WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithium-ion conducting oxides

  1. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides ... work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. ..... On the other hand, Nb/Ta compounds show a higher conductivity.

  2. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon

  3. Ionic conductivity of metal oxides : an essential property for all-solid-state Lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Eichel, R.-A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Essential progress has been made for adopting metal oxides (MeO) in various energy storage and energy conversion applications. Among these, utilizing MeO in Lithium-ions batteries (LIBs) seems to be one of the most promising applications. In particular, conductive Li-containing oxides or

  4. Lithium ion conductivity of molecularly compatibilized chitosan-poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Films of composites of chitosan/poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)/poly(ethylene oxide) (CHI/pAPS/PEO) containing a fixed amount of lithium salt are studied. The ternary composition diagram of the composites, reporting information on the mechanic stability, the transparence and the electrical conductivity of the films, shows there is a window in which the molecular compatibility of the components is optimal. In this window, defined by the components ratios CHI/PEO 3:2, pAPS/PEO 2:3 and CHI/PEO 1:2, there is a particular composition Li x (CHI) 1 (PEO) 2 (pAPS) 1.2 for which the conductivity reaches a value of 1.7 x 10 -5 S cm -1 at near room temperature. Considering the balance between the Lewis acid and basic sites available in the component and the observed stoichiometry limits of formed polymer complexes, the conductivity values of these products may be understood by the formation of a layered structure in which the lithium ions, stabilized by the donors, poly(ethylene oxide) and/or poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane), are intercalated in a chitosan matrix

  5. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-11-21

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon additive, the irreversible capacity during galvanostatic cycling between 2.75 and 5.25 V versus Li/Li+ could be as high as 700 mAh g-1 (of carbon). In the potential region below 5 V versus Li/Li+, high surface carbon additives also showed irreversible plateaus at about 4.1-4.2 and 4.6 V versus Li/Li+. These plateaus disappeared after thermal treatments at or above 150 °C in inert gas. The influence of the irreversible capacity of carbon additives on the overall performances of positive electrodes was discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  6. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  7. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  8. Structures and ion conduction pathways of amorphous lithium ion conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    For ( 7 Li 2 S) x (P 2 S 5 ) 100-x glasses (x = 50, 60, and 70) and 7 Li 7 P 3 S 11 metastable crystal, time-of-flight neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed, and three-dimensional structures and conduction pathways of lithium ions were studied using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling and the bond valence sum (BVS) approach. The conduction pathways of the lithium ions could be classified into two types: lithium 'stable' and 'metastable' regions, respectively. Moreover, it was found that there is a significant relationship between the activation energy of the electrical conduction and the topology of the conduction pathways of the lithium ions. (author)

  9. Versatile Coating of Lithium Conductive Li2TiF6 on Over-lithiated Layered Oxide in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchang; Benayard, Anass; Park, Jin-Hwan; Park, Junho; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Mun, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 2 TiF 6 coating was designed to grow surface lithium conductivity and stability. • We conducted an easy and versatile Li 2 TiF 6 lithium conductive coating on cathode. • The coating was performed very simply by ambient-temperature co-precipitation. • After the coating, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability improved. - Abstract: We demonstrate an easy and versatile approach to modify a cathode-surface with a highly lithium–ion conductive layer by coating it with Li 2 TiF 6 . The thin and homogeneous Li 2 TiF 6 coating is introduced onto an over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO, namely Li 1.17 Ni 0.17 Co 0.1 Mn 0.56 O 2 ) surface via simple co-precipitation at ambient temperature by using Li 2 CO 3 and H 2 TiF 6 aqueous solutions. The lithium–conductive fluoride coating is expected to effectively suppress the undesired electrochemical and thermal interfacial reactions involving the OLO, which is critical in improving cycle performance and thermal stability. After Li 2 TiF 6 surface modification, the coated OLO materials showed high rate capability as well as long cyclability and improved thermal stability. The crystalline structure and surface microstructure of the prepared OLOs were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultimately, the performances of the assembled lithium ion batteries were thoroughly investigated by electrochemical methods and thermal analysis

  10. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  11. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  12. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. Adsorption of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1982-01-01

    Adsorption process of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide (a-HAO) was investigated by pH titration method with lithium chloride-lithium hydroxide mixed solution and X-ray diffraction analysis of a-HAO after pH titration. In the pH titration, the addition of hydroxide ion in amount from 0 to 4.0 mmol.g -1 gave no change to the pH of the solution and caused adsorption of lithium ion equivalent in amount to added hydroxide ion. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of lithium hydrogenaluminate LiH (AlO 2 ) 2 .5H 2 O (LHA) in the a-HAO after pH titration. These results showed that adsorption of lithium ion by a-HAO was related to a reaction which consumed hydroxide ion and formed LHA. In order to elucidate detail process of the reaction, changes of pH, aluminium concentration and lithium concentration of the solution, respectively with time, were determined. The pH of the solution decreased in two stages. At the first stage of the pH decrease, the aluminium concentration increased whereas the lithium concentration did not change. At the second stage, the lithium concentration decreased together with the decrease of the aluminium concentration. It was inferred that adsorption of lithium ion proceeded through dissolution of a-HAO and precipitation of LHA. Theoretical adsorption capacity calculated from the above formula for LHA and aluminium content in a-HAO was 4.7 mmol.g -1 and agreed fairly well with observed value 4.0 mmol.g -1 . (author)

  15. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  16. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  17. Investigation of the lithium ion mobility in cyclic model compounds and their ion conduction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, Joerg

    2011-07-27

    combination to changes in glass transition temperatures. Though the glass transition temperatures of the blends are low, their conductivities are only in the range of typical polymer electrolytes. The highest {sigma}{sub dc} obtained at ambient temperatures was 6.0 x 10{sup -6} S.cm{sup -1}, strongly suggesting a rather tight coordination of the lithium ions to the solvating 2-oxo-1,3-dioxolane moieties, supported by the increased {sigma}{sub dc} values for the oligo(ethylene oxide) based analogues. Further insights into the mechanism of lithium ion dynamics were derived from {sup 7}Li and {sup 13}C Solid-State NMR investigations. While localized ion motion was probed by i.e. {sup 7}Li spinlattice relaxation measurements with apparent activation energies E{sub a} of 20 to 40 kJ/mol, long-range macroscopic transport was monitored by Pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) NMR, providing an E{sub a} of 61 kJ/mol. The latter is in good agreement with the values determined from bulk conductivity data, indicating the major contribution of ion transport was only detected by PFG NMR. However, the {mu}m-diffusion is rather slow, emphasizing the strong lithium coordination to the carbonyl oxygens, which hampers sufficient ion conductivities and suggests exploring 'softer' solvating moieties in future electrolytes.

  18. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  19. Hollow carbon sphere/metal oxide nanocomposites anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenelska, K.; Ottmann, A.; Schneider, P.; Thauer, E.; Klingeler, R.; Mijowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    HCS (Hollow carbon spheres) covered with metal oxide nanoparticles (SnO_2 and MnO_2, respectively) were successfully synthesized and investigated regarding their potential as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Raman spectroscopy shows a high degree of graphitization for the HCS host structure. The mesoporous nature of the nanocomposites is confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. For both metal oxides under study, the metal oxide functionalization of HCS yields a significant increase of electrochemical performance. The charge capacity of HCS/SnO_2 is 370 mA hg"−"1 after 45 cycles (266 mA hg"−"1 in HCS/MnO_2) which clearly exceeds the value of 188 mA hg"−"1 in pristine HCS. Remarkably, the data imply excellent long term cycling stability after 100 cycles in both cases. The results hence show that mesoporous HCS/metal oxide nanocomposites enable exploiting the potential of metal oxide anode materials in Lithium-ion batteries by providing a HCS host structure which is both conductive and stable enough to accommodate big volume change effects. - Highlights: • Strategy to synthesize hollow carbon spheres decorated by metal oxides nanoparticles. • High-performance of HCS/MOx storage as mesoporous hybrid material. • The results hence demonstrate high electrochemical activity of the HCS/MOx.

  20. Sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Menglu; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Xiaojun; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal self-assembly using silicon nanoparticles, graphene oxide and amino modified carbon nanotubes to develop high-performance anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the structure of composites that Silicon nanoparticles are coated with reduced graphene oxide while amino modified carbon nanotubes wrap around the reduced graphene oxide in the composites. When applied to lithium ion battery, these composites exhibit high initial specific capacity of 2552 mA h/g at a current density of 0.05 A/g. In addition, reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites also have better cycle stability than bare Silicon nanoparticles electrode with the specific capacity of 1215 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The three-dimension sponge-like structure not only ensures the electrical conductivity but also buffers the huge volume change, which has broad potential application in the field of battery.

  1. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  2. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  3. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  4. Electrochemical studies of ferrocene in a lithium ion conducting organic carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoire, Cormac O.; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a detailed study of the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) to ferrocenium ion (Fc + ) in the non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte composed of a solution of 1 M LiPF 6 in 1:1 EC:EMC solvent mixture. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the Fc 0 /Fc + redox couple is reversible in this highly concentrated electrolyte. The ferrocene and ferrocenium ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from these results. In addition, the electron transfer rate constant (k 0 ) and the exchange current density for the oxidation of ferrocene were determined. A comparison of the kinetic data obtained from the two electrochemical techniques appears to show that the data from the RDE experiments are more reliable because they are collected under strict mass transport control. A Tafel slope of c.a. 79 mV/decade and a transfer coefficient α of 0.3 obtained from analysis of the RDE data for ferrocene oxidation suggest that the structure of the activated complex is closer to that of the oxidized specie due to strong interactions with the carbonate solvents. The experiments reported here are relevant to the study of redox reagents for the chemical overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries.

  5. Single-ion conducting diblock terpolymers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melody; Epps, Thomas H., III

    Block polymer (BP) electrolytes provide an attractive route to overcome the competing constraints of high conductivity and mechanical/thermal stability in lithium-ion batteries through nanoscale self-assembly. For example, macromolecules can be engineered such that one domain conducts lithium ions and the other prevents lithium dendrite formation. Herein, we report on the behavior of a single-ion conducting BP electrolyte that was designed to facilitate the transport of lithium ions. These polymers differ from traditional salt-doped BP electrolytes, which require the addition of a lithium salt to bestow conductivity and typically suffer from substantial counterion motion that reduces efficiency. New single-ion BPs were synthesized, and the nanoscale morphologies were determined using small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Electrolyte performance was measured using AC impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization, and the results were correlated to nanoscale morphology and ion content. Enhanced physical understanding of single-ion BPs was gained by connecting the ion mobility to the chemistry, chain structure, and ion content of the single-ion BP. These studies can be applied to other charged-neutral block polymers to elucidate the effects of ion content on self-assembly and macroscopic properties.

  6. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  7. Solid NMR study of lithium ions accommodated in various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Noriko

    2008-01-01

    Solid NMR was used to elucidate the lithium accommodation/extraction reaction in various transition metal oxides. The first study was the lithium ion exchange reaction of titanium antimonic acid (TiSbA). The effect of hydration on the selectivity of lithium ion in the solid phase was examined using 7 Li NMR. The second study was the irreversible ion exchange behavior of HNbO 3 . The selectivity for the lithium ion and the irreversible behavior were examined using 1 H and 7 Li NMR. The third study was the isotope separation between 6 Li and 7 Li in various inorganic ion exchangers. The high isotope separation coefficient was ascribed to the degree of dehydration during the ion exchange reaction. The degree of dehydration was examined by 1 H and 7 Li NMR studies. The last study was determining the mechanism of the lithium accommodation/extraction reaction of λ-MnO 2 in an aqueous solution. The different paths between the accommodation and extraction and the formation of MnO 4- during the accommodation were determined by chemical analysis. The Knight shift in the 7 Li MAS-NMR spectra of Li 0.5 MnO 2 suggested the localization of the electron density on the lithium nuclei. An XPS study also suggested the presence of an electron density on the lithium nuclei. A pH-independent redox couple was assumed to account for the accommodation/extraction reaction of lithium ions, such as Li(I)/Li(0). (author)

  8. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Lina; Qin, Xue; Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B_2O_3–SnO_2/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B_2O_3 plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B_2O_3–SnO_2/graphene (B_2O_3–SnO_2/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B_2O_3 dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO_2/G composite. The B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g"−"1 at 500 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO_2-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B_2O_3 played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B_2O_3–SnO_2/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Boron oxide–tin oxide/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Lina [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin, Xue, E-mail: qinxue@tju.edu.cn [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Meng, Wei; Cao, Ning; Song, Zhonghai [Department of chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G anode material is prepared by chemical heat solvent method for LIBs. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G shows much improved cycling performance and rate capability. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3} plays an important role in improving the performance. - Abstract: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/graphene (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G) composite is fabricated via a chemical heat solvent method and utilized as anode material for lithium ion batteries. The added B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dramatically improves the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries compared to the SnO{sub 2}/G composite. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composites as anode show an outstanding discharge capacity of 1404.9 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1} after 200 cycles and an excellent rate capacity, which apparently outperforms the previously reported SnO{sub 2}-based anode material. These improved electrochemical performance characteristics are due to the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} played a buffering role, which are easily beneficial for accommodating the volume change during the lithium ions insertion/extraction processes. Furthermore, boron atoms can accept electrons for its electron-deficient nature and boron ions could release electrons, which lead to electrons' increased density and conductivity are increased. The results indicate that the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SnO{sub 2}/G composite is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  11. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  12. Cu_2O Hybridized Titanium Carbide with Open Conductive Frameworks for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huang; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Yunlong; Fransaer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Though MXenes, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides, are generating considerable interests as electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, further application is hindered by their low capacities and poor rate capabilities. Here we propose a simple route for the synthesis of Cu_2O particle hybridized titanium carbide Ti_2CT_x (T = O, OH) composites via a solvothermal method. Electrodes containing Cu_2O/MXene were fabricated without carbon black, and tested as anodes for lithium ion batteries. A discharge capacity of 143 mAh g"−"1 was obtained at a discharge current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 and the capacity retention was near 100% after 200 cycles. The hybrid electrodes with open conductive frameworks exhibited significantly improved electrochemical performance, suggesting a new method for preparing MXene-based composites for energy storage application.

  13. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO_2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO_2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF_2. The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO_2 is caused by the reformed SnO_2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO_2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li"+/Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF_2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li"+/Li is due to the fact that SnF_2 is formed below the SnO_2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO_2/Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanghui, Wu; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H 2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m −1 , which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m −1 ). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains

  15. Micro-length anodic porous niobium oxide for lithium-ion thin film battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    The anodization of niobium in an aqueous mixture of H 3 PO 4 and HF in the potential range from 2.5 to 30 V for 2 h at 5 °C was performed, demonstrating that anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of up to 2000 nm, including a surface dissolution layer, can be obtained by controlling the applied potential and composition of the electrolytes. Specifically, surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 800 nm can be prepared in a low electrolyte concentration. The surface dissolution is observed when the concentration ratio of HF (wt.%):H 3 PO 4 (M) was more than 2:1. The discontinuous layers in the niobium oxide film were observed when the thickness was higher than 500 nm, which was ascribed to the large volume expansion of the niobium oxide grown from the niobium metal. The anodic porous niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries in the potential range from 1.2 to 3.0 V at a current density of 7.28 × 10 − 6 A cm −2 . The first discharge capacity of ca. 53 μA h cm − 2 was obtained in 800 nm thick niobium oxide without a surface dissolution layer. - Highlights: ► Anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 2000 nm was obtained. ► Surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film was prepared. ► The niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries

  16. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of nickel oxide nanosheets for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with excellent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-11-01

    Nickel oxide nanosheets have been successfully synthesized by a facile ethylene glycol mediated hydrothermal method. The morphology and crystal structure of the nickel oxide nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission SEM, and TEM. When applied as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, nickel oxide nanosheets exhibited a high, reversible lithium storage capacity of 1193 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1), an enhanced rate capability, and good cycling stability. Nickel oxide nanosheets also demonstrated a superior specific capacitance of 999 F g(-1) at a current density of 20 A g(-1) in supercapacitors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Silver/carbon nanotube hybrids: A novel conductive network for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fangdong; Qiu, Kehui; Peng, Gongchang; Xia, Li

    2015-01-01

    LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 /Ag composite cathodes are synthesized by a thermal decomposition method and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are uniformly introduced into the composites through ball mixing. A composite electrically conductive network consisting of CNTs and Ag is obtained to improve the conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 material. By comparing with the pure LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 and cathode modified by CNTs or Ag, the as-obtained LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 –CNT/Ag electrode exhibits the best rate capability (120.6 mAh/g at 5C) and cycle performance (134.2 mAh/g at 1C with a capacity retention of 94.4% over 100 cycles). With the construction of 3D spatial conductive network, the novel hybrid CNT/Ag demonstrates itself a promising strategy to improve Li storage performance for lithium ion batteries

  19. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  20. A Universal Strategy for Hollow Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated into B/N Co-Doped Graphitic Nanotubes as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Zou, Ruqiang; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Song; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Guo, Shaojun

    2018-02-01

    Yolk-shell nanostructures have received great attention for boosting the performance of lithium-ion batteries because of their obvious advantages in solving the problems associated with large volume change, low conductivity, and short diffusion path for Li + ion transport. A universal strategy for making hollow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into B, N co-doped graphitic nanotubes (TMO@BNG (TMO = CoO, Ni 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 ) through combining pyrolysis with an oxidation method is reported herein. The as-made TMO@BNG exhibits the TMO-dependent lithium-ion storage ability, in which CoO@BNG nanotubes exhibit highest lithium-ion storage capacity of 1554 mA h g -1 at the current density of 96 mA g -1 , good rate ability (410 mA h g -1 at 1.75 A g -1 ), and high stability (almost 96% storage capacity retention after 480 cycles). The present work highlights the importance of introducing hollow TMO NPs with thin wall into BNG with large surface area for boosting LIBs in the terms of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda, Yasushi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Katoh, Takashi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode, a Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic. (author)

  2. To immobilize polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol for synthesizing new polymer electrolyte membrane of lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs are potentially applicable in lithium-ion batteries with high safety, low cost and good performance. Here, to take advantages of ionic conductivity and selectivity of borate ester-functionalized small molecules as well as structural properties of polymer nanocomposite, a strategy of immobilizing as-synthesized polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride (B-PEG/LiF in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol (GO/PVA to prepare a PEM is put forward. Chemical structure of the PEM is firstly characterized by 1H-, 11B- and 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, respectively, and then is further investigated under consideration of the interactions among PVA, B-PEG and LiF components. The immobilization of B-PEG/LiF in PVA-based structure is confirmed. As the interactions within electrolyte components can be further tuned by GO, ionic conductivity (~10–3 S·cm–1, lithium-ion transfer number (~0.49, and thermal (~273 °C/electrochemical (>4 V stabilities of the PEM can be obtained, and the feasibility of PEMs applied in a lithium-ion battery is also confirmed. It is believed that such PEM is a promising candidate as a new battery separator.

  3. Statistical analysis on hollow and core-shell structured vanadium oxide microspheres as cathode materials for Lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data, the statistical analyses of vanadium oxide microspheres cathode materials are presented for the research article entitled “Statistical analyses on hollow and core-shell structured vanadium oxides microspheres as cathode materials for Lithium ion batteries” (Liang et al., 2017 [1]. This article shows the statistical analyses on N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and morphology vanadium oxide microspheres as cathode materials for LIBs. Keywords: Adsorption-desorption isotherm, Pore size distribution, SEM images, TEM images

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition of Stable LiAlF4 Lithium Ion Conductive Interfacial Layer for Stable Cathode Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Sendek, Austin D; Cubuk, Ekin D; Zhang, Xiaokun; Lu, Zhiyi; Gong, Yongji; Wu, Tong; Shi, Feifei; Liu, Wei; Reed, Evan J; Cui, Yi

    2017-07-25

    Modern lithium ion batteries are often desired to operate at a wide electrochemical window to maximize energy densities. While pushing the limit of cutoff potentials allows batteries to provide greater energy densities with enhanced specific capacities and higher voltage outputs, it raises key challenges with thermodynamic and kinetic stability in the battery. This is especially true for layered lithium transition-metal oxides, where capacities can improve but stabilities are compromised as wider electrochemical windows are applied. To overcome the above-mentioned challenges, we used atomic layer deposition to develop a LiAlF 4 solid thin film with robust stability and satisfactory ion conductivity, which is superior to commonly used LiF and AlF 3 . With a predicted stable electrochemical window of approximately 2.0 ± 0.9 to 5.7 ± 0.7 V vs Li + /Li for LiAlF 4 , excellent stability was achieved for high Ni content LiNi 0.8 Mn 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 electrodes with LiAlF 4 interfacial layer at a wide electrochemical window of 2.75-4.50 V vs Li + /Li.

  5. Self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks and graphene oxide as precursors for lithium-ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xia [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Liu, Linlin [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong); Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Lee, Chun-Sing, E-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-15

    We fabricated composites of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide as lithium-ion batteries anode material with controlled structures by employing self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and polymer-functionalized graphene oxide as precursors. By electrostatic interaction, the negatively charged MOFs, Prussian Blue (PB), are assembled on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene oxide (positive charge). Then the PB cubes become FeOOH nanosheets when treated with sodium hydroxide. Upon further annealing, the FeOOH nanosheets transform to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles while the graphene oxide become reduced graphene oxide simultaneously. It was found that the composites have good performance as anode of lithium-ion battery. This work shows a new way for self-assembling MOFs and 2D materials.

  6. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO3 and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukeun; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Song, Huesup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 . - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO 3 was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO 3 nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li + /Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO 3 after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li 5.5 WO 3 ) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO 3 particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries

  7. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The C-MnO/rGO composites were anchored on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. • The novel architecture of anodes effectively improved the electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery. • The active MnO nanodendrites became smaller nanoparticles still wrapped in graphene sheets after cycles. - Abstract: Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  8. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g -1 , which is about three times of 372 mA h g -1 , the value expected for the LiC 6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  9. Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel Nanocomposites Building Superior Rate Capability for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Xifei; Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Xianfa; Xiong, Dongbin; Yan, Bo; Wang, Yufen; Li, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method. • The performance of nanocomposite anodes highly depended on the hydrothermal time. • The 3-4 nm-sized SnO 2 /GAs showed enhanced cycling performance and rate performance. - Abstract: SnO 2 has attracted intense interest for use as an anode material for lithium ion batteries because of various advantages of the high theoretical capacity and low-cost. Unfortunately, SnO 2 anode material suffers from the huge volume change and poor electrical conductivity. In order to address these problems, in this work, SnO 2 /graphene aerogel composites have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach. 3-4 nm-sized SnO 2 nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed over graphene aerogels. Our results indicate that the hydrothermal reaction time highly affects the electrode performance of the anodes. The nanocomposite electrode with reaction time of 3 h shows increased electrochemical performance with high energy capacity, long cycle life, and superior rate capability. After 100 cycles, it can deliver a high discharge capacity of 662 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 . At 500 mA g −1 , it can still yield a discharge capacity of 619.7 mAh g −1 after 723 cycles. The performance improvement can attribute to the graphene aerogel, which can suppress the aggregation of SnO 2 nanoparticles, enhance the conductivity of SnO 2 , and increase their structural stability during cycling. This study strongly demonstrates that the SnO 2 /graphene aerogel composite is a promising anode material building high performance lithium ion batteries

  10. Conductivity and applications of Li-biphenyl-1,2-dimethoxyethane solution for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Chu; Bo-Nan Liu; Fei Luo; Wen-Jun Li; Hao Lu; Li-Quan Chen; Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    The total conductivity of Li-biphenyl-l,2-dimethoxyethane solution (LixBp(DME)9.65,Bp =biphenyl,DME =1,2-dimethoxyethane,x =0.25,0.50,1.00,1.50,2.00) is measured by impedance spectroscopy at a temperature range from 0 ℃C to 40 ℃C.The Li1.50Bp(DME)9.65 has the highest total conductivity 10.7 mS/cm.The conductivity obeys Arrhenius law with the activation energy (Ea(x=0.50) =0.014 eV,Ea(x=1.00) =0.046 eV).The ionic conductivity and electronic conductivity of LixBp(DME)9.65 solutions are investigated at 20 ℃C using the isothermal transient ionic current (ITIC) technique with an ion-blocking stainless steal electrode.The ionic conductivity and electronic conductivity of Li1.00Bp(DME)9.65 are measured as 4.5 mS/cm and 6.6 mS/cm,respectively.The Li1.00Bp(DME)9.65 solution is tested as an anode material of half liquid lithium ion battery due to the coexistence of electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity.The lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and Li1.5Al0.5Ti1.5(PO4)3 (LATP) are chosen to be the counter electrode and electrolyte,respectively.The assembled cell is cycled in the voltage range of 2.2 V-3.75 V at a current density of 50 mA/g.The potential of Lit.00Bp(DME)9.65 solution is about 0.3 V vs.Li+/Li,which indicates the solution has a strong reducibility.The Li1.00Bp(DME)9.65 solution is also used to prelithiate the anode material with low first efficiency,such as hard carbon,soft carbon and silicon.

  11. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  12. Formation and effect of orientation domains in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Karalee A.; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Knight, James C.; Rabenberg, Lew; Manthiram, Arumugam; Ferreira, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    We show that in layered oxides that are employed as cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, the cation layers can order on different {111} NaCl planes within a single particle, which makes the lithium layer discontinuous across a particle. The findings challenge previous assertions that lithium undergoes 2-D diffusion in layered oxides and the data provide new insights into the decrease in rate capabilities for some layered oxides. Therefore, it is critically important to understand how these discontinuities form and how the loss of 2-D diffusion impacts the overall performance of the layered oxide cathode materials. Employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we find that as the material transitions from a disordered to an ordered state, it forms four orientation variants corresponding to the four {111} NaCl planes. This transition is not intrinsic to all layered oxides and appears to be more strongly affected by nickel. Furthermore, with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we show that there is an increase in the nickel concentration at the interface between each orientation variant. This reduces the rate of lithium diffusion, negatively affects the rate capability, and could be contributing to the overall capacity fade.

  13. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  14. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-25

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  15. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  16. Nanoporous titanium niobium oxide and titanium tantalum oxide compositions and their use in anodes of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Qiao, Zhenan

    2017-10-31

    Nanoporous metal oxide framework compositions useful as anodic materials in a lithium ion battery, the composition comprising metal oxide nanocrystals interconnected in a nanoporous framework and having interconnected channels, wherein the metal in said metal oxide comprises titanium and at least one metal selected from niobium and tantalum, e.g., TiNb.sub.2-x Ta.sub.xO.sub.y (wherein x is a value from 0 to 2, and y is a value from 7 to 10) and Ti.sub.2Nb.sub.10-vTa.sub.vO.sub.w (wherein v is a value from 0 to 2, and w is a value from 27 to 29). A novel sol gel method is also described in which sol gel reactive precursors are combined with a templating agent under sol gel reaction conditions to produce a hybrid precursor, and the precursor calcined to form the anodic composition. The invention is also directed to lithium ion batteries in which the nanoporous framework material is incorporated in an anode of the battery.

  17. Graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite as an anode for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycki Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reduced graphene oxide (rGO is regarded as a highly interesting material which is appropriate for possible applications in electrochemistry, especially in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Several methods were proposed for the preparation of rGO-based electrodes, resulting in high-capacity LIBs anodes. However, the mechanism of lithium storage in rGO and related materials is still not well understood. In this work we focused on the proposed mechanism of favorable bonding sites induced by additional functionalities attached to the graphene planes. This mechanism might increase the capacity of electrodes. In order to verify this hypothesis the composite of non-reduced graphene oxide (GO with multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrodes was fabricated. Electrochemical properties of GO composite anodes were studied in comparison with similarly prepared electrodes based on rGO. This allowed us to estimate the impact of functional groups on the reversible capacity changes. As a result, it was shown that oxygen containing functional groups of GO do not create, in noticeable way, additional active sites for the electrochemical reactions of lithium storage, contrary to what has been postulated previously.

  18. Iron-antimony-based hybrid oxides as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Kim, Doo Soo; Hur, Jaehyun; Park, Min Sang; Yoon, Sukeun; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-06-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize Fe-Sb-based hybrid oxides nanocomposites consisting of Sb, Sb2O3, and Fe3O4 for use as new anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The composites are synthesized via galvanic replacement between Fe3+ and Sb at high temperature in triethylene glycol medium. The phase, morphology, and composition changes of the composites involved in the various stages of the replacement reaction are characterized using X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as-prepared composites have different compositions with very small particle sizes (interfacial contact area between the nanocomposite and electrolyte, stable structure of the composites owing to a mixture of inactive phases generated by the conversion reaction between Li+ and oxide metal-whose structure serves as an electron conductor, inhibits agglomeration of Sb particles, and acts as an effective buffer against volume change of Sb during cycling-and high Li+ diffusion ability.

  19. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  20. A novel solution combustion synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles as negative-electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Wu Jinming; Tu Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxides fabricated by solution combustion synthesis for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. ► The additive of NaF in precursor results in an eruption combustion mode. ► The eruption combustion leads to fluffy networks with smaller grains and more macroporous voids. ► The network contributes to higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Low cost mass production of cobalt oxide nanoparticles with high electrochemical performance is of practical interest for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In this report, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by solution combustion synthesis, with the introduction of NaF into the precursor to alter the combustion mode. The novel eruption combustion resulted in fluffy networks with smaller particles and more macroporous voids, which contributed to the higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance when compared with that achieved by the conventional combustion mode.

  1. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  2. Novel synthesis of holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) by microwave irradiation method for anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharaeh, Edreese; Ahmed, Faheem; Aldawsari, Yazeed; Khasawneh, Majdi; Abuhimd, Hatem; Alshahrani, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this work, holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) was synthesized by the deposition of silver (Ag) nanoparticles onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets followed by nitric acid treatment to remove Ag nanoparticles by microwave irradiation to form a porous structure. The HRGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. These novel HRGO exhibited high rate capability with excellent cycling stability as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results have shown an excellent electrochemical response in terms of charge/discharge capacity (423 mAh/g at 100 mA/g). The cyclic performance was also exceptional as a high reversible capacity (400 mAh/g at 100 mA/g) was retained for 100 charge/discharge cycles. This fascinating electrochemical performance can be ascribed to their specific porous structure (2-5 nm pores) and high surface area (457 m2/g), providing numerous active sites for Li+ insertion, high electrical conductivity, low charge-transfer resistance across the electrolyte-electrode interface, and improved structural stability against the local volume change during Li+ insertion-extraction. Such electrodes are envisioned to be mass scalable with relatively simple and low-cost fabrication procedures, thereby providing a clear pathway toward commercialization.

  3. SnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Cyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Xike; Ma, Zengsheng; Lin, Jianguo; Lu, Chunsheng

    2016-04-01

    SnO2 is considered as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries, however, how to build energetic SnO2-based electrode architectures has still remained a big challenge. In this article, we developed a facile method to prepare SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite for an anode material of lithium-ion batteries. It is shown that, at the current density of 0.25 A.g-1, SnO2/RGO has a high initial capacity of 1705 mAh.g-1 and a capacity retention of 500 mAh . g-1 after 50 cycles. The total specific capacity of SnO2/RGO is higher than the sum of their pure counterparts, indicating a positive synergistic effect on the electrochemical performance.

  4. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  5. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  6. Structure dependent electrochemical performance of Li-rich layered oxides in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Fang; Yao, Yuze; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Shi-Gang; Shao, Minhua

    2017-04-08

    Rational and precise control of the structure and dimension of electrode materials is an efficient way to improve their electrochemical performance. In this work, solvothermal or co-precipitation method is used to synthesize lithium-rich layered oxide materials of Li1.2Mn0.56Co0.12Ni0.12O2 (LLO) with various morphologies and structures, including microspheres, microrods, nanoplates, and irregular nanoparticles. These materials exhibit strong structure- dependent electrochemical properties. The porous hierarchical structured LLO microrods exhibit the best performance, delivering a discharge capacity of 264.6 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C with over 91% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 5 C, a high discharge capacity of 173.6 mAh g(-1) can be achieved. This work reveals the relationship between the morphologies and electrochemical properties of LLO cathode materials, and provides a feasible approach to fabricating robust and high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheyu; Li, Xifei; Tai, Limin; Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui; Li, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO 2 /GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO 2 nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS 2 is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g −1 is over 447.9 mAh g −1 , and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO 2 /GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO 2 was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries

  8. Synthesis and performance of cerium oxide as anode materials for lithium ion batteries by a chemical precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haowen; Le, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, chemical precipitation method was employed for preparing cerium oxide. XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA/DTA and BET were used to investigate the structure, shape and formation mechanism, respectively. No impurities were detected. It was found that alcohol had obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. The shape of the precursor was retained after calcined at 500 °C. This result led to the possibility of an easy scale up to a commercial process. EIS and charge–discharge tests were carried out by using the as-prepared CeO_2 as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Specially, the initial discharge specific capacity of the rhombus CeO_2 was about 529 mAh g"−"1 and stabilized reversibly at about 374 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles. It showed a promising usage as anode materials in lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • Chemical precipitation method was employed for the synthesis of cerium oxide. • Alcohol has obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. • The rhombus CeO_2 showed the better electrochemical properties as anode of lithium ion batteries.

  9. Synthesis and performance of cerium oxide as anode materials for lithium ion batteries by a chemical precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haowen, E-mail: liuhwchem@hotmail.com; Le, Qi

    2016-06-05

    In this present work, chemical precipitation method was employed for preparing cerium oxide. XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA/DTA and BET were used to investigate the structure, shape and formation mechanism, respectively. No impurities were detected. It was found that alcohol had obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. The shape of the precursor was retained after calcined at 500 °C. This result led to the possibility of an easy scale up to a commercial process. EIS and charge–discharge tests were carried out by using the as-prepared CeO{sub 2} as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Specially, the initial discharge specific capacity of the rhombus CeO{sub 2} was about 529 mAh g{sup −1} and stabilized reversibly at about 374 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. It showed a promising usage as anode materials in lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • Chemical precipitation method was employed for the synthesis of cerium oxide. • Alcohol has obvious effection on the growth of the final sample. • The rhombus CeO{sub 2} showed the better electrochemical properties as anode of lithium ion batteries.

  10. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Gil [Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam [Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Huesup, E-mail: hssong@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3} with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO{sub 3} nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3} was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li{sub 5.5}WO{sub 3}) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO{sub 3} particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. “Double-Sandwich-Like” CuS@reduced graphene oxide as an Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wei, Hengma; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jiawei; Ding, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuS@reduced graphene oxide displays excellent electrochemical behavior as an anode material for Lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: The CuS@reduced graphene oxide (CSG) was synthesized and used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). CuS nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via a hydrothermal method. The rGO nanosheets in the CSG hydrids can improve the electrical conductivity and structure stability of CSG. The LIB with a CSG anode displays excellent performance, with a first discharge capacity up to 851 mAh/g, a reversible capacity of 648.1 mAh/g in the initial cycle, and an enhanced cyclic performance with a discharge capacity of 710.7 mAh/g at the 100 th cycle, which corresponds to 114.3% of the theoretical value of CSG and 83.5% of the first discharge capacity accompanied by an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99.1% at a current density of 0.2 C, which is much larger than (close to 4.5 times) that with a pure CuS anode at the 100 th cycle (159.7 mAh/g). This phenomenon can be attributed to the synergistic action of CuS nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets in the “double-sandwich-like” CSG hybrids. These results indicate that CSG is an excellent anode material and has promising prospects in lithium ion batteries applications

  12. Lithium ion conduction in sol-gel synthesized LiZr2(PO4)3 polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Milind; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Anita, Sen, Somaditya; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    Safety issue associated with the high flammability and volatility of organic electrolytes used in commercial rechargeable lithium ion batteries has led to significant attention to ceramic-based solid electrolytes. In the present study, lithium ion conduction in two polymorphs of LiZr2(PO4)3 synthesized via the sol-gel route has been investigated. Rietveld refinement of room temperature X-ray diffraction data of LiZr2(PO4)3 powders calcined at 900 °C and 1300 °C confirmed these to be the monoclinic phase with P21/n structure and rhombohedral phase with R3¯c structure, respectively. Increase in calcination temperature and resultant phase transformation improved the room temperature conductivity from 2.27×10-6 ohm-1m-1 for the monoclinic phase to 1.41×10-4 ohm-1m-1 for rhombohedral phase. Temperature dependence of conductivity was modeled using Arrhenius law and activation energy of ˜ 0.59 eV (for monoclinic phase) and ˜0.50 eV (for rhombohedral phase) were obtained.

  13. Porous one-dimensional carbon/iron oxide composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high and stable capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yeqian; Jasper, Samuel; Leary, Jennifer D.; Li, Dawei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-01-01

    Hematite iron oxide (α-Fe_2O_3) is considered to be a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (1007 mAh g"−"1), nontoxicity, and low cost. However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume change during Li insertion/extraction of α-Fe_2O_3 hinder its use in practical batteries. In this study, carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers, prepared via an electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment process, are employed as the anode material for LIBs. The as-prepared porous nanofibers with a carbon content of 12.5 wt% show improved cycling performance and rate capability. They can still deliver a high and stable capacity of 715 mAh g"−"1 even at superior high current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles with a large Coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. Such improved electrochemical performance can be assigned to their unique porous fabric structure as well as the conductive carbon coating which shorten the distance for Li ion transport, enhancing Li ion reversibility and kinetic properties. It is, therefore, demonstrated that carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofiber prepared under optimized conditions is a promising anode material candidate for LIBs. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers are employed as anode material to achieve high and stable electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries, enhancing their commercial viability. - Highlights: • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers exhibit stable cyclability and good rate capability. • α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers maintain high capacity at 1000 mA g"−"1 for 200 cycles. • A capacity retention of 99.2% is achieved by α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers after 200 cycles.

  14. A Review on the Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanomaterials and Their Applications on Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recently, manganese oxides nanomaterials, including MnO and MnO2, have attracted great interest as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs for their high theoretical capacity, environmental benignity, low cost, and special properties. Up to now, manganese oxides nanostructures with excellent properties and various morphologies have been successfully synthesized. Herein, we provide an in-depth discussion of recent development of the synthesis of manganese oxides nanomaterials and their application in the field of LIBs.

  15. Minimization of Ion-Solvent Clusters in Gel Electrolytes Containing Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Hsien; Yeh, Te-Fu; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Jan, Jeng-Shiung; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Teng, Hsisheng

    2018-03-01

    This study uses graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) to enhance the Li + -ion mobility of a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The GPE comprises a framework of poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylacetate) blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) and a salt LiPF 6 solvated in carbonate solvents. The GOQDs, which function as acceptors, are small (3-11 nm) and well dispersed in the polymer framework. The GOQDs suppress the formation of ion-solvent clusters and immobilize PF6- anions, affording the GPE a high ionic conductivity and a high Li + -ion transference number (0.77). When assembled into Li|electrolyte|LiFePO 4 batteries, the GPEs containing GOQDs preserve the battery capacity at high rates (up to 20 C) and exhibit 100% capacity retention after 500 charge-discharge cycles. Smaller GOQDs are more effective in GPE performance enhancement because of the higher dispersion of QDs. The minimization of both the ion-solvent clusters and degree of Li + -ion solvation in the GPEs with GOQDs results in even plating and stripping of the Li-metal anode; therefore, Li dendrite formation is suppressed during battery operation. This study demonstrates a strategy of using small GOQDs with tunable properties to effectively modulate ion-solvent coordination in GPEs and thus improve the performance and lifespan of LIBs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Hybrids of MoS2 and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yu; Ortiz-Quiles, Edwin O.; Cabrera, Carlos R.; Chen, Zhongfang; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids were prepared by rGO involved lithiation-exfoliation method. • This hybrid exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances due to the existence of rGO. • The roles of rGO in different charging/discharging processes were interpreted by computations. - Abstract: Two-dimensional MoS 2 shows great potential for effective Li storage due to its good thermal and chemical stability, high theoretical capacity, and experimental accessibility. However, the poor electrical conductivity and the restacking tendency significantly restrict its applications to lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To overcome these problems, we introduced reduced graphene oxides (rGO) to the intercalation-exfoliation preparation process of few-layered MoS 2 and obtained layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids. With the addition of rGO, the restacking of MoS 2 layers was apparently inhibited, and MoS 2 with 1 ∼ 3 layers was obtained in the composite. Due to the positive role of rGO, MoS 2 /rGO hybrids exhibited highly enhanced cyclic stability and high-rate performances as LIB anodes in comparison with bare MoS 2 layers or bulk MoS 2 . Moreover, the experimental results were well interpreted through density functional theory computations

  17. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  18. Mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires: hydrothermal synthesis, characterisation and applications for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with superior performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Woo-Seong; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-06-25

    Mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. The porous one-dimensional nanostructures were analysed by field-emission SEM, high-resolution TEM and N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherm measurements. When applied as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires demonstrated outstanding electrochemical performance with high lithium storage capacity, satisfactory cyclability and an excellent rate capacity. They also exhibited a high specific capacitance of 348 F g(-1) as electrodes in supercapacitors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. One-step synthesis of continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes-Titanium oxide composite films as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongxu; Hou, Feng; Wan, Zhipeng; Zhao, Sha; Yang, Deming; Liu, Jiachen; Guo, Anran; Gong, Yuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNTs/TiO 2 compoiste films synthesized are continuous and free-standing. • The film can be directly used as flexible, binder-free Lithium-Ion Battery electrode. • The CNTs/TiO 2 electrodes exhibit excellent rate capacity and cyclic stability. • Our strategy is readily applicable to fabricate other CNTs-based composite films. - Abstract: Continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)/Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) composite films were fabricated in a vertical CVD gas flow reactor with water sealing by the One-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) approach. The composite films consist of multiple layers of conductive carbon nanotube networks with titanium oxide nanoparticles decorating on carbon nanotube surface. The as-synthesized flexible and transferrable composite films show excellent electrochemical properties, when the content of tetrabutyl titanate is 19.0 wt.%, which can be promising as binder-free anodes for Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) applications. It demonstrates remarkably high rate capacity of 150 mAh g −1 , as well as excellent high rate cyclic stability over 500 cycles (current density of 3000 mA g −1 ). Such observations can be attributed to the relatively larger surface area and pore volume comparing with pristine CNT films. Great potentials of CNTs/TiO 2 composite films for large-scale production and application in energy devices were shown

  20. Monodispersed macroporous architecture of nickel-oxide film as an anode material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores was prepared on a stainless-steel substrate by electrophoretic deposition of a polystyrene-sphere monolayer followed by anodic electrodeposition of nickel oxy-hydroxide. The deposited films convert to cubic nickel oxide after annealing at 400 o C for 1 h. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film, especially in high-rate charge and discharge processes. The lithiation capacity of macroporous nickel oxide reaches 1620 mA h g -1 at 1 C current discharge and decreases to 990 mA h g -1 at 15 C current discharge. The presence of monodispersed open macropores in the nickel-oxide film might facilitate the electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. Electrochemical reactions between nickel oxide and lithium ions are therefore markedly improved by this tailored film architecture.

  1. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  2. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rong [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yue, Wenbo, E-mail: wbyue@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ren, Yu [National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy, Beijing 102209 (China); Zhou, Wuzong [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fite KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO{sub 2} displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO{sub 2} hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  3. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  4. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Eren, Tanju; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 . • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  5. Interface-modulated approach toward multilevel metal oxide nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries and oxygen reduction reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiashen Meng; Chaojiang Niu; Xiong Liu; Ziang Liu; Hongliang Chen; Xuanpeng Wang; Jiantao Li

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide hollow structures with multilevel interiors are of great interest for potential applications such as catalysis,chemical sensing,drug delivery,and energy storage.However,the controlled synthesis of multilevel nanotubes remains a great challenge.Here we develop a facile interface-modulated approach toward the synthesis of complex metal oxide multilevel nanotubes with tunable interior structures through electrospinning followed by controlled heat treatment.This versatile strategy can be effectively applied to fabricate wire-in-tube and tubein-tube nanotubes of various metal oxides.These multilevel nanotubes possess a large specific surface area,fast mass transport,good strain accommodation,and high packing density,which are advantageous for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).Specifically,shrinkable CoMn2O4 tube-in-tube nanotubes as a lithium-ion battery anode deliver a high discharge capacity of ~565 mAh.g-1 at a high rate of 2 A.g-1,maintaining 89% of the latter after 500 cycles.Further,as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst,these nanotubes also exhibit excellent stability with about 92% current retention after 30,000 s,which is higher than that of commercial Pt/C (81%).Therefore,this feasible method may push the rapid development of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials.These multifunctional nanotubes have great potential in many frontier fields.

  6. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  7. Carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide multilayer anchored to nanostructured current collector as lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhengjiao; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Boli; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Silicon is the most promising anode material for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and low intrinsic conductivity hamper its electrochemical performance. Here we report a well-designed LIB anode in which carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Si/rGO) multilayer was anchored to nanostructured current collector with stable mechanical support and rapid electron conduction. Furthermore, we improved the integral stability of the electrode through introducing amorphous carbon. The designed anode exhibits superior cyclability, its specific capacity remains above 800 mAh g{sup −1} after 350 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact that the Si/rGO multilayer is reinforced by the nanostructured current collector and the formed amorphous carbon, which can maintain the structural and electrical integrities of the electrode.

  8. Copper Silicate Hydrate Hollow Spheres Constructed by Nanotubes Encapsulated in Reduced Graphene Oxide as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiujuan; Tang, Chunjuan; Wang, Xuanpeng; Zhou, Liang; Wei, Qiulong; Yan, Mengyu; Sheng, Jinzhi; Hu, Ping; Wang, Bolun; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-12-09

    Hierarchical copper silicate hydrate hollow spheres-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite is successfully fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method using silica as in situ sacrificing template. The electrochemical performance of the composite as lithium-ion battery anode was studied for the first time. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of the hierarchical hollow structure and conductive RGO matrix, the composite exhibits excellent long-life performance and rate capability. A capacity of 890 mAh/g is achieved after 200 cycles at 200 mA/g and a capacity of 429 mAh/g is retained after 800 cycles at 1000 mA/g. The results indicate that the strategy of combining hierarchical hollow structures with conductive RGO holds the potential in addressing the volume expansion issue of high capacity anode materials.

  9. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  10. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  11. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anguo; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g −1 at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path

  12. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  13. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  14. Synthesis of bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites and their electrochemical properties for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhou, Chengkun; Huang, Lei; Wang, Xiwen; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Bi 2 S 3 /reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal route and exhibited an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability as anode material of lithium ion battery. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets that not only buffer the large volume changes during the alloy/dealloy reaction of Li and Bi, but also provide a highly conductive network for rapid electron transport in electrode during electrochemical reaction. -- Highlights: •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites were in situ prepared by one-pot hydrothermal route. •The Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles are homogeneous dispersion on the RGO sheets. •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO exhibits excellent cycling stability and high rate capability. •This work will also of interest for supercapacitor and solar cells. -- Abstract: A simple one-pot hydrothermal route was developed to synthesize bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites (Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites) in this work. The morphology and crystalline structure of the obtained products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that graphite oxide (GO) sheets were in situ reduced to a certain extent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation indicated that the Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles, with a size of 80–100 nm in length, are anchored on RGO sheets. Electrochemical tests show the Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composite exhibits an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability compared to pure Bi 2 S 3 particles prepared by a similar route in the absence of GO. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets

  15. Novel lithium titanate-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiyi, Li; Tengyuan, Chen; Beibei, Sun [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zaijun, Li [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhiquo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We developed a new Novel lithium titanate-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. The unique architecture creates fast electron transfer and rapid mass transport of electrolyte. The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performances for lithium-ion batteries, including high specific capacity, outstanding rate capability and intriguing cycling stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new LTO-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. • One graphene framework greatly improves the electrical conductivity of LTO crystal. • Another graphene framework enhances electrical conductivity of between LTO crystals and electrolyte transport. • The unique architecture creates big tap density, ultrafast electron transfer and rapid mass transport. • The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries. - ABSTRACT: The paper reported the synthesis of lithium titanate(LTO)-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks (G@LTO@G). Tetrabutyl titanate and graphene were dispersed in tertbutanol and heated to reflux state by microwave irradiation. Followed by adding lithium acetate to produce LTO precursor/graphene (p-LTO/G). The resulting p-LTO/G offers homogeneous morphology and ultra small size. All graphene sheets were buried in the spherical agglomerates composed of primitive particles through the second agglomeration. The p-LTO/G was calcined to LTO@graphene (LTO@G). To obtain G@LTO@G, the LTO@G was further hybridized with graphene. The as-prepared G@LTO@G shows well-defined three-dimensional structure and hierarchical porous distribution. Its unique architecture creates big tap density, fast electron transfer and rapid electrolyte transport. As a result, the G@LTO@G provides high specific capacity (175.2 mA h g{sup −1} and 293.5 mA cm{sup −3}), outstanding rate capability (155.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 10C) and intriguing cycling

  16. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruixue [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials and Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  17. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g −1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  18. Self-assembly silicon/porous reduced graphene oxide composite film as a binder-free and flexible anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Xiong, Q.Q.; Cheng, J.D.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    A Si/porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite film synthesized by evaporation and leavening method are developed as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. The porous structure as buffer base can effectively release the volume expansion of the silicon particles, increase the electrical conductivity and reduce the transfer resistance of Li ions. The Si/porous rGO composite film presents high specific capacity and good cycling stability (1261 mA h g −1 at 50 mA g −1 up to 70 cycles), as well as enhanced rate capability. This approach to prepare such a unique structure is a low-cost and facile route for the silicon-based anode materials

  19. Facilely scraping Si nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide sheets onto nickel foam as binder-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyuan; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Liu, Zhengjiao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Liu, Boli; Wang, Qi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    Binder-free electrodes of Si nanoparticles@reducedgrapheneoxidesheets(Si@rGO) for lithium ion batteries were facilely fabricated by scraping the mixture of commercial Si powder, graphene oxide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) onto nickel foam and following a heat treatment. It was shown that the Si@rGO electrode performs an excellent electrochemical behavior. Even at a current density as high as 4 A/g, a reversible capacity of 792 mAh/g was obtained after 100 cycles. A small amount of PVP additive plays important roles, it not only increases the viscosity of the mixture paint in the coating process, but also improves the conductivity of the overall electrode after carbonization.

  20. Embedding ultrafine ZnSnO3 nanoparticles into reduced graphene oxide composites as high-performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhang; Jiang, Ranran; Li, Dan; Dong, Yutao; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafine ZnSnO3 nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 45 nm, homogeneously grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully fabricated via methods of low temperature coprecipitation, colloid electrostatic self-assembly, and hydrothermal treatment. The uniformly distributed ZnSnO3 nanocrystals could inhibit the restacking of rGO sheets. In turn, the existence of rGO could hinder the growth and aggregation of ZnSnO3 nanoparticles in the synthesis process, increase the conductivity of the composite, and buffer the volume expansion of the ZnSnO3 nanocrystals upon lithium ion insertion and extraction. The obtained ZnSnO3/rGO exhibited superior cycling stability with a discharge/charge capacity of 718/696 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1.

  1. Electrospinning of Ceramic Solid Electrolyte Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Ionic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods, which demonstrated the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics. Cubic phase LLZO was stabilized at room temperature in the form of electrospun NWs without extrinsic dopants. Bulk LLZO with tetragonal structure was transformed to the cubic phase using particle size reduction via ball milling. Heating conditions that promoted particle coalescence and grain growth induced a transformation from the cubic to tetragonal phase in both types of nanostructured LLZO. Composite polymer solid electrolyte was fabricated using LLZO NWs as the filler and showed an improved ionic conductivity at room temperature. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li+ conduction through the modified polymer regions. Doping did not have significant effect on improving the overall conductivity as the interfaces played a predominant role. By comparing fillers with different morphologies and intrinsic conductivities, it was found that both NW morphology and high intrinsic conductivity are desired.

  2. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  3. Study on lithium/air secondary batteries - Stability of NASICON-type lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Jian; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    The water stability of the fast lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic electrolyte, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATP), has been examined in distilled water, and aqueous solutions of LiNO{sub 3}, LiCl, LiOH, and HCl. This glass-ceramics are stable in aqueous LiNO{sub 3} and aqueous LiCl, and unstable in aqueous 0.1 M HCl and 1 M LiOH. In distilled water, the electrical conductivity slightly increases as a function of immersion time in water. The Li-Al/Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y}/LATP/aqueous 1 M LiCl/Pt cell, where lithium phosphors oxynitrides Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y} (LiPON) are used to protect the direct reaction of Li and LATP, shows a stable open circuit voltage (OCV) of 3.64 V at 25 C, and no cell resistance change for 1 week. Lithium phosphors oxynitride is effectively used as a protective layer to suppress the reaction between the LATP and Li metal. The water-stable Li/LiPON/LATP system can be used in Li/air secondary batteries with the air electrode containing water. (author)

  4. Binary conductive network for construction of Si/Ag nanowires/rGO integrated composite film by vacuum-filtration method and their application for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.

  5. Mesoporous Tin-Based Oxide Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Composites as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Half/Full Cells and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Dong, Caifu; Li, Chuanchuan; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-10-04

    The large volume variations of tin-based oxides hinder their extensive application in the field of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, structure design, hybrid fabrication, and carbon-coating approaches have been simultaneously adopted to address these shortcomings. To this end, uniform mesoporous NiO/SnO 2 @rGO, Ni-Sn oxide@rGO, and SnO 2 @rGO nanosphere composites have been selectively fabricated. Among them, the obtained NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite exhibited a high capacity of 800 mAh g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 after 400 cycles. The electrochemical mechanism of NiO/SnO 2 as an anode for LIBs has been preliminarily investigated by ex situ XRD pattern analysis. Furthermore, an NiO/SnO 2 @rGO-LiCoO 2 lithium-ion full cell showed a high capacity of 467.8 mAh g -1 at 500 mA g -1 after 100 cycles. Notably, the NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite also showed good performance when investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). It is believed that the unique mesoporous nanospherical framework, synergistic effects between the various components, and uniform rGO wrapping of NiO/SnO 2 shorten the Li + ion diffusion pathways, maintain sufficient contact between the active material and the electrolyte, mitigate volume changes, and finally improve the electrical conductivity of the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Zn substitution NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Junwei [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lam, Kwok-ho [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon 999077 (Hong Kong); Ru, Qiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun, E-mail: husj@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Zn{sup 2+} ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g{sup −1}at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  7. Zn substitution NiFe_2O_4 nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Junwei; Hou, Xianhua; Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang; Lam, Kwok-ho; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun

    2016-01-01

    Zn"2"+ ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g"−"1at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  8. Flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors based on electrically conducting carbon nanotube fiber springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Cheng, Xunliang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-22

    The construction of lightweight, flexible and stretchable power systems for modern electronic devices without using elastic polymer substrates is critical but remains challenging. We have developed a new and general strategy to produce both freestanding, stretchable, and flexible supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries with remarkable electrochemical properties by designing novel carbon nanotube fiber springs as electrodes. These springlike electrodes can be stretched by over 300 %. In addition, the supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a flexible fiber shape that enables promising applications in electronic textiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoflower arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering method. The aligned Ag nanoflower arrays on copper substrate are prepared by a facile displacement reaction in absence of any surfactant at a mild temperature. When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays show better cycling performance and higher capacity than the planar NiO electrodes. The improved performance should be attributed to the core-shell structures that can enhance the conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  10. Smart construction of polyaniline shell on cobalt oxides as integrated core-shell arrays for enhanced lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Meili; Xie, Dong; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2017-01-01

    Smart construction of advanced anode materials is extremely critical to develop high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, we have reported a facile strategy for fabricating Co 3 O 4 /polyaniline (PANI) core–shell arrays (CSAs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) + electrodeposition methods Electrodeposited PANI shell is intimately decorated on the CBD-Co 3 O 4 nanorods forming composite CSAs. Highly conductive network and stress buffer layer are achieved with the aid of tailored PANI shell. Due to these advantages above, the designed Co 3 O 4 /PANI CSA S exhibit good electrochemical performance with higher reversible capacity (787 mAh g −1 ) and better cycle stability than the unmodified Co 3 O 4 counterpart. Our results show a new way for preparing advanced inorganic-organic composite electrodes for electrochemical energy storage.

  11. Exfoliation and reassembly of cobalt oxide nanosheets into a reversible lithium-ion battery cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C; Abouimrane, Ali; An, Zhi; Palmeri, Marc J; Brinson, L Catherine; Amine, Khalil; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2012-04-10

    An exfoliation-reassembly-activation (ERA) approach to lithium-ion battery cathode fabrication is introduced, demonstrating that inactive HCoO(2) powder can be converted into a reversible Li(1-x) H(x) CoO(2) thin-film cathode. This strategy circumvents the inherent difficulties often associated with the powder processing of the layered solids typically employed as cathode materials. The delamination of HCoO(2) via a combination of chemical and mechanical exfoliation generates a highly processable aqueous dispersion of [CoO(2) ](-) nanosheets that is critical to the ERA approach. Following vacuum-assisted self-assembly to yield a thin-film cathode and ion exchange to activate this material, the generated cathodes exhibit excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO(2) (~83 mAh g(-1) ), with this good electrochemical performance attributable to the high degree of order in the reassembled cathode. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High-Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Eom, Wonsik; Park, Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-08-02

    Control of the crystal structure of electrochemically active materials is an important approach to fabricating high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we report a methodology for controlling the crystal structure of TiO 2 nanofibers by adding aluminum isopropoxide to a common sol-gel precursor solution utilized to create TiO 2 nanofibers. The introduction of aluminum cations impedes the phase transformation of electrospun TiO 2 nanofibers from the anatase to the rutile phase, which inevitably occurs in the typical annealing process utilized for the formation of TiO 2 crystals. As a result, high-temperature stable anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were created in which the crystal structure was well-maintained even at high annealing temperatures of up to 700 °C. Finally, the resulting anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were utilized to prepare LIB anodes, and their electrochemical performance was compared to pristine TiO 2 nanofibers that contain both anatase and rutile phases. Compared to the electrode prepared with pristine TiO 2 nanofibers, the electrode prepared with anatase TiO 2 nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performances such as an initial Coulombic efficiency of 83.9%, a capacity retention of 89.5% after 100 cycles, and a rate capability of 48.5% at a current density of 10 C (1 C = 200 mA g -1 ).

  13. Lithium ion conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with Lithium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, R.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Shilpa, R.; Moniha, V.

    2018-04-01

    The Biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with lithium nitrate of different concentrations have been prepared by solution casting technique. The decrease in crystalline nature of the biopolymer has been identified by XRD analyses. The complex formation between the polymer and the salt has been revealed using FTIR analysis. The ionic conductivity has been explored using A.C. impedance spectroscopy which reveals that the biopolymer containing 30 wt% Pectin: 70wt%LiNO3 has highest ionic conductivity of 3.97 × 10-3 Scm-1.

  14. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  15. Crystal structure and lithium ion conductivity of A-site deficient perovskites La1/3-xLi3xTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Hayashi, Shinsuke

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure and lithium ion conductivity of La 1/3-x Li 3x TaO 3 solid solutions with the A-site deficient perovskite structure have been studied. Single phase solid solutions were obtained in the range of x=0 to 1/6. Change from tetragonal to cubic structure and decrease in the lattice volume were observed with increasing the x value. The maximum conductivity obtained was 7 x 10 -3 S·m -1 at x=0.06. The composition-dependence on the carrier concentration was calculated and compared with conductivity data. (author)

  16. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  17. Iron oxide shell coating on nano silicon prepared from the sand for lithium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-05-01

    Elemental silicon, due to its high specific capacity (4200 mAh g-1) and non-toxicity is expected to be an attractive anode material for Li-ion battery. But its huge expansion volume (> 300 %) during charging of battery, leads to pulverization and cracking in the silicon particles and causes sudden failure of the Li-ion battery. In this work, we have designed yolk-shell type morphology of silicon, prepared from carbon coated silicon nanoparticles soaked in aqueous solution of ferric nitrate and potassium hydroxide. The soaked silicon particles were dried and finally calcined at 800 °C for 30 minutes. The product obtained is deprived of carbon and has a kind of yolk-shell morphology of nano silicon with iron oxide coating (Si@Iron oxide). This material has been tested for half-cell lithium-ion battery configuration. The discharge capacity is found to be ≈ 600 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1.0 A g-1 for 200 cycles. It has shown a stable performance as anode for Li-ion battery application.

  18. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Compact-Nanobox Engineering of Transition Metal Oxides with Enhanced Initial Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Hu, Aiping; Tang, Qunli; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Li, Yanhua; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Binbin; Xiao, Kuikui; Liu, Jilei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2018-03-14

    A novel strategy is proposed to construct a compact-nanobox (CNB) structure composed of irregular nanograins (average diameter ≈ 10 nm), aiming to confine the electrode-electrolyte contact area and enhance initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes. To demonstrate the validity of this attempt, CoO-CNB is taken as an example which is synthesized via a carbothermic reduction method. Benefiting from the compact configuration, electrolyte can only contact the outer surface of the nanobox, keeping the inner CoO nanograins untouched. Therefore, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation is reduced. Furthermore, the internal cavity leaves enough room for volume variation upon lithiation and delithiation, resulting in superior mechanical stability of the CNB structure and less generation of fresh SEI. Consequently, the SEI remains stable and spatially confined without degradation, and hence, the CoO-CNB electrode delivers an enhanced ICE of 82.2%, which is among the highest values reported for TMO-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the CoO-CNB electrode also demonstrates excellent cyclability with a reversible capacity of 811.6 mA h g -1 (90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles). These findings open up a new way to design high-ICE electrodes and boost the practical application of TMO anodes.

  20. Graphene Oxides Used as a New "Dual Role" Binder for Stabilizing Silicon Nanoparticles in Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Changsheng; Wu, Kaifeng; Yen, Hung-Ju; Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia; Nakotte, Tom; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Wu, Gang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2018-05-09

    For the first time, we report that graphene oxide (GO) can be used as a new "dual-role" binder for Si nanoparticles (SiNPs)-based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). GO not only provides a graphene-like porous 3D framework for accommodating the volume changes of SiNPs during charging/discharging cycles, but also acts as a polymer-like binder that forms strong chemical bonds with SiNPs through its Si-OH functional groups to trap and stabilize SiNPs inside the electrode. Leveraging this unique dual-role of GO binder, we fabricated GO/SiNPs electrodes with remarkably improved performances as compared to using the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. Specifically, the GO/SiNPs electrode showed a specific capacity of 2400 mA h g -1 at the 50th cycle and 2000 mA h g -1 at the 100th cycle, whereas the SiNPs/PVDF electrode only showed 456 mAh g -1 at the 50th cycle and 100 mAh g -1 at 100th cycle. Moreover, the GO/SiNPs film maintained its structural integrity and formed a stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) film after 100 cycles. These results, combined with the well-established facile synthesis of GO, indicate that GO can be an excellent binder for developing high performance Si-based LIBs.

  1. NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhijie; Xiang, Junxiang; Zhao, Benliang [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qu, Yan [The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213145 (China); Xiang, Bin, E-mail: binxiang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A core-shell structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by rGO is synthesized by a PDDA assisted method. • Cushion effect of the rGO coating enhances the structure integrity. • Performance of the composites during cycling are improved remarkably compared to the pure nanobelts. - Abstract: Recently, layered transition metal chalcogenides (LTMCs) have attracted great attention as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, the volume expansion and structure instability of LTMCs during the lithiation and delithiation process still remains challenging. Herein, we report NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced-graphene oxide (NbSe{sub 3}@rGO) utilized as buffer layers with enhanced electrochemical performance. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to probe features of the NbSe{sub 3}@rGO. The NbSe{sub 3}@rGO nanobelts as anode exhibit a discharge capacity of 300 mAh/g at the current density of 100 mAh/g after 250 cycles, several times higher than pure NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts. The improved electrochemical performance of NbSe{sub 3}@rGO is attributed to a buffer effect from the rGO, cushioning the volume-change-induced strain effect on the structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts during cycling.

  2. General access to metal oxide (Metal = Mn, Co, Ni) double-layer nanospheres for application in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of metal oxide double layer nanospheres were prepared. • The obtained materials show excellent performances in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. • The unique structure of double layers is beneficial for superior electrochemical performances. - Abstract: In this work, a series of metal oxide double-layer nanospheres (DLNs), such as Mn 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, NiCo 2 O 4 , and MnCo 2 O 4 have been successfully synthesized through a general template method. The layers of nanospheres were assembled by different nanostructure units and the removing of the SiO 2 template formed a void of several ten nanometers between the double layers, resulting large specific surface areas for them. The energy storage performances of the as-prepared double-layer nanospheres were further investigated in lithium ion battery and supercapacitor systems. Based on their unique nanostructures, the double-layer nanospheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with long cycle stability and high specific capacities or capacitances. The best of these, DLNs-NiCo 2 O 4 can deliver a reversible capacity of 1107 mAh g −1 at 0.25C after 200 cycles in lithium ion battery system, and shows a capacitance of 1088 F g −1 with capacitance loss of less than 3% at 5 A g −1 after 5000 cycles in supercapacitors.

  3. Melt quenched vanadium oxide embedded in graphene oxide sheets as composite electrodes for amperometric dopamine sensing and lithium ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejesh, M.; Shenoy, Sulakshana; Sridharan, Kishore; Kufian, D.; Arof, A. K.; Nagaraja, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Electrochemical sensors and lithium-ion batteries are two important topics in electrochemistry that have attracted much attention owing to their extensive applications in enzyme-free biosensors and portable electronic devices. Herein, we report a simple hydrothermal approach for synthesizing composites of melt quenched vanadium oxide embedded on graphene oxide of equal proportion (MVGO50) for the fabrication of electrodes for nonenzymatic amperometic dopamine sensor and lithium-ion battery applications. The sensing performance of MVGO50 electrodes through chronoamperometry studies in 0.1 M PBS solution (at pH 7) over a wide range of dopamine concentration exhibited a highest sensitivity of 25.02 μA mM-1 cm-2 with the lowest detection limit of 0.07 μM. In addition, the selective sensing capability of MVGO50 was also tested through chronoamperometry studies by the addition of a very small concentration of dopamine (10 μM) in the presence of a fairly higher concentration of uric acid (10 mM) as the interfering species. Furthermore, the reversible lithium cycling properties of MVGO50 are evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling studies. MVGO50 electrodes exhibited enhanced rate capacity of up to 200 mAhg-1 at a current of 0.1C rate and remained stable during cycling. These results indicate that MVGO composites are potential candidates for electrochemical device applications.

  4. Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black with open conductive frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Yijun; Ji, Mandi; Xu, Yunlong; Wang, Qingqing; Luo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode for lithium ion battery, the composite exhibits ultrahigh capacity and excellent low temperature performance. - Highlights: • Mesoporous LTO/KB composites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • KB is used as carbon template and conductive additive. • The LTO/KB electrode without carbon black was fabricated. • This as-prepared electrode shows excellent rate capacity performance. • LTO/KB composite exhibits ultrahigh cycle performance at low temperature. - Abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The materials are characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, EDS, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, CV and EIS. The results indicate that Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) particles grow both in the pores and on the surface of mesoporous Ketjen Black (KB) forming open conductive frameworks and the Ketjen Black works as host forthe growth of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 primary nanoparticles. The LTO/KB electrode is fabricated without extra carbon black conductive agents and exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, especially at low temperature. The improved performances can be attributed to the presence of mesoporous Ketjen Black conductive templates with high electronic conductivity and formed 3D frameworks beneficial to the lithium ion diffusion.

  5. A design strategy of large grain lithium-rich layered oxides for lithium-ion batteries cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiong; Wang, Zhenhua; Rooney, David; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Feng, Jie; Qiao, Jinshuo; Sun, Wang; Sun, Kening

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasound-assisted mixing lithium was used to synthesize Lithium-rich layered oxides. • Lithium-rich layered oxides composed of large grain had high capacity and high cycling stability. • This unique large grain overcomes stress-induced structural collapse caused by Li-ion insertion/extraction and reduces dissolution of Mn ions. • A new strategy of large grain could be employed to synthesize the other complex architectures for various applications. - Abstract: Li-rich materials are considered the most promising for Li-ion battery cathodes, as high capacity can be achieved. However, poor cycling stability is a critical drawback that leads to poor capacity retention. Here a strategy is used to synthesize a large-grain lithium-rich layered oxides to overcome this difficulty without sacrificing rate capability. This material is designed with micron scale grain with a width of about 300 nm and length of 1–3 μm. This unique structure has a better ability to overcome stress-induced structural collapse caused by Li-ion insertion/extraction and reduce the dissolution of Mn ions, which enable a reversible and stable capacity. As a result, this cathode material delivered a highest discharge capacity of around 308 mAh g −1 at a current density of 30 mA g −1 with retention of 88.3% (according to the highest discharge capacity) after 100 cycles, 190 mAh g −1 at a current density of 300 mA g −1 and almost no capacity fading after 100 cycles. Therefore, Lithium-rich material of large-grain structure is a promising cathode candidate in Lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and high cycle stability for application. This strategy of large grain may furthermore open the door to synthesize the other complex architectures for various applications

  6. A novel durable double-conductive core-shell structure applying to the synthesis of silicon anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Shen, Tong; Guo, Ting; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Xinhui; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-01

    Si/C composites are currently the most commercially viable next-generation lithium-ion battery anode materials due to their high specific capacity. However, there are still many obstacles need to be overcome such as short cycle life and poor conductivity. In this work, we design and successfully synthesis an excellent durable double-conductive core-shell structure p-Si-Ag/C composites. Interestingly, this well-designed structure offers remarkable conductivity (both internal and external) due to the introduction of silver particles and carbon layer. The carbon layer acts as a protective layer to maintain the integrity of the structure as well as avoids the direct contact of silicon with electrolyte. As a result, the durable double-conductive core-shell structure p-Si-Ag/C composites exhibit outstanding cycling stability of roughly 1000 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 and retain 765 mAh g-1 even at a high current density of 2 A g-1, indicating a great improvement in electrochemical performance compared with traditional silicon electrode. Our research results provide a novel pathway for production of high-performance Si-based anodes to extending the cycle life and specific capacity of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  7. SnO2 Quantum Dots@Graphene Oxide as a High-Rate and Long-Life Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Niu, Chaojiang; He, Liang; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Longbin; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-02-03

    Tin-based electrode s offer high theoretical capacities in lithium ion batteries, but further commercialization is strongly hindered by the poor cycling stability. An in situ reduction method is developed to synthesize SnO2 quantum dots@graphene oxide. This approach is achieved by the oxidation of Sn(2+) and the reduction of the graphene oxide. At 2 A g(-1), a capacity retention of 86% is obtained even after 2000 cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  9. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  10. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail: jbzhao@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  11. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  12. In-situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified lithium vanadium phosphate for high-rate lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Guo, Haifu; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-decorated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is synthesized via microwave irradiation. • Both Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and RGO can be simultaneously achieved through this route. • The GO is reduced by microwave irradiation not the carbon. • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /RGO displays excellent high-rate ability and cyclic stability. - Abstract: We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation. By treating graphene oxide and the precursor of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 in a commercial microwave oven, both reduced graphene oxide and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 could be simultaneously synthesized within 5 min. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of as-synthesized graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD result indicates that single-phase graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with monoclinic structure can be obtained. Both SEM and TEM images show that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocrystals are embedded in the reduced graphene oxide sheets which could provide an easy path for the electrons and Li-ions during the cycling process. Compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 electrode, graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits a better high-rate ability and cyclic stability. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the good conductivity of reduced graphene oxide which enhances the electrons and Li-ions transport on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . Thus, this simple and rapid method could be promising to synthesize graphene-modified electrode materials

  13. Transition metal alloy-modulated lithium manganese oxide nanosystem for energy storage in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the synergistic and catalytic properties of a newly developed lithium ion battery (LIB) composite cathode of LiMn(sub2)O(Sub4) modified with bimetallic (Au–Fe) nanoparticle. Spinel phase LiMn(sub)2O(sub4) was doped...

  14. Melt quenched vanadium oxide embedded in graphene oxide sheets as composite electrodes for amperometric dopamine sensing and lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreejesh, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Surathkal, Mangaluru 575 025 (India); Shenoy, Sulakshana [Functional Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Surathkal, Mangaluru 575 025 (India); Sridharan, Kishore, E-mail: kishore@nitk.edu.in [Functional Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Surathkal, Mangaluru 575 025 (India); Kufian, D.; Arof, A.K. [Centre for Ionics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nagaraja, H.S., E-mail: nagaraja@nitk.edu.in [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Surathkal, Mangaluru 575 025 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Layered vanadium oxides (MVO) are prepared through melt quenching process. • MVO is hydrothermally treated with graphene oxide to form MVGO composites. • Dopamine detection capacity using MVGO is 0.07 μM with good selectivity. • Sensitivity of dopamine detection is 25.02 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. • Discharge capacity of MVGO electrode is 200 mAhg{sup −1} after 10 cycles. - Abstract: Electrochemical sensors and lithium-ion batteries are two important topics in electrochemistry that have attracted much attention owing to their extensive applications in enzyme-free biosensors and portable electronic devices. Herein, we report a simple hydrothermal approach for synthesizing composites of melt quenched vanadium oxide embedded on graphene oxide of equal proportion (MVGO50) for the fabrication of electrodes for nonenzymatic amperometic dopamine sensor and lithium-ion battery applications. The sensing performance of MVGO50 electrodes through chronoamperometry studies in 0.1 M PBS solution (at pH 7) over a wide range of dopamine concentration exhibited a highest sensitivity of 25.02 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} with the lowest detection limit of 0.07 μM. In addition, the selective sensing capability of MVGO50 was also tested through chronoamperometry studies by the addition of a very small concentration of dopamine (10 μM) in the presence of a fairly higher concentration of uric acid (10 mM) as the interfering species. Furthermore, the reversible lithium cycling properties of MVGO50 are evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling studies. MVGO50 electrodes exhibited enhanced rate capacity of up to 200 mAhg{sup −1} at a current of 0.1C rate and remained stable during cycling. These results indicate that MVGO composites are potential candidates for electrochemical device applications.

  15. Cr-substituted LiCoPO4 core with a conductive carbon layer towards high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Junhong; Qiu, Jingyi; Yu, Zhongbao; Ming, Hai; Li, Meng; Zhang, Songtong; Yang, Yusheng

    2018-02-01

    Electrical and ionic conductivity are two major limiting factors for LiCoPO4 cathode material. To overcome these shortcomings, a Cr-substituted LiCoPO4 core with a conductive carbon layer cathode material is synthesized using the sol-gel method. The physical chemistry properties of these materials are systematically investigated by using various characterization methods. For instance, the XRD and Rietveld refinement results reveal that Cr successfully substitutes the Co within the LiCoPO4 core to form LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) without changing the olivine structure but exhibits a decrease in the unit cell volume with increasing Cr substitution. SEM and TEM images indicate that Cr substitution does not lead to changes in the basic morphology of LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) material, which is composed of agglomerated nanoparticles with an 8 nm carbon layer on the surface. The EDS and XPS results confirm that Cr is uniformly distributed on the surface and that the oxidation state of Cr is +3. FTIR spectra indicate that the antisite defect concentration decreases with increasing Cr substitution. Furthermore, Cr substitution significantly improves the electrochemical performances of LiCo1-1.5xCrxPO4/C (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) cathode. Notably, the LiCo0.94Cr0.04PO4/C delivers an initial discharge capacity of 144 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 71% after 100 cycles between 3.0 and 5.0 V. The CV and EIS results indicate that the polarization is reduced and that the electronic and ionic conductivities are improved by Cr substitution. The good electrochemical performances for Cr-substituted LiCoPO4/C electrodes are attributed to the lower antisite defect concentration, as the reduction of polarization, the improvement of electronic and ion conductivity and the uniform carbon layer. These features will accelerate the commercial application of LiCoPO4 towards the start-art of the high voltage lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Co-reduction self-assembly of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets coated Cu2O sub-microspheres core-shell composites as lithium ion battery anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi-Tao; Guo, Ying; Song, Le-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M.F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) sub-microspheres @ reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets core-shell composites with 3D architecture are successfully fabricated by a one-step method through co-reduction of irregular cupric citrate and graphene oxide nanosheets at room temperature. Comparing to the bare Cu 2 O sub-microspheres and the simple physical mixture of Cu 2 O and rGO (Cu 2 O-rGO-M), the Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes demonstrate dramatically improved capacity, cyclic stability and rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. At a low current density of 100 mA∙g −1 , Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes deliver a discharge capacity of 534 mAh∙g −1 after 50 cycles, retaining 94% of the initial capacity. Under a higher current density of 1000 mA∙g −1 , Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes exhibit a discharge capacity of 181 mAh∙g −1 after 200 cycles, approximately 4 times larger than that of bare Cu 2 O sub-microsphere electrodes. The rate capacity retention of Cu 2 O@rGO electrode is 74% at 200 mA∙g −1 and 38% at 1000 mA∙g −1 relative to 100 mA∙g −1 , much better than that for Cu 2 O-rGO-M (52% and 34%) and bare Cu 2 O electrodes (13% and 3%,). The enhanced electrochemical performance for Cu 2 O@rGO might be ascribed to the rGO coating and 3D architecture. The outer coated rGO nanosheets could provide additional 3D conductive networks as well as serve as the buffer layers for accommodating the large volume change of the inner Cu 2 O sub-microspheres during the charge-discharge cycling

  17. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  18. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  19. A novel vanadium oxide deposit for the cathode of asymmetric lithium-ion supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing-Mei; Hu, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu (China); Chang, Kuo-Hsin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi (China)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrous vanadium oxide (denoted as VO{sub x}.yH{sub 2}O) deposited at 0.4 V shows promising capacitive behavior in aqueous media containing concentrated Li ions. VO{sub x}.yH{sub 2}O annealed in air at 300 C for 1 h shows highly reversible Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation behavior with specific capacitance reaching ca. 737 and 606 F g{sup -} {sup 1} at 25 and 500 mV s{sup -1} in 12 M LiCl between -0.2 and 0.8 V. In 14 M LiCl, retention of specific capacitance is about 95% when the scan rate is increased from 25 to 500 mV s{sup -} {sup 1}. This work is the first report showing the ultrahigh rate of Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation in VO{sub x}.yH{sub 2}O. A so-called Li-ion supercapacitor of the asymmetric type consisting of a VO{sub x}.yH{sub 2}O cathode and a WO{sub 3}{sup .}zH{sub 2}O anode is proposed here. (author)

  20. Solvent transfer of graphene oxide for synthesis of tin mono-sulfide graphene composite and application as anode of lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Alok M., E-mail: alokmani@iitb.ac.in; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Destabilization of graphene oxide colloid and SnS graphene composite preparation for lithium-ion battery. - Abstract: Tin mono sulfide (SnS) graphene composite has been synthesized for anode of lithium-ion battery. For synthesis of composite, graphene oxide (GO)-water (H{sub 2}O) colloid has been destabilized and ensured the complete transfer of graphene oxide into another organic solvent N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Mechanism for the destabilization of GO-H{sub 2}O colloid is established. Surface to surface attachment of SnS on graphene sheet is achieved by solvothermal solution phase assembly of graphene sheets and SnS nanoparticles in DMF solvent. Graphene plays role in nanoparticle formation in composite. Such confined composite has been cycled reversibly at current rate of 160 mA g{sup −1}, in voltage region of 0.01–2.5 V and exhibit a superior discharge capacity of 630 mAh g{sup −1} after 50th cycle. Ex situ TEM analysis of used electrode reveal that the SnS nanoparticle-graphene composite with CMC binder perform better due to proper shape retention of electroactive materials during electrochemical cycling.

  1. Solvent transfer of graphene oxide for synthesis of tin mono-sulfide graphene composite and application as anode of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Alok M.; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Destabilization of graphene oxide colloid and SnS graphene composite preparation for lithium-ion battery. - Abstract: Tin mono sulfide (SnS) graphene composite has been synthesized for anode of lithium-ion battery. For synthesis of composite, graphene oxide (GO)-water (H_2O) colloid has been destabilized and ensured the complete transfer of graphene oxide into another organic solvent N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Mechanism for the destabilization of GO-H_2O colloid is established. Surface to surface attachment of SnS on graphene sheet is achieved by solvothermal solution phase assembly of graphene sheets and SnS nanoparticles in DMF solvent. Graphene plays role in nanoparticle formation in composite. Such confined composite has been cycled reversibly at current rate of 160 mA g"−"1, in voltage region of 0.01–2.5 V and exhibit a superior discharge capacity of 630 mAh g"−"1 after 50th cycle. Ex situ TEM analysis of used electrode reveal that the SnS nanoparticle-graphene composite with CMC binder perform better due to proper shape retention of electroactive materials during electrochemical cycling.

  2. Self-assembled 3D ZnSnO3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yankun; Li, Dan; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reducedgrapheneoxideaerogels(ZGAs) were fabricated. • The electrochemical properties of ZGAs were investigated for LIBs. • ZGAs demonstrated superior lithium storage performance. - Abstract: 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels (ZGAs) were fabricated via a colloid electrostatic self-assembly method between the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes colloid, followed by hydrothermal and freeze-drying treatments. The unique porous architecture of ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes encapsulated by flexible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets not only effectively retarded the huge volume expansion during repeated charge-discharge cycles, but also facilitated fast lithium ion and electron transport through 3D networks. The ZGAs exhibited significantly enhanced cycling stability (745.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current of 100 mA g −1 ) and superior rate capability (as high as 552.6 mAh g −1 at 1200 mA g −1 ). The results indicate that the ZGAs are promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of high performance polyhedron sphere like lithium manganese oxide for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglei; Wei, Xiuge; Chang, Zhaorong; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Shangguan, Enbo; Chang, Kun; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance at both 25 °C and 55 °C. - Highlights: • Polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance. • The polyhedron sphere-like structure spinel LiMn 2 O 4 suppresses the dissolution of manganese ions. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 has high diffusion coefficient of Li + . - Abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) is successfully synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C. For comparison, LiMn 2 O 4 materials with nanorod and octahedron structures are also obtained from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor at temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively. The galvanostatic charge–discharge result shows that the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance at high rate and high temperature. After 100 cycles at 5 C, this electrode is able to maintain 94% of its capacity at 25 °C and 81% at 55 °C. This is attributed to that the polyhedron sphere-like spinel LiMn 2 O 4 can suppress the dissolution of manganese ions. Based on Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample has the lowest BET surface area, largest diffusion coefficient of Li + and least charge transfer resistance. This study provides an insight into the capacity fading of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes and the polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 can be a promising material for lithium ion batteries

  5. Chemical, structural, and electrochemical characterization of 5 V spinel and complex layered oxide cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvannamalai Annamalai, Arun Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Lithium ion batteries have revolutionized the portable electronics market since their commercialization first by Sony Corporation in 1990. They are also being intensively pursued for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. Commercial lithium ion cells are currently made largely with the layered LiCoO 2 cathode. However, only 50% of the theoretical capacity of LiCoO 2 can be utilized in practical cells due to the chemical and structural instabilities at deep charge as well as safety concerns. These drawbacks together with the high cost and toxicity of Co have created enormous interest in alternative cathodes. In this regard, spinel LiMn2O4 has been investigated widely as Mn is inexpensive and environmentally benign. However, LiMn 2O4 exhibits severe capacity fade on cycling, particularly at elevated temperatures. With an aim to overcome the capacity fading problems, several cationic substitutions to give LiMn2-yMyO 4 (M = Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) have been pursued in the literature. Among the cation-substituted systems, LiMn1.5Ni0.5O 4 has become attractive as it shows a high capacity of ˜ 130 mAh/g (theoretical capacity: 147 mAh/g) at around 4.7 V. With an aim to improve the electrochemical performance of the 5 V LiMn 1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel oxide, various cation-substituted LiMn1.5-yNi0.5-zMy+zO4 (M = Li, Mg, Fe, Co, and Zn) spinel oxides have been investigated by chemical lithium extraction. The cation-substituted LiMn1.5-yNi0.5-zM y+zO4 spinel oxides exhibit better cyclability and rate capability in the 5 V region compared to the unsubstituted LiMn1.5Ni 0.5O4 cathodes although the degree of manganese dissolution does not vary significantly. The better electrochemical properties of LiMn 1.5-yNi0.5-zMy+zO4 are found to be due to a smaller lattice parameter difference among the three cubic phases formed during the charge-discharge process. In addition, while the spinel Li1-xMn1.58Ni0.42O4 was chemically stable, the spinel Li1-xCo2O4 was found to exhibit both

  6. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Electrochemical improvement of low-temperature petroleum cokes by chemical oxidation with H2O2 for their use as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concheso, A.; Santamaria, R.; Menendez, R.; Jimenez-Mateos, J.M.; Alcantara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of non-graphitized petroleum cokes has been improved by mild oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, a procedure used for the first time in these materials. For this purpose, various carbonisation temperatures and H 2 O 2 treatments were tested. For low sulfur content cokes, the aqueous oxidative treatment significantly increases the capacity values above 372 mAh/g during the first cycles. In contrast, cokes with a sulfur content of ca. 5%, did not shown a real improvement. The former results have been interpreted in terms of an effective oxidation of the particles surface, which removes unorganized carbon, where lithium can be irreversibly trapped. Moreover, a stable and less resistive passivating layer grows during the first discharge of lithium, as revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, chemical procedures, as mild oxidation, open an interesting field of research for the improvement of disordered carbons as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

  8. Diffusion of Lithium Ions in Amorphous and Crystalline Poly(ethylene oxide)_3:LiCF_3SO_3 Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Sha; Liu, Yingdi; Li, Yaping; Teeters, Dale; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Wang, Sanwu

    2017-01-01

    The PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 polymer electrolyte has attracted significant research due to high conductivity and enhanced stability in lithium polymer batteries. Most experimental studies have shown that amorphous PEO lithium salt electrolytes have higher conductivity than the crystalline ones. Other studies, however, have shown that crystalline PEO salt complexes can conduct ions. As a result, further theoretical investigations are warranted to help clarify the issue. In this work, we use density functional theory with the climbing image nudged elastic band method to investigate the atomic-scale mechanism of lithium ion transport in the polymer electrolytes. We also use density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the amorphous structure of PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3. The diffusion pathways and activation energies of lithium ions in both crystalline and amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 are determined. In crystalline PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3, the activation energy for the low-barrier diffusion pathway is approximately 1.0 eV. In the amorphous phase, the value is 0.6 eV. This result would support the experimental observation that amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 has higher ionic conductivity than the crystalline phase.

  9. Highly Conductive In-SnO2/RGO Nano-Heterostructures with Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Palmieri, Alessandro; He, Junkai; Meng, Yongtao; Beauregard, Nicole; Suib, Steven L.; Mustain, William E.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of emerging technologies for high energy density electrochemical storage has led many researchers to look for alternative anode materials to graphite. The most promising conversion and alloying materials do not yet possess acceptable cycle life or rate capability. In this work, we use tin oxide, SnO2, as a representative anode material to explore the influence of graphene incorporation and In-doping to increase the electronic conductivity and concomitantly improve capacity retention and cycle life. It was found that the incorporation of In into SnO2 reduces the charge transfer resistance during cycling, prolonging life. It is also hypothesized that the increased conductivity allows the tin oxide conversion and alloying reactions to both be reversible, leading to very high capacity near 1200 mAh/g. Finally, the electrodes show excellent rate capability with a capacity of over 200 mAh/g at 10C. PMID:27167615

  10. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  11. A molybdenum disulfide/reduced oxide-graphene nanoflakelet-on-sheet structure for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiayu; Zhao, Xianmin; Fu, Yongsheng, E-mail: fuyongsheng0925@163.com; Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangx@njust.edu.cn

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Graphene/MoS{sub 2} hybrid was successfully prepared via a facile solvothermal method. • A novel nanoflakelet-on-sheet morphology was obtained by controlling solvent. • The hybrid showed high capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate capability. • The synergistic effect remarkably improved electrochemical properties. - Abstract: A MoS{sub 2} nanoflakelet/graphene hybrid (MoS{sub 2}/G) is designed and successfully synthesized via a simple and cost-effective strategy. It is found that the MoS{sub 2}/G hybrids prepared using and without using ethanol (EtOH) show different morphologies and EtOH plays a crucial role in the formation of MoS{sub 2} nanoflakelets on graphene. The resulting nanoflakelet-on-sheet structure can be used as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries, because it not only offers plenty of pores and pathways for lithium ions to shuttle back and forth, but also withstands lithium ion intercalation/de-intercalation process without collapse or deformation. The MoS{sub 2}/G hybrid synthesized in EtOH/H{sub 2}O exhibits remarkable reversible capacities of 1902 mAh g{sup −1} and 1454 mAh g{sup −1} in the first discharging and charging cycle, respectively, with a high coulombic efficiency of 76.45%. The hybrid also shows excellent cycle and rate performance. The superior Li storage performance of the MoS{sub 2}/G hybrid is mainly attributed to the intrinsic properties of MoS{sub 2} nanoflakelets and the synergistic effect of the MoS{sub 2} nanoflakelets and graphene.

  12. Flexible Lithium-Ion Fiber Battery by the Regular Stacking of Two-Dimensional Titanium Oxide Nanosheets Hybridized with Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Tatsumasa; Zheng, Yuanchuan; Hou, Junyu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Qingwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Geng, Fengxia

    2017-06-14

    Increasing interest has recently been devoted to developing small, rapid, and portable electronic devices; thus, it is becoming critically important to provide matching light and flexible energy-storage systems to power them. To this end, compared with the inevitable drawbacks of being bulky, heavy, and rigid for traditional planar sandwiched structures, linear fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become increasingly important owing to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, the progress of which being heavily dependent on the development of new fiber-shaped electrodes. Here, we report a novel fiber battery electrode based on the most widely used LIB material, titanium oxide, which is processed into two-dimensional nanosheets and assembled into a macroscopic fiber by a scalable wet-spinning process. The titania sheets are regularly stacked and conformally hybridized in situ with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), thereby serving as efficient current collectors, which endows the novel fiber electrode with excellent integrated mechanical properties combined with superior battery performances in terms of linear densities, rate capabilities, and cyclic behaviors. The present study clearly demonstrates a new material-design paradigm toward novel fiber electrodes by assembling metal oxide nanosheets into an ordered macroscopic structure, which would represent the most-promising solution to advanced flexible energy-storage systems.

  13. Stable High-Capacity Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Produced by Supersonic Spray Deposition of Hematite Nanoparticles and Self-Healing Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Seong, Il Won; Swihart, Mark T.; Yoon, Woo Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were supersonically sprayed onto copper current collectors to create high-performance, binder-free lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes. Supersonic spray deposition is rapid, low-cost, and suitable for large-scale production. Supersonic impact of rGO sheets and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the substrate produces compacted nanocomposite films with short diffusion lengths for Li + ions. This structure produces high reversible capacity and markedly improved capacity retention over many cycles. Decomposition of lithium oxide generated during cycling activates the solid electrolyte interface layer, contributing to high capacity retention. The optimal composition ratio of rGO to Fe 2 O 3 was 9.1 wt.%, which produced a reversible capacity of 1242 mAh g −1 after N = 305 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 (1C).

  14. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-04-18

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response for Lithium ion battery (LIB) applications was evaluated as well. The results herein show that the nanoporous C material was uniformly functionalized with the CoO/Co core-shell NPs. Further the NPs were crystalline with fcc-Type lattice on the Co2+ oxide shell and hcp-Type core of metallic Co0. The electrochemical study was carried out by using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling at a current density of 1000 mA g-1. The potential of this hybrid material for LIB applications was confirmed and it is attributed to the successful dispersion of the Co2+/ Co0 NPs in the C support.

  15. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  16. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  17. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  18. Enhanced electrochemical performance of CoMoO4 nanorods/reduced graphene oxide as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Haonan; Luo, Yazi; Mei, Lin; Guo, Di; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile, green and large scale synthesis method. • CoMoO 4 nanorods possess small diameter (about 40∼60 nm in width and 1.5∼2 μm in length) and uniformly distributed on reduced graphene oxide. • CoMoO 4 nanorods/reduced graphene oxide composite delivered high initial discharge capacity (1496 mA h g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 ), and good cycling (628 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles) and rate performance (a reversible capacity of 372 mA h g −1 at the rate of 5 A g −1 ). - Abstract: CoMoO 4 nanorods with small diameter (about 40∼60 nm in width and 1.5∼2 μm in length) uniformly distributed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets were synthesized via a facile, green wet chemical method. The as-prepared CoMoO 4 /rGO composite was studied as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1496 mA h g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , and good cycling (628 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles) and rate performance (a reversible capacity of 372 mA h g −1 at the rate of 5 A g −1 ). The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the small diameter of the synthesized CoMoO 4 nanorods and the presence of rGO nanosheets, making it a promising candidate for next generation anode material of rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  19. Lithium ion conducting PVA:PVdF polymer electrolytes doped with nano SiO2 and TiO2 filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M.; Tamilselvi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of nano SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on the thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties of PVA:PVdF:LiCF3SO3 have been investigated by three optimized systems of SPE (80PVA:20PVdF:15LiCF3SO3), CPE-I (SPE:8SiO2) and CPE-II (SPE:4TiO2). From the TGA curve least weight loss has been observed for CPE-II indicating high thermal stability compared to other systems. Stress-strain curve of the prepared samples confirm the enhancement of tensile strength in CPE-II compared to CPE-I and SPE. Conductivity studies show that addition of TiO2 filler slightly enhances ionic conductivity 3.7×10-3 S cm-1 compared to filler free system at 303 K. Dielectric plots have been analyzed and CPE-II possesses higher dielectric constant compared to CPE-I and filler free system. Temperature dependence of modulus plots has been studied for highest conductivity possessing sample. Wider electrochemical stability has been obtained for nano-composite polymer electrolytes. The results conclude that the prepared CPE-II shows the best performance and it will be well suited for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Persistent cyclestability of carbon coated Zn–Sn metal oxide/carbon microspheres as highly reversible anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guoqing; Kaneko, Shingo; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zhang, Ruixue; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    Development of high-capacity anode materials equipped with strong cyclestability is a great challenge for use as practical electrode for high-performance lithium-ion rechargeable battery. In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Zn–Sn metal nanocomposite oxide and carbon spheres (ZTO@C/CSs) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. The carbon coated ZTO/carbon microspheres composite maintained a reversible capacity of 680 mAh g −1 after 345 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , and furthermore the cell based on the composite exhibited an excellent rate capability of 470 mAh g −1 even when the cell was cycled at 2000 mA g –1 . The thick carbon layer formed on the ZTO nanoparticles and carbon spheres effectively buffered the volumetric change of the particles, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the electrodes

  1. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cobalt Oxide/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Framework for Enhanced Anodic Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Xia; Liu, Ruili; Liu, Shaoqing; Xiao, Suo; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chi; Wu, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the composites of nitrogen-doped graphene framework and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with adjustable morphologies (NG/Co 3 O 4 ) were fabricated via a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route for first time. Three different surfactants including triblock copolymer F127, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate are involved in the hybrid-assembly of graphene oxide, o-phthalonitrile and cobalt acetate in water/ethanol. Among the obtained samples, the one using F127 (NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127) manifests the most homogeneous distribution of Co 3 O 4 NPs with the size of ∼ 15 nm in the macropore-walls formed by NG. As the anode material in lithium ion battery (LIB), NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, which is superior to the other composites and most of the previously reported Co 3 O 4 based anode materials in LIBs.

  2. Improvement in ionic conductivity of self-supported P(MMA-AN-VAc) gel electrolyte by fumed silica for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Youhao; Rao Mumin; Li Weishan; Tan Chunlin; Yi Jin; Chen Lang

    2009-01-01

    Fumed silica was used as a dopant in the preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate) (P(MMA-AN-VAc)) to improve the ionic conductivity of the P(MMA-AN-VAc)-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). The performance of the P(MMA-AN-VAc) membrane and its GPE for lithium ion battery use were studied by XRD, SEM, TGA, LSV, CA, EIS, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the doping of fumed silica in the P(MMA-AN-VAc) changes the membrane from semi-crystal to amorphous state and the pore structure of the membrane. By the doping of 10 wt.% fumed silica in the membrane, the porosity of the membrane increases with the pore dispersed more uniformly and interconnected and having higher electrolyte uptake, resulting in the improvement in ionic conductivity of the GPE from 3.48 x 10 -3 to 5.13 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at ambient temperature. On the other hand, the thermal stability of the membrane, the electrochemical stability of the GPE, and the cyclic performance of the battery are also improved.

  3. Amorphous-silicon@silicon oxide/chromium/carbon as an anode for lithium-ion batteries with excellent cyclic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingqi; Gu, Jingwei; Feng, Xiaofang; He, Hongyan; Zeng, Chunmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new amorphous-Si@SiO x /Cr/carbon anode composite for lithium-ion batteries is synthesized by a simple method. • At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , this as-prepared composite exhibit a stable discharge capacity of about 810 mAh g −1 with good capacity retention up to 200 cycles. Even at a current density of 800 mA g −1 , a stable discharge capacity of 570 mAh g −1 can be obtained. • This work creates a new method to improve the electrochemical performance of SiO-based electrode materials. - Abstract: A new amorphous-Si@SiO x /Cr/carbon (a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C) anode composite for lithium-ion batteries is synthesized, using SiO, chromium powder and graphite as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) are employed to characterize the composition, morphology and microstructure of the composite. Coin-type cells are assembled to investigate the electrochemical behaviors of the as-prepared composites by constant current charge–discharge technique, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that chromium facilitates the crush of Si@SiO x and graphite during milling, and thus improves their mutual dispersion in the composite. When cycled at 100 mA g −1 , the a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C exhibits a stable discharge capacity of about 810 mAh g −1 (calculated on the mass of a-Si@SiO x /Cr/C) with good capacity retention up to 200 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the reduced particle size of a-Si@SiO x and the synergistic effect of carbon and chromium

  4. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  5. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  6. A facile method of preparing LiMnPO4/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as cathodic material for aqueous lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Senlin; Zhang, Xiao; He, Taobin; Lu, Fengxia; Li, Huichang; Ye, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    A facile method of preparing LiMnPO4/reduced graphene oxide aerogel (LMP/rGO) as cathodic material was reported here. LiMnPO4 nano-particles were prepared using a facile polyvinyl pyrrolidone-assisted solvothermal route. Then LMP/rGO aerogel was prepared using the accessible restacking method. The influence of the cathodic electrode composition (ratio of rGO to LiMnPO4) on the performance of the LMP/rGO was evaluated by constant-current discharge tests. When compared with 217C g-1 for the pristine LMP, the best LMP/rGO (the content of rGO is 27.3 wt%) exhibits a higher capacity of 464.5C g-1 (at 0.5 A g-1), which presenting the capacity enhance of 114%. Moreover, a lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (LIHS) was successfully assembled by using LMP/rGO aerogel as the cathodic electrode and rGO aerogel as the anodic electrode. The LMP/rGO//rGO device achieves excellent specific energy of 16.46 W h kg-1 at a power density of 0.38 kW kg-1, even under the higher specific power of 4.52 kW kg-1, there still holds the specific energy of 11.79 W h kg-1. The LMP/rGO//rGO device maintains 91.2% of the initial capacity after 10,000 cycles (at 2 A g-1), which displays high rate performance and long cycle life. The 3D LMP/rGO aerogel could be a promising candidate material for the lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

  7. In situ electrochemical creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets with favorable performance as a high tap density anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qian; Sha, Yujing; Zhao, Bote; Chen, Yubo; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide nanosheets in situ electrochemical generated from commercial LiCoO_2. • TEM indicates creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from coarse layered LiCoO_2_. • Coarse-type LiCoO_2 with high tap density shows promising anode performance. • Optimizing weight ratio of LiCoO_2 in electrode, a high capacity was achieved. - Abstract: Cobalt oxides are attractive alternative anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve the performance of conversion-type anode materials such as cobalt oxides, well dispersed and nanosized particulate morphology is typically required. In this study, we describe the in situ electrochemical generation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from commercial micrometer-sized LiCoO_2 oxide as an anode material for LIBs. The electrode material as prepared was analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by a constant current galvanostatic discharge–charge test. The material shows a high tap density and promising anode performance in terms of capacity, rate performance and cycling stability. A capacity of 560 mA h g"−"1 is still achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 by increasing the amount of additives in the electrode to 40 wt%. This paper provides a new technique for developing a high-performance conversion-type anode for LIBs.

  8. Preparation and characterization of conducting polyaniline-coated LiVPO4F nanocrystals with core-shell structure and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conducting PANI-coated LiVPO 4 F has been firstly prepared and investigated. • The unique core-shell structure is helpful for the performance of LiVPO 4 F/PANI. • PANI can enhance the electronic conductivity and increase the lithium diffusion coefficient. • LiVPO 4 F/PANI nanocomposite exhibits superior capacity and cycle stability. - Abstract: In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the pure LiVPO 4 F electrode is significantly improved by coating it with the conducting polyaniline via sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the as-prepared sample crystallized in a triclinic LiVPO 4 F phase. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images show that the particle size of the composite is about hundreds of nanometer and the conducting layer of polyaniline is uniformly coated on the surface of LiVPO 4 F particles. Electrochemical tests reveal that the polyaniline-coated LiVPO 4 F composite exhibits superior capacity and cycle stability, delivering an initial discharge capacity of 149.3 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C in the voltage range of 3.0–4.5 V. Even at high current rates, it can still present discharge capacities of 146.7, 140.1, 131.9 and 121.5 mAh g −1 at 0.2, 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively. The superior electrochemical performance of the electrode could be attributed to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which improves the electronic conductivity and Li-ions diffusion of LiVPO 4 F. Therefore, it can be drawn a conclusion that the remarkable electrochemical performance of the polyaniline-coated LiVPO 4 F makes this 4 V-class electrode a promising alternative for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Individually carbon-coated and electrostatic-force-derived graphene-oxide-wrapped lithium titanium oxide nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Ji Yoon; Pham-Cong, De; Jeong, Se Young; Chang, Jinho; Choi, Jun Hee; Braun, Paul V.; Cho, Chae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning and annealing process. • Carbon-coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanofibers are prepared by hydrothermal process. • Individually graphene-oxide-wrapped Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanofibers are prepared by electrostatic force. • Enhanced rate capability of carbon-coated and graphene-oxide-wrapped Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanofibers. - Abstract: The as-electrospun polymeric lithium titanate nanofibers are crystallized into Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 nanofibers (denoted as LTO NFs) via post-annealing. The LTO NFs are coated with a carbon layer using a glucose polymer via hydrothermal synthesis. The GO layer electrostatically attracts to the positively charged LTO NFs, resulting in the uniform wrapping of individual LTO NFs without aggregation. The introduction of uniformly coated carbon and GO double layers led to an enhanced rate capability (110 mAh g"−"1 at 20C) and over two orders of magnitude higher diffusion coefficient (D_L_i = ∼1.04 × 10"−"1"1 cm"2 s"−"1) of the tailored LTO NFs with carbon and GO network compared with those of the pristine LTO NFs. Extended testing for over 100 cycles demonstrates the cyclic stability and Coulombic efficiency of over 99% of this system. These results indicate that the interconnection and networks of LTO NFs through carbon coating and the individual GO wrapping, which facilitates the lithium ion and electron transportation, may show excellent electrochemical performance.

  10. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-12-23

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn 4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g -1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions.

  11. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g−1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions. PMID:28008955

  12. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  13. Conductive polymer and Si nanoparticles composite secondary particles and structured current collectors for high loading lithium ion negative electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao

    2017-07-11

    Embodiments of the present invention disclose a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses a method for preparing a composition of matter comprising a plurality of silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with a conductive polymer comprising providing Si nanoparticles, providing a conductive polymer, preparing a Si nanoparticle, conductive polymer, and solvent slurry, spraying the slurry into a liquid medium that is a non-solvent of the conductive polymer, and precipitating the silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with the conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses an anode comprising a current collector, and a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer.

  14. Inverse spinel transition metal oxides for lithium-ion storage with different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiawei; Ren, Yurong; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse spinel structure relieves the irreversible phase transition of electrodes. • Anodes with the same structure show different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms. • High reversible capacity confirms the potential feasibility of composites. - Abstract: Inverse spinel transition metal oxides (Fe 3 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide) are prepared by a facile ethylene-glycol-assisted hydrothermal method. The stability of inverse spinel structure and the high specific surface area of nanoscale provide transition metal oxides with high specific capacity. And the surface modification with reduced graphene oxide improves the poor conductivity of pristine transition metal oxides. Pristine Fe 3 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 deliver the high initial discharge capacity of 1137.1 and 1088.9 mAh g −1 , respectively. Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide get the reversible capacity of 645.8 and 720 mAh g −1 , respectively, even after 55 cycles. The different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms make them different capacity stability. The great electrochemical performances of composites offer electrodes with suitable characteristics for high-performance energy storage application.

  15. Octahedral core–shell cuprous oxide/carbon with enhanced electrochemical activity and stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Chen, Zhewei; Wang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Core–shell octahedral Cu 2 O/C is prepared by a one-step method. • Carbon shell is amorphous and uniformly decorated at the Cu 2 O octahedral core. • Core–shell Cu 2 O/C exhibits markedly enhanced capability and reversibility. • Carbon shell provides fast ion/electron transfer channel. • Core–shell structure is stable during cycling. - Abstract: Core–shell Cu 2 O/C octahedrons are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with the help of carbonization of glucose, which reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I) at low temperature and further forms carbon shell coating at high temperature. SEM and TEM images indicate that the carbon shell is amorphous with thickness of ∼20 nm wrapping the Cu 2 O octahedral core perfectly. As anode of lithium ion batteries, the core–shell Cu 2 O/C composite exhibits high and stable columbic efficiency (98%) as well as a reversible capacity of 400 mAh g −1 after 80 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel core–shell structure, in which the carbon shell reduces the electrode polarization and promotes the charge transfer at active material/electrolyte interface, and also acts as a stabilizer to keep the octahedral structure integrity during discharge–charge processes

  16. Influence of surfactants on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the tin oxide anode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Hui, E-mail: sunyanhui0102@163.com [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dong, Pei-Pei; Liu, Shan; Nan, Jun-Min [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • CTAB and SDS alter the formation of SnO{sub 2} from nanosheets to nanocubes during oxalate precipitation. • The CTAB concentration affects the SnO{sub 2} crystal growth direction, morphology and size. • The SnO{sub 2} anode synthesized using CTAB exhibited superior electrochemical performance. • Proposed a mechanism of influence of surfactant on SnO{sub 2} in the precipitation and annealing process. - Abstract: Different SnO{sub 2} micro–nano structures are prepared by precipitation using a surfactant-assisted process. The surfactants, such as cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), can change the crystal growth direction and microstructure of SnO{sub 2} primary and secondary particles. Larger SnO{sub 2} nanosheets were synthesized without surfactant, and micro-fragments composed of small nanospheres or nanocubes were synthesized using CTAB and SDBS. The CTAB-assisted process resulted in smaller primary particles and larger specific surface area and larger pore volume, as a lithium-ion-battery anode that exhibits superior electrochemical performance compared to the other two anodes. Further investigation showed that the concentration of CTAB had a substantial influence on the growth of the crystal face, morphology and size of the SnO{sub 2} secondary particles, which influenced the electrochemical performance of the anode. A simple mechanism for the influence of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphology and size in the precipitation and annealing process is proposed.

  17. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan-Sheng; Xu, Rui; Luu, Norman S; Secor, Ethan B; Hamamoto, Koichi; Li, Qianqian; Kim, Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Balla, Itamar; Guiney, Linda M; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Yu, Xiankai; Liu, Weiwei; Wu, Jinsong; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P; Barnett, Scott A; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-04-12

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 °C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  19. Carbon nanotube-wrapped Fe2O3 anode with improved performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metall oxides have been proven to be potential candidates for the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs because they offer high theoretical capacities, and are environmentally friendly and widely available. However, the low electronic conductivity and severe irreversible lithium storage have hindered a practical application. Herein, we employed ethanolamine as precursor to prepare Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composites through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. When these composites were used as electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, a reversible capacity of 711.2 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 500 mA·g−1 after 400 cycles was obtained. The result indicated that Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composite is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. GeO2 Thin Film Deposition on Graphene Oxide by the Hydrogen Peroxide Route: Evaluation for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Alexander G; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Grishanov, Dmitry A; Yu, Denis Y W; Gun, Jenny; Sladkevich, Sergey; Lev, Ovadia; Prikhodchenko, Petr V

    2017-03-15

    A peroxogermanate thin film was deposited in high yield at room temperature on graphene oxide (GO) from peroxogermanate sols. The deposition of the peroxo-precursor onto GO and the transformations to amorphous GeO 2 , crystalline tetragonal GeO 2 , and then to cubic elemental germanium were followed by electron microscopy, XRD, and XPS. All of these transformations are influenced by the GO support. The initial deposition is explained in view of the sol composition and the presence of GO, and the different thermal transformations are explained by reactions with the graphene support acting as a reducing agent. As a test case, the evaluation of the different materials as lithium ion battery anodes was carried out revealing that the best performance is obtained by amorphous germanium oxide@GO with >1000 mAh g -1 at 250 mA g -1 (between 0 and 2.5 V vs Li/Li + cathode), despite the fact that the material contained only 51 wt % germanium. This is the first demonstration of the peroxide route to produce peroxogermanate thin films and thereby supported germanium and germanium oxide coatings. The advantages of the process over alternative methodologies are discussed.

  1. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haoqing; Zan, Lingxing; Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng; Zhao, Naiqin; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li_2ZnTi_3O_8) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li_2ZnTi_3O_8, the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g"−"1 and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g"−"1 can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1 and the retention is 42.7% for Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3, which is much higher than un-coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La_2O_3 coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La_2O_3 coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li"+).

  2. Watermelon used as a novel carbon source to improve the rate performance of iron oxide electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Lin-Chao; Cheng, Jian-Xiu; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Watermelon is used to synthesize the carbon material via an environmentally friendly process. • The derived carbon materials exhibit high specific surface area and good rate performance. • Good rate performances of these FeO x /C composites in 3.0–0.01 V are achieved. -- Abstract: The pulp of a watermelon consists of watermelon juice and flesh wall. After a hydrothermal process at 160 °C, the pulp turns into a carbon-based composite powder composed of micrometer particles and nanosheets (CPs–CSs). Through a similar hydrothermal process with the mixture of watermelon pulp and an ethanolic solution of ferric nitrate as the precursors, a powder of iron oxide–CPs–CSs composite is also synthesized. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and BET surface area measurement are employed to study the compositions and structures of these composite powders. Their electrochemical properties as potential anode materials of lithium ion batteries are also investigated. It is found that after a heat treatment at 700 °C and 800 °C, the CPs–CSs composites are mesoporous carbon materials with a specific surface area of 898 m 2 g −1 and 452 m 2 g −1 , respectively. The iron oxide–CPs–CSs composites after a heat treatment at 700 °C and 800 °C are all Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs. When used as anode materials, both CPs–CSs and Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs show very good rate performance. Thanks to the higher surface area of the carbon component, the 700 °C-treated Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs is superior to others in rate capability. It can deliver a discharge capacity of 350 mA h g −1 even at a high current density of 2500 mA g −1

  3. One-pot in situ redox synthesis of hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Zhang, Zixuan; Yang, Xianfeng; Chen, Xiaojun; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-09-14

    An efficient and adaptable method is demonstrated for the synthesis of lithium hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids for Li-ion battery cathodes. The hybrids were synthesized via a one-pot method, involving a redox-coupled reaction between pyrrole monomers and the Li3Fe(CN)6 precursor. The hybrids showed much better cyclability relative to reported Prussian Blue (PB) analogs.

  4. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, M.; Laucournet, R.; Billy, E.

    2014-02-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Effect of parameters such as type of acid (H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl), acid concentration (1-4 mol L-1), leaching time (3-18 h) and leaching temperature (25-90 °C) with a solid to liquid ratio fixed at 5% (w/v) are investigated to determine the most efficient conditions of dissolution. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. In the nickel and cobalt recovery process, at first the Co(II) in the leaching liquor is selectively oxidized in Co(III) with NaClO reagent to recover Co2O3, 3H2O by a selective precipitation at pH = 3. Then, the nickel hydroxide is precipitated by a base addition at pH = 11. The recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel are respectively 100% and 99.99%.

  5. Atomic Layer-Deposited Molybdenum Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Electrodes: The Influence of Crystal Structure on Lithium-Ion Capacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Quade, Antje; Kruth, Angela; Presser, Volker

    2018-05-25

    Merging of supercapacitors and batteries promises the creation of electrochemical energy storage devices that combine high specific energy, power, and cycling stability. For that purpose, lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) that store energy by lithiation reactions at the negative electrode and double-layer formation at the positive electrode are currently investigated. In this study, we explore the suitability of molybdenum oxide as a negative electrode material in LICs for the first time. Molybdenum oxide-carbon nanotube hybrid materials were synthesized via atomic layer deposition, and different crystal structures and morphologies were obtained by post-deposition annealing. These model materials are first structurally characterized and electrochemically evaluated in half-cells. Benchmarking in LIC full-cells revealed the influences of crystal structure, half-cell capacity, and rate handling on the actual device level performance metrics. The energy efficiency, specific energy, and power are mainly influenced by the overpotential and kinetics of the lithiation reaction during charging. Optimized LIC cells show a maximum specific energy of about 70 W·h·kg -1 and a high specific power of 4 kW·kg -1 at 34 W·h·kg -1 . The longevity of the LIC cells is drastically increased without significantly reducing the energy by preventing a deep cell discharge, hindering the negative electrode from crossing its anodic potential limit.

  6. Li2 NH-LiBH4 : a Complex Hydride with Near Ambient Hydrogen Adsorption and Fast Lithium Ion Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Cao, Hujun; Zhang, Weijin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Hui; Pistidda, Claudio; Ju, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Guotao; Etter, Martin; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-26

    Complex hydrides have played important roles in energy storage area. Here a complex hydride made of Li 2 NH and LiBH 4 was synthesized, which has a structure tentatively indexed using an orthorhombic cell with a space group of Pna2 1 and lattice parameters of a=10.121, b=6.997, and c=11.457 Å. The Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample (in a molar ratio of 1:1) shows excellent hydrogenation kinetics, starting to absorb H 2 at 310 K, which is more than 100 K lower than that of pristine Li 2 NH. Furthermore, the Li + ion conductivity of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample is about 1.0×10 -5  S cm -1 at room temperature, and is higher than that of either Li 2 NH or LiBH 4 at 373 K. Those unique properties of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 complex render it a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and Li ion conduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  8. Novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends for battery separators in lithium-ion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.M.; Nunes-Pereira, J.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Silva, M.M.; Ribelles, J.L. Gomez; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO polymer blends were prepared for battery separator. ► The porosity and hydrophilicity degree are tailored within this blend. ► Ionic conductivity depends on PEO presence and is stable with temperature. ► High ionic conductivity of 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 blend. -- Abstract: Polymer blends based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide), P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO for Li-ion battery separator applications have been prepared through solvent casting technique. The microstructure, hydrophilicity and electrolyte uptake strongly depend on PEO content within the blend. The best value of ionic conductivity at room temperature was 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 membrane. The membranes are electrochemically stable

  9. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haoqing, E-mail: tanghaoqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zan, Lingxing [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53117 (Germany); Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tang, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zytang46@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g{sup −1} and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1}. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g{sup −1} can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1} and the retention is 42.7% for Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is much higher than un-coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}).

  10. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  11. Graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor for synthesis of 3D graphene-supported ultrafine TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites for high-rate lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Gu, Guifang; Ni, Wei; Guan, Qun; Li, Yinchuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional graphene-supported TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites (3D GS-TNR) are prepared using graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor in the hydrothermal process, in which well-distributed TiO2 nanorods with a width of approximately 5 nm and length of 30 nm are conformally embedded in the 3D interconnected graphene network. The 3D graphene oxide not only works as a restricted-area nanoreactor to constrain the size, distribution and morphology of the TiO2; it also work as a highly interconnected conducting network to facilitate electrochemical reactions and maintain good structural integration when the nanocomposites are used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Benefiting from the nanostructure, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show high capacity and excellent long-term cycling capability at high current rates. The 3D GS-TNR composites deliver a high initial charge capacity of 280 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and maintain a reversible capacity of 115 mAh g-1, with a capacity retention of 83% at 20 C after 1000 cycles. Meanwhile, compared with that of previously reported TiO2-based materials, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show much better performance, including higher capacity, better rate capability and long-term cycling stability.

  12. A Lithium-Ion Battery using a 3 D-Array Nanostructured Graphene-Sulfur Cathode and a Silicon Oxide-Based Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Almudena; Di Lecce, Daniele; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2018-05-09

    An efficient lithium-ion battery was assembled by using an enhanced sulfur-based cathode and a silicon oxide-based anode and proposed as an innovative energy-storage system. The sulfur-carbon composite, which exploits graphene carbon with a 3 D array (3DG-S), was synthesized by a reduction step through a microwave-assisted solvothermal technique and was fully characterized in terms of structure and morphology, thereby revealing suitable features for lithium-cell application. Electrochemical tests of the 3DG-S electrode in a lithium half-cell indicated a capacity ranging from 1200 to 1000 mAh g -1 at currents of C/10 and 1 C, respectively. Remarkably, the Li-alloyed anode, namely, Li y SiO x -C prepared by the sol-gel method and lithiated by surface treatment, showed suitable performance in a lithium half-cell by using an electrolyte designed for lithium-sulfur batteries. The Li y SiO x -C/3DG-S battery was found to exhibit very promising properties with a capacity of approximately 460 mAh g S -1 delivered at an average voltage of approximately 1.5 V over 200 cycles, suggesting that the characterized materials would be suitable candidates for low-cost and high-energy-storage applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enhanced electrochemical performance of sandwich-structured polyaniline-wrapped silicon oxide/carbon nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zou, Yongjin; Huang, Liyan; Yin, Hao; Xi, Chengqiao; Chen, Xin; Shentu, Hongwei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Lv, ChunJu; Fan, Meiqiang

    2018-06-01

    Sandwich-structured carbon nanotubes, silicon oxide, and polyaniline (hereafter denoted as CNTs/SiOx/PANI) were prepared by combining a sol-gel method, magnesiothermic reduction at 250 °C, and chemical oxidative polymerization. The CNTs, SiOx and PANI in the composite was 16 wt%, 51 wt% and 33 wt%, respectively. The CNTs/SiOx/PANI electrodes exhibited excellent cycle and high-rate performance as anodes in Li-ion batteries, including charge/discharge capacities of 1156/1178 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles at 0.2 A g-1 current density and 728/725 mAh g-1 at 8 A g-1 current density. The improvement was due to the synergy between CNTs and PANI. The SiOx scattered on the CNTs core and coated by PANI improved its conductivity and accommodated the volume change during repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles. This simple synthesis provided a scalable route for the large-scale production of CNTs/SiOx/PANI nanostructures, with various applications such as in Li-ion batteries.

  15. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dan; Shi Dongqi [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia); Liu Zongwen [University of Sydney, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia); Liu Huakun; Guo Zaiping, E-mail: zguo@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles were homogeneously distributed on the reduced graphene oxide to inhibit the restacking of the neighbouring graphene sheets. The obtained TiO{sub 2}/N-rGO composite exhibits improved cycling performance and rate capability, indicating the important role of reduced graphene oxide, which not only facilitates the formation of uniformly distributed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, but also increases the electrical conductivity of the composite material. The introduction of nitrogen on the reduced graphene oxide has been proved to increase the conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide and leads to more defects. A disordered structure is thus formed to accommodate more lithium ions, thereby further improving the electrochemical performance.

  16. Facile synthesis of the N-doped graphene/nickel oxide with enhanced electrochemical performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chuanning, E-mail: yangcn1988@outlook.com [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Qing, Yongquan; An, Kai [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Zhang, Zefei; Wang, Linshan [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: csliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids with a hierarchical structure have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal route assisted by microwave treatment. The as-obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO electrodes exhibit an enhanced electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity can reach 1737 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1}. Significantly, the nanocomposites anodes also display a relatively high reversible capacity of 1095 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.3 A g{sup -1} after 100 cycles. Herein, the nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO possesses electrodes enormous potential as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids have been successfully synthesized. • Microwave treatment may enhance conductivity and capacity of electrodes. • The hierarchical structure will help to improve the stability of the electrodes. • The reversible capacity of electrodes can reach 1095 mAh g{sup -1} over 100 cycles.

  17. Hydrothermal growth of Cobalt germanate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as superior anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongkuan; Feng, Jinkui; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanosized Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal route. • The Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites could be used as novel high capacity anodes with both alloying and conversion reactions. • The RGO incorporation can improve the electrochemical performance of Co 2 GeO 4 by buffering the volume changes and enhancing the conductivity of the electrodes. • The CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. - Abstract: Well dispersed Co 2 GeO 4 (CGO) nanoplates and CGO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are prepared via hydrothermal method and characterized as novel lithium anode materials for the first time. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. The superior electrochemical performance of the CGO/RGO nanocomposites electrode compared to the pure CGO electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the conversion reactions

  18. Synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using long chain alkylamine grafted graphene oxide: an efficient anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Jeevan Kumar; Ryu, Sung Hun; Shanmugharaj, A M

    2016-01-07

    With the objective of developing new advanced composite materials that can be used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), herein we describe the synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using various alkylamine (hexylamine; dodecylamine and octadecylamine) grafted graphene oxides and butyl trichlorotin precursors followed by its calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. While the grafted alkylamine induces crystalline growth of SnO2 pillars, thermal annealing of alkylamine grafted graphene oxide results in the formation of amorphous carbon coated graphene. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results reveal the successful formation of SnO2 pillared carbon on the graphene surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy characterization corroborates the formation of rutile SnO2 crystals on the graphene surface. A significant rise in the BET surface area is observed for SnO2 pillared carbon, when compared to pristine GO. Electrochemical characterization studies of SnO2 pillared carbon based anode materials showed an enhanced lithium storage capacity and fine cyclic performance in comparison with pristine GO. The initial specific capacities of SnO2 pillared carbon are observed to be 1379 mA h g(-1), 1255 mA h g(-1) and 1360 mA h g(-1) that decrease to 750 mA h g(-1), 643 mA h g(-1) and 560 mA h g(-1) depending upon the chain length of grafted alkylamine on the graphene surface respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectral analysis reveals that the exchange current density of SnO2 pillared carbon based electrodes is higher, corroborating its enhanced electrochemical activity in comparison with GO based electrodes.

  19. Comparative studies of laser annealing technique and furnace annealing by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis of lithium manganese oxide thin films for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröll, J.; Weidler, P.G.; Kohler, R.; Mangang, A.; Heißler, S.; Seifert, H.J.; Pfleging, W.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and phase formations of radio frequency magnetron sputtered lithium manganese oxide thin films (Li 1.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 ) under ambient air were studied. The influence of laser annealing and furnace annealing, respectively, on the bulk structure and surface phases was compared by using ex-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. Laser annealing technique formed a dominant (440)-reflection, furnace annealing led to both, (111)- and (440)-reflections within a cubic symmetry (S.G. Fd3m (227)). Additionally, in-situ Raman and in-situ X-ray diffraction were applied for online detection of phase transformation temperatures. In-situ X-ray diffraction measurements clearly identified the starting temperature for the (111)- and (440)-reflections around 525 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The 2θ Bragg peak positions of the characteristic (111)- and (440)-reflections were in good agreement with those obtained through conventional furnace annealing. Laser annealing of lithium manganese oxide films provided a quick and efficient technique and delivered a dominant (440)-reflection which showed the expected electrochemical behavior of the well-known two-step de-/intercalation process of lithium-ions into the cubic spinel structure within galvanostatic testing and cyclic voltammetry. - Highlights: ► Formation of cubic spinel-like phase of Li–Mn–O thin films by rapid laser annealing ► Laser annealing at 680 °C and 100 s was demonstrated as quick crystallization method. ► 400 °C was identified as characteristic onset temperature for (440)-reflex formation

  20. The hierarchical cobalt oxide-porous carbons composites and their high performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries enhanced by the excellent synergistic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Huanlei; Chen, Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The CoO/PBCs composites with unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs) have been successfully synthesized. • The unique structure is aggregated by CoO rods anchored on the surface or inside the porous carbons. • The CoO/PBCs composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: The designed metal oxide-carbon composites are always considered as a potential candidate for high-performance electrode materials. In this work, we fabricated the CoO rods-porous carbon composites with a unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs). As the composites of CoO nanocrystals with the mean size of 10 nm and graphene-like carbon sheets, the CoO rods are homogeneously anchored on or inside the porous carbons, thus achieving a 3D hierarchical porous structure. When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-obtained composites exhibit the high lithium storage of 1057 mAh g"−"1. More importantly, the CoO rods/porous biocarbons composites display a superior long-term stable reversible capacity of about 550 mAh g"−"1 at the high current density of 5 A g"−"1 after 600 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of the obtained composites has been attributed to the synergistic effect between CoO nanoparticles and porous biocarbons, which makes the composites favorable for fast electronic and ionic transfer, and superior stable structure. Therefore, we believe that the designed preparation of metal oxide architectures in low-cost and renewable porous biocarbons will be a valuable direction for exploring advanced electrode materials.

  1. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide decorated carbon nanotube nanocomposities as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jeng-Yu; Chou, Ming-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite was synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. • Adding glucose assisted SnO 2 nanoclusters uniformly grow on the surfaces of CNTs. • SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite shows improved electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: In this study, the tin oxide decorated carbon nanotubes (SnO 2 –CNTs) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized using an ultrafast and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. According to X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the SnO 2 nanoclusters can directly grow on the surfaces of CNTs with uniform coverage along the longitudinal axis by using glucose as a binding agent. The electrochemical properties of the SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite electrode have been further characterized by galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that the SnO 2 –CNTs nanocomposite electrode exhibited a superior reversible discharge capacity, cycling stability and rate capability as an anode material for Li-ion batteries compared to the pristine SnO 2 electrode. Such synergic improvements can be attributed to combining the SnO 2 nanoclusters onto the conductive CNTs matrix by taking advantage of the relatively high specific capacity of SnO 2 nanoclusters and the excellent cycling capability of the CNTs

  2. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved

  3. Covalently coupled hybrid of graphitic carbon nitride with reduced graphene oxide as a superior performance lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Junwu; Hu, Chong; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin

    2014-10-01

    An in situ chemical synthetic approach has been designed for the fabrication of a covalently coupled hybrid consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with differing g-C3N4/rGO ratio. The epoxy groups of graphene oxide (GO) undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with dicyandiamide (C2H4N4) to form the C2H4N4-GO composite via a covalent C-N bond, and then both the in situ polymerization of C2H4N4 and the thermal reduction of GO can be achieved at higher temperatures, forming the covalently coupled g-C3N4-rGO. FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR and XPS analyses, clearly revealed a covalent interaction between the g-C3N4 and rGO sheets. The g-C3N4-rGO exhibits an unprecedented high, stable and reversible capacity of 1525 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a large current density of 1000 mA g-1, a reversible capacity of 943 mA h g-1 can still be retained. The superior electrochemical performance of g-C3N4-rGO is attributed to the specific characteristics of the unique nanostructure of g-C3N4-rGO and the concerted effects of g-C3N4 and rGO, including covalent interactions between the two moieties, the good conductivity and high special surface area of the nanocomposite, as well as the template effect of the planar amino group of g-C3N4 for the dispersed decoration of Li+ ions.An in situ chemical synthetic approach has been designed for the fabrication of a covalently coupled hybrid consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with differing g-C3N4/rGO ratio. The epoxy groups of graphene oxide (GO) undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with dicyandiamide (C2H4N4) to form the C2H4N4-GO composite via a covalent C-N bond, and then both the in situ polymerization of C2H4N4 and the thermal reduction of GO can be achieved at higher temperatures, forming the covalently coupled g-C3N4-rGO. FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR and XPS analyses, clearly revealed a covalent interaction between

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  5. Three-dimensional nitrogen and sulfur co-doped holey-reduced graphene oxide frameworks anchored with MoO2 nanodots for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jie; Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Huaixin; Cao, Xueqin; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2018-07-01

    In this manuscript, we synthesize a porous three-dimensional anode material consisting of molybdenum dioxide nanodots anchored on nitrogen (N)/sulfur (S) co-doped reduced graphene oxide (GO) (3D MoO2/NP-NSG) through hydrothermal, lyophilization and thermal treatment. First, the NP-NSG is formed via hydrothermal treatment using graphene oxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiourea as the co-dopant for N and S, followed by calcination of the N/S co-doped GO in the presence of ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate to obtain the 3D MoO2/NP-NSG product. This novel material exhibits a series of out-bound electrochemical performances, such as superior conductivity, high specific capacity, and excellent stability. As an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the MoO2/NP-NSG electrode has a high initial specific capacity (1376 mAh g‑1), good cycling performance (1250 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g‑1), and outstanding Coulombic efficiency (99% after 450 cycles at a current density of 1 A g‑1). Remarkably, the MoO2/NP-NSG battery exhibits exceedingly good rate capacities of 1021, 965, 891, 760, 649, 500 and 425 mAh g‑1 at different current densities of 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mA g‑1, respectively. The superb electrochemical performance is owed to the high porosity of the 3D architecture, the synergistic effect contribution from N and S co-doped in the reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and the uniform distribution of MoO2 nanodots on the rGO surface.

  6. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  7. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  8. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  9. Mesostructured niobium-doped titanium oxide-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composite as an anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Keebum; Sohn, Hiesang; Yoon, Songhun

    2018-02-01

    Mesostructured niobium (Nb)-doped TiO2-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composites are synthesized by a hydrothermal process for application as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The composites have a hierarchical porous structure with the Nb-TiO2 nanoparticles homogenously distributed throughout the porous carbon matrix. The Nb content is controlled (0-10 wt%) to investigate its effect on the physico-chemical properties and electrochemical performance of the composite. While the crystalline/surface structure varied with the addition of Nb (d-spacing of TiO2: 0.34-0.36 nm), the morphology of the composite remained unaffected. The electrochemical performance (cycle stability and rate capability) of the Nb-TiO2-C composite anode with 1 wt% Nb doping improved significantly. First, a full cut-off potential (0-2.5 V vs. Li/Li+) of Nb-doped composite anode (1 wt%) provides a higher energy utilization than that of the un-doped TiO2-C anode. Second, Nb-TiO2-C composite anode (1 wt%) exhibits an excellent long-term cycle stability (100% capacity retention, 297 mAh/g at 0.5 C after 100 cycles and 221 mAh/g at 2 C after 500 cycles) and improved rate-capability (192 mAh/g at 5 C), respectively (1 C: 150 mA/g). The superior electrochemical performance of Nb-TiO2-C (1 wt%) could be attributed to the synergistic effect of improved electronic conductivity induced by optimal Nb doping (1 wt%) and lithium-ion penetration (high diffusion kinetics) through unique pore structures.

  10. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical lithium cobalt oxide lithium-ion cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary...

  11. Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes: synthesis, characterization and their use as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Younesi, Reza; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes (NONFs)—only about 10 nm wide—were produced using a simple and inexpensive chemistry method followed by a short annealing in ambient air. In a first step, Ni(OH)2 sheets were synthesized by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) drop-wise in a Ni(NO3)2 aqueous solutio...

  12. Radiation-damage recovery in undoped and oxidized Li doped Mg O crystals implanted with lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Silva, R.C. da; Pinto, J.V.; Monteiro, T.; Savoini, B.; Caceres, D.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y

    2003-05-01

    Undoped MgO and oxidized Li-doped MgO single crystals were implanted with 1 x 10{sup 17} Li{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 175 keV. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)/channeling data obtained after implantation shows that damage was produced throughout the entire range of the implanted ions. Optical absorption measurements indicate that after implantation the most intense band occurs at {approx}5.0 eV, which has been associated with anion vacancies. After annealing at 450 K the intensity of the oxygen-vacancy band decreases monotonically with temperature and completely disappears at 950 K. A broad extinction band centered at {approx}2.14 eV associated with lithium precipitates emerges gradually and anneals out at 1250 K. RBS/channeling shows that recovery of the implantation damage is completed after annealing the oxidized samples at 1250 K.

  13. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  14. Lithium ion adsorptive properties of spinel-type manganese oxide obtained from MnOOH and Li2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1991-01-01

    Spinel-type manganese oxides were prepared by heating a mixture of MnOOH and Li 2 CO 3 (Li/Mn = 0.5) at different temperatures followed by an acid treatment with a HCl solution. Their adsorptive properties for alkali metal ions were investigated by measurement of distribution coefficient (Kd) and by pH titration. The adsorptive properties varied depending on the heating temperature. The sample obtained at 400degC showed the highest Li + adsorptivity from seawater. (author)

  15. Graphene-Oxide-Assisted Synthesis of GaN Nanosheets as a New Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changlong; Yang, Mingzhi; Wang, Tailin; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-08-16

    As the most-studied III-nitride, theoretical researches have predicted the presence of gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheets (NSs). Herein, a facile synthesis approach is reported to prepare GaN NSs using graphene oxide (GO) as sacrificial template. As a new anode material of Li-ion battery (LIBs), GaN NSs anodes deliver the reversible discharge capacity above 600 mA h g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 after 1000 cycles, and excellent rate performance at current rates from 0.1 to 10 A g -1 . These results not only extend the family of 2D materials but also facilitate their use in energy storage and other applications.

  16. Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide synthesized using alkali chloride flux: morphology and performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongseon

    2012-05-01

    Li(Ni(0.8)Co(0.1)Mn(0.1))O(2) (NCM811) was synthesized using alkali chlorides as a flux and the performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries was examined. Primary particles of the powder were segregated and grown separately in the presence of liquid state fluxes, which induced each particle to be composed of one primary particle with well-developed facet planes, not the shape of agglomerates as appears with commercial NCMs. The new NCM showed far less gas emission during high temperature storage at charged states, and higher volumetric capacity thanks to its high bulk density. The material is expected to provide optimal performances for pouch type lithium ion batteries, which require high volumetric capacity and are vulnerable to deformation caused by gas generation from the electrode materials.

  17. Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes: synthesis, characterization and their use as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Younesi, Reza; Vegge, Tejs; J-F Guinel, Maxime

    2014-04-01

    Nickel oxide crystalline nano flakes (NONFs)—only about 10 nm wide—were produced using a simple and inexpensive chemistry method followed by a short annealing in ambient air. In a first step, Ni(OH)2 sheets were synthesized by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) drop-wise in a Ni(NO3)2 aqueous solution that was then sonicated for up to 60 min, washed and vigorously stirred overnight in deionized water. In a second step, the products of this reaction were annealed in ambient air in the temperature range 285-450 °C producing the desired NONFs. The products were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy including electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Electrochemical investigations showed that anodes made of these NONFs provided significantly higher discharge capacities (70 to 100% higher) compared to commercial nanometric NiO nanopowder used under the same conditions. Moreover, these NONFs had higher initial capacity retentions at both low and high current densities compared to the same NiO nanopowder.

  18. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  19. Multilayered Si nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide hybrid as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jingbo; Huang, Xingkang; Zhou, Guihua; Cui, Shumao; Hallac, Peter B; Jiang, Junwei; Hurley, Patrick T; Chen, Junhong

    2014-02-01

    Multilayered Si/RGO anode nanostructures, featuring alternating Si nanoparticle (NP) and RGO layers, good mechanical stability, and high electrical conductivity, allow Si NPs to easily expand between RGO layers, thereby leading to high reversible capacity up to 2300 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 C (120 mA g(-1) ) and 87% capacity retention (up to 630 mAh g(-1) ) at 10 C after 152 cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haiyan, E-mail: hyyan1979@163.com; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is explored as cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries. • The introduce of PEDOT is effectively way to enhance the electron condcutivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g{sup −1} for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  3. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  4. Thin film rechargeable electrodes based on conductive blends of nanostructured olivine LiFePO4 and sucrose derived nanocarbons for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P; Jyothsna, U; Nair, Priya; Ravi, Soumya; Balakrishnan, A; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Nair, V Shantikumar; Sivakumar, N

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides the first reports of a novel approach of electrophoretic co-deposition technique by which titanium foils are coated with LiFePO4-carbon nanocomposites synthesized by sol gel route and processed into high-surface area cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The study elucidates how sucrose additions as carbon source can affect the surface morphology and the redox reaction behaviors underlying these cathodes and thereby enhance the battery performance. The phase and morphological analysis were done using XRD and XPS where the LiFePO4 formed was confirmed to be a high purity orthorhombic system. From the analysis of the relevant electrochemical parameters using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a 20% increment and 90% decrement in capacity and impedance values were observed respectively. The composite electrodes also exhibited a specific capacity of 130 mA h/g. It has been shown that cathodes based on such composite systems can allow significant room for improvement in the cycling performance at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  5. Bouquet-Like Mn2SnO4 Nanocomposite Engineered with Graphene Sheets as an Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Wasif Ur; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Ullah, Inam; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Long

    2018-05-30

    Volume expansion is a major challenge associated with tin oxide (SnO x ), which causes poor cyclability in lithium-ion battery anode. Bare tin dioxide (SnO 2 ), tin dioxide with graphene sheets (SnO 2 @GS), and bouquet-like nanocomposite structure (Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS) are prepared via hydrothermal method followed by annealing. The obtained composite material presents a bouquet structure containing manganese and tin oxide nanoparticle network with graphene sheets. Benefiting from this porous nanostructure, in which graphene sheets provide high electronic pathways to enhance the electronic conductivity, uniformly distributed particles offer accelerated kinetic reaction with lithium ion and reduced volume deviation in the tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) particle during charge-discharge testing. As a consequence, ternary composite Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS showed a high rate performance and outstanding cyclability of anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The electrode achieved a specific capacity of about 1070 mA h g -1 at a current density of 400 mA g -1 after 200 cycles; meanwhile, the electrode still delivered a specific capacity of about 455 mA h g -1 at a high current density of 2500 mA g -1 . Ternary Mn 2 SnO 4 @GS material could facilitate fabrication of unique structure and conductive network as advanced lithium-ion battery.

  6. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  7. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. One-step separation by thermal treatment and cobalt acid-leaching from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in portable storage devices and automobiles, therefore the environment and resource problems caused by spent lithium ion batteries have become increasingly severe. This paper focuses on the recovery process of spent lithium cobalt oxide active material and comes up with reasonable processes and the best conditions for cobalt leaching ultimately.

  9. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  10. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  11. Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous 3D-nanostructure as anode material for the lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Su, Danyang; Yang, Jinping; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    3d transition-metal oxides, especially Fe3O4, as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries have been attracting intensive attentions in recent years due to their high energy capacity and low toxicity. A new Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure, which was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and porous spongy carbon as raw materials. The specific surface area and microstructures of composite were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. A homogeneous distribution of hollow Fe3O4 spheres (diameter ranges from 120 nm to 150 nm) in the spongy carbon (pore size > 200 nm) conductive 3D-network significantly reduced the lithium-ion diffusion length and increased the electrochemical reaction area, and further more enhanced the lithium ion battery performance, such as discharge capacity and cycle life. As an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, the title composite exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. The Fe3O4/C composite electrode achieved a relatively high reversible specific capacity of 1450.1 mA h g-1 in the first cycle at 100 mA g-1, and excellent rate capability (69% retention at 1000 mA g-1) with good cycle stability (only 10% loss after 100 cycles).

  12. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  13. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  14. Electrophoretic Nanocrystalline Graphene Film Electrode for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprans, Kaspars; Bajars, Gunars; Kucinskis, Gints; Dorondo, Anna; Mateuss, Janis; Gabrusenoks, Jevgenijs; Kleperis, Janis; Lusis, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition method from water suspension of graphene oxide followed by thermal reduction. The formation of nanocrystalline graphene sheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of graphene sheets as anode material for lithium ion batteries was evaluated by cycling voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Fabricated graphene sheets exhibited high discharge capacity of about 1120 mAh·g −1 and demonstrated good reversibility of lithium intercalation and deintercalation in graphene sheet film with capacity retention over 85 % after 50 cycles. Results show that nanocrystalline graphene sheets prepared by EPD demonstrated a high potential for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries

  15. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  16. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  17. Lithium salt with a super-delocalized perfluorinated sulfonimide anion as conducting salt for lithium-ion cells: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Hongbo; Cheng, Xiaorong; Zheng, Liping; Cheng, Pengfei; Feng, Wenfang; Nie, Jin; Armand, Michel; Huang, Xuejie; Zhou, Zhibin

    2015-11-01

    Lithium salt with a super-delocalized imide anion, namely (trifluoromethane(S-trifluoromethanesulfonylimino)sulfonyl) (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CF3SO(=NSO2CF3)2]-), [sTFSI]-), has been prepared and studied as conducting salt for Li-ion cells. The fundamental physicochemical and electrochemical properties of neat Li[sTFSI] and its carbonate-based liquid electrolyte have been characterized with various chemical and electrochemical tools. Li[sTFSI] shows a low melting point at 118 °C, and is thermally stable up to 300 °C without decomposition on the spectra of differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-TG-MS). The electrolyte of 1.0 M (mol dm-3) Li[sTFSI] in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl-methyl-carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v) containing 0.3% water does not show any hydrolytic decomposition on the spectra of 1H and 19F NMR, after storage at 85 °C for 10 days. The conductivities of 1.0 M Li[sTFSI]-EC/EMC (3:7, v/v) are slightly lower than those of Li[(CF3SO2)2N] (LiTFSI), but higher than those of Li[(C2F5SO2)2N] (LiBETI). The electrochemical behavior of Al foil in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte has been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is illustrated that Al metal does not corrode in the high potential region (3-5 V vs. Li/Li+) in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte. On Pt electrode, the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte is highly resistant to oxidation (ca. 5 V vs. Li/Li+), and is also resistant to reduction to allow Li deposition and stripping. The applicability of Li[sTFSI] as conducting salt for Li-ion cells has been tested using graphite/LiCoO2 cells. It shows that the cell with Li[sTFSI] displays better cycling performance than that with LiPF6.

  18. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  19. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  20. Thermodynamic and redox properties of graphene oxides for lithium-ion battery applications: a first principles density functional theory modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Kim, Ki Chul; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, Seung Soon

    2016-07-27

    Understanding the thermodynamic stability and redox properties of oxygen functional groups on graphene is critical to systematically design stable graphene-based positive electrode materials with high potential for lithium-ion battery applications. In this work, we study the thermodynamic and redox properties of graphene functionalized with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, and the evolution of these properties with the number, types and distribution of functional groups by employing the density functional theory method. It is found that the redox potential of the functionalized graphene is sensitive to the types, number, and distribution of oxygen functional groups. First, the carbonyl group induces higher redox potential than the hydroxyl group. Second, more carbonyl groups would result in higher redox potential. Lastly, the locally concentrated distribution of the carbonyl group is more beneficial to have higher redox potential compared to the uniformly dispersed distribution. In contrast, the distribution of the hydroxyl group does not affect the redox potential significantly. Thermodynamic investigation demonstrates that the incorporation of carbonyl groups at the edge of graphene is a promising strategy for designing thermodynamically stable positive electrode materials with high redox potentials.

  1. Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Guccini, Valentina; Kim, Hyeyun; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2017-11-01

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO 4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (1550 μmol g -1 ) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g -1 even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

  2. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in advanced lithium-ion battery materials using high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delit...

  3. Novel polymeric systems for lithium ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-PietraSanta, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked, self-supporting, membranes for lithium ion battery gel electrolytes were obtained by cross-linking a mixture of polyfluorosilicone (PFSi) and polysilicone containing ethylene oxide (EO) units [P(Si-EO)]. The membranes were also reinforced with nanosized silica. The two polymer precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional, polymer matrices. The precursors were dissolved in a common solvent and cross-linked to obtain free-standing PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 composite films. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, aprotic, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. The properties of the swelled PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 samples were evaluated as a function of the electrolytic solutions and the dipping time. The PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 membranes exhibited large swelling properties, high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability

  4. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  5. Carboxymethyl chitosan/conducting polymer as water-soluble composite binder for LiFePO4 cathode in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haoxiang; He, Aiqin; Lu, Jidian; Sun, Minghao; He, Jiarong; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2016-12-01

    A water-soluble conductive composite binder consisting of carboxymethyl chitosan (CCTS) as a binder and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a conduction-promoting agent is reported for the LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode in Li-ion batteries. The introduction of conductive PEDOT:PSS as a conductive composite binder facilitates the formation of homogeneous and continuous conducting bridges throughout the electrode and raises the compaction density of the electrode sheet by decreasing the amounts of the commonly used conducting agent of acetylene black. The optimized replacement ratios of acetylene black with PEDOT:PSS (acetylene black/PEDOT:PSS = 1:1, by weight) are obtained by measuring electrical conductivity, peel strength and compaction density of the electrode sheets. The LFP half-cell with the optimized conductive binder exhibits better cycling and rate performance and more favorable electrochemical kinetics than that using only acetylene black conducting agent. The pilot application of PEDOT:PSS/CCTS binder in 10 Ah CCTS-LFP prismatic cell exhibits a comparable cycling performance, retaining 89.7% of capacity at 1 C/2 C (charge/discharge) rate as compared with 90% for commercial PVDF-LFP over 1000 cycles, and better rate capability than that of commercial PVDF-LFP, retaining 98% capacity of 1 C at 7 C rate as compared with 95.4% for PVDF-LFP.

  6. Soft-contact conductive carbon enabling depolarization of LiFePO4 cathodes to enhance both capacity and rate performances of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenju; Wang, Kai; Yang, Jinlong; Tan, Rui; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Duan, Yandong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Conductive nanocarbons generally are used as the electronic conductive additives to contact with active materials to generate conductive network for electrodes of commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). A typical of LiFePO4 (LFP), which has been widely used as cathode material for LIBs with low electronic conductivity, needs higher quantity of conductive nanocarbons to enhance the performance for cathode electrodes. In this work, we systematically studied three types of conductive nanocarbons and related performances in the LFP electrodes, and classify them as hard/soft-contact conductive carbon (named as H/SCC), respectively, according to their crystallite size, surface graphite-defect, specific surface area and porous structure, in which SCC can generate much larger contact area with active nano-particles of cathode materials than that of HCC. It is found that LFP nanocrystals wrapped in SCC networks perform significantly enhanced both capacity and rate performance than that in HCC. Combined experiments with multiphysics simulation, the mechanism is that LFP nanoparticles embedded in SCC with large contact area enable to generate higher depolarized effects with a relatively uniform current density vector (is) and lithium flux vector (NLi) than that in HCC. This discovery will guide us to how to design LIBs by selective using conductive carbon for high-performance LIBs.

  7. Degradation of lithium ion batteries employing graphite negatives and nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide + spinel manganese oxide positives: Part 2, chemical-mechanical degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Justin; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason; Soukiazian, Souren; Tataria, Harshad; Verbrugge, Mark W.

    2014-12-01

    Capacity fade is reported for 1.5 Ah Li-ion batteries containing a mixture of Li-Ni-Co-Mn oxide (NCM) + Li-Mn oxide spinel (LMO) as positive electrode material and a graphite negative electrode. The batteries were cycled at a wide range of temperatures (10 °C-46 °C) and discharge currents (0.5C-6.5C). The measured capacity losses were fit to a simple physics-based model which calculates lithium inventory loss from two related mechanisms: (1) mechanical degradation at the graphite anode particle surface caused by diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) and (2) chemical degradation caused by lithium loss to continued growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). These two mechanisms are coupled because lithium is consumed through SEI formation on newly exposed crack surfaces. The growth of crack surface area is modeled as a fatigue phenomenon due to the cyclic stresses generated by repeated lithium insertion and de-insertion of graphite particles. This coupled chemical-mechanical degradation model is consistent with the observed capacity loss features for the NCM + LMO/graphite cells.

  8. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO@Carbon nanoflower for high performance lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Huichao; Shi, Ludi; Li, Dongzhi; Yu, Jiali; Zhang, Han-Ming; Ullah, Shahid; Yang, Bo; Li, Cuihua; Zhu, Caizhen; Xu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The rational structure design and strong interfacial bonding are crucially desired for high performance zinc oxide (ZnO)/carbon composite electrodes. In this context, micro-nano secondary structure design and strong dopamine coating strategies are adopted for the fabrication of flower-like ZnO/carbon (ZnO@C nanoflowers) composite electrodes. The results show the ZnO@C nanoflowers (2-6 μm) are assembled by hierarchical ZnO nanosheets (∼27 nm) and continuous carbon framework. The micro-nano secondary architecture can facilitate the penetration of electrolyte, shorten lithium ions diffusion length, and hinder the aggregation of the nanosheets. Moreover, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and coating carbon layer via C-Zn bond improves structure stability as well as the electronic conductivity. As a synergistic result, when evaluated as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the ZnO@C nanoflower electrodes show high reversible capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 80 cycles. As well as good long-cycling stability (638 and 420 mA h g-1 at 1 and 5 A g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively) and excellent rate capability. Therefore, this rational design of ZnO@C nanoflowers electrode is a promising anode for high-performance LIBs.

  9. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  10. Synthesis of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/carbon nanotubes composite with less antisite defects for high power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jianjun; Shao, Guangjie; Ma, Zhipeng; Wang, Guiling; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects is synthesized by a modified solvothemal process and delivers superior electrochemical performance with high rate capability and good capacity retention. - Abstract: The low electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability are two major obstacles to realize its wide application for LiFePO_4 materials. The material with hierarchical conductive structure and lower antisite defects concentration can effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability. We firstly report here a modified solvothemal process for the fabrication of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects. It is found that the modified solvothemal process is facilitated to decrease Fe_L_i antisite defects and enhance the electronic continuity between LFP and CNTs. In favor of its unique properties, the C/LFP/CNTs composites can deliver superior rate capability and cycling stability. Remarkably, even at a high rate of 20C (3400 mA g"−"1), a high initial discharge capacity of 91.6 mAh g"−"1 and good cycle retention of 95% with almost 100% coulombic efficiency are still obtained after 100 cycles.

  11. Conducting polyaniline-wrapped lithium vanadium phosphate nanocomposite as high-rate and cycling stability cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Chen, Weixing; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline has been firstly synthesized and investigated. • Conducting polyaniline can remarkably enhance the conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . • Polyaniline-coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits superior rate capability and cyclability. - Abstract: This work introduces a facile strategy to improve the high-rate capability and cycling stability for carbon-free Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 by coating with conducting polymer polyaniline. Core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline nanocomposite with typical sizes of 200 nm has been synthesized via a microwave heating assisted sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. The highly conductive and uniform polyaniline layer coated on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrochemical performance of the electrode, which exhibits better rate capability and excellent cycling stability compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The resultant nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 130.7 mAhg −1 at 0.1 C within a voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V. When cycled at a rate of 10 C the capacity can reach up to 101.5 mAhg −1 , and the capacity retention is 87.3% after 500 cycles. The likely contributing factor to the excellent electrochemical performance of core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline could be related to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which can improve the electrical conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3

  12. A facile route for growth of CNTs on Si@hard carbon for conductive agent incorporating anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanhoon; Choi, Sinho; Yoo, Seungmin; Kwon, Dohyoung; Ko, Seunghee; Kim, Ju-Myung; Lee, Sang-Young; Kim, Il-Doo; Park, Soojin

    2015-07-14

    Conductive agent incorporating Si anodes consisting of directly grown carbon nanotubes on hard carbon encapsulating Si nanoparticles were prepared by a one-pot chemical vapour deposition process. Owing to this fabulous structure, Si-based anodes exhibit excellent cycle retention and rate capability with a high-mass-loading of 3.5 mg cm(-2).

  13. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lithium Ion Conduction of the LiBH4–LiI Solid Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Blanchard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The LiBH4–LiI solid solution is a good Li+ conductor and a promising crystalline electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium based batteries. The focus of the present work is on the effect of heat treatment on the Li+ conduction. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25–50% were synthesized by high...

  14. Microwave-assisted reactive sintering and lithium ion conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallopeau, Leopold; Bregiroux, Damien; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Portehault, David; Stevens, Philippe; Toussaint, Gwenaëlle; Laberty-Robert, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) materials are made of a three-dimensional framework of TiO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra, which provides several positions for Li+ ions. The resulting high ionic conductivity is promising to yield electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In order to elaborate dense ceramics, conventional sintering methods often use high temperature (≥1000 °C) with long dwelling times (several hours) to achieve high relative density (∼90%). In this work, an innovative synthesis and processing approach is proposed. A fast and easy processing technique called microwave-assisted reactive sintering is used to both synthesize and sinter LATP ceramics with suitable properties in one single step. Pure and crystalline LATP ceramics can be achieved in only 10 min at 890 °C starting from amorphous, compacted LATP's precursors powders. Despite a relative density of 88%, the ionic conductivity measured at ambient temperature (3.15 × 10-4 S cm-1) is among the best reported so far. The study of the activation energy for Li+ conduction confirms the high quality of the ceramic (purity and crystallinity) achieved by using this new approach, thus emphasizing its interest for making ion-conducting ceramics in a simple and fast way.

  15. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  16. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  17. Effect of sulfolane on the performance of lithium bis(oxalato)borate-based electrolytes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiyou; Zhao Yangyu; Shi Xinming; Li Bucheng; Xu Xiaoli; Zhao Wei; Cui Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High purity of LiBOB is obtained by the compressing dry granulation method. ► LiBOB-SL/DEC electrolyte is an excellent candidate electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. ► It shows high oxidation potentials (>5.3 V) and satisfactory conductivities. ► In Li/MCMB cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits excellent film-forming characteristics and low impedances of the interface films. ► In LiFePO 4 /Li cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits stable cycle performance and high discharge voltage plateau (>3.35 V). - Abstract: Lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) is a promising salt for lithium ion batteries. However, before applying in lithium ion batteries, it is necessary to prepare high purity LiBOB with a simple method, and find more appropriate solvent systems to exert the perfect electrochemical performance of LiBOB. In this paper, LiBOB is synthesized by the compressing dry granulation method, with the yield of 97%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of LiBOB-sulfolane (SL)/diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte are investigated. It shows high oxidation potentials (>5.3 V) and satisfactory conductivities, also the temperature dependence of the conductivity is well in accord with the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) behavior. When used in Li/MCMB (mesophase carbon microbeads) cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits not only excellent film-forming characteristics, but also low impedances of the interface films. When used in LiFePO 4 /Li cells, compared to the cell with the electrolyte system of LiBOB-EC/DEC electrolyte, LiBOB-SL/DEC electrolyte exhibit several advantages, such as more stable cycle performance, and higher discharge voltage plateau (>3.35 V).

  18. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  19. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during

  20. Self-Assembly of Antisite Defectless nano-LiFePO4 @C/Reduced Graphene Oxide Microspheres for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Runwei; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Ziqi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Jiang, Shang; Ni, Ling; Qiu, Hailong; Tang, Haitong; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun; Pan, Feng

    2018-05-18

    LiFePO 4 @C/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and a high tap density were first synthesized by using a Fe 3+ -based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO 4 OH@RF/GO; RF=resorcinol-formaldehyde, GO=graphene oxide) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis followed by direct calcination. The synthetic process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation pathway from tavorite LiFePO 4 OH to olivine LiFePO 4 upon calcination was determined by means of the in situ high-temperature XRD technique. Benefitting from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1.3 g cm -3 , and simultaneously, defectless LiFePO 4 primary nanocrystals modified with a highly conductive surface carbon layer and ultrathin rGO provide good electronic and ionic kinetics for fast electron/Li + ion transport. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  2. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  3. Results of screening over 200 pristine lithium-ion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela Barreras, Jorge; Raj, Trishna; Howey, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses results from simplified screening tests conducted on more than 200 large format Kokam NMC lithium-ion pouch cells at their beginning of life. Such data are not common in the literature. The cells were sandwiched between two large heat sinks for testing, which...... was conducted using an automated dis/charge test system and thermal chambers. Analysis of the screening data gives valuable quantitative information, but also qualitative insights into the nature of cell-to-cell variations and the complex interactions between battery temperature, capacity, voltage or internal...

  4. Encapsulated Vanadium-Based Hybrids in Amorphous N-Doped Carbon Matrix as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Lei; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Song, Shuqin; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized. The electrode material prepared at 700 °C, i.e., VM-700, exhibits excellent cyclic stability retaining 92% of its reversible capacity after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and attractive rate performance (220 mAh g -1 ) under the current density of up to 2 A g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effect from heterojunction form by the vanadium compound hybrids, the improved ability of the excellent conductive carbon for electron transfer, and restraining the expansion and aggregation of vanadium oxide-nitride in cycling. These interesting findings will provide a reference for the preparation of transition metal oxide and nitride composites as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Pseudo-solid-solution CuCo2O4/C nanofibers as excellent anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hang; Tang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Lei; Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2017-01-01

    Ternary transition metal oxides have received intense research interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries, due to their high specific capacity originating from the synergic effects of multiple metal active sites. Reducing the size of metal oxides nanoparticles and dispersing these nanoparticles in carbon matrix are considering effective strategies to improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxides. Ternary CuCo 2 O 4 nanoclusters ultra-uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofiber matrix forming a pseudo-solid-solution structure are successfully synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by an appropriate annealing process. As the anodic electrode for lithium ion batteries, the pseudo-solid-solution CuCo 2 O 4 /C electrode exhibits a high reversible specific capacity, improved rate capacity and excellent cycling stability. A discharge capacity of 865 mAh g −1 is obtained at the current density of 200 mA g −1 after 400 cycles. Surprisingly, the electrode still retains about 610 mAh g −1 after 800 cycles even at the current density of 600 mA g −1 . The superior lithium storage performance of the pseudo-solid-solution CuCo 2 O 4 /C composites is mainly attributed to the unique amorphous structure. The ultrafine CuCo 2 O 4 nanoclusters uniformly dispersed in carbon matrix can buffer the volume change and improve the conductivity of the metal oxide based electrode, guaranteeing the structure stability and fast electron transfer.

  6. Graphene-bonded and -encapsulated si nanoparticles for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yang; Zhu, Yujie; Langrock, Alex; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Ehrman, Sheryl H; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-08-26

    Silicon (Si) has been considered a very promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, high-capacity Si nanoparticles usually suffer from low electronic conductivity, large volume change, and severe aggregation problems during lithiation and delithiation. In this paper, a unique nanostructured anode with Si nanoparticles bonded and wrapped by graphene is synthesized by a one-step aerosol spraying of surface-modified Si nanoparticles and graphene oxide suspension. The functional groups on the surface of Si nanoparticles (50-100 nm) not only react with graphene oxide and bind Si nanoparticles to the graphene oxide shell, but also prevent Si nanoparticles from aggregation, thus contributing to a uniform Si suspension. A homogeneous graphene-encapsulated Si nanoparticle morphology forms during the aerosol spraying process. The open-ended graphene shell with defects allows fast electrochemical lithiation/delithiation, and the void space inside the graphene shell accompanied by its strong mechanical strength can effectively accommodate the volume expansion of Si upon lithiation. The graphene shell provides good electronic conductivity for Si nanoparticles and prevents them from aggregating during charge/discharge cycles. The functionalized Si encapsulated by graphene sample exhibits a capacity of 2250 mAh g⁻¹ (based on the total mass of graphene and Si) at 0.1C and 1000 mAh g⁻¹ at 10C, and retains 85% of its initial capacity even after 120 charge/discharge cycles. The exceptional performance of graphene-encapsulated Si anodes combined with the scalable and one-step aerosol synthesis technique makes this material very promising for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 2D Layered Graphitic Carbon Nitride Sandwiched with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Nanoarchitectured Anode for Highly Stable Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar; Deshmukh, Kavita A.; Tai, Zhixin; Mahmood, Nasir; Deshmukh, Abhay D.; Goodenough, John B.; Dou, Shi Xue; Liu, Hua Kun

    2017-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high gravimetric capacity and rate capability are a key strategy for the anode of a Li-ion battery, but they still pose a challenge for Li-ion storage due to limited conductivity and an inability to alleviate the volume change upon lithiation and delithiation. In this paper, we report the construction of a 3D architecture anode consisting of exfoliated 2D layered graphitic carbon nitride (g-C_3N_4) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets (CN-rGO) by hydrothermal synthesis. First, bulk g-C_3N_4 is converted to nanosheets to increase the edge density of the inert basal planes since the edges act as active Li-storage sites. This unique 3D architecture, which consists of ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets sandwiched between conductive rGO networks, exhibits a capacity of 970 mA h g"−"1 after 300 cycles, which is 15 fold higher than the bulk g-C_3N_4. The tuning of the intrinsic structural properties of bulk g-C_3N_4 by this simple bottom-up synthesis has rendered a 3D architectured material (CN-rGO) as an effective negative electrode for high energy storage applications.

  8. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  10. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao; Shen, Jingguo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide

  11. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  12. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  13. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  14. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  15. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-08

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles.

  16. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  18. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  19. Improvement of the cycling performance of LiCoO2 with assistance of cross-linked PAN for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xinhe; Shen, Lanyao; Wu, Bin; Zuo, Zicheng; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Zhou, Henghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-linked PAN coating was prepared without damaging the surface of LiCoO 2 . • The coating layer owns good electronic conductivity and mechanical strength. • The cross-linked PAN coating layer is more sufficient than Al 2 O 3 coating. • It shows much improved cyclability than that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . - Abstract: LiCoO 2 has been widely used in lithium ion batteries for digital electronic products. However, the limited cycling performance under high cut-off voltage hinders its commercial application. Many metal oxides and/or phosphorus coating have been reported to improve the cycling performance of LiCoO 2 . In this paper, we report on cross-linked PAN coated LiCoO 2 composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The coating layer was obtained by intermolecular crosslinking of PAN polymer chain by heat treatment at high temperature in air. The air heating process avoids the possible damage arising from the carbon thermal reduction to the surface structure of LiCoO 2 . Electrochemical test indicates that the LiCoO 2 with the cross-linked PAN coating layer shows much improved cycle performance compared with that of bare and Al 2 O 3 coated LiCoO 2 . These findings might also open new avenues to explore polymer coating for other cathode materials of lithium ion batteries

  20. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rasul, Shahid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response

  1. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  2. Carbon-coated ZnO mat passivation by atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hee

    2017-11-01

    ZnO has had little consideration as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries compared with other transition-metal oxides due to its inherent poor electrical conductivity and large volume expansion upon cycling and pulverization of ZnO-based electrodes. A logical design and facile synthesis of ZnO with well-controlled particle sizes and a specific morphology is essential to improving the performance of ZnO in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a simple approach is reported that uses a cation surfactant and a chelating agent to synthesize three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructured carbon-coated ZnO mats, in which the ZnO mats are composed of stacked individual ZnO nanowires and form well-defined nanoporous structures with high surface areas. In order to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries, HfO 2 is deposited on the carbon-coated ZnO mat electrode via atomic layer deposition. Lithium-ion battery devices based on the carbon-coated ZnO mat passivation by atomic layer deposited HfO 2 exhibit an excellent initial discharge and charge capacities of 2684.01 and 963.21mAhg -1 , respectively, at a current density of 100mAg -1 in the voltage range of 0.01-3V. They also exhibit cycle stability after 125 cycles with a capacity of 740mAhg -1 and a remarkable rate capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  4. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  5. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  6. Preparation of Layered-Spinel Microsphere/Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode Materials for Ultrafast Charge-Discharge Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2017-12-22

    Although Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have the highest capacity of any cathodes used, the rate capability of LLOs falls short of meeting the requirements of electric vehicles and smart grids. Herein, a layered-spinel microsphere/reduced graphene oxide heterostructured cathode (LS@rGO) is prepared in situ. This cathode is composed of a spinel phase, two layered structures, and a small amount of reduced graphene oxide (1.08 wt % of carbon). The assembly delivers a considerable charge capacity (145 mA h g -1 ) at an ultrahigh charge- discharge rate of 60 C (12 A g -1 ). The rate capability of LS@rGO is influenced by the introduced spinel phase and rGO. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that Cr ions move from octahedral lattice sites to tetrahedral lattice sites, and that Mn ions do not participate in the oxidation reaction during the initial charge process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Facile, low temperature synthesis of SnO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chau-Chung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Weng, Shao-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Chin; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile, one-pot, low temperature synthesis of SnO_2-RGO composite. • In-situ reduction of graphene oxide and growth of SnO_2 nanoparticle. • Concentration of reductant during synthesis affects the properties significantly. • SnO_2-RGO composite shows good rate capability and stable capacitance. • Synthesis method is energy efficient and scalable for other metal oxides. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile, single step, low temperature and energy efficient strategy for the synthesis of SnO_2-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite where the crystallization of SnO_2 nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide takes place simultaneously by an in situ chemical reduction process. The electrochemical property of the SnO_2-RGO composite prepared by using low concentrations of reducing agent shows better Li storage performance, good rate capability (378 mAh g"−"1 at 3200 mA g"−"1) and stable capacitance (522 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles). Increasing the reductant concentration lead to crystallization of high concentration of SnO_2 nanoparticle aggregation and degrade the Li ion storage property.

  8. Facile, low temperature synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chau-Chung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Weng, Shao-Chieh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70001, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Chia-Chin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70001, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Facile, one-pot, low temperature synthesis of SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite. • In-situ reduction of graphene oxide and growth of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle. • Concentration of reductant during synthesis affects the properties significantly. • SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite shows good rate capability and stable capacitance. • Synthesis method is energy efficient and scalable for other metal oxides. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile, single step, low temperature and energy efficient strategy for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite where the crystallization of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide takes place simultaneously by an in situ chemical reduction process. The electrochemical property of the SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite prepared by using low concentrations of reducing agent shows better Li storage performance, good rate capability (378 mAh g{sup −1} at 3200 mA g{sup −1}) and stable capacitance (522 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles). Increasing the reductant concentration lead to crystallization of high concentration of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregation and degrade the Li ion storage property.

  9. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  10. Interfaces and Materials in Lithium Ion Batteries: Challenges for Theoretical Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Wagner, Ralf; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2018-04-18

    Energy storage is considered a key technology for successful realization of renewable energies and electrification of the powertrain. This review discusses the lithium ion battery as the leading electrochemical storage technology, focusing on its main components, namely electrode(s) as active and electrolyte as inactive materials. State-of-the-art (SOTA) cathode and anode materials are reviewed, emphasizing viable approaches towards advancement of the overall performance and reliability of lithium ion batteries; however, existing challenges are not neglected. Liquid aprotic electrolytes for lithium ion batteries comprise a lithium ion conducting salt, a mixture of solvents and various additives. Due to its complexity and its role in a given cell chemistry, electrolyte, besides the cathode materials, is identified as most susceptible, as well as the most promising, component for further improvement of lithium ion batteries. The working principle of the most important commercial electrolyte additives is also discussed. With regard to new applications and new cell chemistries, e.g., operation at high temperature and high voltage, further improvements of both active and inactive materials are inevitable. In this regard, theoretical support by means of modeling, calculation and simulation approaches can be very helpful to ex ante pre-select and identify the aforementioned components suitable for a given cell chemistry as well as to understand degradation phenomena at the electrolyte/electrode interface. This overview highlights the advantages and limitations of SOTA lithium battery systems, aiming to encourage researchers to carry forward and strengthen the research towards advanced lithium ion batteries, tailored for specific applications.

  11. Novel configuration of polyimide matrix-enhanced cross-linked gel separator for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Yao, Zhikan; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte with additional lithium ions, was introduced into a nonwoven separator. • The PI nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability and mechanical strength of the IACS. • With the introduction of PAMPS(Li"+), the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the -SO_3"− group, giving rise to a high lithium ion transference number. • This IACS is recommended as a promising candidate for the high-power and high-safety lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel composite nonwoven separator exhibiting high heat resistance, high ionic conductivity and high lithium ion transference number is fabricated by a simple dip-coating and heat treatment method. The thermal stable polyimide (PI) nonwoven matrix is chosen as a mechanical support and contributes to improving the thermal shrinkage of the composite nonwoven separator (abbreviated as IACS). The cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) PAMPS(Li"+) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, is introduced into the PI nonwoven matrix and acts as a functional filler. This PAMPS (Li"+) GPE is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, to supply more lithium ions dissociating from PAMPS (Li"+) by liquid electrolyte solvent, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance, and thus resulting in an excellent cyclability. More notably, the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the −SO_3"− group in the PAMPS (Li"+) polymer based on electrostatic interaction, giving rise to a very high lithium ion transference number. These fascinating characteristics endow the IACS a great promise for the application in the high power and high safety lithium ion batteries.

  12. Porous Co3O4 nanofibers surface-modified by reduced graphene oxide as a durable, high-rate anode for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Renzong; Zhang, Houpo; Bu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hanyin; Zhao, Bote; Yang, Chenghao

    2017-01-01

    Here we report our findings in synthesis and characterization of porous Co 3 O 4 nanofibers coated with a surface-modification layer, reduced graphene oxide. The unique porous Co 3 O 4 @rGO architecture enables efficient stress relaxation and fast Li + ions and electron transport during discharge/charge cycling. When tested in a half cell, the Co 3 O 4 @rGO electrodes display high Coulombic efficiency, enhanced cyclic stability, and high rate capability (∼900 mAh/g at 1A/g, and ∼600 mAh/g at 5 A/g). The high capacity is contributed by a stable capacity yielded from reversible conversion reactions above 0.8 V vs. Li/Li + , and a increasing capacity induced by the electrolyte decomposition and interfacial storage between 0.8 0.01 V during discahrge. A full cell constructed from a Co 3 O 4 @rGO anode and a LiMn 2 O 4 cathode delivers good capacity retention with operation voltage of ∼2.0 V. These performances are better than those of other full cells using alloy or metal oxide anodes. Our work is a preliminary attempt for practicality of high capacity metal oxide anodes in Li-ion batteries used for the electronic devices.

  13. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Li-Rich Layered Cathode Oxides for High Volumetric and Power Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao; Yin, Chong; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into on-board energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials; however, it is very difficult to make them compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here, we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li 0.144 Ni 0.136 Co 0.136 Mn 0.544 ]O 2 , directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide. It is found that the as-prepared material presents a micrometer-sized spherical structure that is typically composed of interconnected nanosized subunits with narrow distributed pores at 3.6 nm. As a result, this unique 3D micro-/nanostructure not only has a high tap density over 2.20 g cm -3 but also exhibits excellent rate capability (197.6 mA h g -1 at 1250 mA g -1 ) as an electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique nanoporous micro-nanostructures, which facilitates the Li + diffusion and enhances the structural stability of the Li-rich layered cathode materials. Our work offers a comprehensive designing strategy to construct 3D nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides for both high volumetric energy density and power density in Li-ion batteries.

  14. Reduced graphene oxide supported highly porous V2O5 spheres as a high-power cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhu, Jixin; Sim, Daohao; Xu, Chen; Zeng, Yi; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported highly porous polycrystalline V(2)O(5) spheres (V(2)O(5)/rGO) were prepared by using a solvothermal approach followed by an annealing process. Initially, reduced vanadium oxide (rVO) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 10-50 nm were formed through heterogeneous nucleation on rGO sheets during the solvothermal process. These rVO nanoparticles were oxidized to V(2)O(5) after the annealing process in air at 350 °C and assembled into polycrystalline porous spheres with sizes of 200-800 nm. The weight ratio between the rGO and V(2)O(5) is tunable by changing the weight ratio of the precursors, which in turn affects the morphology of V(2)O(5)/rGO composites. The V(2)O(5)/rGO composites display superior cathode performances with highly reversible specific capacities, good cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g. 102 mA h g(-1) at 19 C).

  15. Improvement of lithium-ion battery performance at low temperature by adopting polydimethylsiloxane-based electrolyte additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Man; Ly, Nguyen Vu; Won, Jung Ha; Lee, Young-Gi; Cho, Won Il; Ko, Jang Myoun; Kaner, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based grafted and ungrafted copolymers such as poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(siloxane-g-acrylate)] (PDMS-A), poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-phenylsiloxane) (PDMS-P), and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(siloxane-g-ethylene oxide)] (PDMS-EO) are used as additives to standard liquid electrolyte solutions to enhance the lithium-ion battery performance at low temperatures. Liquid electrolyte solutions with PDMS-based additives are electrochemically stable under 5.0 V and have adequate ionic conductivities of 10 −4 S cm −1 at -20 °C. Particularly, liquid electrolytes with PDMS-P and PDMS-EO exhibit higher ionic conductivities of around 5 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at -20 °C, indicating a specific resisting property against the freezing of the liquid electrolyte components. As a result, the addition of PDMS-based additives to liquid electrolytes improves the capacity retention ratio and rate-capability of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures

  16. Full and Partial Thickness Burns from Spontaneous Combustion of E-Cigarette Lithium-Ion Batteries with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitl, Daniela; Solomon, Rachele; Davare, Dafney L; Sanchez, Rafael; Kiffin, Chauniqua

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased worldwide. Most electronic nicotine delivery systems use rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are relatively safe, but in rare cases these batteries can spontaneously combust, leading to serious full and partial thickness burn injuries. Explosions from lithium-ion batteries can cause a flash fire and accelerant-related burn injuries. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 3 patients with lithium-ion battery burns seen at our Level I community-based trauma center. Clinical presentation, management, and outcome are presented. All 3 patients sustained burn injuries (total body surface area range 5-13%) from the spontaneous combustion of lithium-ion batteries used for e-cigarettes. All patients were treated with debridement and local wound care. All fully recovered without sequelae. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians can expect to treat burn cases due to spontaneous lithium-ion battery combustion as e-cigarette use continues to increase. The cases presented here are intended to bring attention to lithium-ion battery-related burns, prepare physicians for the clinical presentation of this burn mechanism, and facilitate patient education to minimize burn risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Assisted Fabrication of Hollow Carbon Spheres/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Shulan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Li

    2018-05-22

    Three-dimensional hollow carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (DHCSs/RGO) nanocomposites with high-level heteroatom doping and hierarchical pores are fabricated via a versatile method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that serves as a dispersant and nucleating agent is used as the nonremoval template for synthesizing melamine resin (MR) spheres with abundant heteroatoms, which are subsequently composited with graphene oxide (GO). Use of PVA and implementation of freezing treatment prevent agglomeration of MR spheres within the GO network. Molten KOH is used to achieve the one-step carbonization/activation/reduction for the synthesis of DHCSs/RGO. DHCSs/RGO annealed at 700 °C shows superior discharge capacity of 1395 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 606 mA h/g at 5 A/g as well as excellent retentive capacity of 755 mA h/g after 600 cycles at a current density of 2 A/g. An extra CO 2 activation leads to further enhancement of electrochemical performance with outstanding discharge capacity of 1709 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 835 mA h/g at 2 A/g after 600 cycles. This work may improve our understanding of the synthesis of graphene-like nanocomposites with hollow and porous carbon architectures and fabrication of high-performance functional devices.

  19. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  20. Graphene-based integrated electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ying; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Jing; Pei, Songfeng; Huang, Kun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared flexible free-standing electrodes with anode and cathode active materials deposited on a highly conductive graphene membrane by a two-step filtration method. Compared with conventional electrodes using metal as current collectors, these electrodes have displayed stronger adhesion, superior electrochemical performance, higher energy density, and better flexibility. A full lithium ion battery assembled by adopting these graphene-based electrodes has showed high rate capability and long cyclic life. We have also assembled a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery with poly-(dimethyl siloxane) sheets as packaging material to light a red light-emitting diode. This flexible battery can be easily bent without structural failure or performance loss and operated well under a bent state. The fabrication process of these graphene-based integrated electrodes only has two filtration steps; thus it is easy to scale up. These results suggest great potential for these graphene-based flexible batteries in lightweight, bendable, and wearable electronic devices. (paper)

  1. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  3. A study of tritium behavior in lithium oxide by ion conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kenji; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Hideo; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    1989-01-01

    Ion conductivity of lithium oxide (Li 2 O) irradiated with oxygen ions was measured to obtain information about the effects of irradiation on the behavior of lithium ions and tritium. The conductivity around 490 K decreased with the ion fluence, while around 440 K it increased. The decrease around 490 K and the increase around 440 K were assumed to be attributed to the F + centers and the unspecified radiation defects, respectively. From the point of view that the rate determinant in the mechanism of diffusion of lithium ions in Li 2 O leading to the ion conductivity is the same as that of tritium, the diffusivity of tritium is assumed to be as follows: the diffusivity of tritium is decreased by the F + centers in the range from 490 K to the temperature at which almost all of F + centers are recovered, while it is increased around 440 K by the unspecified radiation defects. In addition, effects of the irradiation on valence states of tritium (i.e., T + , T - ) were discussed in terms of the radiation defects. (orig.)

  4. Surface-protected LiCoO2 with ultrathin solid oxide electrolyte film for high-voltage lithium ion batteries and lithium polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yejing; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Jiliang; Zhang, Jienan; Yu, Huigen; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2018-06-01

    Surface modification of LiCoO2 with the ultrathin film of solid state electrolyte of Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 (LATP) has been realized by a new and facile solution-based method. The coated LiCoO2 reveals enhanced structural and electrochemical stability at high voltage (4.5 V vs Li+/Li) in half-cell with liquid electrolyte. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that a dense LATP coating layer is covered on the surface of LiCoO2 uniformly with thickness of less than 20 nm. The LATP coating layer is proven to be able to prevent the direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte effectively and thus to suppress the side reactions of liquid electrolyte with LiCoO2 surface at high charging voltage. As a result, dissolution of Co3+ has been largely suppressed over prolonged cycling as indicated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Due to this surface passivating feature, the electrochemical performance of 0.5 wt% LATP modified LiCoO2 has also been evaluated in an all solid lithium battery with poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte. The cell exhibits 93% discharge capacity retention of the initial discharge capacity after 50 cycles at the charging cut-off voltage of 4.2 V, suggesting that the LATP coating layer is effective to suppress the oxidation of PEO at high voltage.

  5. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode for high voltage lithium ion battery by modifying electrode/electrolyte interface with electrolyte additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Yaqiong; Tu, Wenqiang; Wang, Zaisheng; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cyclic stability of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 is improved significantly by using PES as additive. • A protective SEI is formed on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 due to the preferential oxidation of PES. • The SEI suppresses electrolyte decomposition and structure destruction of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 . - Abstract: We report a new approach to improve the cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 ) cathode, in which the cathode/electrolyte interface is modified by using prop-1-ene-1, 3-sultone (PES) as an electrolyte additive. The interfacial properties of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 cathode in PES-containing electrolyte have been investigated by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammometry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and constant current charge/discharge test. It is found that the application of PES improves significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 . After 400 cycles at 1C rate (1C=147 mA g −1 ), the capacity retention of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 is 90% for the cell using 1.0 wt% PES, while only 49% for the cell without the additive. The characterizations from SEM, TEM, TG, XRD, and XPS confirm that the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /electrolyte interface is modified and a protective solid electrolyte interface film is formed on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 particles, which prevents LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 from destruction and suppresses the electrolyte decomposition

  6. Assembling porous carbon-coated TiO2(B)/anatase nanosheets on reduced graphene oxide for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shang; Wang, Runwei; Pang, Mingjun; Wang, Hongbin; Zeng, Shangjing; Yue, Xinzheng; Ni, Ling; Yu, Yanru; Dai, Jinyu; Qiu, Shilun; Zhang, Zongtao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous carbon-coated mixed-phase Titanium dioxide nanosheets/reduced graphene oxide composites are successfully fabricated. • Carbon coating has been achieved from organic components. • Mesopores are uniformly distributed throughout the whole TiO 2 @C nanosheet. • Excellent cycling stability: the reversible capacity of 158.6 mAh g −1 is achieved at the current density of 800 mA g −1 after 500 cycles. - Abstract: Novel porous carbon-coated mixed-phase porous TiO 2 (TiO 2 (B)/anatase) nanosheets/reduced graphene oxide composites (TiO 2 @C/RGO) are successfully prepared through a facile one-pot solvothermal process followed by subsequent heat treatment in H 2 /Ar. The as-formed composites have a hierarchical porous structure, involving an average pore size of 28.56 nm, a large pore volume of 0.589 cm 3 g −1 and a desired surface area (136.19 m 2 g −1 ). When used as an anode material in LIBs, TiO 2 @C/RGO exhibits stable cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 272.9 mAh g −1 (with the second capacity retention of 151.1%) after 500 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , much higher than that of TiO 2 @C (177.6 mAh g −1 , 123.9% of the discharge capacity in second cycle) and TiO 2 (75.1 mAh g −1 , corresponding to 96.5% of the original capacity). More impressively, the capacity of TiO 2 @C/RGO can reach 158.6 mAh g −1 after 500 cycles even at 800 mA g −1 with Coulombic efficiency above 99.0%. The superior electrochemical performance of TiO 2 @C/RGO may be attributed to its unique 3D hierarchical porous structures, the existence of carbon, large surface area and extremely reduced diffusion length.

  7. Graphene oxide-confined synthesis of Li4Ti5O12 microspheres as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Cai, Yurong; Wu, Jun; Yao, Juming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a graphene oxide (GO) confined strategy to synthesize reduced GO-coated lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12, LTO) microspheres using as-prepared TiO 2 microspheres and GO as raw materials. The obtained samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometer. Results show that the spherical LTO is formed with approximate 1 μm diameter after hydrothermal reactions, which is due to a confined effect of GO on the surface of TiO 2 spheres. Electrochemical tests reveal that the presence of rGO can increase the capacity and cycling stability of LTO anodes, especially at higher C rate. The 3 wt% rGO-coated LTO anodes present a higher reversible Li-ion storage with a specific discharge capacity of 131.6 mAh g −1 at 5 C and 97% retention even after 500 cycles, which are more excellent than those of pristine LTO. The GO-confined method is anticipated to synthesize other electrode materials with high electrochemical performances

  8. Aging Mechanisms of Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode material aging leads to a decrease in capacity and/or a rise in resistance of the whole cell and thus can dramatically affect the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the aging phenomena are extremely complicated to describe due to the coupling of various factors. In this review, we give an interpretation of capacity/power fading of electrode-oriented aging mechanisms under cycling and various storage conditions for metallic oxide-based cathodes and carbon-based anodes. For the cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical stress and strain resulting from the lithium ions insertion and extraction predominantly lead to structural disordering. Another important aging mechanism is the metal dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition on the anode. For the anode, the main aging mechanisms are the loss of recyclable lithium ions caused by the formation and increasing growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI and the mechanical fatigue caused by the diffusion-induced stress on the carbon anode particles. Additionally, electrode aging largely depends on the electrochemical behaviour under cycling and storage conditions and results from both structural/morphological changes and side reactions aggravated by decomposition products and protic impurities in the electrolyte.

  9. Facile mechanochemical synthesis of nano SnO2/graphene composite from coarse metallic Sn and graphite oxide: an outstanding anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Zhao, Bote; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping

    2014-04-01

    A facile method for the large-scale synthesis of SnO2 nanocrystal/graphene composites by using coarse metallic Sn particles and cheap graphite oxide (GO) as raw materials is demonstrated. This method uses simple ball milling to realize a mechanochemical reaction between Sn particles and GO. After the reaction, the initial coarse Sn particles with sizes of 3-30 μm are converted to SnO2 nanocrystals (approximately 4 nm) while GO is reduced to graphene. Composite with different grinding times (1 h 20 min, 2 h 20 min or 8 h 20 min, abbreviated to 1, 2 or 8 h below) and raw material ratios (Sn:GO, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, w/w) are investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared SnO2 /graphene composite with a grinding time of 8 h and raw material ratio of 1:1 forms micrometer-sized architected chips composed of composite sheets, and demonstrates a high tap density of 1.53 g cm(-3). By using such composites as anode material for LIBs, a high specific capacity of 891 mA h g(-1) is achieved even after 50 cycles at 100 mA g(-1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Preparation of carbon and oxide co-modified LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for high performance lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chun-Chen, E-mail: ccyang@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jer-Huan; Jiang, Jia-Rong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a LiFePO{sub 4}/C (LFP/C) material was prepared using a spray dry method. The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) surface modification on LFP/C composite was performed by a sol–gel method. The characteristic properties were examined using X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, an AC impedance method, and the galvanostatic charge/discharge method. Pristine LFP/C powder and the 1–5 wt.% LTO-coated LFP/C composites were compared. The results revealed that the 3 wt.% LTO-coated LFP/C composite showed the best performance among LFP composite samples. It was found that the 3 wt.% LTO-coated LFP/C composite showed discharge capacities of 159 mAh g{sup −1}, 157 mAh g{sup −1}, 154 mAh g{sup −1}, 148 mAh g{sup −1}, 145 mAh g{sup −1}, and 138 mAh g{sup −1} at rates of 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C, 3C, 5C, and 10C, respectively at 55 °C. The long-term cycling performance of the LFP/C composite was greatly improved when the dual hybrid coating (carbon and oxide) was carried out. Moreover, the 3 wt.% LTO-coated LFP/C composite with the lowest fading rate maintained cycling stability at 3C rate at 55 °C after 300 cycles; by contrast, the bare LFP/C sample with the highest fading rate had an unfavorable lifecycle, and its discharge capacity decreased rapidly. A hybrid coating is a feasible method for improving the high temperature performance of LFP/C composites. - Highlights: • A spherical LiFePO{sub 4}/C (LFP/C) material is first prepared by a spray dry process. • Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) modified LFP/C composite was carried out by a sol–gel method. • The LFP/C with a hybrid coating showed good cycling performance at elevated temperature. • 3%LTO-LFP/C composite showed excellent cycling stability at 55 °C for 300 cycles test.

  12. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  14. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  15. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  16. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both...

  17. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  18. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of thermal contact resistances on fast charging of large format lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yonghuang; Saw, Lip Huat; Shi, Yixiang; Somasundaram, Karthik; Tay, Andrew A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of thermal contact resistance on thermal performance of large format lithium ion batteries. • The effect of temperature gradient on electrochemical performance of large format batteries during fast charging. • The thermal performance of lithium ion battery utilizing pulse charging protocol. • Suggestions on battery geometry design optimization to improve thermal performance. - Abstract: A two dimensional electrochemical thermal model is developed on the cross-plane of a laminate stack plate pouch lithium ion battery to study the thermal performance of large format batteries. The effect of thermal contact resistance is taken into consideration, and is found to greatly increase the maximum temperature and temperature gradient of the battery. The resulting large temperature gradient would induce in-cell non-uniformity of charging-discharging current and state of health. Simply increasing the cooling intensity is inadequate to reduce the maximum temperature and narrow down the temperature difference due to the poor cross-plane thermal conductivity. Pulse charging protocol does not help to mitigate the temperature difference on the bias of same total charging time, because of larger time-averaged heat generation rate than constant current charging. Suggestions on battery geometry optimizations for both prismatic/pouch battery and cylindrical battery are proposed to reduce the maximum temperature and mitigate the temperature gradient within the lithium ion battery

  20. Soluble Graphene Nanosheets from Recycled Graphite of Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangliang; Liu, Xiya; Wan, Chuanyun; Ye, Xiangrong; Wu, Fanhong

    2018-02-01

    Soluble graphene nanosheets are fabricated from recycled graphite of spent lithium ion batteries through a modified Hammers process followed by deoxygenation with NaOH-KOH eutectic. Ultrasonic exfoliation in N-methyl-pyrrolidone indicates the loosened graphene layers in recycled graphite are prone to exfoliation. Reduction of the exfoliated graphene oxide sheets was conducted in molten NaOH-KOH eutectic at different temperatures. The results show that molten NaOH-KOH effectively eliminates the unsaturated oxygen-containing moieties from the exfoliated graphene oxide sheets while creating more hydroxyl functional groups. Higher temperature treatment is more prone to remove hydroxyls while producing the shrinkage on the surface of graphene sheets. Graphene sheet with a good solubility is produced when the graphene oxide is heat-treated at 220 °C for 10 h. After reduction, the graphene oxide sheets exhibit excellent dispersibility or solubility in water, ethanol and other polar solvents, therefore being highly desirable for solution processing of graphene materials. Such study not only identifies a high-quality stockpile to prepare soluble graphene but also paves a feasible alternative of graphite recycling from spent lithium batteries.

  1. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  2. Amorphous boron nanorod as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changjian; Lau, Miu Lun; Barkholtz, Heather M; Xu, Haiping; Parrish, Riley; Xu, Meiyue Olivia; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yuzi; Wang, Hao; Connell, Justin G; Smith, Kassiopeia A; Xiong, Hui

    2017-08-03

    We report an amorphous boron nanorod anode material for lithium-ion batteries prepared through smelting non-toxic boron oxide in liquid lithium. Boron in theory can provide capacity as high as 3099 mA h g -1 by alloying with Li to form B 4 Li 5 . However, experimental studies of the boron anode have been rarely reported for room temperature lithium-ion batteries. Among the reported studies the electrochemical activity and cycling performance of the bulk crystalline boron anode material are poor at room temperature. In this work, we utilized an amorphous nanostructured one-dimensional (1D) boron material aiming at improving the electrochemical reactivity between boron and lithium ions at room temperature. The amorphous boron nanorod anode exhibited, at room temperature, a reversible capacity of 170 mA h g -1 at a current rate of 10 mA g -1 between 0.01 and 2 V. The anode also demonstrated good rate capability and cycling stability. The lithium storage mechanism was investigated by both sweep voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (GITTs). The sweep voltammetric analysis suggested that the contributions from lithium ion diffusion into boron and the capacitive process to the overall lithium charge storage are 57% and 43%, respectively. The results from GITT indicated that the discharge capacity at higher potentials (>∼0.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) could be ascribed to a capacitive process and at lower potentials (ions and the amorphous boron nanorod. This work provides new insights into designing nanostructured boron materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Revealing the Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Carbonate Electrolytes in Lithium-Ion Batteries by Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectrum Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chungwen; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-12-07

    Carbonate electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries play a crucial role in conducting lithium ions between two electrodes. Mixed solvent electrolytes consisting of linear and cyclic carbonates are commonly used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. To understand how the linear and cyclic carbonates introduce different solvation structures and dynamics, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of two representative electrolyte systems containing either linear or cyclic carbonate solvents. We then modeled their two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectra of the carbonyl stretching mode of these carbonate molecules. We found that the chemical exchange process involving formation and dissociation of lithium-ion/carbonate complexes is responsible for the growth of 2DIR cross peaks with increasing waiting time. In addition, we also found that cyclic carbonates introduce faster dynamics of dissociation and formation of lithium-ion/carbonate complexes than linear carbonates. These findings provide new insights into understanding the lithium-ion mobility and its interplay with solvation structure and ultrafast dynamics in carbonate electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  5. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  6. Zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jian; Chen, Shulin; Yang, Jingyi; Qing, Fangzhu; Gao, Peng; Li, Jingze

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both of well-crystalline and amorphous zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 are synthesized and amorphous structure demonstrates a higher capacity and better cycling performance. - Highlights: • Crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 are obtained. • Both crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 have σ_e of 10"−"7 S m"−"1. • Lithium ion diffusion is the rate-determine process. • Amorphous has a high capacity and durable performance. • Amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 has a high apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient. - Abstract: Organic materials offer the advantages of cost-effective, environmental benignity, and molecular structural diversity as applications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In fact, their lithium storage behaviors in terms of dynamics and kinetics intrinsically lie in ion migration in solids. Thus the solid forms including crystalline and amorphous states are crucial for the properties. In this study, a conventional carbonyl type organic material, namely zinc terephthalate (ZnC_8H_4O_4), is obtained in both well-crystalline and amorphous forms and applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. ZnC_8H_4O_4 with amorphous structure shows higher lithium storage capacity and better capacity retention compared with that of crystalline one. It is ascribed that the amorphous phase provides a higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient than the crystalline one under the conditions of similar electronic conductivity.

  7. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Qiwu, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles

  8. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  9. Improved electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 with a variable amount of graphene as a conductive agent for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kang, Sung-Won; Mathew, Vinod; Anh, Ly Tuan; Kang, Jungwon; Song, Jinju; Paul, Baboo Joseph; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-01-01

    We report on the solvothermal preparation of pure Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene (15 wt% and 30 wt%) nanocomposites anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Structure and morphology studies of the nanocomposites by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and field-emission transmission electron microscopy reveal Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles embedded onto the graphene nanosheets. On comparison to pure spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , the electrochemical performances of the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites indicate higher capacities and enhanced cycle performances within the voltage domain of 1.0–2.5 V, under current rates as high as 10.4 C. The production of phase pure Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles ensures the short ion-diffusion paths while the presence of graphene facilitates improved structural network and hence enhanced electronic transport in the prepared nanocomposites. These factors eventually amount to impressive electrochemical properties. Highlights: ► A simple polyol-based approach to obtain the graphene nanosheets. ► Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites synthesis by polyol-based solvothermal process. ► Low temperature solvothermal strategy is one-step process to control nanoparticle sizes. ► The nanoparticles are well anchored onto the graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposites. ► Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene nanocomposites exhibit impressive electrochemical performances.

  10. Graphene nanoribbon and nanostructured SnO2 composite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Xiang, Changsheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Yan, Zheng; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2013-07-23

    A composite made from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is synthesized and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The conductive GNRs, prepared using sodium/potassium unzipping of multiwall carbon nanotubes, can boost the lithium storage performance of SnO2 NPs. The composite, as an anode material for LIBs, exhibits reversible capacities of over 1520 and 1130 mAh/g for the first discharge and charge, respectively, which is more than the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The reversible capacity retains ~825 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Further, the composite shows good power performance with a reversible capacity of ~580 mAh/g at the current density of 2 A/g. The high capacity, good power performance and retention can be attributed to uniformly distributed SnO2 NPs along the high-aspect-ratio GNRs. The GNRs act as conductive additives that buffer the volume changes of SnO2 during cycling. This work provides a starting point for exploring the composites made from GNRs and other transition metal oxides for lithium storage applications.

  11. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hyperfine structure of muonic lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Martynenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of perturbation theory in fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the ratio of electron to muon masses we calculate recoil corrections of order $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2\\ln(M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2$, $\\alpha^5(m_e/m_\\mu\\ln(m_e/m_\\mu$ to hyperfine splitting of the ground state in muonic lithium ions $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ and $(\\mu e ^7_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$. We obtain total results for the ground state small hyperfine splittings in $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ $\\Delta\

  13. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  14. Materials for lithium-ion battery safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Pei, Allen; Cui, Yi

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered to be one of the most important energy storage technologies. As the energy density of batteries increases, battery safety becomes even more critical if the energy is released unintentionally. Accidents related to fires and explosions of LIBs occur frequently worldwide. Some have caused serious threats to human life and health and have led to numerous product recalls by manufacturers. These incidents are reminders that safety is a prerequisite for batteries, and serious issues need to be resolved before the future application of high-energy battery systems. This Review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the origins of LIB safety issues and highlight recent key progress in materials design to improve LIB safety. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in battery safety, especially for emerging LIBs with high-energy density.

  15. Nano silicon for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Michael; Buqa, Hilmi; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Hahn, Matthias; Wuersig, Andreas; Scheifele, Werner; Novak, Petr; Koetz, Ruediger; Veit, Claudia; Petrat, Frank-Martin

    2006-01-01

    New results for two types of nano-size silicon, prepared via thermal vapour deposition either with or without a graphite substrate are presented. Their superior reversible charge capacity and cycle life as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries have already been shown in previous work. Here the lithiation reaction of the materials is investigated more closely via different electrochemical in situ techniques: Raman spectroscopy, dilatometry and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). The Si/graphite compound material shows relatively high kinetics upon discharge. The moderate relative volume change and low gas evolution of the nano silicon based electrode, both being important points for a possible future use in real batteries, are discussed with respect to a standard graphite electrode

  16. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  17. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  18. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries...

  19. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang; Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Liang, Yongye; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free

  20. Ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets: Oriented attachment mechanism, nonstoichiometric defects and enhanced Lithium-ion battery performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cen; Du, Gaohui; Ståhl, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    investigations of tin oxides as well as their intertransition processes. Finally, we investigated the lithium-ion storage of the SnO2 NSs as compared to SnO2 hollow spheres and NPs. The results showed superior performance of SnO2 NSs sample over its two counterparts. This greatly enhanced Li-ion storage...

  1. Rational synthesis of graphene-encapsulated uniform MnMoO4 hollow spheres as long-life and high-rate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huaixin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Qian, Yong; Geng, Hongbo

    2018-03-29

    In this manuscript, the graphene-encapsulated MnMoO 4 hollow spheres (MnMoO 4 @G) synthesized by an effective strategy were reported. Benefiting from the intriguing hybrid architecture of hollow structure and conductive graphene network, the MnMoO 4 @G composite displays superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacity of 1142 mA h g -1 , high reversible cycling stability of 921 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 after 70 cycles, and stable rate performance (around 513 mA h g -1 at a current density of 4.0 A g -1 ). The remarkable battery performance can be attributed to the rational design of the architecture, which not only ensures the fast transport of electrons and lithium ions within the electrode material, but also effectively relax the stress induced by the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. This facile synthetic method can extend to other transition metal oxides with large volume excursions and poor electric conductivity and promotes the development of transition metal oxides as high-performance LIB anode material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  3. High-rate capability of lithium-ion batteries after storing at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Chiang, Pin-Chi Julia

    2007-01-01

    High-rate performances of a lithium-ion battery after storage at elevated temperature are investigated electrochemically by means of three-electrode system. The high-rate capability is decreased significantly after high-temperature storage. A 3 C discharge capacities after room-temperature storage and 60 o C storage are 650 and 20 mAh, respectively. Lithium-ion diffusion in lithium cobalt oxide cathode limits the battery's capacity and the results show that storage temperature changes this diffusion behavior. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that many defects are directly observed in the cathode after storage compared with the fresh cathode; the structural defects block the diffusion within the particles. Electrochemical impedance and polarization curve indicate that mass-transfer (diffusion) dominates the discharge capacity during high-rate discharge

  4. Cathodes for lithium ion batteries: the benefits of using nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazito, Fernanda F.C.; Torresi, Roberto M.

    2006-01-01

    Commercially available lithium ion cells, which are the most advanced among rechargeable batteries available so far, employ microcrystalline transition metal oxides as cathodes, which function as Li insertion hosts. In search for better electrochemical performance the use of nanomaterials in place of these conventional ones has emerged as excellent alternative. In this review we present a brief introduction about the motivations to use nanostructured materials as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. To illustrate such advantages we present some examples of research directed toward preparations and electrochemical data of the most used cathodes in nanoscale, such as LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 , LiMnO 2 , LiV 2 O 5 e LiFePO 4 . (author)

  5. Computational multiobjective topology optimization of silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah L.; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study utilizes computational topology optimization methods for the systematic design of optimal multifunctional silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries. In order to develop next generation high performance lithium-ion batteries, key design challenges relating to the silicon anode structure must be addressed, namely the lithiation-induced mechanical degradation and the low intrinsic electrical conductivity of silicon. As such this work considers two design objectives, the first being minimum compliance under design dependent volume expansion, and the second maximum electrical conduction through the structure, both of which are subject to a constraint on material volume. Density-based topology optimization methods are employed in conjunction with regularization techniques, a continuation scheme, and mathematical programming methods. The objectives are first considered individually, during which the influence of the minimum structural feature size and prescribed volume fraction are investigated. The methodology is subsequently extended to a bi-objective formulation to simultaneously address both the structural and conduction design criteria. The weighted sum method is used to derive the Pareto fronts, which demonstrate a clear trade-off between the competing design objectives. A rigid frame structure was found to be an excellent compromise between the structural and conduction design criteria, providing both the required structural rigidity and direct conduction pathways. The developments and results presented in this work provide a foundation for the informed design and development of silicon anode structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  7. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  8. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  9. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material

  10. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  11. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured

  12. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...... material exhibits the extremely high reversible lithium ion capacity and extraordinary rate capability with high cycling stability at high discharge current. In this presentation we demonstrate that the disorder plays a decisive role in achieving those exceptional electrochemical performances. We describe...... how the disorder affects the migration of both lithium ions and electrons. It is found that both the modified glassy surface and the heterogeneous superlattice structure greatly contribute to the extremely high discharge/charge rates owing to the enhanced storage capacity of lithium ions and ultrafast...

  13. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.; Wessells, C.D.; Deshazer, H.D.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case

  14. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes

  15. Closing to Scaling-Up High Reversible Si/rGO Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokur, Mahmud; Algul, Hasan; Ozcan, Seyma; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Uysal, Mehmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • rGO wrapped Si composite anodes for li-ion batteries were prepared by a hybrid assembly and followed by GO reduction. • To improve mechanical bonding between rGO and Si nanoparticles, mechanical alloying method was performed. • Different Si/rGO composite mixtures were prepared to investigate electrochemical performance of composite anodes. - Abstract: In spite of its excellent discharge capacity, low conductivity and poor cycling stability prevent to commercialize silicon negative electrodes for the Lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Since graphene has large surface area, high electrical conductivity and discharge capacity, silicon/graphene nanocomposite anodes in proper architectures alleviate difficulties to improve electrochemical performances of the LIBs. This article demonstrates the nanocomposite synthesizing with 10 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 50 wt.% graphene oxide (GO) dispersion in the silicon matrix following reduction of GO (rGO) result in remarkable improvements in the discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Mechanical milling after GO reduction provides decoration of silicon nanoparticles between the rGO sheets and improves interfacial bonding between silicon and rGO which alleviates huge volume increase during cycling. Among the nanocomposite negative electrodes, 50 wt.% rGO exhibits highest reversible capacity of about 2000 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles and good coulombic efficiency approximately 99%. This study proves that dispersion of silicon with rGO and the increase content of rGO lead to improve ionic conductivity, cycling stability, reversibility and rate capability of the Lithium ion cell. Because of the easy scaling-up possibility of the method Si/rGO hybrid nanocomposites can be new electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. .

  16. Non-isothermal electrochemical model for lithium-ion cells with composite cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Suman; Patil, Rajkumar S.; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2015-06-01

    Transition metal oxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries offer high energy density and high voltage. Composites of these materials have shown excellent life expectancy and improved thermal performance. In the present work, a comprehensive non-isothermal electrochemical model for a Lithium ion cell with a composite cathode is developed. The present work builds on lithium concentration-dependent diffusivity and thermal gradient of cathode potential, obtained from experiments. The model validation is performed for a wide range of temperature and discharge rates. Excellent agreement is found for high and room temperature with moderate success at low temperatures, which can be attributed to the low fidelity of material properties at low temperature. Although the cell operation is limited by electronic conductivity of NCA at room temperature, at low temperatures a shift in controlling process is seen, and operation is limited by electrolyte transport. At room temperature, the lithium transport in Cathode appears to be the main source of heat generation with entropic heat as the primary contributor at low discharge rates and ohmic heat at high discharge rates respectively. Improvement in electronic conductivity of the cathode is expected to improve the performance of these composite cathodes and pave way for its wider commercialization.

  17. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  18. Coaxial Manganese Dioxide@N-doped Carbon Nanotubes as Superior Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Jie; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Chen, Liang; Wang, Nana; Yang, Jian; Ma, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MnO 2 @N-dopedcarbonnanotube(N-CNT) composites are prepared by a facile process. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes exhibit better electrochemical properties than MnO 2 @CNT. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes show a capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 after 150 cycles. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been widely applied to transition metal oxides anodes for lithium ion batteries, acting as a buffer, hollow backbone and conductive additive. Since the presence of N in carbon materials can enhance the reactivity and electrical conductivity, N-doped carbon nanotube (N-CNT) might be a better choice than pure CNT, which is exemplified by coaxial manganese dioxide@N-doped carbon nanotubes as a superior anode. The electrochemical properties of MnO 2 @N-CNT are investigated in terms of cycling stability and rate capability. The nanocomposite can deliver a specific capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g −1 , which is better than that of MnO 2 @commercial CNT and MnO 2 . The excellent performance might be related to the integration of hollow structure, one-dimensional nanoscale size as well as combination with N-doped carbon materials.

  19. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  20. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-03-02

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present integration strategy to rationally design materials and processes to report flexible inorganic lithium-ion microbattery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery shows an enhanced normalized capacity of 147 μAh/cm2 when bent.

  1. Effective Usage of Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 耕治; ハマダ, コウジ; Koji, HAMADA

    2008-01-01

    Pure Electric Vehicles(PEV's) are promising when seen in relation to global environment. However, there is the need to solve a number of problems before PEV's become viable alternatives of transportation. For example, reduction of battery charge time, improvement of battery performance, and reduction in vehicle cost. A way to improve battery performance is to use lithium ion batteries. One problem with lithium ion batteries is with charging (recharging). It is difficult to provide a constant ...

  2. Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Qin, Yan; Amine, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

  3. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  4. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongwoon; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Seungchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV). As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28347087

  5. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO 2 composite, where SnO 2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO 2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO 2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g -1 and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Poly(o-methoxyaniline modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(o-methoxyaniline for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(o-methoxyaniline was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-4 mol L-1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry.

  8. Poly(ο-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(ο-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(ο-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -4 mol L -1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  9. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  10. Simulation of electrochemical behavior in Lithium ion battery during discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huo, Weiwei; Lin, Muyi; Zhao, Li

    2018-01-01

    An electrochemical Lithium ion battery model was built taking into account the electrochemical reactions. The polarization was divided into parts which were related to the solid phase and the electrolyte mass transport of species, and the electrochemical reactions. The influence factors on battery polarization were studied, including the active material particle radius and the electrolyte salt concentration. The results showed that diffusion polarization exist in the positive and negative electrodes, and diffusion polarization increase with the conducting of the discharge process. The physicochemical parameters of the Lithium ion battery had the huge effect on cell voltage via polarization. The simulation data show that the polarization voltage has close relationship with active material particle size, discharging rate and ambient temperature.

  11. Role of Amines in Thermal-Runaway-Mitigating Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Qiao, Yu

    2016-11-16

    Benzylamine (BA), dibenzylamine (DBA), and trihexylamine (THA) are investigated as thermal-runaway retardants (TRR) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In a LIB, TRR is packaged separately and released when internal shorting happens, so as to suppress exothermic reactions and slow down temperature increase. THA is identified as the most efficient TRR. Upon nail penetration, 4 wt % THA can reduce the peak temperature by nearly 50%. The working mechanisms of the three amines are different: THA is highly wettable to the separator and immiscible with the electrolyte, and therefore, it blocks lithium-ion (Li + ) transport. BA and DBA decrease the ionic conductivity of electrolyte and increase the charge transfer resistance. All three amines react with charged electrodes; the reactions of DBA and THA do not have much influence on the overall heat generation, while the reaction of BA cannot be ignored.

  12. Phase diagram, thermodynamic investigations, and modelling of systems relevant to lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Beutl, Alexander; Flanorfer, Hans; Henriques, David; Giel, Hans; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on two consecutive joint projects titled ''Experimental Thermodynamics and Phase Relations of New Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries'', which were performed in the framework of the WenDeLIB 1473 priority program ''Materials with new Design for Lithium Ion Batteries''. Hundreds of samples were synthesized using experimental techniques specifically developed to deal with highly reactive lithium and lithium-containing compounds to generate electrochemical, phase diagram and crystal structure data in the Cu-Li, Li-Sn, Li-Sb, Cu-Li-Sn, Cu-Li-Sb and selected oxide systems. The thermochemical and phase diagram data were subsequently used to develop self-consistent thermodynamic descriptions of several binary systems. In the present contribution, the experimental techniques, working procedures, results and their relevance to the development of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are discussed and summarized. The collaboration between the three groups has resulted in more than fifteen (15) published articles during the six-year funding period.

  13. Polyimide Binder: A Facile Way to Improve Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Guannan; Wang, Li; Shang, Yuming; He, Xiangming; Tang, Shuangfeng; Liu, Ming; Li, TuanWei; Zhang, Gaoqiang; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    A soluble polyimide (PI) is attempted to be a binder for transition metal oxide cathode in lithium ion batteries. It is synthesized from 2,2-Bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane, 4,4′-Oxydianiline and 4,4′-Oxydiphthalic anhydride, and characterized by FT-IR and 1 H NMR techniques. To be a binder, the synthesized PI is applied to fabricate the electrodes, showing binding property and electrochemical performance as good as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) that is conventional binder widely used in lithium ion batteries. The 2 Ah pouch full cells with PI and PVDF binders are assembled to compare their performances. As a result, the batteries with PI binder display 91.4% capacity retention after 500 cycles, which is almost the same as the cells withPVDF binder. The overcharge safetytests are carried by 2 Ah pouch full cells, indicating that PI cells can pass the test, no fire and no explosion, but the PVDF cells fail the test, catching fire. The result shows that the PI binder can enhance the safety of Li-ion batteries. This study paves a new way to improve the safety performance of lithium ion batteries.

  14. Phase diagram, thermodynamic investigations, and modelling of systems relevant to lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Beutl, Alexander; Flanorfer, Hans [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry - Functional Materials; Li, Dajian; Cupid, Damian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Henriques, David; Giel, Hans; Markus, Thorsten [Mannheim Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Inst. for Thermo- and Fluiddynamics

    2017-11-15

    This article reports on two consecutive joint projects titled ''Experimental Thermodynamics and Phase Relations of New Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries'', which were performed in the framework of the WenDeLIB 1473 priority program ''Materials with new Design for Lithium Ion Batteries''. Hundreds of samples were synthesized using experimental techniques specifically developed to deal with highly reactive lithium and lithium-containing compounds to generate electrochemical, phase diagram and crystal structure data in the Cu-Li, Li-Sn, Li-Sb, Cu-Li-Sn, Cu-Li-Sb and selected oxide systems. The thermochemical and phase diagram data were subsequently used to develop self-consistent thermodynamic descriptions of several binary systems. In the present contribution, the experimental techniques, working procedures, results and their relevance to the development of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are discussed and summarized. The collaboration between the three groups has resulted in more than fifteen (15) published articles during the six-year funding period.

  15. 3D Printing of Flexible Electrodes Towards Wearable Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi-bo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to fabricate flexible free-standing electrodes with textile structure for lithium-ion batteries was provided by applying extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D printing technology. Meanwhile, highly concentrated poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF is used as viscosity modifier, carbon nanotube (CNT as conducting additive, and lithium iron phosphate (LFP or lithium titanium oxide (LTO as cathode or anode active materials respectively to develop printable inks with obvious shear-thinning behavior, and with the apparent viscosity and storage modulus platform value of over 105Pa·s, which is beneficial to the printability and enable complex 3D structures solidification. The electrochemical test shows that both printed electrodes have similar charge and discharge specific capacities under current density of 50mA·g-1. To explore the feasibility of the printed electrodes, a pouch cell with as-printed LFP and LTO electrode as cathode and anode respectively is assembled. The pouch cell without deformation delivers discharge specific capacities of approximately 108mAh·g-1, and there is a tiny increase in discharge specific capacities of around 111mAh·g-1 for bended pouch cell.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of SnCo alloy shells on orderly rod-shaped Cu current collectors as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Fangwei; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: meszhanghui@zju.edu.cn; Qi, Yue; Wang, Jiazheng; Du, Ning; Yang, Deren

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •Nanostructured SnCo/Cu electrodes have been successfully fabricated. •A simple electrodeposition approach was employed. •The Cu arrays offer large surface area and improve electronic/ionic conductivity. •The electrodes show improved performance as anode for Li-ion batteries. •The improved performance was attributed to the nanostructured current collectors. -- Abstract: In this article, we report a two-step electrodeposition method for the synthesis of Cu/SnCo core–shell rod-shaped arrays as anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, the arrayed Cu nanorods with diameters of 200 nm were fabricated on a Cu foil through an electrodeposition method with alumina oxide membrane (AAO) as the template. Secondly, the SnCo alloy shells were subsequently electrodeposited on the surface of the rod-shaped Cu arrays to form the hybrid nanostructures. These hybrid electrodes delivered the enhanced cyclic performance and high rate capability serving as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The improved electrochemical performance might be attributed to the large surface-to-volume area, sufficient buffering space, and high electronic conductivity associated with these 3-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  17. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  18. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladeji, I. [Planar Energy Devices, Inc.; Wood, D. L. [ORNL; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  19. Improved performance and safety of lithium ion cells with the use of fluorinated carbonate-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ryan, V. S.; Surampudi, S.; Prakashi, G. K. S.; Hu, J.; Cheung, I.

    2002-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in developing lithium-ion electrolytes that possess enhanced safety characteristics, while still able to provide the desired stability and performance. Toward this end, our efforts have been focused on the development of lithium-ion electrolytes which contain partially and fully fluorinated carbonate solvents. The advantage of using such solvents is that they possess the requisite stability demonstrated by the hydrocarbon-based carbonates, while also possessing more desirable physical properties imparted by the presence of the fluorine substituents, such as lower melting points, increased stability toward oxidation, and favorable SEI film forming Characteristics on carbon. Specifically, we have demonstrated the beneficial effect of electrolytes which contain the following fluorinated carbonate-based solvents: methyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (MTFEC), ethyl-2,2,2 trifluoroethyl carbonate (ETFEC), propyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (PTFEC), methyl-2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (MHFPC), ethyl- 2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (EHFPC), and di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC). These solvents have been incorporated into multi-component ternary and quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes and evaluated in lithium-carbon and carbon-LiNio.8Coo.202 cells (equipped with lithium reference electrodes). In addition to determining the charge/discharge behavior of these cells, a number of electrochemical techniques were employed (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further characterize the performance of these electrolytes, including the SEI formation characteristics and lithium intercalatiodde-intercalation kinetics. In addition to their evaluation in experimental cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and conductivity measurements were performed on select electrolyte formulations to further our understanding of the trends

  20. Advanced lithium ion cells with litium manganese spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerlein, P.; Herr, R.; Kloss, M.; Kuempers, J.; Maul, M.; Meissner, E. [Varta Batterie AG, Kelkheim (Germany). Forschungs- und Entwicklungszentrum

    1999-09-01

    For electric vehicle propulsion, a number of alternative concepts exist. One approach is the so-called full electric vehicle (EV), which is exclusively driven by a battery. Another alternative is the hybrid vehicle concept, where a combustion engine and a battery are used for propulsion. Both concepts differ in the requirements for the battery used. This leads to the fact that for each application a special type of battery has to be tailored, resulting in a high-energy battery for the EV application and a high-power battery for hybrid vehicles. Both requirements, the high-energy and the high-power requirement, can be met by lithium ion batteries. With lithium manganese oxide and carbon as active materials, high-energy cells were realised with an energy density of 115 WH/kg and a specific pulse power of 500 W/kg, as well as high-power cells with an energy density of 60 Wh/kg and a specific pulse power of 850 W/kg. Both types of cells show good cycle life and good performance at low temperatures. (orig.)

  1. Study on performance of composite polymer films doped with modified molecular sieve for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuqing; Zhang Guodong; Du Tingdong; Zhang Lizao

    2010-01-01

    To improve the tensile strength and ionic conductivity of composite polymer films for lithium-ion batteries, molecular sieves of MCM-41 modified with sulfated zirconia (SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 , SZ), denoted as MCM-41/SZ, were doped into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) matrix to fabricate MCM-41/SZ composite polymer films, denoted as MCM-41/SZ films. Examination by transmission electron microscope (TEM) shows that modified molecular sieves have lower aggregation and a more porous structure. Tensile strength tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical performance of MCM-41/SZ films, and then the electrochemical performance of batteries with MCM-41/SZ films as separators was tested. The results show that the tensile strength (σ t ) of MCM-41/SZ film was up to 7.8 MPa; the ionic conductivity of MCM-41/SZ film was close to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature; and the coulombic efficiency of the assembled lithium-ion battery was 92% at the first cycle and reached as high as 99.99% after the 20th cycle. Meanwhile, the charge-discharge voltage plateau of the lithium-ion battery presented a stable state. Therefore, MCM-41/SZ films are a good choice as separators for lithium-ion batteries due to their high tensile strength and ionic conductivity.

  2. Environmental-Friendly and Facile Synthesis of Co3O4 Nanowires and Their Promising Application with Graphene in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Yuanyi; Sun, Lijuan; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we developed an eco-friendly strategy for preparing Co3O4 nanowires. The process consisted of two steps: controllable synthesis of metal cobalt nanowires followed by a facile air-oxidization step. The 1D nanowire structure with a high aspect ratio was easily achieved via a magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of cobalt ion complexes during reduction. After air-calcinations, the Co3O4 nanowires were prepared in large scale and ready to be used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The Co3O4 nanowires, which possessed a length ranging from 3 to 8 μm with the aspect ratio more than 15, exhibited a reversible lithium storage capacity up to 790 mAh/g when using a small amount of defect-free graphene flakes as conductive additives. The superior electrochemical performances were ascribable to the synergistic "flat-on" effect between the 1D nanowires and the 2D graphene. Therefore, the Co3O4 nanowire/graphene composite holds promising application for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene wrapped rice-like ferrous carbonate nanoparticles as anode materials for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai; Li, Lifei

    2014-11-01

    Well dispersed rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles were produced and combined with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a one-pot solvothermal route. SEM characterization shows that rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored on the surface of the graphene nanosheets; the addition of RGO is helpful to form a uniform morphology and reduce the particle size of FeCO3 to nano-grade. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved lithium storage properties with a large reversible capacity of 1345 mA h g-1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1224 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles with a good rate capability compared with pure FeCO3 particles. The superior electrochemical performance of the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite electrode compared to the pure FeCO3 electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodates the volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite could be a suitable candidate for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Computational research on lithium ion battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ping

    Crystals of LiFePO4 and related materials have recently received a lot of attention due to their very promising use as cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. This thesis studied the electronic structures of FePO 4 and LiMPO4, where M=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni within the framework of density-functional theory. The first study compared the electronic structures of the LiMPO 4 and FePO4 materials in their electrochemically active olivine form, using the LAPW (linear augmented plane wave) method [1]. A comparison of results for various spin configurations suggested that the ferromagnetic configuration can serve as a useful approximation for studying general features of these systems. The partial densities of states for the LiMPO4 materials are remarkably similar to each other, showing the transition metal 3d states forming narrow bands above the O 2p band. By contrast, in absence of Li, the majority spin transition metal 3d states are well-hybridized with the O 2p band in FePO4. The second study compared the electronic structures of FePO4 in several crystal structures including an olivine, monoclinic, quartz-like, and CrVO4-like form [2,3]. For this work, in addition to the LAPW method, PAW (Projector Augmented Wave) [4], and PWscf (plane-wave pseudopotential) [5] methods were used. By carefully adjusting the computational parameters, very similar results were achieved for the three independent computational methods. Results for the relative stability of the four crystal structures are reported. In addition, partial densities of state analyses show qualitative information about the crystal field splittings and bond hybridizations and help rationalize the understanding of the electrochemical and stability properties of these materials.

  5. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  6. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  7. Feasibility assessment of remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of end of vehicle application lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Foster

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in electric vehicles and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles cannot be simply discarded at the end of vehicle application due to the materials of which they are composed. In addition the US Department of Energy has estimated that the cost per kWh of new lithium-ion batteries for vehicle applications is four times too high, creating an economic barrier to the widespread commercialization of plug-in electric vehicles. (USDOE 2014. Thus, reducing this cost by extending the application life of these batteries appears to be necessary. Even with an extension of application life, all batteries will eventually fail to hold a charge and thus become unusable. Thus environmentally safe disposition must be accomplished. Addressing these cost and environmental issues can be accomplished by remanufacturing end of vehicle life lithium ion batteries for return to vehicle applications as well as repurposing them for stationary applications such as energy storage systems supporting the electric grid. In addition, environmental safe, “green” disposal processes are required that include disassembly of batteries into component materials for recycling. The hypotheses that end of vehicle application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling are each economic are examined. This assessment includes a forecast of the number of such batteries to ensure sufficient volume for conducting these activities.Design/methodology/approach: The hypotheses that end of vehicle application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling are economic are addressed using cost-benefit analysis applied independently to each. Uncertainty is associated with all future costs and benefits. Data from a variety of sources are combined and reasonable assumptions are made. The robustness of the results is confirmed by sensitivity analysis regarding each key parameter. Determining that a sufficient volume of end of vehicle application lithium-ion

  8. An approach to beneficiation of spent lithium-ion batteries for recovery of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Danai

    Lithium ion batteries are one of the most commonly used batteries. A large amount of these have been used over the past 25 years and the use is expected to rise more due to their use in automotive batteries. Lithium ion batteries cannot be disposed into landfill due to safety reasons and cost. Thus, over the last years, there has been a lot of effort to find ways to recycle lithium ion batteries. A lot of valuable materials are present in a lithium ion battery making their recycling favorable. Many attempts, including pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods, have been researched and some of them are already used by the industry. However, further improvements are needed to the already existing processes, to win more valuable materials, use less energy and be more environmentally benign. The goal of this thesis is to find a low-temperature, low-energy method of recovering lithium from the electrolyte and to develop pathways for complete recycling of the battery. The research consists of the following parts: Pure LiPF6 powder, which is the electrolyte material, was characterized using x- ray diffraction analysis and DSC/TGA analysis. The LiPF6 powder was titrated using acid (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4), bases (NH4 OH) and distilled water. It was concluded that distilled water was the best solvent to selectively leach lithium from lithium-ion batteries. Leaching conditions were optimized including time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio and stirring velocity. All the samples were tested using ICP for chemical composition. Because leaching could be performed at room temperature, leaching was conducted in a flotation machine that was able to separate plastics by creating bubbles with no excess reagents use. The solution that contained lithium had to be concentrated more in order for lithium to be able to precipitate and it was shown that the solution could be concentrated by using the same solution over and over again. The next set of experiments was composed of battery

  9. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kandler A.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  10. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  11. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  12. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  13. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  14. Method of producing p-i-n structures by compensation of lithium ions from both side of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, R.A.; Radjapov, S.A.; Saymbetov, A.K.; Tursunkulov, O.M.; Pindurin, Yu.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors are needed to solve certain problems in nuclear spectroscopy. The development of efficiency detectors became possible with advances in growing high purify silicon single crystals with the required properties, satisfying the requirements for obtaining detectors based on them. One important requirement for obtaining detectors with sensitive area is that its resistance must be high. This is achieved by using the lithium ion drift process in the volume of the semiconductor detector. Thus it has been developed and created silicon semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors with vide range of diameter of sensitive area up to 100 mm and thickness (from 1mm to 10mm). At present work a new method for producing p-i-n structures was developed to decrease substantially the time required for compensation of silicon by lithium ions and to eliminate at the same time the negative consequences of holding the crystal at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Drift of lithium ions from two ends of prepared samples is conducted to a depth sufficient for the required compensation of the initial acceptor impurity in silicon. The method described above was used to fabricate a batch of Si(Li) detectors with a 1-10 mm thick and 10-110 mm in diameter sensitive region. The thickness of the sensitive region was determined by performing standard measurements and chemical pigmentation. Advantages of detectors are they have improved properties and less time for compensation of lithium ions. (authors)

  15. Brief Talk about Lithium-ion Batteries’ Safety and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng

    2017-12-01

    A brief introduction of the development background, the concept, characteristic and advantages of lithium-ion battery was given. The typical fire accidents about lithium-ion battery in production process, the vehicle with new energy, portable electronic products were summarized. Some important factors for lithium-ion batteries’ safety were emphatically analyzed. Several constructive suggestions on improvement direction were given, meanwhile, we have a nice exception on the future of lithium-ion battery industry.

  16. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  17. Vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Resources Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Central South University, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China (China); Qiu, Keqiang, E-mail: qiuwhs@sohu.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Resources Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Central South University, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The cathode active materials LiCoO{sub 2} from spent lithium-ion batteries peeled completely from aluminum foils by vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process. {yields} The aluminum foils were excellent without damage after vacuum pyrolysis. {yields} The pyrolysis products organic fluorine compounds from organic electrolyte and binder were collected and enriched. {yields} High leaching efficiencies of cobalt and lithium were obtained with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries contain lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium together with other hazardous materials, which are considered as an attractive secondary resource and environmental contaminant. In this work, a novel process involving vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical technique was developed for the combined recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. The results of vacuum pyrolysis of cathode material showed that the cathode powder composing of LiCoO{sub 2} and CoO peeled completely from aluminum foils under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 600 {sup o}C, vacuum evaporation time of 30 min, and residual gas pressure of 1.0 kPa. Over 99% of cobalt and lithium could be recovered from peeled cobalt lithium oxides with 2 M sulfuric acid leaching solution at 80 {sup o}C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 60 min. This technology offers an efficient way to recycle valuable materials from spent lithium-ion batteries, and it is feasible to scale up and help to reduce the environmental pollution of spent lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The cathode active materials LiCoO 2 from spent lithium-ion batteries peeled completely from aluminum foils by vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process. → The aluminum foils were excellent without damage after vacuum pyrolysis. → The pyrolysis products organic fluorine compounds from organic electrolyte and binder were collected and enriched. → High leaching efficiencies of cobalt and lithium were obtained with H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries contain lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium together with other hazardous materials, which are considered as an attractive secondary resource and environmental contaminant. In this work, a novel process involving vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical technique was developed for the combined recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. The results of vacuum pyrolysis of cathode material showed that the cathode powder composing of LiCoO 2 and CoO peeled completely from aluminum foils under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 600 o C, vacuum evaporation time of 30 min, and residual gas pressure of 1.0 kPa. Over 99% of cobalt and lithium could be recovered from peeled cobalt lithium oxides with 2 M sulfuric acid leaching solution at 80 o C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L -1 for 60 min. This technology offers an efficient way to recycle valuable materials from spent lithium-ion batteries, and it is feasible to scale up and help to reduce the environmental pollution of spent lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Solvation of lithium ion in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    Solvation of the lithium ion (Li+) in dimethoxyethane (DME) and propylene carbonate (PC) is of scientific significance and urgency in the context of lithium-ion batteries. I report PM7-MD simulations on the composition of Li+ solvation shells (SH) in a few DME/PC mixtures. The equimolar mixture features preferential solvation by PC, in agreement with classical MD studies. However, one DME molecule is always present in the first SH, supplementing the cage formed by five PC molecules. As PC molecules get removed, DME gradually substitutes vacant places. In the PC-poor mixtures, an entire SH is populated by five DME molecules.

  20. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  1. Nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    ""The book has good technical depth, yet is still very readable. It contains many photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs of data that provide the reader with the insight needed to understand the phenomena being described and the processes occurring in lithium battery chemistry. Researchers as well as students studying lithium-ion batteries will find this book well worth reading. It provides insight into many different avenues for potentially improving lithium-ion battery performance. The reader will learn about these new ideas and gain a better understanding of what currently limits batt

  2. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    (NASA) and University College London (UCL) for a cutting-edge study on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and in Space | News | NREL NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space

  4. Layered double hydroxides for preparing CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles as anodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xu; Ma, Jingjing; Yuan, Ruo; Yang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    In the field of lithium-ion batteries, CoMn_2O_4 as an anode material has attracted a wide attention because it inherited the splendid electrochemical performances of Mn and Co-based metal oxides. Compared to graphite, Co-based oxides have a higher capacity which is about twice of the graphite. Moreover, Mn-based oxides have lower operating voltages and manganese exists abundantly in nature. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), similar with brucite structure, were used as precursor for CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles in this work. Under high temperature process, the LDHs decomposed to CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance with the discharge and charge capacity of 733 mAh g"-"1 and 721 mAh g"-"1 at current density of 200 mA g"-"1 after 100 cycles. This method for preparing CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles is easy, which may provide a way for synthesis of other bimetallic oxides and anodes of lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Layered double hydroxides were employed as precursors to synthesize CoMn_2O_4. • The CoMn_2O_4 nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance. • This study provides a guideline for preparing bimetallic oxides.

  5. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  6. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  7. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  8. Recovery concept of value metals from automotive lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeger, Thomas; Friedrich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A recycling process for automotive lithium-ion batteries was developed. The process combines a mechanical pretreatment with pyrometallurgical recycling process step to recover all battery components, and realize cost-neutral and sustainable recycling. The focus of the research work is the development of a pyrometallurgical process step to recover especially Li out of electrode mass powder which is the fine fraction extracted mechanically from spent Li-ion batteries. Two metallurgical treatment technologies were investigated: direct vacuum evaporation of Li and recovery of metallic Li by distillation, and a selective entraining gas evaporation of Li and recovery of lithium oxide.

  9. An Empirical Rate Constant Based Model to Study Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model based on solvent diffusion and kinetics to study the formation of the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase layer and its impact on the capacity of a lithium ion battery is developed. The model uses the earlier work on silicon oxidation but studies the kinetic limitations of the SEI growth process. The rate constant of the SEI formation reaction at the anode is seen to play a major role in film formation. The kinetics of the reactions for capacity fading for various battery systems are studied and the rate constants are evaluated. The model is used to fit the capacity fade in different battery systems.

  10. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  11. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  12. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  13. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out

  14. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  15. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  16. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  17. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  18. Synthesis and performances of Li-Rich@AlF3@Graphene as cathode of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongrui; Tu, Wenqiang; Chen, Min; Hong, Pengbo; Zhong, Xiaoxin; Zhu, Yunmin; Yu, Qipeng; Li, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene was developed as cathode of lithium ion battery. • Coating of 2 nm AlF 3 does not cause capacity loss but is beneficial to rate capability. • Concurrent AlF 3 coating and graphene wrapping significantly improve Li-Rich performance. - Abstract: A novel composite of layered lithium-rich oxide with AlF 3 and graphene, Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene, is synthesized as high performance cathode of lithium ion battery in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability. Physical characterizations from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, demonstrate that the layered lithium-rich oxide in Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene is composed of uniform nanoparticles of 100 nm, which are coated with a layer of 2 nm AlF 3 and wrapped with graphene sheets. Charge/discharge tests indicate that the naked lithium-rich oxide exhibits poor cyclic stability and rate capability as cathode of lithium ion battery, which can be improved to some extent by the only contribution of AlF 3 but significantly by the concurrent contribution of AlF 3 and graphene.

  19. MnO/N–C anode materials for lithium-ion batteries prepared by cotton-templated combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Gong Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis of MnO/N-doped carbon (N–C composites via a sustainable cotton-template glycine–nitrate combustion synthesis to yield superior anode materials for Li ion batteries. MnO nanoparticles with several nanometers were well-embedded in a porous N-doped carbon matrix. It displays the unique characteristics, including the shortened Li+-ion transport path, increased contact areas with the electrolyte solution, inhibited volume changes and agglomeration of nanoparticles, as well as good conductivity and structural stability during the cycling process, thereby benefiting the superior cycling performance and rate capability. This favorable electrochemical performance of obtained MnO/N–C composites via a one-pot biomass-templated glycine/nitrate combustion synthesis renders the suitability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Keywords: Biomass, Cotton, Manganese oxide, Lithium ion battery, Porous carbon

  20. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported cobalt- nickel sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanoparticles hybrid anode for high performance lithium ion capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Ajay; Zhou, Xuan; Blaisdell, Douglas; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-25

    Lithium ion capacitors possess an ability to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. The main concern of fabricating lithium ion capacitors is poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the anode material which uses sluggish faradaic reactions to store an electric charge. Herein, we have fabricated high performance hybrid anode material based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and cobalt-nickel sulfide (CoNi 2 S 4 ) nanoparticles via simple electrospinning and electrodeposition methods. Porous and high conducting CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode acts as an expressway network for electronic and ionic diffusion during charging-discharging processes. The effect of anode to cathode mass ratio on the performance has been studied by fabricating lithium ion capacitors with different mass ratios. The surface controlled contribution of CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode was 73% which demonstrates its excellent rate capability. Lithium ion capacitor fabricated with CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 to AC mass ratio of 1:2.6 showed excellent energy density of 85.4 Wh kg -1 with the power density of 150 W kg -1 . Also, even at the high power density of 15 kW kg -1 , the cell provided the energy density of 35 Wh kg -1 . This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid anode with the combination of simple and cost effective approaches.

  1. Temperature dependent power capability estimation of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The power capability of lithium-ion batteries affects the safety and reliability of hybrid electric vehicles and the estimate of power by battery management systems provides operating information for drivers. In this paper, lithium ion manganese oxide batteries are studied to illustrate the temperature dependency of power capability and an operating map of power capability is presented. Both parametric and non-parametric models are established in conditions of temperature, state of charge, and cell resistance to estimate the power capability. Six cells were tested and used for model development, training, and validation. Three samples underwent hybrid pulse power characterization tests at varied temperatures and were used for model parameter identification and model training. The other three were used for model validation. By comparison, the mean absolute error of the parametric model is about 29 W, and that of the non-parametric model is around 20 W. The mean relative errors of two models are 0.076 and 0.397, respectively. The parametric model has a higher accuracy in low temperature and state of charge conditions, while the non-parametric model has better estimation result in high temperature and state of charge conditions. Thus, two models can be utilized together to achieve a higher accuracy of power capability estimation. - Highlights: • The temperature dependency of power capability of lithium-ion battery is investigated. • The parametric and non-parametric power capability estimation models are proposed. • An exponential function is put forward to compensate the effects of temperature. • A comparative study on the accuracy of two models using statistical metrics is presented.

  2. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  3. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  4. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. The 15th Internatonal Conference Quality in Resarch (Qir) 2017 Preparation and Ionic Conductivity of Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 Using Waste Chicken Eggshells as ca Source for Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Achmad; Setiawan, Dedy; Ahmiatri Saptari, Sitti

    2018-03-01

    Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 has been synthesized as anode material for lithium-ion batteries parallel with Li4Ti5O12 anode material using solid state reaction method in an air atmosphere. LiOH.H2O, TiO2, and waste chicken eggshells in the form of CaCO3 were chosen as sources of Li, Ti, and Ca respectively and prepared using stoichiometric. The phase structure, morphology, and electrochemical impedance of as-prepared samples were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EIS. The XRD characterization revealed that in Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 sample, all amount of dopant had entered the lattice structure of Li4Ti5O12. The EDX image also detect the existence of Ca in the structure of Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12. The EIS characterization revealed that the Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 sample had lower electrochemical impedance compared to the Li4Ti5O12 sample. The diffusion coefficient were obtained by Faraday’s method, and exhibited that the Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 sample (1.46986 × 10-12 cm2/s) had higher ionic conductivity than the Li4Ti5O12 sample (4.40995 × 10-16 cm2/s). According to the cycle performance test, the Li3.9Ca0.1Ti5O12 sample also had higher charge-discharge capacity and stability compared to the Li4Ti5O12 sample.

  6. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li 4/3 Ti 5/3 O 4 composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF 6 -bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C

  7. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn 2 O 4 ) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn 2 O 4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li 2 CO 3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li 2 CO 3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn 3 O 4 ) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low temperature biosynthesis of Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure exhibiting fast lithium ion conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, X.Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X.D.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a biomimetic synthesis methodology that allows us to create Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure at lower temperature. We design a ‘nanocrystal-glass’ configuration to build a nanoarchitecture by means of yeast cell templates self-assembly followed by ...... nanocrystalline glass exhibits outstanding thermal stability, high conductivity and wide potential window. This approach could be applied to many other multicomponent glass–ceramics to fabricate mesoporous conducting materials for solid-state lithium batteries....

  9. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  10. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  11. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  12. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  13. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  14. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  15. The Role of Cations on the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries: A Quantitative Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin

    2018-02-20

    Lithium ion batteries are nowadays the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronic devices and the most promising candidate for energy storage in large-size batteries, e.g., pure and hybrid vehicles. However, the degradation of the cell components minimizes both storage and operation lifetime (calendar and cycle life), which is called aging. Due to the numerous different aging effects, in either the single constituents or their interactions with each other, many reports about methodologies and techniques, both electrochemical and analytical, can be found in the literature. However, quantitative data about the degradation effects were seldom stated. One important effect is the cation distribution and migration during operation. Metal dissolution and metal migration of the cathode and the corresponding deposition of these metals on the graphitic anode are known harmful degradation effects, especially for the formed solid electrolyte interphase on the surface of the anode. Depending on the applied cell chemistries and therefore the cathode material, different mechanisms were reported so far. For lithium manganese oxide based cells, the acidification of the electrolyte due to composition of the conduction salt is attributed as the main source of metal migration. Due to subsequent loss of manganese from the cathode, the overall performance of the cell is seriously impaired. Based on the obtained observations, this degradation mechanism was adapted to lithium nickel cobalt manganese based cells as main cause of the capacity fading. However, with the help a developed total X-ray fluorescence method and additional surface and electrolyte investigations, the proposed HF based mechanism was disproven. Instead, the migration was directly associated with material defects or mechanical spalling of the particles. Furthermore, with the obtained quantitative data of the migrated transition metals on the anode and separator, the contribution on the capacity fade was

  16. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  17. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  18. Restricted lithium ion dynamics in PEO-based block copolymer electrolytes measured by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël

    2017-10-01

    The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.

  19. Tailored lithium storage performance of graphene aerogel anodes with controlled surface defects for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Hui; Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Sun, Yipeng; Yan, Bo; Li, Dejun; Lawes, Stephen; Cui, Yanhua; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The graphene aerogel (GA) with controllable surface defects was synthesized. • The graphene aerogel anodes showed high specific capacity and excellent cyclability. • Surface defects on the GA significantly function for lithium storage. • This study can extend the application of the graphene anodes for LIBs. - Abstract: Three dimensional self-assembled graphene aerogel (GA) anode materials with some surface defects have been successfully generated through a facile hydrothermal procedure using graphene oxide as precursor. The morphologies and textural properties of as-obtained GA were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and other spectroscopy techniques. The surface defects and electrical conductivities of GA can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal reaction time. The results indicate that GA with a reaction time of 6 h exhibits extremely high reversible capacity (1430 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 100 mA g"−"1) and superior rate capability (587 mAh g"−"1 at 800 mA g"−"1) with excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 960 mAh g"−"1 at 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles). It is demonstrated that the 3D porous network with increased defect density, as well as the considerable electrical conductivity, results in the excellent electrochemical performance of the as-made GA anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Ternary CNTs@TiO₂/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Naga, Ahmed Osama Abo El; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-06-20

    TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li⁺ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO₂/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO₂/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO₂ and TiO₂/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li⁺ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO₂/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  1. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Abo El Naga, Ahmed Osama; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability. PMID:28773032

  2. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (NTs synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  3. Poly(vinylpyridine-co-styrene) based in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sijin; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Changjin; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kang, Yongku

    2011-01-01

    A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was successfully prepared by means of an in situ cross-linking reaction of poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene) and oligo(ethylene oxide) with epoxide functional groups at 65 °C without using a polymerization initiator. A stable gel polymer electrolyte could be obtained by adding only 1% of a polymer gelator. The ionic conductivity of the GPE containing 99 wt% of liquid electrolyte was measured to be ca. 10 −2 S/cm at the ambient temperature. The ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE was comparable to that of a pure liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of the prepared gel polymer electrolytes was measured to be 5.2 V. The test cell carried a discharge capacity of 133.2 mAh/g at 0.1 C and showed good cycling performance with negligible capacity fading after the 200th cycle, maintaining 99.5% coulombic efficiency throughout 200 cycles. The resulting gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal cross-linking without a polymerization initiator holds promise for application to on the high power lithium-ion polymer batteries.

  4. Embedding Co3O4 nanoparticles into graphene nanoscrolls as anode for lithium ion batteries with superior capacity and outstanding cycling stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Co3O4 is a promising high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs, but suffers from unsatisfied cyclability originating duo to low electrical conductivity and large volume expansion during charge and discharge process. Herein, we successfully constructed the Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded into graphene nanoscrolls (GNSs as advanced anode for high-performance LIBs with large capacity and exceptional cyclability. The one-dimensional (1D Co3O4/GNSs were synthesized via liquid nitrogen cold quenching of large-size graphene oxide nanosheets and sodium citrate (SC modified Co3O4 nanoparticles, followed by freeze drying and annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Benefiting from the interconnected porous network constructed by 1D Co3O4/GNSs for fast electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion, and wrinkled graphene shell for significantly alleviating the huge volume expansion of Co3O4 during lithiation and delithiation. The resultant Co3O4/GNSs exhibited ultrahigh reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, outperforming most reported Co3O4 anodes. Moreover, they showed high rate capability of 600 mAh g−1 at 5 C, and outstanding cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 90% after 500 cycles. Therefore, this developed strategy could be extended as an universal and scalable approach for intergrating various metal oxide materials into GNSs for energy storage and conversion applications. Keywords: Graphene nanoscrolls, Co3O4, Anode, Lithium ion batteries, Energy storage

  5. Revisiting the Corrosion of the Aluminum Current Collector in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyuan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Li, Yan; Wang, Li; He, Xiangming; Zheng, Jianming; Liu, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A; Jorne, Jacob; Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-02

    The corrosion of aluminum current collectors and the oxidation of solvents at a relatively high potential have been widely investigated with an aim to stabilize the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries using such components. The corrosion behavior of aluminum current collectors was revisited using a home-build high-precision electrochemical measurement system, and the impact of electrolyte components and the surface protection layer on aluminum foil was systematically studied. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of aluminum foil was triggered by the electrochemical oxidation of solvent molecules, like ethylene carbonate, at a relative high potential. The organic radical cations generated from the electrochemical oxidation are energetically unstable and readily undergo a deprotonation reaction that generates protons and promotes the dissolution of Al 3+ from the aluminum foil. This new reaction mechanism can also shed light on the dissolution of transitional metal at high potentials.

  6. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  7. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  8. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  9. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  10. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  11. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  12. Cost and Price Metrics for Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-02-01

    Values of current energy technology costs and prices, available from a variety of sources, can sometimes vary. While some of this variation can be due to differences in the specific materials or configurations assumed, it can also reflect differences in the definition and context of the terms "cost" and "price." This fact sheet illustrates and explains this latter source of variation in a case study of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  14. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro [NEC Corp., Environment and Material Research Labs., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wound jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronic equipment such as notebook type computers. (Author)

  15. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wounded jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronics equipment such as notebook type computer

  16. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m 2 g −1 ) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m 2 g −1 ), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study

  18. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-01-14

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic transport within nanoscale materials. Here, we demonstrate the effects of TBs on the Li-ion transport properties in single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. It is shown that the TB-assisted lithiation pathways are remarkably different from the previously reported lithiation behavior in SnO2 nanowires without TBs. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy study combined with direct atomic-scale imaging of the initial lithiation stage of the TB-SnO2 nanowires prove that the lithium ions prefer to intercalate in the vicinity of the (101¯) TB, which acts as conduit for lithium-ion diffusion inside the nanowires. The density functional theory modeling shows that it is energetically preferred for lithium ions to accumulate near the TB compared to perfect neighboring lattice area. These findings may lead to the design of new electrode materials that incorporate TBs as efficient lithium pathways, and eventually, the development of next generation rechargeable batteries that surpass the rate performance of the current commercial Li-ion batteries.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  20. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  1. Current Progress of Si/Graphene Nanocomposites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjie Cen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs is increasing due to widespread use of portable devices and electric vehicles. Silicon (Si is one of the most attractive candidate anode materials for next generation LIBs. However, the high-volume change (>300% during lithium ion alloying/de-alloying leads to poor cycle life. When Si is used as the anode, conductive carbon is needed to provide the necessary conductivity. However, the traditional carbon coating method could not overcome the challenges of pulverization and unstable Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI layer during long-term cycling. Since 2010, Si/Graphene composites have been vigorously studied in hopes of providing a material with better cycling performance. This paper reviews current progress of Si/Graphene nanocomposites in LIBs. Different fabrication methods have been studied to synthesize Si/Graphene nanocomposites with promising electrochemical performances. Graphene plays a key enabling role in Si/Graphene anodes. However, the desired properties of graphene for this application have not been systematically studied and understood. Further systematic investigation of the desired graphene properties is suggested to better control the Si/Graphene anode performance.

  2. On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadivel, Nicole R.; Ha, Seungbum; He, Meinan; Dees, Dennis; Trask, Steve; Polzin, Bryant; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, parasitic side reactions in lithium-ion batteries were examined experimentally using a potentiostatic hold at high cell voltage. The experimental leakage current measured during the potentiostatic hold was compared to the Tafel expression and showed poor agreement with the expected transfer coefficient values, indicating that a more complicated expression could be needed to accurately capture the physics of this side reaction. Here we show that cross-talk between the electrodes is the primary contribution to the observed leakage current after the relaxation of concentration gradients has ceased. This cross-talk was confirmed with experiments using a lithium-ion conducting glass ceramic (LICGC) separator, which has high conductance only for lithium cations. The cells with LICGC separators showed significantly less leakage current during the potentiostatic hold test compared to cells with standard microporous separators where cross-talk is present. In addition, direct-current pulse power tests show an impedance rise for cells held at high potentials and for cells held at high temperatures, which could be attributed to film formation from the parasitic side reaction. Based on the experimental findings, a phenomenological mechanism is proposed for the parasitic side reaction which accounts for cross-talk and mass transport of the decomposition products across the separator.

  3. Polypyrrole-coated α-LiFeO2 nanocomposite with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-jia; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Li, Hui-jun

    2013-01-01

    A conducting α-LiFeO 2 -polypyrrole (α-LiFeO 2 -PPy) nanocomposite material was prepared by the chemical polymerization method as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The porous α-LiFeO 2 was prepared via the microwave hydrothermal method and a post-annealing. The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements showed that the α-LiFeO 2 nanoparticles were coated with PPy. The polypyrrole coating improves the reversible capacity and cycling stability (104 mAh g −1 at 0.1C after 100 cycles) for lithium-ion batteries. Even at the high rate of 10C, the electrode showed more than 40% of the capacity at low rate (0.1C)

  4. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Facile fabrication of multilayer separators for lithium-ion battery via multilayer coextrusion and thermal induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Pu, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) multilayer separators with cellular-like submicron pore structure for lithium-ion battery are efficiently fabricated by the combination of multilayer coextrusion (MC) and thermal induced phase separation (TIPS). The as-prepared separators, referred to as MC-TIPS PP/PE, not only show efficacious thermal shutdown function and wider shutdown temperature window, but also exhibit higher thermal stability than the commercial separator with trilayer construction of PP and PE (Celgard® 2325). The dimensional shrinkage of MC-TIPS PP/PE can be negligible until 160 °C. In addition, compared to the commercial separator, MC-TIPS PP/PE exhibits higher porosity and electrolyte uptake, leading to higher ionic conductivity and better battery performances. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics with the convenient preparation process make MC-TIPS PP/PE a promising candidate for the application as high performance lithium-ion battery separators.

  6. Materials Compositions for Lithium Ion Batteries with Extended Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, Kaushik

    Advancements in portable electronics have generated a pronounced demand for rechargeable energy storage devices with superior capacity and reliability. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have evolved as the primary choice of portable power for several such applications. While multiple variations have been developed, safety concerns of commercial technologies limit them to atmospheric temperature operability. With several niche markets such as aerospace, defense and oil & gas demanding energy storage at elevated temperatures, there is a renewed interest in developing rechargeable batteries that could survive temperatures beyond 100°C. Instability of critical battery components towards extreme thermal and electrochemical conditions limit their usability at high temperatures. This study deals with developing material configurations for LIB components to stabilize them at such temperatures. Flammable organic solvent based electrolytes and low melting polymer based separators have been identified as the primary bottleneck for LIBs to survive increasing temperature. Furthermore, thermally activated degradation processes in oxide based electrodes have been identified as the reason for their limited lifetime. A quasi-solid composite comprising of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and Clay was developed as an electrolyte/separator hybrid and tested to be stable up to 120°C. These composites facilitate complete reversible Li intercalation in lithium titanate (LTO) with a stable capacity of 120 mAh g-1 for several cycles of charge and discharge while simultaneously resisting severe thermal conditions. Modified phosphate based electrodes were introduced as a reliable alternative for operability at high temperatures in this study. These systems were shown to deliver stable reversible capacity for numerous charge/discharge cycles at elevated temperatures. Higher lithium intercalation potential of the developed cathode materials makes them interesting candidates for high voltage

  7. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  8. Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets and their derived graphene nanosheets: synthesis and efficient lithium ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yin; Lv, Yingying; Che, Renchao; Wu, Haoyu; Zhang, Xuehua; Gu, Dong; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-01-30

    We report a new solution deposition method to synthesize an unprecedented type of two-dimensional ordered mesoporous carbon nanosheets via a controlled low-concentration monomicelle close-packing assembly approach. These obtained carbon nanosheets possess only one layer of ordered mesopores on the surface of a substrate, typically the inner walls of anodic aluminum oxide pore channels, and can be further converted into mesoporous graphene nanosheets by carbonization. The atomically flat graphene layers with mesopores provide high surface area for lithium ion adsorption and intercalation, while the ordered mesopores perpendicular to the graphene layer enable efficient ion transport as well as volume expansion flexibility, thus representing a unique orthogonal architecture for excellent lithium ion storage capacity and cycling performance. Lithium ion battery anodes made of the mesoporous graphene nanosheets have exhibited an excellent reversible capacity of 1040 mAh/g at 100 mA/g, and they can retain at 833 mAh/g even after numerous cycles at varied current densities. Even at a large current density of 5 A/g, the reversible capacity is retained around 255 mAh/g, larger than for most other porous carbon-based anodes previously reported, suggesting a remarkably promising candidate for energy storage.

  9. Thermal transport in lithium ion batteries: An experimental investigation of interfaces and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Aalok Jaisheela Uday

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the characterization and thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the battery's charge/discharge cycle is poorly dissipated to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work presents a technique to measure the thermal conduction across the metallic case-plastic separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. The polymeric separator and metallic case are harvested from discharged commercial 18650 battery cells for thermal testing. A miniaturized version of the reference bar method enables measurements of the interface resistance between the case and the separator by establishing a temperature gradient across a multilayer stack consisting of two reference layers of known thermal conductivity and the case-separator sample. The case-separator interfacial conductance is reported for a range of case temperatures and interface pressures. The mean thermal conductance across the case-separator interface is 670 +/- 275 W/(m2K) and no significant temperature or pressure dependence is observed. The effective thermal conductivity of the battery stack is measured to be 0.27 W/m/K and 0.32 W/m/K in linear and radial configurations, respectively. Many techniques for fabricating battery electrodes involve coating particles of the active materials on metallic current collectors. The impact of mechanical shearing on the resultant thermal properties of these packed particle beds during the fabrication process has not yet been studied. Thus, the final portion of this thesis designs and validates a measurement system to measure the effects of mechanical shearing on the thermal conductivity of packed granular beds. This system

  10. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    power sources because of its higher energy density, shape and design flexibility, lower-self discharge rate, no memory effect and ... tissue engineering and permeable membranes for separation ... Both PVA and PVP are soluble in DMSO and.

  11. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. The origin of the enhanced performance of nitrogen-doped MoS_2 in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Weijun, Xia; Wu, Zhenjun; Huo, Jia; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    MoS_2 with a similar layered structure to graphene has been widely applied in various areas including lithium ion batteries. However, low conductivity, capacity fading and poor rate performance are still the main challenges for MoS_2 anode materials. In this work, for the first time, we prepared nitrogen-doped MoS_2 (N-MoS_2) nanosheets through a simple two-step method involving the preparation of MoS_2 with defects by the hydrothermal method, followed by sintering in a NH_3 atmosphere. Our electrochemical characterizations and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that nitrogen doping could enhance the electron conductivity and showed higher specific capacity than pristine MoS_2 as anode materials of lithium ion batteries, which can be attributed to the faster transportation of electrons and ions because of nitrogen doping. This work helps us understand the origin of the enhanced performance of N-doped MoS_2 in lithium ion batteries. (paper)

  13. Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhang, Baofeng; Chen, Yanjun; He, Shengnan

    2018-02-01

    The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g-1 at 25mA g-1 current density from 1.5 V to 4.8 V. Also, it maintains a higher capacity (201 mA h g-1) than F-free Li2MnSiO4 (145 mA h g-1) after 50 cycles.

  14. Ultra-light Hierarchical Graphene Electrode for Binder-Free Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zicheng; Kim, Tae Young; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Li, Huifeng; Chou, Harry; Li, Yuliang

    2015-10-07

    A mild and environmental-friendly method is developed for fabricating a 3D interconnected graphene electrode with large-scale continuity. Such material has interlayer pores between reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and in-plane pores. Hence, a specific surface area up to 835 m(2) g(-1) and a high powder conductivity up to 400 S m(-1) are achieved. For electrochemical applications, the interlayer pores can serve as "ion-buffering reservoirs" while in-plane ones act as "channels" for shortening the mass cross-plane diffusion length, reducing the ion response time, and prevent the interlayer restacking. As binder-free supercapacitor electrode, it delivers a specific capacitance up to 169 F g(-1) with surface-normalized capacitance close to 21 μF cm(-2) (intrinsic capacitance) and power density up to 7.5 kW kg(-1), in 6 m KOH aqueous electrolyte. In the case of lithium-ion battery anode, it shows remarkable advantages in terms of the initiate reversible Coulombic efficiency (61.3%), high specific capacity (932 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), and robust long-term retention (93.5% after 600 cycles at 2000 mAh g(-1)). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  16. Ordered Mesoporous Titania/Carbon Hybrid Monoliths for Lithium-ion Battery Anodes with High Areal and Volumetric Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Tobias S; Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Grobelsek, Ingrid; de Oliveira, Peter W; Presser, Volker

    2018-04-25

    Free-standing, binder-free, and conductive additive-free mesoporous titanium dioxide/carbon hybrid electrodes were prepared from co-assembly of a poly(isoprene)-block-poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer and a titanium alkoxide. By tailoring an optimized morphology, we prepared macroscopic mechanically stable 300 μm thick monoliths that were directly employed as lithium-ion battery electrodes. High areal mass loading of up to 26.4 mg cm -2 and a high bulk density of 0.88 g cm -3 were obtained. This resulted in a highly increased volumetric capacity of 155 mAh cm -3 , compared to cast thin film electrodes. Further, the areal capacity of 4.5 mAh cm -2 represented a 9-fold increase compared to conventionally cast electrodes. These attractive performance metrics are related to the superior electrolyte transport and shortened diffusion lengths provided by the interconnected mesoporous nature of the monolith material, assuring superior rate handling, even at high cycling rates. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Innovation and its Management as Observed in the Lithium Ion Secondary Battery Business

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三

    2008-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei, where the present author formerly worked. In this paper, the author describes how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor, how the technology originated in Japan and...

  19. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  20. Spinal Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferg, E

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available , and layered LiCoO2. The electrochemical data demonstrated that Li+ ions will shuttle between two transition-metal host structures (anode and cathode) at a reasonably high voltage with a concomitant change in the oxidation state of the transition metal cations...

  1. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  2. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  3. The effects of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal characteristics of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to study the behaviors of Li-ion batteries. • Thick electrode battery (CEB) has high temperature response during discharge. • Thin electrode battery has a relative lower capacity fading rate. • Less heat is generated in thin electrode battery with even heat distribution. • CEBs underutilize active materials and stop discharge early at high rates. - Abstract: Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery, consisting of multiple electrochemical cells, is a complex system whose high electrochemical and thermal stability is often critical to the well-being and functional capabilities of electric devices. Considering any change in the specifications may significantly affect the overall performance and life of a battery, an investigation on the impacts of electrode thickness on the electrochemical and thermal properties of lithium-ion battery cells based on experiments and a coupling model composed of a 1D electrochemical model and a 3D thermal model is conducted in this work. In-depth analyses on the basis of the experimental and simulated results are carried out for one cell of different depths of discharge as well as for a set of cells with different electrode thicknesses. Pertinent results have demonstrated that the electrode thickness can significantly influence the battery from many key aspects such as energy density, temperature response, capacity fading rate, overall heat generation, distribution and proportion of heat sources

  4. A novel intrinsically porous separator for self-standing lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Villano, Paola; Carewska, Maria

    2002-01-01

    γ-LiAlO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and MgO were used as fillers in a PVdF-HFP polymer matrix to form self-standing, intrinsically porous separators for lithium-ion batteries. These separators can be hot-laminated onto the electrodes without losing their ability to adsorb liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical stability of the separators was tested by constructing half-cells with the configuration: Li/fibre-glass/filler-based separator/electrode. MgO-based separators were found to work well with both positive and negative electrodes. An ionic conductivity of about 4x10 -4 S cm -1 was calculated for the MgO-based separator containing 40% 1 M solution of LiPF 6 in an EC/DMC 1:1 solvent. Self-standing, lithium-ion cells were constructed using the MgO-based separator and the resulting battery performance evaluated in terms of cyclability, power and energy density

  5. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    As we develop new materials to increase performance of lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, the impact of potential safety and reliability issues become increasingly important. In addition to electrochemical performance increases (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance behavior. Introduction of a next generation materials, such as silicon based anode, requires a full understanding of the abuse response and degradation mechanisms for these anodes. This work aims to understand the breakdown of these materials during abuse conditions in order to develop an inherently safe power source for our next generation electric vehicles. The effect of materials level changes (electrolytes, additives, silicon particle size, silicon loading, etc.) to cell level abuse response and runaway reactions will be determined using several techniques. Experimentation will start with base material evaluations in coin cells and overall runaway energy will be evaluated using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The goal is to understand the effect of materials parameters on the runaway reactions, which can then be correlated to the response seen on larger cells (18650). Experiments conducted showed that there was significant response from these electrodes. Efforts to minimize risk during testing were taken by development of a smaller capacity cylindrical design in order to quantify materials decision and how they manifest during abuse response.

  6. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Fe_3C@carbon nanocapsules/expanded graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, You-Guo; Lin, Xi-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Qi-Chang; Yan, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fe_3C@carbonnanocapsules(*)/expanded graphite composite was successfully prepared by a new and facile method, including mix of starting materials and heat treatment of the precursor. It is featured by unique 3-D structure, where expanded graphite acts as scaffold to ensure a continuous entity, and Fe_3C particles coated by carbon nanocapsules are embedded intimately. The Fe_3C nanoparticles encased in carbon nanocapsules act as catalyst in the modification of SEI film during the cycles. The interesting 3-D architecture which aligns the conductivity paths in the planar direction with expanded graphite and in the axial direction with carbon nanocapsules minimizes the resistance and enhances the reversible capacity. The prepared composite exhibits a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite maintains a reversible capacity of 1226.2 mAh/g after 75 cycles at 66 mA/g. When the current density increases to 200 mA/g, the reversible capacity maintains 451.5 mAh/g. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performances make the composite expected to be one of the most potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  10. Simultaneous Perforation and Doping of Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guangxin; Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuqiang; Chen, Chuanlu; Li, Jinlei; Jin, Yan; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Jia

    2017-12-27

    Silicon nanostructures have served as promising building blocks for various applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, thermoelectrics, and solar energy conversions. Particularly, control of porosity and doping is critical for fine-tuning the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of these silicon nanostructures. However, perforation and doping are usually separated processes, both of which are complicated and expensive. Here, we demonstrate that the porous nano-Si particles with controllable dopant can be massively produced through a facile and scalable method, combining ball-milling and acid-etching. Nano-Si with porosity as high as 45.8% can be achieved with 9 orders of magnitude of conductivity changes compared to intrinsic silicon. As an example for demonstration, the obtained nano-Si particles with 45.8% porosity and 3.7 atom % doping can serve as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries with 2000 mA h/g retained over 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 C, excellent rate performance with 1600 mA h/g at the current density of 5 C, and a stable cycling performance of above 1500 mA h/g retained over 940 cycles at the current density of 1 C with carbon coating.

  11. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Zhirong; Gong, Junhui; Liu, Kai; Wang, Hao; Guo, Linsheng

    2017-02-25

    This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging-discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Biomass-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Chaldun, Elsy Rahimi; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid; Fikriyyah, Anti Khoerul; Subhan, Achmad; Ghozali, Muhammad; Purwasasmita, Bambang Sunendar

    2018-07-01

    In this study, carbon-based advanced materials for lithium-ion battery applications were prepared by using soybean waste-based biomass material, through a straightforward process of heat treatment followed by chemical modification processes. Various types of carbon-based advanced materials were developed. Physicochemical characteristics and electrochemical performance of the resultant materials were characterized systematically. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that the activated carbon and graphene exhibits wrinkles structures and porous morphology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that both activated carbon and graphene-based material exhibited a good conductivity. For instance, the graphene-based material exhibited equivalent series resistance value of 25.9 Ω as measured by EIS. The graphene-based material also exhibited good reversibility and cyclic performance. Eventually, it would be anticipated that the utilization of soybean waste-based biomass material, which is conforming to the principles of green materials, could revolutionize the development of advanced material for high-performance energy storage applications, especially for lithium-ion batteries application.

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  14. Electrospun polyimide-based fiber membranes as polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiujun; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Luning; Song, Yu; Shi, Qiao; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on electrospun polyimide (PI) membranes are incorporated with electrolyte solution containing 1 mol L −1 LiPF 6 /ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate to examine their potential application for lithium ion batteries. The as-electrospun non-woven membranes demonstrate a uniformly interconnected structure with an average fiber diameter of 800 nm. The membranes, showing superior thermal stability and flame retardant property compared to the commercial Celgard® membranes, exhibit high porosity and high uptake when activated with the liquid electrolyte. The resulting PI electrolytes (PIs) have a high ionic conductivity up to 2.0 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and exhibit a high electrochemical stability potential more than 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). They also possess excellent charge/discharge performance and capacity retention. The initial discharge capacities of the Li/PIs/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells are 178.4, 167.4, 160.3, 148.3 and 135.9 mAh g −1 at the charge/discharge rates of 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, respectively. After 200 cycles at 5 C, a capacity around ∼146.8 mAh g −1 can be still achieved. The PI-based polymer electrolytes with strong mechanical properties and good electrochemical performance are proved to be promising electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

  15. Prevent thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries with minichannel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Lan, Chuanjin; Qiao, Yu; Ma, Yanbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D model was developed to study nail penetration induced thermal runaway. • Effects of flow rate, thermal abuse reactions, and nail dimensions were examined. • Minichannel cooling at cell level cannot cease thermal runaway in a single cell. • Minichannel cooling can prevent thermal runaway propagation between cells. - Abstract: Thermal management on lithium-ion batteries is a crucial problem for the performance, lifetime, and safety of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fire and explosions can be triggered by thermal runaway if the temperature of the lithium-ion batteries is not maintained properly. This work describes a minichannel cooling system designed at the battery module level and the investigation on its efficacy on the mitigation of thermal runaway. Nail penetration was employed to simulate the internal short circuits, which in reality may be caused by vehicle collisions and/or manufacturing defects. Two integrated models were utilized to study thermal runaway: the conjugate heat transfer model and the reaction kinetics model. Numerical simulations were conducted to understand the thermal runaway process and the effects of flow rate, thermal abuse reactions, nail penetration depth, and nail diameter. It is concluded that minichannel cooling at cell level cannot cease thermal runaway in a single cell, but it can prevent battery fratricide due to thermal runaway propagation between cells.

  16. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  17. Destruction mechanism of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swornowski, Paweł J.

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the reasons for destruction of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry have been explained. They manifest themselves in the battery's overheating, and in extreme cases they result in explosion. The report presents the results of experiments, which consisted in subjecting the tested Lithium-ion battery to vibration over a specified period of time and observing the changes of temperature inside it with the use of a thermal infrared camera. Another focal point of the study was the influence of vibrations on voltage change in relation to variable current load, and the influence of ambient temperature change on the Lithium-ion battery's voltage change. It has also been demonstrated that vibrations can damage the control electronics of the Lithium-ion battery. Moreover, the mechanism by which potentially dangerous thermal hot spots are formed in a Lithium-ion battery has been presented, as well as an uncertainty analysis of all measurement results. - Highlights: • The causes of internal destruction of Lithium-ion batteries are external vibrations. • The influence of vibrations on the change of a Lithium-ion battery's most parameters. • The mechanism leading to the explosion of a Lithium-ion battery was demonstrated. • The conclusions ensuring safe exploitation of a Lithium-ion battery were presented.

  18. Hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Pan, Baoyou; Qiu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The composite anode is composed of CuO nanowire shell and carbon fiber core. •The composite anode avoids completely the use of binders. •Synergistic effect of carbon fibers and CuO nanowires enhances performance. •Carbon fibers improve electrical conductivity and buffer volume change. •CuO nanowires shorten diffusion length and alleviate structural strain. -- Abstract: Developing high-performance electrode structures is of great importance for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study reports an efficient method to fabricate hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites via electroless plating and thermal oxidation processes. With this method, a binder-free CuO nanowire/carbon fiber shell/core hierarchical network composite anode for lithium-ion batteries is successfully fabricated. The morphology and chemical composition of the anode are characterized, and the electrochemical performance of the anode is investigated by standard electrochemical tests. Owing to the superior properties of carbon fibers and the morphological advantages of CuO nanowires, this composite anode still retains an excellent reversible capacity of 598.2 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention rate above 86%, even after 50 cycles, which is much higher than the CuO anode without carbon fibers. Compared to the typical CuO/C electrode systems, the novel binder-free anode yields a performance close to that of the typical core/shell electrode systems and a much higher reversible capacity and capacity retention than the similar shell/core patterns as well as the anodes with binders. It is believed that this novel anode will pave the way to the development of binder-free anodes in response to the increasing demands for high-power energy storage.

  19. Novel graphene papers with sporadic alkyl brushes on the basal plane as a high-capacity flexible anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Min; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Gyeong-Ok; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Jeong, Han Mo

    2014-01-01

    Graphene paper that exhibits an excellent stabilized capacity, as high as 1300 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 60 mA g −1 , as a lithium ion battery anode is fabricated and evaluated. The few-layer graphene used to make the graphene paper is prepared via the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. The graphene is then modified by a novel method utilizing inherent defects, namely epoxy groups, on the graphene as active sites for a reaction with methanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol. The density values and X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the graphene paper demonstrate that the alkyl brushes on the graphene sheets expand the d-spacing and hinder close restacking of the sheets, thereby inducing the formation of extra cavities within the paper. This loose packing due to the alkyl brushes increases sensitively as the alkyl chain length of the alcohol becomes longer. The lithium ion insertion capacity of a graphene paper electrode at the first cycle also increases with the alkyl chain length. However, fading of the capacity at early charge/discharge cycles is accelerated by the modification process because of electrolyte penetration into the gallery and the acceleration of protective solid electrolyte interface film formation due to looser packing. The paper composed of graphene modified with 1-butanol rather than shorter or longer alcohols exhibits the best reversible storage capacity, more than two-fold higher when compared to that of pristine graphene paper, due to a compromise between two conflicting effects on the reversible storage capacity by long alkyl brushes. The tensile properties and electrical conductivity of the graphene papers are also examined

  20. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.