them become better teachers.

  13. Native-Speakerism in ELT: Plus ca Change...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In ELT, the over-representation of the "native-speaker" (NS) point of view at the expense of the "non-native-speaker" (NNS) one--"native-speakerism"--has long been a significant problem. However, this paper argues that the current main applied linguistics attempt to remedy the situation--the use of a "critical theory" (CT) approach--rather than…

  14. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  15. Irrigation to enhance native seed production for Great Basin restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Nancy L. Shaw; Myrtle P. Shock; Lamont D. Saunders

    2015-01-01

    Native shrublands and their associated grasses and forbs have been disappearing from the Great Basin as a result of grazing practices, exotic weed invasions, altered fire regimes, climate change and other human impacts. Native forb seed is needed to restore these areas. The irrigation requirements for maximum seed production of four key native forb species (Eriogonum...

  16. 21 CFR 1307.31 - Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native American... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31...

  17. Wrapper Generator using Java Native Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.Vairale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a complete automated solution to the wrapping and compilation of legacy code in order to facilitate the use of native libraries in effective ways through Java NativeInterface. Legacy codes are those libraries, command line applications or other types of systems that were developed in technologies older than currently used in modern computing environments. Modern software engineering concepts, like software as a service, allow the extension of the legacy code lifetime and the reduction of software maintenance costs. The transformation of a legacy code into a service is not straightforward task, especially when the initial code was designed with a rich user interface. This paper describes a process for the semi-automatic conversion of numerical and scientific routines written in the C programming language into computational services that can be used within a distributed serviceoriented architecture such as that being adopted for Grid computing.

  18. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... access in a particular geographical region of the world. The present field guide attempts to do so while entertaining (and eventually discarding) the idea that the World Wide Web has similar areal qualities and constitutes a field in which the techno-anthropologist can go to do work...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  19. Franz Boas and Native American biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, R L

    1995-06-01

    The contributions to physical anthropology with which Franz Boas is usually credited are in the areas of growth, plasticity of head and body form, and biometric genetics. Such a listing of Boas's contributions overlooks the tremendous amount of research he did with biological variability of Native American populations. The rediscovery of his anthropometric data documents the tremendous investment in time, money, and effort Boas devoted to the topic and provides the opportunity to rediscover his insights into a subject that is of continuing interest. The design of his massive anthropometric survey of native North Americans reveals a concern for population analyses and a rejection of the typological framework of the time. If Boas's ideas had been adopted at the turn of the century, the development of physical anthropology in America might have been much different.

  20. Critical fluctuations in proteins native states

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Chialvo, Dante R

    2016-01-01

    We study a large data set of protein structure ensembles of very diverse sizes determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. By examining the distance-dependent correlations in the displacement of residues pairs and conducting finite size scaling analysis it was found that the correlations and susceptibility behave as in systems near a critical point implying that, at the native state, the motion of each amino acid residue is felt by every other residue up to the size of the protein molecule. Furthermore certain protein's shapes corresponding to maximum susceptibility were found to be more probable than others. Overall the results suggest that the protein's native state is critical, implying that despite being posed near the minimum of the energy landscape, they still preserve their dynamic flexibility.

  1. Proofreading market viability for Native English Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lamson, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Author or authors Cody Lamson Year of entry 2007 Title of report Proofreading market viability in for Native English Solutions Number of pages and appendices 47 Teacher(s) or supervisor(s) Mervi Riikonen The research was conducted in order to discover what needs to be done in order to succeed in the proofreading and editing market. If it is worth the time and money to enter the market, what should be done in order to be successful? The reseach was do...

  2. Telemedical Education: Training Digital Natives in Telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Azad, Tej D; Jethwani, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine plays an important role in the delivery of medical care, and will become increasingly prominent going forward. Current medical students are among the first generation of "digital natives" who are well versed in the incorporation of technology into social interaction. These students are well positioned to apply advances in communications to patient care. Even so, providers require training to effectively leverage these opportunities. Therefore, we recommend introducing telemedicine training into medical school curricula and propose a model for incorporation.

  3. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, D.; van der Putten, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  4. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá Icardo, Mónica; López Paz, José Luis; CHOVES BARÓN, CRISTINA; Pena Badena, A.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted ...

  5. Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, D; Ramakrishnan, S; Patro, K C; Devaraj, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Kothari, Y; Satyaki, N

    2013-05-01

    Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

  6. Trophic Strategies of a Non-Native and a Native Amphibian Species in Shared Ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatz San Sebastián

    Full Text Available One of the critical factors for understanding the establishment, success and potential impact on native species of an introduced species is a thorough knowledge of how these species manage trophic resources. Two main trophic strategies for resource acquisition have been described: competition and opportunism. In the present study our objective was to identify the main trophic strategies of the non-native amphibian Discoglossus pictus and its potential trophic impact on the native amphibian Bufo calamita. We determine whether D. pictus exploits similar trophic resources to those exploited by the native B. calamita (competition hypothesis or alternative resources (opportunistic hypothesis. To this end, we analyzed the stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in larvae of both species, in natural ponds and in controlled laboratory conditions. The similarity of the δ15N and δ13C values in the two species coupled with isotopic signal variation according to pond conditions and niche partitioning when they co-occurred indicated dietary competition. Additionally, the non-native species was located at higher levels of trophic niches than the native species and B. calamita suffered an increase in its standard ellipse area when it shared ponds with D. pictus. These results suggest niche displacement of B. calamita to non-preferred resources and greater competitive capacity of D. pictus in field conditions. Moreover, D. pictus showed a broader niche than the native species in all conditions, indicating increased capacity to exploit the diversity of resources; this may indirectly favor its invasiveness. Despite the limitations of this study (derived from potential variability in pond isotopic signals, the results support previous experimental studies. All the studies indicate that D. pictus competes with B. calamita for trophic resources with potential negative effects on the fitness of the latter.

  7. Security Awareness of the Digital Natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Gkioulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Young generations make extensive use of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets and laptops, while a plethora of security risks associated with such devices are induced by vulnerabilities related to user behavior. Furthermore, the number of security breaches on or via portable devices increases exponentially. Thus, deploying suitable risk treatments requires the investigation of how the digital natives (young people, born and bred in the digital era use their mobile devices and their level of security awareness, in order to identify common usage patterns with negative security impact. In this article, we present the results of a survey performed across a multinational sample of digital natives with distinct backgrounds and levels of competence in terms of security, to identify divergences in user behavior due to regional, educational and other factors. Our results highlight significant influences on the behavior of digital natives, arising from user confidence, educational background, and parameters related to usability and accessibility. The outcomes of this study justify the need for further analysis of the topic, in order to identify the influence of fine-grained semantics, but also the consolidation of wide and robust user-models.

  8. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. Invasive mutualists erode native pollination webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Aizen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-animal mutualisms are characterized by weak or asymmetric mutual dependences between interacting species, a feature that could increase community stability. If invasive species integrate into mutualistic webs, they may alter web structure, with consequences for species persistence. However, the effect of alien mutualists on the architecture of plant-pollinator webs remains largely unexplored. We analyzed the extent of mutual dependency between interacting species, as a measure of mutualism strength, and the connectivity of 10 paired plant-pollinator webs, eight from forests of the southern Andes and two from oceanic islands, with different incidences of alien species. Highly invaded webs exhibited weaker mutualism than less-invaded webs. This potential increase in network stability was the result of a disproportionate increase in the importance and participation of alien species in the most asymmetric interactions. The integration of alien mutualists did not alter overall network connectivity, but links were transferred from generalist native species to super-generalist alien species during invasion. Therefore, connectivity among native species declined in highly invaded webs. These modifications in the structure of pollination webs, due to dominance of alien mutualists, can leave many native species subject to novel ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

  10. Antibody microarrays for native toxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Victor C; Havenstrite, Karen L; Herr, Amy E

    2005-04-15

    We have developed antibody-based microarray techniques for the multiplexed detection of cholera toxin beta-subunit, diphtheria toxin, anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked samples. Two detection schemes were investigated: (i) a direct assay in which fluorescently labeled toxins were captured directly by the antibody array and (ii) a competition assay that employed unlabeled toxins as reporters for the quantification of native toxin in solution. In the direct assay, fluorescence measured at each array element is correlated with labeled toxin concentration to yield baseline binding information (Langmuir isotherms and affinity constants). Extending from the direct assay, the competition assay yields information on the presence, identity, and concentration of toxins. A significant advantage of the competition assay over reported profiling assays is the minimal sample preparation required prior to analysis because the competition assay obviates the need to fluorescently label native proteins in the sample of interest. Sigmoidal calibration curves and detection limits were established for both assay formats. Although the sensitivity of the direct assay is superior to that of the competition assay, detection limits for unmodified toxins in the competition assay are comparable to values reported previously for sandwich-format immunoassays of antibodies arrayed on planar substrates. As a demonstration of the potential of the competition assay for unlabeled toxin detection, we conclude with a straightforward multiplexed assay for the differentiation and identification of both native S. aureus enterotoxin B and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked dilute serum samples.

  11. Invasive knotweed affects native plants through allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Craig; Gerber, Esther; Krebs, Christine; Parepa, Madalin; Schaffner, Urs; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many plant invaders interfere with native plants through allelopathy. This allelopathic interference may be a key mechanism of plant invasiveness. One of the most aggressive current plant invaders is the clonal knotweed hybrid Fallopia × bohemica, which often forms monocultures in its introduced range. Preliminary results from laboratory studies suggest that allelopathy could play a role in this invasion. We grew experimental communities of European plants together with F. × bohemica. We used activated carbon to test for allelopathic effects, and we combined this with single or repeated removal of Fallopia shoots to examine how mechanical control can reduce the species' impact. Addition of activated carbon to the soil significantly reduced the suppressive effect of undamaged F. × bohemica on native forbs. The magnitude of this effect was similar to that of regular cutting of Fallopia shoots. Regular cutting of Fallopia shoots efficiently inhibited the growth of rhizomes, together with their apparent allelopathic effects. The ecological impact of F. × bohemica on native forbs is not just a result of competition for shared resources, but it also appears to have a large allelopathic component. Still, regular mechnical control successfully eliminated allelopathic effects. Therefore, allelopathy will create an additional challenge to knotweed management and ecological restoration only if the allelochemicals are found to persist in the soil. More research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying Fallopia allelopathy, and the long-term effects of soil residues.

  12. Erozijos tema Czesławo Miłoszo kūryboje: svarstymai lietuvių literatūros akivaizdoje. The Topic of Erosion in the Works of Czesław Miłosz from the perspective of Lithuanian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audinga Peluritytė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of Polish literature classic Czesław Miłosz (1911–2004 is being discussed in this article. It is proposed that the Christian time and history are more important that space and its experiences in the creation of Miłosz. History is a time of God, Creator, that is given to human being, but that time of history is finite, and knowable in that way only. The time of history is given to human so that he could realize his will by creating culture, civilization, by being in action in the world. The gift of knowledge is given to human in the presence of God, Creator, and so the responsibility for the surrounding matter of the planet. Human inevitably consumes the nature of the planet he lives on by his activity, and embroils into a difficult creative process. The erosion of nature is a consequence of human activity in history. Miłosz ponders upon the categories of human history and nature by invoking plenty of cultural contexts. The Christian eschatology – one of the most important of them. But Lithuanian literature, entering Polish literature mainly through biographic and creative experience of Miłosz, almost does not know such eschatological, Christian time. The Lithuanian lite­rature reasons in a perspective of natural, entropic time, and consequently the questions of Christianity, civilization, history exist in Lithuanian literature un­der a different – alternative – programme of natural religion and worldview.

  13. Descriptions of Difficult Conversations between Native and Non-Native English Speakers: In-Group Membership and Helping Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ray; Faux, William V., II

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrated the perceptions of native English speakers about difficult conversations with non-native English speakers. A total of 114 native English speakers enrolled in undergraduate communication courses at a regional state university answered a questionnaire about a recent difficult conversation the respondent had with a non-native…

  14. Tolerance of native and non-native fish species to chemical stress: a case study for the River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fedorenkova; J.A. Vonk; A.M. Breure; A.J. Hendriks; R.S.E.W. Leuven

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems can be impacted by invasive species. Non-native species can become invasive due to their high tolerance to environmental stressors (e.g., pollution and habitat modifications). Yet, tolerance of native and non-native fish species exposed simultaneously to multiple chemical stres

  15. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  16. Communicative Functions of the Nurse-Patient Relationship: Observations of Native and Non-Native Nurses in United States Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jo Linda

    A study compared the nurse-patient communication of native and non-native English-speaking nurses. Examination of the literature on nurse-patient relationships and a brief survey of native nurses yielded an instrument for observation of nurses. Ten nurses were observed for 3 hourse each. Transcripts of the observations of the five non-native…

  17. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  18. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  19. Non-native educators in English language teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Braine, George

    2013-01-01

    The place of native and non-native speakers in the role of English teachers has probably been an issue ever since English was taught internationally. Although ESL and EFL literature is awash, in fact dependent upon, the scrutiny of non-native learners, interest in non-native academics and teachers is fairly new. Until recently, the voices of non-native speakers articulating their own concerns have been even rarer. This book is a response to this notable vacuum in the ELT literature, providing a forum for language educators from diverse geographical origins and language backgrounds. In additio

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  1. The residential segregation of mixed-nativity married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John; Nelson, Kyle Anne

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the ways in which mixed-nativity marriage is related to spatial assimilation in metropolitan areas of the United States. Specifically, we examine the residential patterns of households with a mixed-nativity-and, in some cases, interracial-marriage to determine whether they are less segregated from the native-born than entirely foreign-born households. Using restricted-use data from the 2000 census, we find that compared with couples in which both spouses are foreign-born, mixed-nativity couples tend to be less segregated from various native-born racial and ethnic groups. Further, among both foreign-born Asians and Hispanics, those with a native-born non-Hispanic white spouse are considerably less segregated from native-born white households than from other foreign-born Asian and Hispanic households. We also find that even though nativity status matters for black couples in a manner consistent with assimilation theory, foreign-born and mixed-nativity black households still each display very high levels of segregation from all other native-born racial/ethnic groups, reaffirming the power of race in determining residential patterns. Overall, our findings provide moderate support for spatial assimilation theory and suggest that cross-nativity marriages often facilitate the residential integration of the foreign-born.

  2. 78 FR 22292 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of Nomination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of.... SUMMARY: The National Park Service is soliciting nominations for one member of the Native American Graves... nominations submitted by Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and traditional Native...

  3. 77 FR 65406 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of Nomination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Notice of.... SUMMARY: The National Park Service is soliciting nominations for one member of the Native American Graves... nominations submitted by Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and traditional Native...

  4. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training.

  5. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffele, Ryan D; Eichholz, Michael W; Dixon, Cami S

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  6. Duck Productivity in Restored Species-Rich Native and Species-Poor Non-Native Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffele, Ryan D.; Eichholz, Michael W.; Dixon, Cami S.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010–2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years. PMID:23840898

  7. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Haffele

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5 mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC. The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32 plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  8. Durations of American English vowels by native and non-native speakers: acoustic analyses and perceptual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun; Chen, Chia-Tsen

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility.

  9. Native Colombia: Contact, Conquest and Colonial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamarín, Juan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies done on Colombia’s population history during the last three decades have been influenced by the ideas, methods and approaches of Woodrow Borah. We will discuss three issues that he and Sherburne Cook considered in the course of their work on Latin American demography – probable size of native populations on the eve of European contact; the effects of climate and elevation on the intensity of different groups’ decline; and the impact on native populations of diseases brought from the Old World to the New. We examine the information available on Colombia’s diverse highland and lowland regions, and in that context explore questions that have arisen recently regarding nutrition and health levels of native people prior to European conquest.

    Los estudios que se han realizado sobre la historia demográfica de Colombia durante las tres últimas décadas se han visto influidos por las ideas, métodos y planteamientos de Woodrow Borah. Discutiremos tres aspectos que él y Sherburne Cook han tenido en cuenta a lo largo de sus trabajos sobre la demografía latinoamericana: el volumen de la población nativa en vísperas del contacto con los europeos; los efectos del clima y de la altitud en el declive de la intensidad demográfica de los diferentes grupos; y el impacto en la población nativa de las enfermedades procedentes del Viejo Mundo. Examinamos la información disponible en el altiplano y en la zona costera de Colombia y, en dicho contexto, valoramos cuestiones que han surgido recientemente con relación a los niveles de nutrición y salud de la población nativa antes de la conquista europea.

  10. Charging of Proteins in Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Anna C.; Xia, Zijie; Tang, Henry Y. H.; Tainer, John A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2017-02-01

    Factors that influence the charging of protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and function were investigated. Protein ions ranging in molecular weight from 12.3 to 79.7 kDa and pI values from 5.4 to 9.6 were formed from different solutions and reacted with volatile bases of gas-phase basicities higher than that of ammonia in the cell of a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The charge-state distribution of cytochrome c ions formed from aqueous ammonium or potassium acetate is the same. Moreover, ions formed from these two solutions do not undergo proton transfer to 2-fluoropyridine, which is 8 kcal/mol more basic than ammonia. These results provide compelling evidence that proton transfer between ammonia and protein ions does not limit protein ion charge in native electrospray ionization. Both circular dichroism and ion mobility measurements indicate that there are differences in conformations of proteins in pure water and aqueous ammonium acetate, and these differences can account for the difference in the extent of charging and proton-transfer reactivities of protein ions formed from these solutions. The extent of proton transfer of the protein ions with higher gas-phase basicity bases trends with how closely the protein ions are charged to the value predicted by the Rayleigh limit for spherical water droplets approximately the same size as the proteins. These results indicate that droplet charge limits protein ion charge in native mass spectrometry and are consistent with these ions being formed by the charged residue mechanism.

  11. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  12. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  13. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  14. Native Tissue Prolapse Repairs: Comparative Effectiveness Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siff, Lauren N; Barber, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    This report reviews the success rates and complications of native tissue (nonmesh) vaginal reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse by compartment. For apical prolapse, both uterosacral ligament suspensions and sacrospinous ligament fixations are effective and provided similar outcomes in anatomy and function with few adverse events. In the anterior compartment, traditional colporrhaphy technique is no different than ultralateral suturing. In the posterior compartment, transvaginal rectocele repair is superior to transanal repair. For uterine preservation, sacrospinous hysteropexy is not inferior to vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension for treatment of apical uterovaginal prolapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived nativeness and sensitivity to temporal adjustments in speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-04-01

    Native Mandarin Chinese speakers productions of English consonant-vowel (CV) syllables have shown syllable-internal temporal adjustments in the direction of native (English)-like CVs (Wang and Behne, 2004). The current study presents two experiments investigating whether these temporal adjustments affect perceived nativeness. For three production types (native-English, Chinese productions of English, native-Chinese), three syllable-internal timing patterns (English-like, Chinese-English-like, Chinese-like) were applied, resulting in nine stimuli types. Native English listeners judged how English-like each stimulus was on a 7-point scale. In the first experiment, production-types and timing patterns were randomized. Results show that listeners can reliably identify nativeness of the three productions, with Chinese productions of English perceived as intermediate to the native Chinese and native American English productions. Listeners also showed a tendency toward using timing within the CV to identify nativeness. In the second experiment the same materials were therefore blocked by production type. Results reveal the perceptual saliency of the temporal adjustments in nonnative productions. These findings support a view of L2 acquisition as a gradual process toward the target L2 (e.g., Caramazza et al., 1973). The current study extends this view, showing evidence that listeners can perceive the inter-language system, bearing the nature of both L1 and L2.

  16. The role of abstraction in non-native speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Bozena; Levy, Roger

    2014-09-01

    The end-result of perceptual reorganization in infancy is currently viewed as a reconfigured perceptual space, "warped" around native-language phonetic categories, which then acts as a direct perceptual filter on any non-native sounds: naïve-listener discrimination of non-native-sounds is determined by their mapping onto native-language phonetic categories that are acoustically/articulatorily most similar. We report results that suggest another factor in non-native speech perception: some perceptual sensitivities cannot be attributed to listeners' warped perceptual space alone, but rather to enhanced general sensitivity along phonetic dimensions that the listeners' native language employs to distinguish between categories. Specifically, we show that the knowledge of a language with short and long vowel categories leads to enhanced discrimination of non-native consonant length contrasts. We argue that these results support a view of perceptual reorganization as the consequence of learners' hierarchical inductive inferences about the structure of the language's sound system: infants not only acquire the specific phonetic category inventory, but also draw higher-order generalizations over the set of those categories, such as the overall informativity of phonetic dimensions for sound categorization. Non-native sound perception is then also determined by sensitivities that emerge from these generalizations, rather than only by mappings of non-native sounds onto native-language phonetic categories.

  17. Osobennosti vybora institucional'nogo puti razvitija v Vostochnoj Evrope XVI—XVII vekov: Moskovskoe gosudarstvo i Rech' Pospolitaja [The features of choosing an institutional development trajectory in Eastern Europe in the 16th—17th centuries: Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economic and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economic theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th—17th centuries. The author emphasizes the factors, which affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralization factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to the research on the property rights and Russian economic history.

  18. Impact of Non-Native Birds on Native Ecosystems: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Amico, Guillermo C; Simberloff, Daniel; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and naturalization of non-native species is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity. Birds have been widely introduced worldwide, but their impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems have not received as much attention as those of other groups. This work is a global synthesis of the impact of nonnative birds on native ecosystems to determine (1) what groups, impacts, and locations have been best studied; (2) which taxonomic groups and which impacts have greatest effects on ecosystems, (3) how important are bird impacts at the community and ecosystem levels, and (4) what are the known benefits of nonnative birds to natural ecosystems. We conducted an extensive literature search that yielded 148 articles covering 39 species belonging to 18 families -18% of all known naturalized species. Studies were classified according to where they were conducted: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America, Islands of the Indian, of the Pacific, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Seven types of impact on native ecosystems were evaluated: competition, disease transmission, chemical, physical, or structural impact on ecosystem, grazing/ herbivory/ browsing, hybridization, predation, and interaction with other non-native species. Hybridization and disease transmission were the most important impacts, affecting the population and community levels. Ecosystem-level impacts, such as structural and chemical impacts were detected. Seven species were found to have positive impacts aside from negative ones. We provide suggestions for future studies focused on mechanisms of impact, regions, and understudied taxonomic groups.

  19. Discrimination Between Native and Non-Native Speech Using Visual Features Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakis, Christos; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Accent is a soft biometric trait that can be inferred from pronunciation and articulation patterns characterizing the speaking style of an individual. Past research has addressed the task of classifying accent, as belonging to a native language speaker or a foreign language speaker, by means of the

  20. Name-brand Clothing, Native Values, and Community Status. Native Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Noella

    1997-01-01

    Considers the effects of commercialism and the current mania for name brand clothing on the lives of Canada's young Native Americans. Argues that the adoption of assimilationist and mainstream cultural values grows from the Indians' lack of any real political power. Postulates that young Indian women are particularly vulnerable to this tendency.…

  1. Haunting Native Speakerism? Students' Perceptions toward Native Speaking English Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-huei; Ke, Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs). Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result…

  2. Parallel Courses: Preparing Native and Non-Native Students for Freshman Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frederick K.; Moser, Janet

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching basic writing to native and nonnative students that emphasizes a regression to the most basic elements of writing. Considers what writing content, rhetorical techniques, grammar exercises, and proofreading methods are most effective for the two groups. (TB)

  3. To What Extent Do Native and Non-Native Writers Make Use of Collocations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Philip; Schmitt, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Usage-based models claim that first language learning is based on the frequency-based analysis of memorised phrases. It is not clear though, whether adult second language learning works in the same way. It has been claimed that non-native language lacks idiomatic formulas, suggesting that learners neglect phrases, focusing instead on orthographic…

  4. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Ylä-Pelto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  5. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  6. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-02-23

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  7. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala-Icardo, M., E-mail: mocaic@qim.upv.es [Instituto de investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de Zonas Costeras (IGIC), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf n Degree-Sign 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, Valencia (Spain); Lopez-Paz, J.L.; Choves-Baron, C.; Pena-Badena, A. [Instituto de investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de Zonas Costeras (IGIC), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf n Degree-Sign 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between native and photoinduced chemiluminescence of dimethoate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexadecylpyridinium enhanced greatly the chemiluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid phase extraction allowed the successful determination of dimethoate in water. - Abstract: The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15 W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted as a sensitizer. In the developed FIA-CL system, the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethoate with NaOH was performed on-line in presence of HPC. The oxidation of the product of hydrolysis with Ce(IV) in hydrochloric medium induced chemiluminescence. The method provided a limit of detection of only 0.05 ng mL{sup -1} without any pre-treatment. However, the combination with solid phase extraction allowed the removal of some potential interferents as well as the preconcentration of the pesticide. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to natural waters with recoveries between 95 and 108%.

  8. Student perceptions of native and non-native speaker language instructors: A comparison of ESL and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Callahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the native vs. non-native speaker status of second and foreign language instructors has been investigated chiefly from the perspective of the teacher. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have strong opinions on the relative qualities of instruction by native and non-native speakers. Most research focuses on students of English as a foreign or second language. This paper reports on data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 55 university students: 31 students of Spanish as FL and 24 students of English as SL. Qualitative results show what strengths students believe each type of instructor has, and quantitative results confirm that any gap students may perceive between the abilities of native and non-native instructors is not so wide as one might expect based on popular notions of the issue. ESL students showed a stronger preference for native-speaker instructors overall, and were at variance with the SFL students' ratings of native-speaker instructors' performance on a number of aspects. There was a significant correlation in both groups between having a family member who is a native speaker of the target language and student preference for and self-identification with a native speaker as instructor. (English text

  9. Effects of noise, reverberation and foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' performance of English speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z Ellen; Wang, Lily M

    2016-05-01

    A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech from native English-speaking talkers and 59 with native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking talkers. Results show that, while higher BNLs were generally more detrimental to listeners with lower English proficiency, all listeners experienced significant comprehension deficits above RC-40 with native English talkers. This limit was lower (i.e., above RC-30), however, with Chinese talkers. For reverberation, non-native listeners as a group performed best with RT up to 0.6 s, while native listeners performed equally well up to 1.2 s. A matched foreign accent benefit has also been identified, where the negative impact of higher reverberation does not exist for non-native listeners who share the talker's native language.

  10. ERP evidence for different strategies in the processing of case markers in native speakers and non-native learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederici Angela D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present experiments were designed to test how the linguistic feature of case is processed in Japanese by native and non-native listeners. We used a miniature version of Japanese as a model to compare sentence comprehension mechanisms in native speakers and non-native learners who had received training until they had mastered the system. In the first experiment we auditorily presented native Japanese speakers with sentences containing incorrect double nominatives and incorrect double accusatives, and with correct sentences. In the second experiment we tested trained non-natives with the same material. Based on previous research in German we expected an N400-P600 biphasic ERP response with specific modulations depending on the violated case and whether the listeners were native or non-native. Results For native Japanese participants the general ERP response to the case violations was an N400-P600 pattern. Double accusatives led to an additional enhancement of the P600 amplitude. For the learners a native-like P600 was present for double accusatives and for double nominatives. The additional negativity, however, was present in learners only for double nominative violations, and it was characterized by a different topographical distribution. Conclusion The results indicate that native listeners use case markers for thematic as well as syntactic structure building during incremental sentence interpretation. The modulation of the P600 component for double accusatives possibly reflects case specific syntactic restrictions in Japanese. For adult language learners later processes, as reflected in the P600, seem to be more native-like compared to earlier processes. The anterior distribution of the negativity and its selective emergence for canonical sentences were taken to suggest that the non-native learners resorted to a rather formal processing strategy whereby they relied to a large degree on the phonologically salient

  11. Syntactic Constraints and Individual Differences in Native and Non-Native Processing of Wh-Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2016-01-01

    There is a debate as to whether second language (L2) learners show qualitatively similar processing profiles as native speakers or whether L2 learners are restricted in their ability to use syntactic information during online processing. In the realm of wh-dependency resolution, research has examined whether learners, similar to native speakers, attempt to resolve wh-dependencies in grammatically licensed contexts but avoid positing gaps in illicit contexts such as islands. Also at issue is whether the avoidance of gap filling in islands is due to adherence to syntactic constraints or whether islands simply present processing bottlenecks. One approach has been to examine the relationship between processing abilities and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands. Grammatical accounts of islands do not predict such a relationship as the parser should simply not predict gaps in illicit contexts. In contrast, a pattern of results showing that individuals with more processing resources are better able to establish wh-dependencies in islands could conceivably be compatible with certain processing accounts. In a self-paced reading experiment which examines the processing of wh-dependencies, we address both questions, examining whether native English speakers and Korean learners of English show qualitatively similar patterns and whether there is a relationship between working memory, as measured by counting span and reading span, and processing in both island and non-island contexts. The results of the self-paced reading experiment suggest that learners can use syntactic information on the same timecourse as native speakers, showing qualitative similarity between the two groups. Results of regression analyses did not reveal a significant relationship between working memory and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands but we did observe significant relationships between working memory and the processing of licit wh-dependencies. As the contexts in which these

  12. Prepozicinė ir postpozicinė modifikacija: trižodžių angliškų ir lietuviškų terminų gretinamoji analizė. Pre- and Post-Nominal Modification: A Contrastive Investigation of English and Lithuanian Three-Word Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Džežulskienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An English-Lithuanian glossary-based contrastive study of modification within the boundaries of the multi-word noun phrase is considered to be an issue which requires the deeper investigation. The aim of this article is to reveal the bilingual (English and Lithuanian grammatical structures used in the terms of telecommunication science. The functional approach is the methodological basis of the article (Quirk 1985, Valeckienė 1998. The data for the analysis have been extracted from bilingual reference corpora http://www.lrs.lt. The scientific texts of both - the English and the Lithuanian - languages have enough high proportion of three item sequences. The empirical study examines the distribution of the pre-modifying and post-modifying elements and the head of the terms. The position of the head word in English and Lithuanian three-word terms is head-final (83% and 95%. The dominant distribution of modifiers is a pre-modifier because modifiers appear before the noun. As a result, it helps to concentrate the information in the text and to achieve economy of the expression in both languages. The most productive models in English are [(N ← N ← N] (29 %, [(A ← N ← N] (28% and [(A ← (N ← N] (25 %, the most productive models in Lithuanian are [(Ng ← Ng ←N] (30 %, [Aginis ← Ng ← Nx] (16 % and [(Ainisx ← (Ng ← Nx] (12%. The procedures and the findings of the research could be useful in a foreign language learning and in the translation processes. ------ Anglų ir lietuvių telekomunikacijų srities terminijoje vyrauja sudėtiniai terminai, iš kurių struktūrinių konfigūracijų įvairove ir gausa išsiskiria trižodžiai terminai. Pagal pagrindinio dėmens raišką jie yra daiktavardiniai žodžių junginiai, sudaryti iš pagrindinio žodžio, arba vardažodinės grupės branduolio, kuris žymi daiktą, ir priklausomųjų žodžių – modifikatorių, kurie specifikuoja tą daiktą. Remiantis į terminą

  13. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  14. Defining the Impact of Non-Native Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Bacher, Sven; Tim M Blackburn; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hulme, Philip E.; Kühn, Ingolf; Mrugała, Agata; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define impact. We argue that explicitly defining the impact of non-native species will promote progress toward ...

  15. Aesthetic Study of Native Landscape in Landscape Degisn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小伟

    2013-01-01

    As Ji Cheng says in "Yuan Ye": planning should be adapted to local conditions by the square, round, slope and winding. During landscape planning and design, we should make ful use of native landscape as a design element according to local conditions. The paper wil analyze the native landscape elements from an aesthetic point of view through case study of water landscape, plants, topography, heritage sites and so on to explain the aesthetic significance of native landscape in landscape planning.

  16. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takanori [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Mamoru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Inoue, Shigeyuki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizohata, Eiichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsu, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shimamura, Tatsuro [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwata, So [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugahara, Michihiro, E-mail: msuga@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  17. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  18. "Our culture is medicine": perspectives of Native healers on posttrauma recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Deborah; Tsosie, Ursula; Nannauck, Sweetwater

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (Native) people experience more traumatic events and are at higher risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder compared with the general population. We conducted in-depth interviews with six Native healers about their perspectives on traumatic injury and healing. We analyzed the interviews using an inductive approach to identify common themes. We categorized these themes into four categories: causes and consequences of traumatic injury, risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to care. The implications of our study include a need for improving cultural competence among health care and social services personnel working with Native trauma patients. Additional cumulative analyses of Native healers and trauma patients would contribute to a much-needed body of knowledge on improving recovery and promoting healing among Native trauma patients.

  19. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  20. Charleso Dickenso kūrybos recepcija Lietuvoje: sceninės adaptacijos ir kritikų vertinimas (II dalis. The Lithuanian Reception of Charles Dickens: Theatrical Adaptations and Critical Response to them (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rudaitytė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theatrical productions are always an important aspect in the reception of any author in any country. They are instrumental in promoting the writer and his work, in bringing it closer to the ordinary readership. Particularly so in Lithuania which has a long and lively theatrical tradition of more than 400 years. The Kaunas State Theatre established in 1922 became an important centre in the cultural life of Lithuania and was the only professional theatre organization in Lithuania until 1931, which dramatized and performed Dickens’s works, among others. Stage adaptations played an important role in the reception of Dickens’s art, particularly in the inter-war period in the 1920s and 1930s: they were instrumental in the promotion of Dickensian image, in the dissemination of his writing and in enhancing its popularity; thus Dickens’s name became firmly entrenched in the Lithuanian cultural context. For general readers and theatre audiences Dickens became the most famous, the most representative and the most popular English writer, regarded as an iconic figure in English literature, in stature competing only with Shakespeare.The first theatre production of Dickens’s work in Lithuania was A Christmas Carol; it was put on stage by the famous director Antanas Sutkus in 1927. It was followed by stage adaptations of The Chimes, Oliver Twist and The Cricket on the Hearth.A theatrical production of Dickens’s novel The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club was put on stage on September 29, 2002. Adapted and directed by the actor Sigitas Račkys in early twenty-first century at the Klaipėda Drama Theatre, it really came as a surprise given the temper and tenor of the times which are not very favourable for the reception of Dickens’s writing. And, naturally, the response to it was ambivalent and controversial.By all evidence, the performance was probably not a very successful attempt at the stage production of Dickens’s Pickwick in spite of the

  1. Native Americans and state and local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusco, E.R. [Cultural Resources Consultants, Ltd. Reno, Nevada (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  2. New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-12-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.

  3. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  4. Plasticizers effect on native biodegradable package materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozar, Onuc; Cioica, Nicolae; Coţa, Constantin; Nagy, Elena Mihaela; Fechete, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in intensity of some IR and Raman bands suggest the plasticizing - antiplasticizing effects of water and glycerol contents and a small increase of amorphous/crystalline ratio, too. The nuclear magnetic relaxation data show that the amorphous/crystalline ratio depends on amylose/amylopectin mobility and also by the place of their polymer chain segments. Thus the distributions of spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and the shift toward higher values of some T2 characteristic peaks show that the increasing of water and glycerol content in the starch package materials lead to the more mobile amylose and amylopectin polymer chain segments and the prevalence of amorphous regions in the prepared native corn starch samples.

  5. Natively unstructured loops differ from other loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Schlessinger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%-70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein-protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested

  6. Natively unstructured loops differ from other loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Avner; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard

    2007-07-01

    Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions) differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%-70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein-protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested that long

  7. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  8. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  9. Seed rain under native and non-native tree species in the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-nati...

  10. Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Meijer

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native. Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

  11. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  12. Greater sensitivity to prosodic goodness in non-native than in native listeners (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Anne

    2009-06-01

    English listeners largely disregard suprasegmental cues to stress in recognizing words. Evidence for this includes the demonstration of Fear et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1893-1904 (1995)] that cross-splicings are tolerated between stressed and unstressed full vowels (e.g., au- of autumn, automata). Dutch listeners, however, do exploit suprasegmental stress cues in recognizing native-language words. In this study, Dutch listeners were presented with English materials from the study of Fear et al. Acceptability ratings by these listeners revealed sensitivity to suprasegmental mismatch, in particular, in replacements of unstressed full vowels by higher-stressed vowels, thus evincing greater sensitivity to prosodic goodness than had been shown by the original native listener group.

  13. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  14. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  15. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Elle, Elizabeth; Bobiwash, Kyle; Haapalainen, Tiia; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-01-01

    Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha) to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in the same crop can

  16. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  17. 36 CFR 13.325 - Most directly affected Native Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Most directly affected Native... THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.325 Most directly... application to the superintendent to be determined the Native Corporation most directly affected by...

  18. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Anne; Holliday, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  19. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  20. Serving Native American Children and Families: Considering Cultural Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Zanartu, Carol

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the different world views and belief systems, acculturation stress, school-home discontinuity, learning styles, communication patterns, and parent participation of Native American students. The assessment and evaluation of Native American students and culturally compatible service delivery models are also discussed. (CR)