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Sample records for lithium sodium potassium

  1. Fabrication and performance of porous lithium sodium potassium niobate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Zhu, Yuan; Ji, Jun; Cai, Feixiang; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Ningyi; Wang, Andong

    2018-02-01

    Porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (LNK) ceramic has excellent piezoelectric properties, chemical stability and great chemical compatibility. It has a good application potential in the field of biological bone substitute. In the paper, porous LNK ceramic was fabricated with egg albumen foaming agent by foaming method. Effects of preparation process of the porous LNK ceramic on density, phase structure, hole size and piezoelectric properties were researched and characterized. The results show that the influence factors of LNK solid content and foaming agent addition are closely relevant to properties of the porous LNK ceramic. When solid content is 65% and foaming agent addition is 30%, the porous LNK ceramic has uniform holes and the best piezoelectric properties.

  2. Effective extractants for the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkina, G.A.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.; Kotlyarevskii, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction power of newly obtained pure methoxy-1,3-diketones in diluents and in their mixtures with electron-donating additives during the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium was investigated. High separation factors were obtained; no appreciable amounts of sodium and potassium were found in the extract after total extraction of the lithium. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Effect of powder processing conditions on the electromechanical properties of lithium doped potassium sodium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensur-Alkoy, E.; Berksoy-Yavuz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Lithium doped potassium sodium niobate ceramics with (K0.50−x/2Na0.50−x/2Lix)NbO3 composition where x=0.04 and 0.07 were fabricated by solid state calcination and pressureless sintering methods. However, two different powder processing and calcination routes were used in this study and their effect on the structural and electrical properties were investigated and discussed. The routes were namely loose calcination and compact calcination. A general trend of decreasing grain size was observed in the sintered ceramics prepared from these powders. The most drastic effect was observed on the electromechanical properties of the samples, where the maximum strain of 7% lithium modified sample under an E-field of 50kV/cm was increased from 0.09% to 0.12% by changing processing route. Furthermore, hysteretic behavior of the strain was found to decrease. This tendency was also valid for ferroelectric hysteresis property, with remnant polarization (2Pr) increasing from 23μC/cm2 to 46μC/cm2. The improvements observed in the electrical properties were discussed on the basis of chemical homogeneity and uniform ionic distribution. (Author)

  4. Reaction of lithium, sodium and potassium polyphosphates with potassium permanganate at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paderova, L.V.; Onuchina, T.V.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on destruction of molten polyphosphates of alkaline metals by potassium permanganate during change of KMnO 4 content, test time and temperature. Ortho-, di, tri- and tetraphosphate-anions, as well as manganese compounds with different oxidation degree were revealed in products of component interaction. Empirical equations of the dependence of the value of average molecular mass on change of melt temperature were derived. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  6. Size effects on the transport coefficient of liquid lithium, sodium and potassium using a soft sphere potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebayo, G.A.; Anusionwu, B.C.

    2004-08-01

    The dependence of the self diffusion coefficient of atoms in liquid Lithium, Sodium and Potassium, interacting through a soft sphere potential, on the number of atoms have been investigated using Molecular Dynamics Simulation at various temperatures. Our calculations predict non-linear relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the number of particles at high densities and medium or low temperatures. The radial distribution function obtained agrees well with experiment. (author)

  7. Complexing and analysis of cation selectivity of neutral phosphoryl-containing tripodaud of tris((0-diphenyl-phosphinoylmethyl)phenoxyethyl)amine to lithium sodium and potassium, in acetonitrile. Lithium selectivity and polymeclear compleses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulin, V.E.; Solov'ev, V.P.; Strakhova, N.N.; Kazachenko, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new phosphoryl-containing tripodand-tris-[(0-diphenyl-phosphinoylmethyl)phenoxyethyl] amine-was synthesized. Constants of stability, enthalpy and entropy of reactions of tripodond complexing with lithium, sodium, potassium thiocyanates in acetonitrile at 298 k were determined. Investigation of complexing by the methods of calorimetry, 7 Li and 23 Na NMR, mass-spectrometry enabled to conclude that ligand formed polynuclear complexes with lithium thiocyanate of 2/1 and 3/1 composition along with 1/1 complex. High selectivity of podand to lithium cation in acetonitrile was conditioned by formation of polynuclear complexes. Refs. 29, figs. 3

  8. Colchiceine Complexes with Lithium, Sodium and Potassium Salts − Spectroscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchiceine complexes with Li+, Na+ and K+ cations have been synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, FAB MS and UV-Vis. It has been shown that colchiceine forms stable complexes especially with lithium cation and the most stable structures of the complexes are those in which the acetamide groups are involved in the coordination process. The structures of the colchiceine complexes with Li+, Na+ and K+ cations are discussed in details. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  9. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  10. Burning characteristics of potassium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, K.; Menzenhauer, P.; Peppler, W.

    1982-03-01

    A series of laboratory scale tests has been carried out in which lithium and potassium were burnt in trays in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. The test results are compared with those from literature. The maximum weight of metal in a test was 200 gram. The tests were carried out in a glove box which allowed the atomospheric composition to be varied to some extent. The initial temperature was varied to determine its effect on the course of the reaction. The temperature and the composition of the atmosphere were recorded during the tests. After each test the reaction products were weighed and chemically analysed. A good insight into the course of the reaction was obtained from the results. The main phases of the reaction are illustrated by a series of photographs. (orig.) [de

  11. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  12. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  13. Electron coincidence spectroscopy of sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.

    1982-03-01

    The Na 3s and K 4s electron momentum distributions have been obtained using the noncoplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction at total energies of 800 eV and 1200 eV. They show excellent agreement with the results of plane wave impulse approximation calculations using Roothaan-Hartree-Fock functions, after small corrections are made for the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. The potassium valence s momentum profile is a little narrower than that for sodium, implying a correspondingly slightly larger spatial distribution of the outer valence electrons. The ratio between the (n-1)p and ns cross-sections at their respective maxima in q-space were measured to be 0.009 +- 0.003 and 0.019 +- 0.003 for Na and K respectively. These cross-section ratios are in agreement with the PWIA calculations

  14. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  15. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution......-subunit is contained within a pocket between transmembrane helices and seems to be a novel regulatory element controlling sodium affinity, possibly influenced by the membrane potential. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-13...

  16. Quaternary system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkushin, I.K.; Voronin, K.Yu.; Dibirov, M.A.; Miftakhov, T.T.

    1996-01-01

    Four-component system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides is studied by differential thermal analysis. A low-melting eutectic composition is revealed, specific fusion heat of the composition is experimentally determined, its thermal properties are calculated. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  18. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  19. Intermediate energy electron scattering from sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.

    1979-06-01

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the interaction of fast electrons with alkali metal atoms. Several of the theoretical models which have been applied to atomic collision processes including the first Born approximation, the Glauber approximation, the optical model and the distorted wave polarized orbital approximation are discussed. The theory of electron-photon coincidence experiments is outlined and the effects of fine and hyperfine structure on the polarization state of photons emitted from an excited atom are calculated for Sodium. The results of elastic scattering measurements on Sodium and Potassium are presented and used to test several theoretical models in their description of the differential cross section at incident energies between 50 and 200eV. Absolute differential and integrated total cross sections for the Potassium resonance lines and Sodium D-lines are presented. Results of the first electron-polarized photon coincidence experiment on the Sodium D-lines are presented and compared with available theoretical calculations

  20. Dielectric behaviour of sodium and potassium doped magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric behaviour of sodium and potassium doped magnesium titanate. VISHNU SHANKER. ∗. , SANTOSH KUMAR and T SURENDAR. Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004, India. MS received 10 November 2011; revised 27 February 2012. Abstract. Pure phase of magnesium ...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... has a cooling saline taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture. (b) The ingredient...

  2. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  3. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  4. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  5. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  7. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Mi Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations.

  8. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

  9. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  10. Assessment of sodium status in large ruminants by measuring the sodium-to-potassium ratio in muzzle secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Rani, D

    1999-09-01

    To develop a simple diagnostic test to assess sodium status in large ruminants on the basis of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and to determine its relevance. 7 buffalo heifers and 21 lactating, pregnant, and nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers. Buffalo heifers were subjected in 2 experiments to variable dietary sodium intake or sodium depletion and changes in sodium and potassium concentrations; Na:K was simultaneously monitored in various body fluids to study its value for indicating sodium status. Validity of the muzzle secretion test was assessed. Muzzle secretion and urinary Na:K and sodium concentration, but not serum electrolyte concentrations, reflected the sodium status of buffalo heifers in response to the widely variable intake of sodium (0.03 to 0.16% of dry matter [DM]). Progressive sodium depletion during an 11-day period, using saliva deprivation caused reciprocal changes in sodium and potassium concentrations in saliva and muzzle secretion, but not in urine. Decreasing urine sodium concentration was associated with decreasing urine potassium concentration. Saliva, urine, and muzzle secretion Na:K closely reflected the degree of sodium deficit. Buffaloes or dairy cows maintained on optimal sodium intake had muzzle secretion and urine Na:K > 0.30. Muzzle secretion or urine Na:K muzzle secretion Na:K, and to a large extent urine Na:K, may be used as a convenient diagnostic tool to assess sodium status in large ruminants. It has accuracy similar to that of saliva Na:K.

  11. Estimating 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio from casual ('spot') urinary sodium/potassium ratio: the INTERSALT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2017-10-01

    Association between casual and 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio is well recognized, although it has not been validated in diverse demographic groups. Our aim was to assess utility across and within populations of casual urine to estimate 24-h urinary Na/K ratio using data from the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Study collected cross-sectional standardized data on casual urinary sodium and potassium and also on timed 24-h urinary sodium and potassium for 10 065 individuals from 52 population samples in 32 countries (1985-87). Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement were computed for Na/K ratio of casual urine against 24-h urinary Na/K ratio both at population and individual levels. Pearson correlation coefficients relating means of 24-h urine and casual urine Na/K ratio were r = 0.96 and r = 0.69 in analyses across populations and individuals, respectively. Correlations of casual urine Na/creatinine and K/creatinine ratios with 24-h urinary Na and K excretion, respectively, were lower than correlation of casual and 24-h urinary Na/K ratio in analyses across populations and individuals. The bias estimate with the Bland-Altman method, defined as the difference between Na/K ratio of 24-h urine and casual urine, was approximately 0.4 across both populations and individuals. Spread around, the mean bias was higher for individuals than populations. With appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Ancient Systems of Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis as Predecessors of Membrane Bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, D V; Galperin, M Y; Koonin, E V; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2015-05-01

    Cell cytoplasm of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes contains substantially more potassium than sodium, and potassium cations are specifically required for many key cellular processes, including protein synthesis. This distinct ionic composition and requirements have been attributed to the emergence of the first cells in potassium-rich habitats. Different, albeit complementary, scenarios have been proposed for the primordial potassium-rich environments based on experimental data and theoretical considerations. Specifically, building on the observation that potassium prevails over sodium in the vapor of inland geothermal systems, we have argued that the first cells could emerge in the pools and puddles at the periphery of primordial anoxic geothermal fields, where the elementary composition of the condensed vapor would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Marine and freshwater environments generally contain more sodium than potassium. Therefore, to invade such environments, while maintaining excess of potassium over sodium in the cytoplasm, primordial cells needed means to extrude sodium ions. The foray into new, sodium-rich habitats was the likely driving force behind the evolution of diverse redox-, light-, chemically-, or osmotically-dependent sodium export pumps and the increase of membrane tightness. Here we present a scenario that details how the interplay between several, initially independent sodium pumps might have triggered the evolution of sodium-dependent membrane bioenergetics, followed by the separate emergence of the proton-dependent bioenergetics in archaea and bacteria. We also discuss the development of systems that utilize the sodium/potassium gradient across the cell membranes.

  13. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion levels of preschool children: Individual, daily, and seasonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Nagafuchi, Mikako; Izu, Ryoji; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Imai, Katsumi; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the authors measured sodium and potassium concentrations in spot urine samples of preschool children on multiple days, and evaluated individual, daily, and seasonal effects. A total of 104 healthy preschool children aged 4 to 5 years were studied. Urine samples were collected from the first urine of the day after waking for three consecutive days (Monday-Wednesday) four times a year (spring, summer, autumn, winter). The authors estimated the daily urine volume as 500 mL and daily creatinine excretion as 300 mg, and used these to calculate daily sodium and potassium excretion levels. Daily sodium and potassium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were highly variable. The coefficient variant in the children's excretion levels were also high within and between individuals. Sodium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were higher on Monday (weekend sodium intakes) than Tuesday. Season had no effect on sodium or potassium excretion levels, but the sodium to potassium ratio was higher in summer than in winter. In conclusion, levels of urinary sodium excretion are comparatively high and those of potassium are low in preschool students, with high variability within and between individuals. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium

  15. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  16. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  17. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate hexahydrate single crystal—An ultrasonic study. GEORGE VARUGHESE. ,∗. , A S KUMAR†, J PHILIP†† and GODFREY LOUIS#. Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta 689 648, India. †SPAP, M.G. University, Kottayam 686 560, India. ††STIC ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and...

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  2. Contribution to the liquid-vapour equilibrium of potassium and sodium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreinlechner, I.; Schwarz, N.

    1975-10-01

    In this paper the phase diagram of the binary system potassium-sodium in the liquid-vapour range was calculated for different pressures and temperatures, assuming the two metals acting as ideal solution. The assumption was verified by experimental results. It is thus possible to calculate the separation factor for the rectification of potassium and to estimate the content of sodium in the vapour phase during experiments with vapourized potassium from the data of the vapour pressures of the pure metals. (author)

  3. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... were also unchanged, as were potassium clearance, urine flow and body weight. 3. In the long-term study, lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, urine flow and body fluid volumes were measured after a 4 weeks placebo period and after 6 and 12 weeks....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...

  4. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  5. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, M.; Bernillon, N.; Fabre, C.; Roubeix, M.; Ricort, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food'' and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate (R)) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate a...

  6. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production...

  7. Effects of potassium on kesterite solar cells: Similarities, differences and synergies with sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Haass

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of alkali dopants is essential for achieving high-efficiency conversion efficiency of thin film solar cells based on chalcogenide semiconductors like Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 (CZTSSe also called kesterite. Whereas the treatment with potassium allows boosting the performance of CIGS solar cells as compared to the conventional sodium doping, it is debated if similar effects can be expected for kesterite solar cells. Here the influence of potassium is investigated by introducing the dopant during the solution processing of kesterite absorbers. It is confirmed that the presence of potassium leads to an enhanced grain growth and a ten-fold lower potassium concentration is sufficient for obtaining grain size similar to sodium-containing absorbers. Potassium is located predominantly at grain boundaries and it suppresses incorporation of sodium into the absorber layer. The potassium doping increases the apparent carrier concentration to ∼2×1016 cm-3 for a potassium concentration of 0.2 at%. The potassium-doped solar cells yield conversion efficiency close to 10%, on par with only sodium-doped samples. Co-doping with potassium and sodium has not revealed any beneficial synergetic effects and it is concluded that both dopants exhibit similar effects on the kesterite solar cell performance.

  8. The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines.

  9. Corrosion phenomena in sodium-potassium coolant resulting from solute interaction in multicomponent solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasin, V. P.; Soyustova, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    The solubility of Fe, Cr, Ni, V, Mn and Mo in sodium-potassium melt has been calculated using the mathematical framework of pseudo-regular solution model. The calculation results are compared with available published experimental data on mass transfer of components of austenitic stainless steel in sodium-potassium loop under non-isothermal conditions. It is shown that the parameters of pair interaction of oxygen with transition metal can be used to predict the corrosion behavior of structural materials in sodium-potassium melt in the presence of oxygen impurity. The results of calculation of threshold concentration of oxygen of ternary oxide formation of sodium with transitional metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, V, Mn, Mo) are given in conditions when pure solid metal comes in contact with sodium-potassium melt.

  10. Equilibrium and ab initio computational studies on the adduct formation of 1,3-diketonato-lithium(I), -sodium(I) and -potassium(I) with 1,10-phenanthroline and its 2,9-dimethyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Mori, Seiji; Ito, Yuji; Ohashi, Kousaburo; Imura, Hisanori

    2009-06-15

    Highly effective and selective synergistic extraction of Li+ has been found using 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (Hnta) as an acidic chelating agent and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmdpp) as a neutral ligand (denoted as L) in toluene. The synergism was ascribed to the adduct formation in the organic phase, and the composition and the formation constants of the adducts for alkali metal ions (M+) were determined by the extraction equilibrium analysis. The adducts found were M(nta)L for Li+ and Na+, while M(nta)L and M(nta)L2 for K+. To understand thermodynamics of the adduct formation with the bidentate amines, quantum chemical calculations of the 1:1 and 1:2 adduct formations with dmp and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were performed. The electronic and steric effects of the methyl groups at 2,9-positions of phen on the thermodynamic functions of adduct formation as well as the high lithium selectivity were quantitatively elucidated.

  11. [Sodium, potassium and calcium content in regional dishes consumed in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Valencia, M E; Wyatt, J

    1990-06-01

    The content of sodium, potassium and calcium was determined in 15 regional dishes, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Na:K ratio was high in most of the dishes due to the high sodium content and low content of potassium found. The higher sources of the studied minerals were "tortilla de harina" with 1,372.8 mg/100 g of sodium; "chorizo con papas" with 466 mg/100 g of potassium, and "calabacitas con queso" with 244.1 mg/100 g of calcium. Two of the dishes considered as desserts, "capirotada" and "arroz con leche" showed the lowest Na:K ratio (0.66 and 0.81, respectively).

  12. Urinary potassium to urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately identify hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenswijk, Werner; Ilias, Mohamad Ikram; Raes, Ann; Donckerwolcke, Raymond; Walle, Johan Vande

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia. The aim of this study is to validate the use of urinary potassium to the sum of potassium plus sodium ratio (UK/UK+UNa) as an indicator of hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome, enabling detection of those patients who will benefit from albumin infusion. We prospectively studied 44 nephrotic children and compared different parameters to a control group (36 children). Renal perfusion and glomerular permeability were assessed by measuring clearance of para-aminohippurate and inulin. Vaso-active hormones and urinary sodium and potassium were also measured. Subjects were grouped into low, normal, and high GFR groups. In the low GFR group, significantly lower renal plasma flow (p = 0.01), filtration fraction (p = 0.01), and higher UK/UK+UNa (p = 0.03) ratio were noted. In addition, non-significant higher plasma renin activity (p = 0.11) and aldosteron (p = 0.09) were also seen in the low GFR group. A subgroup of patients in nephrotic syndrome has a decrease in glomerular filtration, apparently related to hypovolemia which likely can be detected by a urinary potassium to potassium plus sodium ratio > 0.5-0.6 suggesting benefit of albumin infusion in this subgroup. What is Known: • Volume status can be difficult to assess based on clinical parameters in nephrotic syndrome, and albumin infusion can be associated with development of pulmonary edema and fluid overload in these patients. What is New: • Urinary potassium to the sum of urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately detect hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome and thus identify those children who would probably respond to albumin infusion.

  13. Thermoluminescence properties of the Cu-doped lithium potassium borate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboud, Haydar; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ali, Hassan; Alajerami, Yasser; Saeed, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of lithium potassium borate glasses with various copper concentrations are reported. The glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method and irradiated with photons to doses in the 0.5–4.0 Gy range. Glowing curves, dose response curves, reproducibility of the response, dose threshold, thermal fading and optical bleaching were studied

  14. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  15. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; Peddada, Sandeep V.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five

  16. Potassium homeostasis during exercise in domestic species: the role of the sodium-potassium pump in skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maria E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, Jens Christian Skou was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry for his discovery and elegant description, some 40 years earlier, of the sodium-potassium (Na+,K+) pump in crab nerve fibres [37]. It is now widely accepted that this cation transport system is essential for cell function, and

  17. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangyang; Yang, Youshan; Bian, Shumin; Sigworth, Fred J

    2012-11-01

    The slack (slo2.2) gene codes for a potassium-channel α-subunit of the 6TM voltage-gated channel family. Expression of slack results in Na(+)-activated potassium channel activity in various cell types. We describe the purification and reconstitution of Slack protein and show that the Slack α-subunit alone is sufficient for potassium channel activity activated by sodium ions as assayed in planar bilayer membranes and in membrane vesicles.

  18. Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio and Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Related Factors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T.

    2014-01-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted. PMID:25398734

  19. Potassium/sodium ion exchange of sodium aluminosilicate and soda-lime glasses with potassium nitrate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.

    1983-08-01

    The alkali self-diffusion coefficients, the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficients, and the actual equilibrium constants of the ion exchange process were determinated for model glasses of the Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 type and the Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 type by nuclear techniques. The measured self-diffusion data and interdiffusion coefficients were used to estimate the stress profiles initiated by the K/Na exchange below the transformation temperature in the surface region. The activation volume of the sodium and potassium ions for diffusion through the surface zone stressed by ion exchange was determined. The disturbing influence of small concentrations of determined divalent cations in KNO 3 (especially Ca 2+ ) was investigated and thermodynamically described. Possibilities were demonstrated to remove these disturbances by anionic admixtures to the KNO 3 melt. Conclusions were drawn for the technical process of the chemical strengthening of glass by K/Na ion exchange at lower temperatures. (author)

  20. Investigation of iodine liberation process in redox titration of potassium iodate with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakai, Toshiaki, E-mail: t-asakai@aist.go.jp [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 3-9, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Hioki, Akiharu [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 3-9, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2011-03-09

    Potassium iodate is often used as a reference material to standardize a sodium thiosulfate solution which is a familiar titrant for redox titrations. In the standardization, iodine (triiodide) liberated by potassium iodate in an acidic potassium iodide solution is titrated with a sodium thiosulfate solution. The iodine liberation process is significantly affected by the amount of acid, that of potassium iodide added, the waiting time for the liberation, and light; therefore, the process plays a key role for the accuracy of the titration results. Constant-voltage biamperometry with a modified dual platinum-chip electrode was utilized to monitor the amount of liberated iodine under several liberation conditions. Coulometric titration was utilized to determine the concentration of a sodium thiosulfate solution on an absolute basis. Potassium iodate was assayed by gravimetric titration with the sodium thiosulfate solution under several iodine liberation conditions. The liberation process was discussed from the changes in the apparent assay of potassium iodate. The information of the appropriate titration procedure obtained in the present study is useful for any analysts utilizing potassium iodate to standardize a thiosulfate solution.

  1. Investigation of iodine liberation process in redox titration of potassium iodate with sodium thiosulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakai, Toshiaki; Hioki, Akiharu

    2011-01-01

    Potassium iodate is often used as a reference material to standardize a sodium thiosulfate solution which is a familiar titrant for redox titrations. In the standardization, iodine (triiodide) liberated by potassium iodate in an acidic potassium iodide solution is titrated with a sodium thiosulfate solution. The iodine liberation process is significantly affected by the amount of acid, that of potassium iodide added, the waiting time for the liberation, and light; therefore, the process plays a key role for the accuracy of the titration results. Constant-voltage biamperometry with a modified dual platinum-chip electrode was utilized to monitor the amount of liberated iodine under several liberation conditions. Coulometric titration was utilized to determine the concentration of a sodium thiosulfate solution on an absolute basis. Potassium iodate was assayed by gravimetric titration with the sodium thiosulfate solution under several iodine liberation conditions. The liberation process was discussed from the changes in the apparent assay of potassium iodate. The information of the appropriate titration procedure obtained in the present study is useful for any analysts utilizing potassium iodate to standardize a thiosulfate solution.

  2. Electronic band structure of lithium, sodium and potassium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouanin, C.; Albert, J.P.; Gout, C.

    1975-01-01

    A mixed tight-binding, pseudopotential method is proposed to calculate the energy band structure of large-gap crystals and is tested here on LiF, NaF and KF. Three-centre terms are included in the determination of the valence bands by the tight-binding method and for the conduction bands we use a pseudopotential model proposed by Bassani and Giuliano, modified for the positive ions. By taking into account the polarization corrections, transitions calculated from the energy band structures are compared with experimental data and the agreement is generally good

  3. Study of the permeability of the various parts of the tubules to sodium and potassium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Falbriard, A.

    1959-01-01

    The method of stop flow analysis has been used in rabbits together with radioactive sodium and potassium injected in the middle of a six minutes period of arrest of urine flow during an osmotic diuresis. Urine was subsequently collected in 60 ta 80 mg samples. The specific activities of sodium and potassium suggest that both ions pass directly from the renal interstitial tissue into the urine at different and distinct areas in the tubules. The whole distal segment, including the area of active reabsorption of this ion, is impermeable to sodium in the direction interstitial tissue to lumen. The adjacent, more proximal tubule is, however, extremely permeable. The distal tubular impermeability to potassium is more limited. The specific activity already having reached a maximum at the level of active sodium reabsorption. Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue Francaise d'Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques', n. 5, vol IV, p. 471-474 [fr

  4. Validation of red cell sodium-lithium countertransport measurement--influence of different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besch, W; Schläger, D; Brahm, J

    1995-01-01

    Increased sodium-lithium countertransport in erythrocytes from patients with long-standing type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been considered as an early marker of nephropathy. Since the activity and kinetics of the sodium-lithium countertransport may critically depend on loading co...

  5. Method for ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals and potassium microimpurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Kostromina, O.N.; Ogorodnikova, A.A.; Khajnakov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of deep ion exchange purification of sodium iodide solution from heavy metals (iron, nickel, copper, lead) and potassium microimpurities is developed. The method includes multiple sorption of microimpurities on titanium phosphate with their subsequent desorption by sorbent processing with a solution with a solution of 3-6 N nitric acid, first, and then with a neutral solution of 2 % sodium thiosulfate. The given method permits to increase the purification degree of sodium iodide solution by 25-30 %. 2 tabs

  6. Safety assessment of sodium acetate, sodium diacetate and potassium sorbate food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Sohrabi, Yousef; Mohammadi, Ali; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Dehghan, Parvin; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2018-08-15

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium acetate (SA), sodium diacetate (SDA), and potassium sorbate (PS) was tested on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. The growth of treated HUVECs with various concentrations of SA, SDA and PS decreased in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of 487.71, 485.82 and 659.96 µM after 24 h and IC50 of 232.05, 190.19 and 123.95 µM after 48 h of treatment were attained for SA, SDA and PS, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that early and late apoptosis percentage in treated cells was not considerable. Also neither considerable DNA fragmentation nor DNA smear was observed using DAPI staining and DNA ladder assays. Overall, it can be concluded that the aforementioned food additives can be used as safe additives at low concentration in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Shota; Sato, Soh

    2013-01-01

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst

  8. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  9. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase) with bound potassium and ouabain

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Haruo; Shinoda, Takehiro; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2009-01-01

    The sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase) is responsible for establishing Na+ and K+ concentration gradients across the plasma membrane and therefore plays an essential role in, for instance, generating action potentials. Cardiac glycosides, prescribed for congestive heart failure for more than 2 centuries, are efficient inhibitors of this ATPase. Here we describe a crystal structure of Na+,K+-ATPase with bound ouabain, a representative cardiac glycoside, at 2.8 Å resolution in a state analog...

  10. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  11. Comparison of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmood; Iqbal, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2009-01-01

    Two different salts of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium, in tablet dosage form were tested for their bioavailability and disposition kinetics in a group of eighteen rabbits in normal and experimentally induced dehydrated conditions with a wash out period of 7 days between both stages of study. Biochemical and physiological parameters were also measured in both normal and dehydrated states. Diclofenac levels in plasma were determined using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC(0-infinity), Cmax, Tmax and other disposition kinetics were obtained with non-compartmental procedure. Biochemical parameters i.e. packed cell volume, plasma glucose and total lipid concentration in dehydrated rabbits increased significantly. Plasma concentration of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium decreased significantly in water deprived rabbits. In comparison, diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated state of the same group of rabbits showed a significantly increased plasma concentration when compared with diclofenac sodium.

  12. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  13. Patterns of sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure in the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, B O; Luke, A; McKenzie, C A; Kramer, H; Cao, G; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Forrester, T; Adeyemo, A A; Cooper, R S

    2012-05-01

    Habitual levels of dietary sodium and potassium are correlated with age-related increases in blood pressure (BP) and likely have a role in this phenomenon. Although extensive published evidence exists from randomized trials, relatively few large-scale community surveys with multiple 24-h urine collections have been reported. We obtained three 24-h samples from 2704 individuals from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States to evaluate patterns of intake and within-person relationships with BP. The average (±s.d.) age and weight of the participants across all the three sites were 39.9±8.6 years and 76.1±21.2 kg, respectively, and 55% of the total participants were females. Sodium excretion increased across the East-West gradient (for example, 123.9±54.6, 134.1±48.8, 176.6±71.0 (±s.d.) mmol, Nigeria, Jamaica and US, respectively), whereas potassium was essentially unchanged (for example, 46.3±22.9, 40.7±16.1, 44.7±16.4 (±s.d.) mmol, respectively). In multivariate analyses both sodium (positively) and potassium (negatively) were strongly correlated with BP (P<0.001); quantitatively the association was stronger, and more consistent in each site individually, for potassium. The within-population day-to-day variation was also greater for sodium than for potassium. Among each population group, a significant correlation was observed between sodium and urine volume, supporting the prior finding of sodium as a determinant of fluid intake in free-living individuals. These data confirm the consistency with the possible role of dietary electrolytes as hypertension risk factors, reinforcing the relevance of potassium in these populations.

  14. Determination of microamounts of potassium in sodium iodide by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Ken; Ohta, Masatoshi; Abe, Kenzo

    1980-01-01

    Microdetermination of potassium in sodium iodide was developed by the standard addition method. Twenty grams of sample were dissolved in 50 ml of water in a quartz beaker. To the solution, 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 30 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide were added, and evaporated to dryness. By this process sodium iodide was converted into sodium chloride. The cake thus obtained was dissolved in water and diluted to exactly 200 ml. To 25 ml aliquots of the solution, the standard potassium and cesium chloride solutions were added and diluted to 50 ml with water; the concentration of potassium was 0 -- 1 mg/l and that of cesium 4 mM. These solutions were introduced into an air-propane flame and the absorbances were measured at 769.9 nm. During the conversion reaction, hydrochloric acid was completely decomposed, and remained hydrogen peroxide had no influence for absorbance, and other backgrounds were negligible. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range 0 -- 2 mg of potassium per liter. Potassium in sodium iodide was determined by this method within the coefficient of variation of +-(20 -- 3)% in the range (1.7 -- 32.5) ppm. (author)

  15. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J J; McOrist, G D; Farrar, Y J; Bowles, C J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... techniques (Instrumentation Laboratory Model IL 243). In order to examine ... mmol. Potassium and sugar concentrations were very poorly ... cations that the error in calculating its energy content would be .... mellifica adults (subspecies not named). .... consumption, and thoracic temperature during flight in a.

  18. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  19. Comparative study of lithium and sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, J.C.; Amri, Z.; Claudy, P.; Letoffe, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Raman and infrared spectra of Lithium and Sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates Li 3 AlH 6 , Na 3 AlH 6 and Li 3 AlD 6 have been investigated in order to study metal-hydrogen interactions. A vibrational analysis has been performed. Several force field models (Urey-Bradley, Orbital Valence force field, Shimanouchi, Murrell) have been used in order to compute the force constants of Al-H bonds. No significative difference is observed between the results obtained from the various models, and the environment of aluminum is thus well determined. AlH 6 3- ions form an almost perfect octahedron in Li 3 AlH 6 and a distorted one in Na 3 AlH 6

  20. The thermal electrical properties of lithium sodium borate gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anita R.; Bichile, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium sodium borate glasses with various composition have been prepared by melt quenching method. DSC studies were carried out. The glass transition temperature were found to decrease with alkali content in single alkali system and increase with second alkali content in mixed alkali system. The dc electrical conductivity has been measured as a function of temperature. The activation energy from the slope of the Arrhenius plots is calculated and it depends on the composition. In one set of single alkali glasses activation energies were found to increase with alkali content and in another set a single alkali system a transition from predominantly electronic to ionic conduction has been observed above 0.16 mol fraction of alkali content. The mixed alkali glasses have shown higher activation energies and lower conductivities. (author)

  1. Comparative study of sodium and potassium in different types of gallstones and in serum of subjects with gallstones and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease). It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p<0.05) between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.5). Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subject, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05) concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects. The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects. (author)

  2. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  3. Ionic liquids and derived materials for lithium and sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Xing, Huabin; Dai, Sheng

    2018-03-21

    The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity. These properties create the possibilities of designing batteries with excellent safety, high energy/power density and long-term stability, and also provide better ways to synthesize known materials. IL-derived materials, such as poly(ionic liquids), ionogels and IL-tethered nanoparticles, retain most of the characteristics of ILs while being endowed with other favourable features, and thus they have received a great deal of attention as well. This review provides a comprehensive review of the various applications of ILs and derived materials in lithium and sodium batteries including Li/Na-ion, dual-ion, Li/Na-S and Li/Na-air (O 2 ) batteries, with a particular emphasis on recent advances in the literature. Their unique characteristics enable them to serve as advanced resources, medium, or ingredient for almost all the components of batteries, including electrodes, liquid electrolytes, solid electrolytes, artificial solid-electrolyte interphases, and current collectors. Some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities are also presented in this review for further development.

  4. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, Marion; Bernillon, Noémie; Fabre, Claudie; Roubeix, Mathilde; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food" and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate®) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate and potato, 26% for apple, 37% for tomato and 41% for banana) or boiling in a large amount of water (73% for potato). Although Kayexalate® efficiently dose-dependently removed potassium from drinks (by 48% to 73%), resin addition during soaking or boiling did not eliminate more potassium from solid foods. Our results therefore provide useful information for dietitians who elaborate menus for people on potassium-restricted diets and would give an interesting alternative to the systematic elimination of all potassium-rich foods from their diet.

  5. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium,

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Conformational Changes in Membrane-Bound Sodium Potassium ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Abdali, Salim; Lundbæk, Jens August

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation we assess the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for probing conformational changes in membrane-spanning proteins — in this case, the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase). Spectral analysis of protein-lipid complexes is complicated by the presence...

  7. Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by γ-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of γ-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO 4 - ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO 4 - ions. The extent to which MnO 4 - ions are reduced are found to vary with

  8. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  9. Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  10. Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Dico C.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  11. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Knight shift of 23Na and 7Li nuclei in liquid sodium-lithium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitsma, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Knight shift of 23 Na and 7 Li nuclei in liquid sodium-lithium alloys has been measured. Some aspects of the theoretical interpretation of the Knight shift within the diffraction model, are clarified

  13. Determination of lithium in sodium by vacuum distillation-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chun; Sun Shiping; Jia Yunteng; Wen Ximeng

    1996-12-01

    When sodium is used as a coolant in China Experimental Fast Reactor, the lithium content in sodium has an effect on the nuclear property of reactor. A method has been developed to determine the trace lithium in sodium metal at the level of less than ten parts per million. About 0.4 g sodium is placed into a high-purity tantalum crucible, then it is placed in a stainless-steel still to distill at 360 degree C under vacuum (0.01 Pa). After the sodium has been removed, the residue is dissolved by nitric acid (1:2) and analyzed with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy at 671.0 nm wavelength. The distillation conditions, working conditions of the instrument and interferences from matrix sodium, acid and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with lithium chloride and lithium nitrate. The percentage recoveries are 96.8% and 97.4% respectively. The relative standard deviation is less than +- 5%. The method has been used to determine lithium content in high pure sodium and industrial grade sodium. (11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.)

  14. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...can short circuit the anode and cathode . Anode- cathode short circuits are especially dangerous when a flammable organic solvent is used as the

  15. Neutron diffraction investigations of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1990-03-01

    Statics and dynamics of the superionic conductors lithium sulfide and sodium sulfide were investigated using the following experimental methods: elastic scattering on sodium sulfide powder in the temperature range 20 - 1000 C, elastic scattering on a lithium sulfide single crystal in the temperature range 20 - 700 C, inelastic scattering on a 7 Li 2 S single crystal at 10 K. 34 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  16. Wustite-based photoelectrodes with lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and nickel additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Emily Ann; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2017-08-15

    A photoelectrode, photovoltaic device and photoelectrochemical cell and methods of making are disclosed. The photoelectrode includes an electrode at least partially formed of FeO combined with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The electrode may be doped with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, and sodium. The electrode may be alloyed with at least one of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel.

  17. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste Division on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice

  18. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  19. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  20. Electrolyte Balance of the Inner Ear Investigated by Neutron Activation Analysis of the Sodium and Potassium Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ördögh, Mary; Miriszlai, E.

    1967-01-01

    Even the few experimental data that have been obtained from investigations of the inner ear are an important contribution to our biochemical knowledge of the sense organs. The apparent discrepancies between some experimental results have prompted comparative studies on the sodium and potassium concentrations in the inner-ear fluids, the liquor cerebrospinalis, the mammalian and human serum. The results of these studies are expected to give a good approximation of the intracellular and extracellular electrolyte concentrations and to yield important information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the inner ear as well as on the mechanism of hearing. The experimental material is obtained from guinea pigs by penetration through the round window (fenestra rotunda). The sodium and potassium content is determined by neutron activation analysis. Potassium is precipitated from the irradiated samples by sodium tetraphenyl borate reagent, so that the sodium activity retained by the filtrate can be directly counted. Since a single precipitation of potassium does not yield end products free from sodium contamination, the precipitate is dissolved in acetone and precipitated again with sodium tetraphenyl borate. The product of the second precipitation is radiochemically pure. In simultaneous experiments, potassium was separated from the much higher sodium activity by isotopic exchange. The irradiated sample is added to an experimentally determined inactive potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate that adsorbs the total potassium activity present without adsorbing any sodium. The separation of potassium by isotopic exchange has the advantage of yielding in a single step a sufficiently pure product without any sodium contamination. For comparison, sodium and potassium were also determined by flame photometry. (author)

  1. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure and phase transitions of sodium potassium niobate perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Dkhil, B.; Jenko, D.; Cilensek, J.; Kosec, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the crystal structure and the phase transitions of K xNa 1- xNbO 3 (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6). X-ray diffraction measurements were used to follow the change of the unit-cell parameters and the symmetry in the temperature range 100-800 K. At room temperature all the compositions exhibited a monoclinic metric of the unit cell with a small monoclinic distortion (90.32° ≤ β ≤ 90.34°). No major change of symmetry was evidenced in the investigated compositional range, which should be characteristic of the morphotropic phase-boundary region. With increasing temperature, the samples underwent first-order monoclinic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic transitions. Only the potassium-rich phases were rhombohedral at 100 K.

  3. Treatment of Residual Sodium and Sodium Potassium from Fast Reactors. Review of Recent Accomplishments, Challenges and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the usual radiation and conventional hazards present during the decommissioning of disused nuclear installations, the presence of residual sodium or the alloy sodium potassium — used in primary, secondary and support systems in reactors using liquid metal as a coolant — presents additional technical, safety and cost challenges for decommissioning. This results from the propensity of these materials to react exothermically with water and moisture in the air potentially resulting in toxic and explosive reactionsThis publication discusses a variety of treatment methods to be considered when dismantling components that still contain residual quantities of sodium or sodium potassium, several of which were presented as contributed papers to the IAEA session during the 5. International Conference and Exhibition on Decommissioning Challenges, in Avignon, France, 7–11 April 2013. The publication provides a synthesis of information presented during the session, which was developed further at a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 2–6 December 2013. Decommissioning challenges faced at eight different facilities in five different countries are discussed, as well as the achievements and lessons learned that are of value to the worldwide decommissioning community

  4. Alteration of hemorrhagic aldosterone response during sodium restriction, potassium supplement and diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.K.; Ryu, Y.W.; Joo, B.S.; Koh, J.W.; Park, K.W.; Lee, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement and furosemide diuresis on plasma aldosterone response to mild hemorrhage were studied in normotensive young volunteers. After an overnight fast, blood were drawn just before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 120 minutes after the 3 H-aldosterone injection. The sum of blood delivered reached over 100ml (during two hours). Plasma aldosterone and renin were measured by means of radiommunoassay. The results were as followed: 1. Hemorrhage resulted in a moderate increase in plasma aldosterone level of volunteers with normal diet. 2. The mean figures of plasma aldosterone in subjects with sodium restriction and diuresis were likewise significantly increased by hemorrhage, however, the figure of the subjects with potassium supplement who already shown higher plasma level was without effect on hemorrhage. 3. Hemorrhage produced slight decrease in serum sodium concentration in every experimental conditions, although the changes were not significant. 4. Plasma renin activities after the hemorrhage followed a similar pattern with that of aldosterone, increased during sodium restriction or diuresis and unaffected during potassium supplement. (author)

  5. Alteration of Hemorrhagic Aldosterone Response During Sodium Restriction, Potassium Supplement and Diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Whan; Park, Kee Won; Lee, Jang Kyu

    1977-01-01

    Effect of sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement and furosemide diuresis on plasma aldosterone response to mild hemorrhage were studied in normotensive young volunteers. After an overnight fast, blood were drawn just before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 120 minutes after the 3H-aldosterone injection. The sum of blood delivered reached over 100 ml (during two hours). Plasma aldosterone and renin were measured by means of radioimmunoassay. The results were as followed; 1) Hemorrhage resulted in a moderate increase in plasma aldosterone level of volunteers with normal diet. 2) The mean figures of plasma aldosterone in subjects with sodium restriction and diuresis were likewise significantly increased by hemorrhage, however, the figure of the subjects with potassium supplement who already shown higher plasma level was without effect on hemorrhage. 3) Hemorrhage produced slight decrease in serum sodium concentration in every experimental conditions, although the changes were not significant. 4) Plasma renin activities after the hemorrhage followed a similar pattern with that of aldosterone, increased during sodium restriction or diuresis and unaffected during potassium supplement.

  6. POTASSIUM DETECTION AND LITHIUM DEPLETION IN COMETS C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS) AND C/1965 S1 (IKEYA-SEKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulle, M.; Molaro, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Buzzi, L.; Valisa, P., E-mail: fulle@oats.inaf.it [Societa Astronomica Schiaparelli, Via Beato Angelico 1, Varese (Italy)

    2013-07-10

    On 2013 March 21, high-resolution slit spectrographs of the comet C/2011 L4 (Panstarrs), at a heliocentric distance r = 0.46 AU, were obtained at the Osservatorio Astronomico Campo dei Fiori, Italy. Emission lines of sodium were the strongest in the spectrum as is common in comets, but potassium lines were also detected. These have rarely been observed in comets since the apparition of the brightest comet C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki). Lithium was not detected and stringent upper limits of its abundance compared to other alkali were derived. We obtain the abundance ratios Na/K = 54 {+-} 14 and Na/Li {>=}810{sup 3}. In addition to Mercury's exosphere (Leblanc and Doressoundiram), we show that photoionization at the beginning of the alkali tails may increase the solar ratio Na/K = 15.5 (Asplund et al.) by a factor three, close to that required to match the observed value. In the same tail position, the Na/Li ratio increases only by a factor two, very far from the factor {>=}8 required to match an original meteoritic ratio. We apply the same model to similar alkali data (Preston) of the comet C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki) and obtain consistent results. An original solar Na/K ratio fits the observed value at the beginning of the alkali tails within the slit size, whereas Li is depleted by a factor {>=}8.

  7. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of sodium and potassium cyanide as a forensic signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. Upon analysis, a few of the cyanide samples displayed nonhomogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of the 65 cyanide samples, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. On mobility of cesium-137, sodium, potassium in various types of soils and prediction of cesium-137 cumulation in agricultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinazi, Eh.I.

    1990-01-01

    Mobility of cesium-137, sodium and potassium in the natural environment in podzolic gray and chernozem medium-loamy, sward podzolic sandy soils and chernozem has been studied. Durability of fixation of cesium-137 increases in a number of soils and increase of the level of metabolic potassium. Coefficient of transition of level of metabolic cesium-137 by potassium and sodium, and of sodium by potassium. The mentioned above coefficients can be used for the prediction of cesium-137 cumulation in plants

  9. Determination of lithium and potassium in uranium oxide powders and pellets by Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a method developed at Control Laboratory, NFC which includes prior separation of lithium and potassium from uranium matrix before their measurements. Solvent extraction, using Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) in CCI 4 followed by Tri-n-Octyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) in CCI 4 , is employed for prior separation of Li and K. The resultant aqueous solution was analyzed by Flame-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (AES) method. Solvent extraction conditions are optimized for measurement of Li and K in the same aliquot. Experimental conditions such as instrument calibration, flame condition, fuel flow, sample flow rate through nebulizer, burner height etc. are also optimized. Under the optimal condition the detection limits achieved for lithium is 0.02 ppm and 0.2 ppm for potassium. A RSD of ± 3 % for Li at 0.05 ppm and ± 4% for K at 1 ppm level has been achieved in this method. The results of lithium in the sample are compared with the values obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Similarly, values of potassium are compared with Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The comparisons are in good agreement. The above method is simple, sensitive, reproducible and can be used for measurement of lithium and potassium in UO 2 powder and pellets on regular basis

  10. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  11. Effects of dietary magnesium on sodium-potassium pump action in the heart of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.W.; Giroux, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a basal AIN-76 diet containing 80, 200, 350, 500 or 650 mg of magnesium per kilogram of diet for 6 wk. Ventricular slices, as well as microsomal fractions, were prepared from the hearts and were used to determine sodium-potassium pump activity. Sodium-potassium pump activity was assessed in the microsomal membranes by determining the ouabain-inhibitable Na+, K+-ATPase activity and [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and in the ventricular slices, by determining ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake under K+-free conditions. The ATPase activity increased with increasing dietary magnesium, so that in the hearts of those animals that were fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet, it was significantly greater than the activity in the hearts of the animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. Similarly, 86 Rb uptake by heart slices from rats fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet was significantly greater than the uptake by heart slices from animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. [ 3 H]Ouabain binding did not change with increasing dietary magnesium. Thus, magnesium deficiency appears to have no effect on the number of sodium-potassium pump sites, but does decrease the activity of the pump. It is suggested that this leads to an increase in intracellular Na+, resulting in a change in the membrane potential, and may contribute to the arrhythmias associated with magnesium deficiency

  12. Palytoxin and the sodium/potassium pump—phosphorylation and potassium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; De Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a reaction model for investigating interactions between K + and the palytoxin–sodium–potassium (PTX–Na + /K + ) pump complex under conditions where enzyme phosphorylation may occur. The model is composed of (i) the Albers–Post model for Na + /K + –ATPase, describing Na + and K + pumping; (ii) the reaction model proposed for Na + /K + –ATPase interactions with its ligands (Na + , K + , ATP, ADP and P) and with PTX. A mathematical model derived for representing the reactions was used to simulate experimental studies of the PTX-induced current, in different concentrations for the pump ligands. The simulations allow interpretation of the simultaneous action of Na + /K + –ATPase phosphorylation and K + on the PTX-induced channels. The results suggest that (i) phosphorylation increases the PTX toxic effect, increasing its affinity and reducing the K + occlusion rate, and (ii) K + causes channel blockage, increases the toxin dissociation rate and impedes the induced channel phosphorylation, implying reduction of the PTX toxic effect

  13. Food pattern modeling shows that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium and potassium cannot be met simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public. PMID:23507224

  14. From Lithium-Ion to Sodium-Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-01-02

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development, but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first, but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enhanced Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Storage in an Interconnected Carbon Network Comprising Electronegative Fluorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-Min; Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Hong, Chulgi Nathan; Choi, Seung Wan; Lee, Ki Bong; Pol, Vilas G

    2017-06-07

    Fluorocarbon (C x F y ) anode materials were developed for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries through a facile one-step carbonization of a single precursor, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Interconnected carbon network structures were produced with doped fluorine in high-temperature carbonization at 500-800 °C. The fluorocarbon anodes derived from the PVDF precursor showed higher reversible discharge capacities of 735 mAh g -1 and 269 mAh g -1 in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, respectively, compared to the commercial graphitic carbon. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the fluorocarbon showed retentions of 91.3% and 97.5% in lithium (at 1C) and sodium (at 200 mA g -1 ) intercalation systems, respectively. The effects of carbonization temperature on the electrochemical properties of alkali metal ion storage were thoroughly investigated and documented. The specific capacities in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries were dependent on the fluorine content, indicating that the highly electronegative fluorine facilitates the insertion/extraction of lithium and sodium ions in rechargeable batteries.

  16. Study of the phase transition in lithium potassium rubidium sulfate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A. E.; Abd. El-Aziz, Y. M.; Madi, N. K.; Kassem, M. E.

    1998-10-01

    Specific heat, Cp, measurements have been performed in lithium potassium rubidium sulfate, (Li 0.5- x/2 K 0.5- x/2 Rb x) 2SO 4, system in a wide range of Rb 2SO 4 content ( x) ( x=0 up to x=10%). Measurements were made between 300 and 800 K with special attention paid to the phase transition at 708 K. It is shown that for small contents, ( x), ( x=0.2 up to x=2%) quantitative changes in the temperature dependence of specific heat Cp( T) around the transition point, T1, are observed. A larger content, x, results in essential changes in the critical behavior of Cp( T) and a considerable change in the phase transition accompanied by a progressive decrease in the thermodynamic parameters. The ratios of the Landau expansion coefficients change as the content of Rb 2SO 4 increases.

  17. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  18. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na + ] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (CsTPB) precipitates also increases. Serkiz also demonstrated that the precipitation of potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na + ] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice. In the crystallographic structure of these three tetraphenylborate salts (Cs,K,NaTPB), the tetraphenylborate ion dominates the size of the crystals. Also, note that the three crystals have nearly identical structures with the exception of two additional peaks in the cesium pattern. Given these similarities, TPB precipitation in the presence of Na + , Cs + and K + likely produces an impure isomorphic crystalline mixture of CsTPB, KTPB and NaTPB. The authors speculate that the primary crystalline structure resembles that of KTPB with NaTPB and CsTPB mixed throughout the crystal structure. The precipitation of NaTPB makes some of the anticipated excess tetraphenylborate relatively unavailable for precipitation of cesium. Thus, the amount of excess tetraphenylborate required to completely precipitate all of the potassium and cesium may increase significantly

  19. Reactions between rocks and the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium: progress report no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aardt, J.H.P.; Visser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between the hydroxides of calcium, sodium and potassium, and clay minerals, feldspars, and some rocks (aggregates for use in concrete) was investigated. The reaction products were examined by means of x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The solid reaction products identified were hydrated calcium silicates,hydrated calcium aluminates, and hydrated calcium alumina silicates. It was found that, in the presence of water, calcium hydroxide liberated alkali into solution if the rocks and minerals contained alkali metals in their structure. Two crystalline hydrated sodium calcium silicates (12A and 16A) were prepared in the system Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 -H 2 O at 80 degrees Celsius. The one compound (12A) was also observed when sodium hydroxide plus calcium hydroxide and water reacted with silica- or silicate-containing rocks

  20. Preparation and application of potassium and sodium titanate for removal of plutonium from basic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Prashant; Pathak, Sachin S.; Pius, I.C.; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In PUREX process, after extraction and stripping of uranium and plutonium, the extractant, tributyl phosphate is usually washed with sodium carbonate solution before reuse for the removal of radiolytic/hydrolytic degradation products of TBP and small amounts of HNO 3 , uranium and plutonium goes into aqueous phase during carbonate washings. Partial neutralization of carbonate by the acid converts it to bicarbonate. Removal of plutonium from such sodium carbonate/bicarbonate streams facilitates their disposal. In the present work, studies were carried out to prepare inorganic ion-exchangers such as potassium and sodium titanates for their application as ion-exchange material. It is essential to prepare these materials in granular form to obtain good liquid flow property for ion exchange column operations, however, it is also important that the final product is having good surface area and porosity so that they may exhibit good ion exchange capacity

  1. Hydrogen determination in magnesium, zirconium, sodium and lithium using installation, C2532

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikova, E.D.; Velyukhanov, V.P.; Makhinova, L.O.; Kunin, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of hydrogen determination in magnesium, lithium, sodium and zirconium using the S 2532 installation are developed. The method of oxidizing melting using lead borate has been used for hydrogen determination in lithium and sodium and the method of vacuum extraction - for hydrogen determination in zirconium and magnesium. Zr and Mg extraction has been carried out in steel reactor at the temperatures of 1000 and 650 deg C, the time of extraction being 30 and 10 minutes respectively. A quartz reactor, temperatures of oxidizing melting of 700-800 deg C, the time of analysis 10 and 20 minutes have been used for sodium and lithium. A possibility to determine volumetric content of hydrogen in magnesium at the existing surface contaminations with hydrogen-containing compounds is shown [ru

  2. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  3. Potassium vanadate K0.23V2O5 as anode materials for lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cailing; Luo, Shaohua; Huang, Hongbo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui; Liu, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuchun; Wang, Zhaowen

    2018-06-01

    A layered potassium vanadate K0.23V2O5 has been successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries. High structural stability is demonstrated by the ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the K0.23V2O5 exhibits a reversible capacity of 480.4 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and 439.7 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 300 cycles as well as good cycling stability. Even at a high current density of 800 mA g-1, a high reversible capacity of 202.5 mAh g-1 can be retained, indicating excellent rate performance. Whereas in potassium-ion batteries, it retains a capacity of 121.6 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 20 mA g-1 and 97.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance of K0.23V2O5 can be ascribed to the special flower-like morphology and structure. Overall, the results highlight the great potential of K0.23V2O5 as an anode material for both lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries.

  4. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  5. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  6. Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Nazeri, Pantea; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-30

    There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults. In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes. During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14). Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events.

  7. Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtanen, Mikko J; Mars, Monica; Männistö, Satu; Pietinen, Pirjo; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2008-03-10

    A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in a cohort of 26 556 Finnish male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, who were free from stroke at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years (1985-2004), 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified in the national registries. After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high magnesium intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.97; P for trend = .004) for men in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with those in the lowest quintile. The inverse association between magnesium intake and cerebral infarction was stronger in men younger than 60 years (relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P for interaction = .02). Calcium, potassium, and sodium intake was not significantly associated with risk of any subtype of stroke (P for trend > .05). These findings in male smokers suggest that a high magnesium intake may play a role in the primary prevention of cerebral infarction.

  8. Phase Diagrams of Some Sodium and Potassium Salts In Light and Heavy Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, K E

    1968-12-15

    Phase diagrams for fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, nitrates, sulphates and carbonates of sodium and potassium with D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O have been determined in the range from eutectic temperature to 60 deg C. Generally the relative solubility is less in D{sub 2}O, but there are some exceptions in cases of a hydrate as the solid phase. The freezing point depression for freezing of ice is often somewhat smaller in the case of D{sub 2}O.

  9. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  10. Corrosion of nickel in potassium and sodium chloride melts containing vanadium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Ponomarev, Yu.S.; Bezvoritnij, V.A.; Bajbakov, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion of nickel has been studied by the method of the rotating disc in melts of potassium and sodium chlorides containing vanadium trichloride in the concentration 0-20.0 wt.% in the temperature range 1103-1328 K. Corrosion proceeds in the diffusion region, the corrosion rate being controlled by diffusion of either V 3+ or V 2+ depending on the concentration of VCl 3 in the melts. The apparent activation energy of nickel corrosion is 43,110-74660 joule/mol

  11. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  12. Calculation of total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-02-01

    Total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium are calculated at various energies and compared with experiment. The method use is the coupled-channels-optical method with the equivalent-local polarisation potential, which takes all channels into account. For electrons the calculations are checked by comparison with coupled-channels-optical calculations using a detailed polarisation potential that makes only one approximation, that of weak coupling in the ionisation space. The polarisation potential for positrons includes effects of ionisation and positronium formation. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase) with bound potassium and ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo; Shinoda, Takehiro; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2009-08-18

    The sodium-potassium pump (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase) is responsible for establishing Na(+) and K(+) concentration gradients across the plasma membrane and therefore plays an essential role in, for instance, generating action potentials. Cardiac glycosides, prescribed for congestive heart failure for more than 2 centuries, are efficient inhibitors of this ATPase. Here we describe a crystal structure of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with bound ouabain, a representative cardiac glycoside, at 2.8 A resolution in a state analogous to E2.2K(+).Pi. Ouabain is deeply inserted into the transmembrane domain with the lactone ring very close to the bound K(+), in marked contrast to previous models. Due to antagonism between ouabain and K(+), the structure represents a low-affinity ouabain-bound state. Yet, most of the mutagenesis data obtained with the high-affinity state are readily explained by the present crystal structure, indicating that the binding site for ouabain is essentially the same. According to a homology model for the high affinity state, it is a closure of the binding cavity that confers a high affinity.

  14. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase) with bound potassium and ouabain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo; Shinoda, Takehiro; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2009-01-01

    The sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K+-ATPase) is responsible for establishing Na+ and K+ concentration gradients across the plasma membrane and therefore plays an essential role in, for instance, generating action potentials. Cardiac glycosides, prescribed for congestive heart failure for more than 2 centuries, are efficient inhibitors of this ATPase. Here we describe a crystal structure of Na+,K+-ATPase with bound ouabain, a representative cardiac glycoside, at 2.8 Å resolution in a state analogous to E2·2K+·Pi. Ouabain is deeply inserted into the transmembrane domain with the lactone ring very close to the bound K+, in marked contrast to previous models. Due to antagonism between ouabain and K+, the structure represents a low-affinity ouabain-bound state. Yet, most of the mutagenesis data obtained with the high-affinity state are readily explained by the present crystal structure, indicating that the binding site for ouabain is essentially the same. According to a homology model for the high affinity state, it is a closure of the binding cavity that confers a high affinity. PMID:19666591

  15. [The relationship between PMI and concentration of potassium ion and sodium ion in swine aqueous humor after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ju; Yu, Guang-biao; Dong, Ye-qiang; Fang, Chao; Jing, Hua-lan; Luo, Si-min

    2010-04-01

    To explored the relationship between the concentration of potassium ion as well as sodium ion in the aqueous humor and post-mortem interval (PMI). The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in the aqueous humor of swine within 48 h after death at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C were detected using Z-500 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs within 48 h after death when the environmental temperature was 4 degrees C were significantly related to PMI. The relationship between PMI and the concentration of potassium ion was PMI = -0.178[K+]2 + 49.978 (R2 = 0.995). The relationship between PMI and the rate of sodium ion and potassium ion was PMI = 120.987/[Na+/K+]-28.834 (R2 = 0.905). The concentration of potassium in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs may be one of the reference indicators to estimate PMI of the corpses at lower temperatures.

  16. Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium Minerals Level in Fresh and Boiled Broccoli and Cauliflower by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdy

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables from the cabbage family vegetables consumed by many people, which is known healthful, by eaten raw, boiled, or cooked (stir fry or soup). Vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. This study aims to determine the decrease percentage of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level caused by boiled broccoli and cauliflower by atomic absorption spectrometry. Boiled broccoli and cauliflower prepared by given boiled treatment in boiling water for 3 minutes. Fresh and boiled broccoli and cauliflower carried out dry destruction, followed by quantitative analysis of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals respectively at a wavelength of 589.0 nm; 766.5 nm; 285.2 nm; and 422.7 nm, using atomic absorption spectrometry methods. After the determination of the sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level followed by validation of analytical methods with accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) parameters. Research results show a decrease in the sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level in boiled broccoli and cauliflower compared with fresh broccoli and cauliflower. Validation of analytical methods gives results that spectrometry methods used for determining sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium minerals level are valid. It concluded that the boiled gives the effect of decreasing the minerals level significantly in broccoli and cauliflower.

  17. Amiloride blocks lithium entry through the sodium channel thereby attenuating the resultant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Li, Y.; Shaw, S.M.; Gaeggeler, H.P.; Rossier, B.C.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium therapy frequently induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; amiloride appears to prevent its occurrence in some clinical cases. Amiloride blocks the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) located in the apical membrane of principal cells; hence one possibility is that ENaC is the main entry site

  18. Metastable equilibrium for the quaternary system containing with lithium+potassium+magnesium+chloride in aqueous solution at 323K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xudong; Yin, Qinghong; Jiang, Dongbo; Zeng, Ying [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2014-06-15

    The metastable equilibrium of the system contained with lithium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride in aqueous system was investigated at 323 K using an isothermal evaporation method. The isothermal experimental data and physicochemical properties, such as density and refractive index of the equilibrated solution, were determined. With the experimental results, the stereo phase diagram, the projected phase diagram, the water content diagram and the physicochemical properties versus composition diagrams were constructed. The projected phase diagram consists of three invariant points, seven univariant curves and five crystallization fields corresponding to single salts potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride monohydrate (LiCl·H{sub 2}O), bischofite (MgCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) and two double salts lithium carnallite (LiCl·MgCl{sub 2}·7H{sub 2}O) and potassium carnallite (KCl·MgCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O). Salt KCl has the largest crystallization region; it contains almost 95% of the general crystallization field.

  19. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  20. Antagonism of the Sodium-Potassium ATPase Impairs Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Ashbrook

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy.

  1. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  2. Loss of Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack and FMRP Differentially Affect Social Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E; Ehinger, Rebekka; Straubinger, Julia; Zerfass, Patrick; Nann, Yvette; Lukowski, Robert

    2018-05-31

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Slo2.2) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it is supposed to shape firing properties important for neuronal excitability. Slack activity is enhanced by interaction with the Fragile-X-Mental-Retardation-Protein (FMRP) and loss of FMRP leads to decreased sodium-activated potassium currents in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body neurons of the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse representing a mouse model of the human Fragile-X-Syndrome (FXS) and autism. Autism is a frequent comorbidity of FXS, but it is unclear whether Slack is involved in autistic or related conditions of FXS in vivo. By applying a wide range of behavioral tests, we compared social and autism-related behaviors in Slack- and FMRP-deficient mice. In our hands, as expected, FMRP-deficiency causes autism-related behavioral changes in nesting and in a marble-burying test. In contrast, Slack-deficient males exhibited specific abnormalities in sociability in direct and indirect social interaction tests. Hence, we show for the first time that a proper Slack channel function is mandatory for normal social behavior in mice. Nevertheless, as deficits in social behaviors seem to occur independently from each other in FMRP and Slack null mutants, we conclude that Slack is not involved in the autistic phenotype of FMRP KO mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary and dietary sodium and potassium associated with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive kidney transplant recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Remy Annie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In kidney transplant (Kt recipients , hypertension is a major risk for cardiovascular complications but also for graft failure. Blood pressure (BP control is therefore mandatory. Office BP (OBP remains frequently used for clinical decisions, however home BP (HBP have brought a significant improvement in the BP control. Sodium is a modifiable risk factor, many studies accounted for a decrease of BP with a sodium restricted diet. Increased potassium intake has been also recommended in hypertension management. Using an agreement between office and home BP, the present study investigated the relations between the BP control in Kt recipients and their urinary excretion and dietary consumption of sodium and potassium. Methods The BP control defined by OBP 30. Results Using an agreement between OBP and HBP, we identified controlled (21% and uncontrolled recipients (49%. Major confounding effects susceptible to interfere with the BP regulation did not differ between groups, the amounts of sodium excretion were similar (154 ± 93 vs 162 ± 88 mmol/24 h but uncontrolled patients excreted less potassium (68 ± 14 vs 54 ± 20 mmol/24 h; P = 0.029 and had significantly lower potassium intakes (3279 ± 753 vs 2208 ± 720 mg/24 h; P = 0.009, associated with a higher urinary Na+/K + ratio. Systolic HBP was inversely and significantly correlated to urinary potassium (r = −0.48; P = 0.002, a positive but non significant relation was observed with urinary sodium (r = 0,30;P = 0.074. Conclusions Half of the treated hypertensive Kt recipients remained uncontrolled in office and at home. Restoring a well-balanced sodium/potassium ratio intakes could be a non pharmacological opportunity to improve blood pressure control.

  4. Comparative solubilisation of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in hot dimethylformamide: application of cylindrical particle surface-controlled dissolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forryan, Claire L; Compton, Richard G; Klymenko, Oleksiy V; Brennan, Colin M; Taylor, Catherine L; Lennon, Martin

    2006-02-07

    A surface-controlled dissolution of cylindrical solid particles model is applied to potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at elevated temperatures. Previously published data for the dissolution of potassium carbonate is interpreted assuming a cylindrical rather than a spherical shape of the particles, the former representing a closer approximation to the true shape of the particles as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The dissolution kinetics of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were investigated via monitoring of the deprotonation of 2-cyanophenol with dissolved solid to form the 2-cyanophenolate anion that was detected with UV-visible spectroscopy. From fitting of experimental results to theory, the dissolution rate constant, k, for the dissolutions of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were found to have the values of (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-7) mol cm(-2) s(-1), (5.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1) and (9.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1), respectively.

  5. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO 3 formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  6. Formation and transformation of the radiation-induced nearsurface color centers in sodium and lithium fluorides nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Kalinov, V. S.; Radkevich, A. V.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.; Voitovich, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Near-surface color centers in sodium fluoride nanocrystals have been formed. At pre-irradiation annealing of sodium and lithium fluorides samples at temperatures of 623 K and above, the near-surface color centers in them have not been found after γ-irradiation. Annealing lithium fluoride nanocrystals with the near-surface defects leads to their transformation into bulk ones of the same composition.

  7. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripal, Ram; Singh, Pragya; Shukla, Santwana

    2011-01-01

    EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are recorded at 77 K. The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured from the resonance lines obtained at various rotations of the magnetic field. The values obtained are: g x =1.9257±0.0002, g y =1.9720±0.0002, g z =2.0102±0.0002, |D|=313±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 and |E|=101±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 . From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied. From the observed band positions, the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) and the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) are evaluated. The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. -- Research Highlights: → EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are done at 77 K. → The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured. From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. → The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied and the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) as well as the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) is evaluated. → The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

  8. Socioeconomic Status Associated With Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Japan: NIPPON DATA2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Miyagawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although socioeconomic status (SES may affect food and nutrient intakes, few studies have reported on sodium (Na and potassium (K intakes among individuals with various SESs in Japan. We investigated associations of SES with Na and K intake levels using urinary specimens in a representative Japanese population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2,560 men and women (the NIPPON DATA2010 cohort who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan in 2010. Casual urine was used to calculate estimated excretion in 24-hour urinary Na (E24hr-Na and K (E24hr-K. The urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K ratio was calculated from casual urinary electrolyte values. An analysis of covariance was performed to investigate associations of aspects of SES, including equivalent household expenditure (EHE, educational attainment, and job category, with E24hr-Na, E24hr-K, and the Na/K ratio for men and women separately. A stratified analysis was performed on educational attainment and the job category for younger (<65 years and older (≥65 years participants. Results: In men and women, average E24hr-Na was 176.2 mmol/day and 172.3, average E24hr-K was 42.5 and 41.3, and the average Na/K ratio was 3.61 and 3.68, respectively. Lower EHE was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and lower E24hr-K in men and women. A shorter education was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and younger men, and lower E24hr-K in older men and women. Conclusion: Lower EHE and a shorter education were associated with a lower K intake and higher Na/K ratio estimated from casual urine specimens in Japanese men and women.

  9. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  10. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  11. Comparison of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmood; Iqbal, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and experimentally induced diabetic state in 24 rabbits using a validated reversed phase HPLC method with a washout period of one week.Biochemical and physiological parameters were measured in normal and diabetic rabbits. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC(0-oo), C(max), t(max) and other disposition kinetics were determined with non-compartmental procedure. A paired t-test for normal and alloxan treated rabbits revealed a significant decrease in packed cell volume and a significant increase in glucose, total lipids, total proteins, albumin and globulin were observed in diabetic (metabolically altered) rabbits. Plasma concentration of diclofenac (sodium) and diclofenac (potassium) decreased in diabetic condition. Significantly high concentration of diclofenac (potassium) was observed in normal and diabetic conditions as compared to diclofenac (sodium). The variation in bioavailability and disposition of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in diabetic state will require adjustment of the dosage regimen prescribed for diabetics in clinical setting.

  12. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J.I.; Mensink, M.R.; Siebelink, A.E.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low

  13. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  14. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  15. Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O'Reilly, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA 2 SO 4 demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC 50 for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils

  16. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  17. Solid-state sodium cells - An alternative to lithium cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Jacobsen, T.; Skaarup, S.

    1989-05-01

    The cycling properties of laboratory cells based on the insertion of sodium into vanadium oxides using polymer electrolyte at 80 C are reported. In the best system: Na/PEO, NaClO4/V2O5 (modified), C, high reversibility, and an energy density comparable with the Li/TiS2 system have been obtained.

  18. Lithium, rubidium and cesium ion removal using potassium iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) supported on polymethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana Taj; Din Muhammad; Ashraf Chaudhry, M.; Muhammad Mazhar

    2011-01-01

    Potassium iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) supported on poly methyl methacrylate, has been developed and investigated for the removal of lithium, rubidium and cesium ions. The material is capable of sorbing maximum quantities of these ions from 5.0, 2.5 and 4.5 M HNO 3 solutions respectively. Sorption studies, conducted individually for each metal ion, under optimized conditions, demonstrated that it was predominantly physisorption in the case of lithium ion while shifting to chemisorption with increasing ionic size. Distribution coefficient (K d ) values followed the order Cs + > Rb + > Li + at low concentrations of metal ions. Following these findings Cs + can preferably be removed from 1.5 to 5 M HNO 3 nuclear waste solutions. (author)

  19. Hydrogen substituted graphdiyne as carbon-rich flexible electrode for lithium and sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjiang; Wang, Ning; Cui, Zili; Du, Huiping; Fu, Lin; Huang, Changshui; Yang, Ze; Shen, Xiangyan; Yi, Yuanping; Tu, Zeyi; Li, Yuliang

    2017-10-27

    Organic electrodes are potential alternatives to current inorganic electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries powering portable and wearable electronics, in terms of their mechanical flexibility, function tunability and low cost. However, the low capacity, poor rate performance and rapid capacity degradation impede their practical application. Here, we concentrate on the molecular design for improved conductivity and capacity, and favorable bulk ion transport. Through an in situ cross-coupling reaction of triethynylbenzene on copper foil, the carbon-rich frame hydrogen substituted graphdiyne film is fabricated. The organic film can act as free-standing flexible electrode for both lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, and large reversible capacities of 1050 mAh g -1 for lithium ion batteries and 650 mAh g -1 for sodium ion batteries are achieved. The electrode also shows a superior rate and cycle performances owing to the extended π-conjugated system, and the hierarchical pore bulk with large surface area.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical sodium and lithium insertion properties of sodium titanium oxide with the tunnel type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunimitsu; Akimoto, Junji

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline sample of sodium titanium oxide Na2Ti4O9 with the tunnel-type structure was prepared by topotactic sodium extraction in air atmosphere from the as prepared Na3Ti4O9 sample. The starting Na3Ti4O9 compound was synthesized by solid state reaction at 1273 K in Ar atmosphere. The completeness of oxidation reaction from Na3Ti4O9 to Na2Ti4O9 was monitored by the change in color from dark blue to white, and was also confirmed by the Rietveld refinement using the powder X-ray diffraction data. The sodium deficient Na2Ti4O9 maintained the original Na2.08Ti4O9-type tunnel structure and had the monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/m, and the lattice parameters of a = 23.1698(3) Å, b = 2.9406(1) Å, c = 10.6038(2) Å, β = 102.422(3)°, and V = 705.57(2) Å3. The electrochemical measurements of thus obtained Na2Ti4O9 sample showed the reversible sodium insertion and extraction reactions at 1.1 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V vs. Na/Na+, and reversible lithium insertion and extraction reactions at around 1.4 V, 1.8 V, and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li+. The reversible capacity for the lithium cell was achieved to be 104 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle.

  1. Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effect of the nature of some alkaline activators in the microstructural development of thermal-alkali activated f/y ash systems. The alkaline compounds employed in this investigation were: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, sodium silicate and potassium silicate. Results confirm that the main reaction product of the activation process (throughout the studied systems is the amorphous alkaline aluminosilicate gel with a three-dimensional structure already observed in earlier research. It has been proved that the type of anion and cation involved in the activation reaction of the ashes not only affects the microstructural development of the systems but the Si/Al ratio of that prezeolitic gel too. For example, in the presence of soluble silicate ions the content of Si in the final structure is notably increased (Si/Al =2.7-3.0, however carbonate ions play a different role since the formation of Sodium or Potassium carbonate/bicarbonate acidifies the system and consequently the reaction rate is considerably slowed. Finally it is evident that; when all experimental conditions are equal, sodium has a greater capacity than potassium to accelerate the setting and hardening reactions of fly ash and also to stimulate the growth of certain zeolitic crystals (reaction by-products. In general it can be affirmed that OH- ion acts as a reaction catalyst; and the alkaline metal (M+ acts as a structure-forming element.Este trabajo muestra el efecto de la naturaleza del activador alcalino en el desarrollo microestructural de sistemas de ceniza volante, activados térmica y alcalinamente. Los componentes alcalinos empleados en esta investigación fueron: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, silicato sódico y silicato potásico. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el principal producto de reacción del proceso de activación (a través de los sistemas estudiados es un gel de aluminosilicato alcalino amorfo con estructura tridimensional ya observada en trabajos

  2. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  4. Ultra-light and flexible pencil-trace anode for high performance potassium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design of battery configurations and new battery system development are alternative approaches to achieve high performance batteries. A novel flexible and ultra-light graphite anode is fabricated by simple friction drawing on filter paper with a commercial 8B pencil. Compared with the traditional anode using copper foil as current collector, this innovative current-collector-free design presents capacity improvement of over 200% by reducing the inert weight of the electrode. The as-prepared pencil-trace electrode exhibits excellent rate performance in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs, significantly better than in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, with capacity retention of 66% for the KIB vs. 28% for the LIB from 0.1 to 0.5 A g−1. It also shows a high reversible capacity of ∼230 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1, 75% capacity retention over 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1and the highest rate performance (based on the total electrode weight among graphite electrodes for K+ storage reported so far. Keywords: Current-collector-free, Flexible pencil-trace electrode, Potassium-ion battery, Lithium-ion battery, Layer-by-layer interconnected architecture

  5. Growth and Characterization of Lithium Potassium Phthalate (LiKP) Single Crystals for Third Order Nonlinear Optical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, B.; Mohan, R. [Preidency College, Bangalore (India); Raj, S. Gokul [RR and Dr. SR Technical Univ., Avadi (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Anna Univ., Arni (India)

    2012-11-15

    Single crystals of lithium potassium phthalate (LiKP) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The lithium potassium phthalate C{sub 16} H{sub 12} K Li{sub 3} O{sub 11} belongs to triclinic system with the following unit-cell dimensions at 298(2) K; a = 7.405(5) A; b = 9.878(5) A; c = 13.396(5) A; α = 71.778(5) .deg.; β = 87.300(5) .deg.; γ = 85.405(5) .deg.; having a space group P1. Mass spectrometric analysis provides the molecular weight of the compound and possible ways of fragmentations occurs in the compound. Thermal stability of the crystal was also studied by both simultaneous TGA/DTA analyses. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows a good transparency in the whole of Visible and as well as in the near IR range. Third order nonlinear optical studies have also been studied by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refractive index were found out and the third order bulk susceptibility of compound was also estimated.

  6. Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties and kinetic parameters of lithium potassium borate glass co-doped with titanium and magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Ramli, A.T.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Saleh, M.A.; Abdul Kadir, A.B.; Saripan, M.I.; Alzimami, K.; Bradley, D.A.; Mhareb, M.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium potassium borate (LKB) glasses co-doped with TiO 2 and MgO were prepared using the melt quenching technique. The glasses were cut into transparent chips and exposed to gamma rays of 60 Co to study their thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The TL glow curve of the Ti-doped material featured a single prominent peak at 230 °C. Additional incorporation of MgO as a co-activator enhanced the TL intensity threefold. LKB:Ti,Mg is a low-Z material (Z eff =8.89) with slow signal fading. Its radiation sensitivity is 12 times lower that the sensitivity of TLD-100. The dose response is linear at doses up to 10 3 Gy. The trap parameters, such as the kinetics order, activation energy, and frequency factor, which are related to the glow peak, were determined using TolAnal software. - Highlights: • Lithium potassium borate glass doped with Ti and Mg was prepared. • The material is close to soft tissues in terms of Zeff. • The radiation sensitivity is about 12 times lower than that of TLD-100. • The signal fades about 8% in 10 days and 17% in 3 months

  7. Hydrides and deuterides of lithium and sodium. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, E.

    1990-01-01

    An interionic potential model is developed for lighter and heavier alkali hydrides and deuterides. The method uses a combination of theoretical techniques, empirical fit, and a few plausible assumptions. An assessment of the derived potentials is made by calculating the lattice statics and dynamics of the crystals and by comparing both with experiment (where available) and with other calculations. The potentials are found to describe the elastic and dielectric properties reasonably well. The phonon dispersion curves of hydride and deuteride of sodium are compared with the calculations of Dyck and Jex based on force constant model approach and the results are discussed. The need for further experiments on heavier hydrides and deuterides is stressed. (author)

  8. Expression of the Sodium/Calcium/Potassium Exchanger, NCKX4, in Ameloblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Smith, Charles E.; Smith, Susan M.; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Transcellular calcium transport is an essential activity in mineralized tissue formation, including dental hard tissues. In many organ systems, this activity is regulated by membrane-bound sodium/calcium (Na+/Ca2+) exchangers, which include the NCX and NCKX [sodium/calcium-potassium (Na+/Ca2+-K+ ) exchanger] proteins. During enamel maturation, when crystals expand in thickness, Ca2+ requirements vastly increase but exactly how Ca2+ traffics through ameloblasts remains uncertain. Previous studies have shown that several NCX proteins are expressed in ameloblasts, although no significant shifts in expression were observed during maturation which pointed to the possible identification of other Ca2+ membrane transporters. NCKX proteins are encoded by members of the solute carrier gene family, Slc24a, which include 6 different proteins (NCKX1–6). NCKX are bidirectional electrogenic transporters regulating Ca2+ transport in and out of cells dependent on the transmembrane ion gradient. In this study we show that all NCKX mRNAs are expressed in dental tissues. Real-time PCR indicates that of all the members of the NCKX group, NCKX4 is the most highly expressed gene transcript during the late stages of amelogenesis. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization analyses clearly establish that in the enamel organ, NCKX4 is expressed primarily by ameloblasts during the maturation stage. Further, during the mid-late maturation stages of amelogenesis, the expression of NCKX4 in ameloblasts is most prominent at the apical poles and at the lateral membranes proximal to the apical ends. These data suggest that NCKX4 might be an important regulator of Ca2+ transport during amelogenesis. PMID:22677781

  9. Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour urine collections in a white, black, and Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2016-11-01

    Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1964-01-01

    The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures. Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur in slow type striated muscle fibers: (a) a calcium deprivation type which develops maximally at full physiological concentration of external sodium, shows a flow rate dependency for the calcium-depriving fluid, and is lessened when the sodium concentration is decreased by replacement with sucrose; (b) a sodium deprivation type which occurs maximally without external sodium, is lessened by increasing the sodium concentration, and has no flow rate dependency for ion deprivation. Both types of contracture are largely prevented by the presence of sufficient calcium. There thus seem to be calcium- and sodium-linked processes at work in the ionic contracture coupling of slow striated muscle. PMID:14127603

  11. Phase transition characteristics and associated piezoelectricity of potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyu; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Hui

    2015-08-14

    To achieve high piezoelectric activity and a wide sintering temperature range, the ceramic system concerning (1 - x)(K(0.48)Na(0.52))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3)-x[Bi(0.5)(Na(0.7)Ag(0.3))(0.5)](0.90) Zn(0.10)ZrO(3) was designed, and the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can drive a high d(33). Phase transition characteristics as well as their effects on the electrical properties were investigated systematically. The R-T coexistence phase boundary (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) can be driven via modification with BNAZZ, and has been confirmed by XRD and temperature-dependent dielectric constants as well as Raman analysis, and the ceramics possess enhanced piezoelectric properties (d(33) ∼ 425 pC N(-1) and k(p) ∼ 0.43) and a high unipolar strain (∼0.3%). In addition, a wide sintering temperature range of 1050-1080 °C can warrant a large d(33) of 400-430 pC N(-1), which can benefit practical applications. As a result, the addition of BNAZZ is an effective method to improve the electrical properties (piezoelectricity and strain) and sintering behavior of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics.

  12. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  13. Thermodynamics of manganese oxides: Sodium, potassium, and calcium birnessite and cryptomelane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Manganese oxides with layer and tunnel structures occur widely in nature and inspire technological applications. Having variable compositions, these structures often are found as small particles (nanophases). This study explores, using experimental thermochemistry, the role of composition, oxidation state, structure, and surface energy in the their thermodynamic stability. The measured surface energies of cryptomelane, sodium birnessite, potassium birnessite and calcium birnessite are all significantly lower than those of binary manganese oxides (Mn3O4, Mn2O3, and MnO2), consistent with added stabilization of the layer and tunnel structures at the nanoscale. Surface energies generally decrease with decreasing average manganese oxidation state. A stabilizing enthalpy contribution arises from increasing counter-cation content. The formation of cryptomelane from birnessite in contact with aqueous solution is favored by the removal of ions from the layered phase. At large surface area, surface-energy differences make cryptomelane formation thermodynamically less favorable than birnessite formation. In contrast, at small to moderate surface areas, bulk thermodynamics and the energetics of the aqueous phase drive cryptomelane formation from birnessite, perhaps aided by oxidation-state differences. Transformation among birnessite phases of increasing surface area favors compositions with lower surface energy. These quantitative thermodynamic findings explain and support qualitative observations of phase-transformation patterns gathered from natural and synthetic manganese oxides. PMID:28130549

  14. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  15. Estimation of salivary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and urea in type II diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaiy, Masoumeh; Heidari, Fatemeh; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Dehghan, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease due to insufficiency production of insulin that is associated with altered quantity and quality in salivary secretion. Alteration in saliva can reflect the changes in patients' blood. The collection of saliva is easy therefore; the assessment of saliva is suitable for screening tests of large population. The study aimed at evaluate some elements in diabetic patients' saliva. A total of 25 diabetic patients and age-sex matched control group enrolled into the study. Absorbance spectrophotometer technique was used for assessment of some salivary elements. The assessment of saliva showed that diabetics had unstimulated salivary flow rate of 0.18 ± 0.14 mL/min compared to 0.30 ± 0.12 mL/min for healthy individuals (Pdiabetics compared to healthy group (Psalivary urea, potassium and phosphorus was significantly elevated in diabetic males compared to healthy males and the level of salivary calcium in diabetic females was significantly reduced compared to healthy females (Psalivary sodium of healthy and diabetic persons according to gender (P>0.05). The finding showed that there were some alterations in salivary elements in diabetic patients even in well-controlled subjects compared to healthy group. Moreover, some salivary elements concentrations were various in diabetic and healthy subjects regarding to the sex. Assessment of salivary composition could be beneficial in oral health evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  19. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäckle, Markus; Groß, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth

  20. Determination of calcium, copper, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1981-01-01

    The direct determinacao of calcium, copper, chomium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry with, air-acetylene flame is proposed. Effects of fuel/oxidant ratio, burner height and water content in the samples were investigated in detail. The method allows the determition of the elements with good precision (r.s.d. -1 for the elements tested. (author) [pt

  1. Selective complexometric determination of titanium(IV) using sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid as masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, N.V.; Bhat, N.G.; Narayana, B.; Nazareth, R.A.; Hegde, P.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate complexometric method is proposed for the determination of titanium(IV) where sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid were used as masking agents. In the presence of diverse metal ions, titanium is first complexed with excess of EDTA and surplus EDTA is then titrated at pH 5-6 with zinc sulfate, xylenol orange being used as indicator. An excess of 5 % aqueous sodium potassium tartrate is then added to displace the complexed EDTA from the Ti-EDTA complex quantitatively, which is titrated with zinc sulfate. Also, ascorbic acid may be used as the releasing agent. The methods work well in the range 1-53 mg of Ti(IV) for sodium potassium tartrate with relative errors ± 0.28 % and standard deviations 0.16 mg. For ascorbic acid the range is 1.00-30.00 mg of Ti(IV) with relative errors of ± 0.40 % and standard deviations of 0.05 mg. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Ohgami, Naoto; Yamashita, Hideyuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Keiko; Torii, Sayuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-05

    Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were -0.55 in the intervention group and -0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088); respective sodium excretion changes were -18.5 mmol/24 hours and -8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528); and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and -1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300). No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in "pure self-management" settings, indicating further needs to study an effective method to enhance the synergetic effect of dietary programs and self

  3. Effectiveness of a Self-monitoring Device for Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio on Dietary Improvement in Free-Living Adults: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Iwahori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. Methods: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan. All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups. Results: Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were −0.55 in the intervention group and −0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088; respective sodium excretion changes were −18.5 mmol/24 hours and −8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528; and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and −1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300. No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention. Conclusions: Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in “pure self-management” settings, indicating further needs to study an

  4. Influence of electron acceptor on lyoluminescence of irradiated lithium and sodium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrts, D.P.; Dzelme, Yu.R.; Malin'sh, A.A.; Gasyavichus, I.G.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of nitrate ions and the dissolution rate upon the stationary and non-stationary lyoluminescence has been studied for gamma-irradiated at 45 deg C and dose 10 4 Gy/h lithium and sodium fluorides when dissolving in a concentrated sulfuric acid under variuos disslution conditions. The lyoluminescence of both types is shown to depend on the acceptor concentration in the solvent and the dependence change is determined by reactions between chemically active defects at various depths of the crystal's surface layer affected by the solvent and the dissolution rate. The former reactions depend on the radiation defects' distibution in the crystal volume

  5. Behaviour of 29Si NMR and infrared spectra of aqueous sodium and potassium silica solutions as a function of (SiO2/M2+O) ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couty, R.; Fernandez, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium and potassium solutions of silica with silica concentration of 1,4 mo/kg and R ms = SiO 2 /M + 2 O ratios of 4.56 to 1.6 were obtained by depolymerization of amorphous silica gel in sodium and potassium hydroxide. Solutions have been characterized by 29 Si NMR and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that Na + and K + exhibit the same behaviour during the depolymerization of silica. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Alterations of sodium and potassium channels of RGCs in RCS rat with the development of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongshan; Song, Yanping; Yao, Junping; Weng, Chuanhuang; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2013-11-01

    All know that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary retinal degenerative diseases characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and associated with progressive cells loss; nevertheless, little is known about how rods and cones loss affects the surviving inner retinal neurons and networks. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) process and convey visual information from retina to visual centers in the brain. The healthy various ion channels determine the normal reception and projection of visual signals from RGCs. Previous work on the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, as a kind of classical RP animal model, indicated that, at late stages of retinal degeneration in RCS rat, RGCs were also morphologically and functionally affected. Here, retrograde labeling for RGCs with Fluorogold was performed to investigate the distribution, density, and morphological changes of RGCs during retinal degeneration. Then, patch clamp recording, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the channels of sodium and potassium properties of RGCs, so as to explore the molecular and proteinic basis for understanding the alterations of RGCs membrane properties and firing functions. We found that the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and capacitance of RGCs changed significantly at the late stage of retinal degeneration. Action potential could not be evoked in a part of RGCs. Inward sodium current and outward potassium current recording showed that sodium current was impaired severely but only slightly in potassium current. Expressions of sodium channel protein were impaired dramatically at the late stage of retinal degeneration. The results suggested that the density of RGCs decreased, process ramification impaired, and sodium ion channel proteins destructed, which led to the impairment of electrophysiological functions of RGCs and eventually resulted in the loss of visual function.

  7. Maintenance of serum potassium with sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) in heart failure patients : results from a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, Stefan D.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Zannad, Faiez; Pina, Ileana L.; McCullough, Peter A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; van der Meer, Peter; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rasmussen, Henrik S.; Lavin, Philip T.; Singh, Bhupinder; Yang, Alex; Deedwania, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    AimsHyperkalaemia in heart failure patients limits use of cardioprotective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) is a selective potassium ion trap, whose mechanism of action may allow for potassium binding in the upper gastrointestinal tract

  8. Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake is Not Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure in US Adults with No Prior History of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. We examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults 18 years of age or older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes and eGFR, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mmHg or >130/80 mmHg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (p=0.68 and p=0.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels. PMID:24720647

  9. Electromechanical properties of engineered lead free potassium sodium niobate based materials =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Asif

    vacancies whose concentration increases with Mn doping. Single crystals of potassium sodium niobate (KNN) were grown by a modified high temperature flux method. A boron-modified flux was used to obtain the crystals at a relatively low temperature. XRD, EDS and ICP analysis proved the chemical and crystallographic quality of the crystals. The grown KNN crystals exhibit higher dielectric permittivity (29,100) at the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition temperature, higher remnant polarization (19.4 ?C/cm2) and piezoelectric coefficient (160 pC/N) when compared with the standard KNN ceramics. KNN single crystals domain structure was characterized for the first time by piezoforce response microscopy. It could be observed that - oriented potassium sodium niobate (KNN) single crystals reveal a long range ordered domain pattern of parallel 180° domains with zig-zag 90° domains. From the comparison of KNN Single crystals to ceramics, It is argued that the presence in KNN single crystal (and absence in KNN ceramics) of such a long range order specific domain pattern that is its fingerprint accounts for the improved properties of single crystals. These results have broad implications for the expanded use of KNN materials, by establishing a relation between the domain patterns and the dielectric and ferroelectric response of single crystals and ceramics and by indicating ways of achieving maximised properties in KNN materials. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Composition-Driven Phase Boundary and Piezoelectricity in Potassium-Sodium Niobate-Based Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2015-09-16

    The piezoelectricity of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics strongly depends on the phase boundary types as well as the doped compositions. Here, we systematically studied the relationships between the compositions and phase boundary types in (K,Na) (Nb,Sb)O3-Bi0.5Na0.5AO3 (KNNS-BNA, A=Hf, Zr, Ti, Sn) ceramics; then their piezoelectricity can be readily modified. Their phase boundary types are determined by the doped elements. A rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can be driven in the compositions range of 0.035≤BNH≤0.040 and 0.035≤BNZ≤0.045; an orthorhombic-tetragonal (O-T) phase boundary is formed in the composition range of 0.005≤BNT≤0.02; and a pure O phase can be only observed regardless of BNS content (≤0.01). In addition, the phase boundary types strongly affect their corresponding piezoelectricities. A larger d33 (∼440-450 pC/N) and a higher d33* (∼742-834 pm/V) can be attained in KNNS-BNA (A=Zr and Hf) ceramics due to the involvement of R-T phase boundary, and unfortunately KNNS-BNA (A=Sn and Ti) ceramics possess a relatively poor piezoelectricity (d33≤200 and d33*piezoelectricity and phase boundary types were also discussed. We believe that comprehensive research can design more excellent ceramic systems concerning potassium-sodium niobate.

  11. Effects of magnesium on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and some of plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium acts as an essential cofactor for the activity of many enzymes. It regulates the work of cardiovascular system. The activity of sodium–lithium countertransport (SLC and the concentrations of plasma biochemical parameters such as VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine are changed in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium on SLC activity and some of the plasma biochemical parameters. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (weighed 1350 ± 50g were chosen for these experiments. This study was conducted through two in vitro and in vivo techniques. Through in vitro method, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on SLC activity were investigated. In order to conduct in vivo method, the rabbits were divided into two groups (5 /group. One group was treated by MgSo4 (40 mg/kg body weight through peritoneum for two weeks. For the second group, deionized water was used. The activity of SLC and mentioned biochemical parameters were determined. Results: The results of both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that magnesium can significantly decrease the SLC activity and also causes an increase in Km and decreased Vmax/Km of the system and plasma concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Magnesium may cause a reduction in blood pressure through decreasing the SLC activity and affecting the concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides and so improvement the cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Using quasi-elastic neutron diffraction to study positive electrode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries has recently been proposed as the alternative for lithium-ion batteries to be the low cost energy storage system. However, challenges still remains for the development of sodium-ion batteries. Optimization of electrode materials and electrolyte capable of insertion/extraction of sodium-ion in a safe and economic way under high current density is needed in order to produce commercially viable sodium-ion batteries. While possible positive electrode material is more prevalent than negative electrode material, many of these material still need further understanding. Quasi-elastic Neutron Scatteringis a technique that utilize the inelastic Neutron Scatteringthat can be used to study solid-state diffusion in materials. This technique can be used to study the diffusion of sodium-ion under electric field through the electrolyte and positive electrode materials in order to further understand the mechanism of sodium insertion/extraction in a working battery. This technique can also be used to study available positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries to further understand the mechanism of lithium-ion diffusion in current working lithiumion batteries.

  13. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  14. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  15. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  16. Lithium-sodium separation by ion-exchange. Particular study of a pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvert, H.

    1966-02-01

    A study is made of the operational conditions and constraints in the case of a moving-bed ion-exchange column subjected to pulses. The example chosen to illustrate its application concerns the lithium-sodium separation in a hydroxide medium (LiOH, NaOH). In the first part, the physico-chemical characteristics of the exchange and the kinetic characteristics of the exchange-reaction are considered. In the second part, the operation of the pulsed column is studied. Using the results obtained in the first part, the conditions required for study state operation are determined. When this is obtained, it is possible to calculate the height equivalent of the theoretical plate (HETP) of the installation. A study is also made of 'sliding', a phenomenon peculiar to pulsed columns. The results obtained show that it is possible, using laboratory tests, to determine the characteristics and the operational condition of a moving-bed ion-exchange column. (author) [fr

  17. Review on anionic redox for high-capacity lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chenglong; Lu, Yaxiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Qidi; Li, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries, are now widely used as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles, but material innovations are still needed to satisfy the increasing demand for larger energy density. Recently, lithium- and sodium-rich electrode materials, including the A 2 MO 3 -family layered compounds (A  =  Li, Na; M  =  Mn 4+ , Ru 4+ , etc), have been extensively studied as potential high-capacity electrode materials for a cumulative cationic and anionic redox activity. Negatively charged oxide ions can potentially donate electrons to compensate for the absence of oxidable transition metals as a redox center to further increase the reversible capacity. Understanding and controlling the state-of-the-art anionic redox processes is pivotal for the design of advanced energy materials, highlighted in rechargeable batteries. Hence, experimental and theoretical approaches have been developed to consecutively study the diverting processes, states, and structures involved. In this review, we attempt to present a literature overview and provide insight into the reaction mechanism with respect to the anionic redox processes, proposing some opinions as target oriented. It is hoped that, through this discussion, the search for anionic redox electrode materials with high-capacity rechargeable batteries can be advanced, and practical applications realized as soon as possible. (topical review)

  18. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  19. Association Between Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Blood Pressure Among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Terry, Ana L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Wright, Jacqueline; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Bowman, Barbara; Chen, Te-Ching; Merritt, Robert; Loria, Catherine M

    2018-01-16

    Higher levels of sodium and lower levels of potassium intake are associated with higher blood pressure. However, the shape and magnitude of these associations can vary by study participant characteristics or intake assessment method. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium are unaffected by recall errors and represent all sources of intake, and were collected for the first time in a nationally representative US survey. Our objective was to assess the associations of blood pressure and hypertension with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium among US adults. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 766 participants age 20 to 69 years with complete blood pressure and 24-hour urine collections in the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US noninstitutionalized population. Usual 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion (sodium, potassium, and their ratio) was estimated from ≤2 collections on nonconsecutive days, adjusting for day-to-day variability in excretion. Outcomes included systolic and diastolic blood pressure from the average of 3 measures and hypertension status, based on average blood pressure ≥140/90 and antihypertensive medication use. After multivariable adjustment, each 1000-mg difference in usual 24-hour sodium excretion was directly associated with systolic (4.58 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64-6.51) and diastolic (2.25 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.83-3.67) blood pressures. Each 1000-mg difference in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-3.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.01 to -1.42). Each 0.5 U difference in sodium-to-potassium ratio was directly associated with systolic blood pressure (1.72 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.76-2.68). Hypertension was linearly associated with progressively higher sodium and lower potassium excretion; in comparison with the lowest quartile of excretion, the adjusted odds of hypertension for the highest quartile was

  20. Effect of potassium ethylxanthate and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on the accumulation and disposition of nickel in the brown trout (salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottofrey, J.; Borg, K.; Jasim, S.; Tjaelve, H.

    1988-01-01

    Brown trouts, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 μg/1 of 63 Ni 2+ , alone or with potassium ethylxanthate or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. After one and three weeks the accumulation and disposition of the 63 Ni 2+ in the fish were examined by liquid scintillation spectrometry and whole-body autoradiography. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was found to greatly enhance the uptake of 63 Ni 2+ in several tissues of the trouts. Potassium ethylxanthate was without effect. Diethyldithiocarbamate is known to form lipophilic complexes with metals, including nickel, and a facilitated penetration of the complexed nickel over the cellular membranes of the gills and other tissues is a likely mechanism underlying our results. The ethylxanthate is also able to form a lipophilic nickel-chelate, although of a lower lipophilicity than the nickel-diethyldithiocarbamate-complex. This variance in lipophilicity may explain why the disposition of the 63 Ni 2+ was affected by the diethyldithiocarbamate, but not by the ethylxanthate. (author)

  1. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  2. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Wang Lili; Zhu Lanying; Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei

    2010-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h xy , h xxy , and h xyy ) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h xy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  3. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  4. The effect of sodium on the mineral balance of plants, using the example of root celery and stalk celery. Part I. The role of sodium and potassium in the process of accumulation and utilization of mineral elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Kruszelnicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1977 - 1980, studies were conducted on the effect of sodium used to supplement low (K = 800 mg/5 kg and high (K = 1400 mg/5 kg potassium doses on the content of mineral components, their accumulation in the yield and the percentage of their utilization. The study was carried out on root celery - Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum (Mill. and stalk celery - Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.. The results obtained in these experiments point to the following conclusions: it was found that potassium and sodium mutually limit each other's uptake. Sodium was more antagonistic towards the uptake of calcium than was potassium. However, no clearly antagonistic effect of these elements on the uptake of magnesium was determined. The accumulation of potassium and sodium by the experimental plants rose while the percentage of utilization of these elements decreased as their level in the nutrient medium increased. Sodium exerted a more distinct effect on the accumulation and utilization of other mineral elements than did potassium.

  5. Effect of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate on potassium lowering for 28 days among outpatients with hyperkalemia: the HARMONIZE randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiborod, Mikhail; Rasmussen, Henrik S; Lavin, Philip; Qunibi, Wajeh Y; Spinowitz, Bruce; Packham, David; Roger, Simon D; Yang, Alex; Lerma, Edgar; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-12-03

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality that may be difficult to manage because of a lack of effective therapies. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is a nonabsorbed cation exchanger that selectively binds potassium in the intestine. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of zirconium cyclosilicate for 28 days in patients with hyperkalemia. HARMONIZE was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating zirconium cyclosilicate in outpatients with hyperkalemia (serum potassium ≥5.1 mEq/L) recruited from 44 sites in the United States, Australia, and South Africa (March-August 2014). Patients (n = 258) received 10 g of zirconium cyclosilicate 3 times daily in the initial 48-hour open-label phase. Patients (n = 237) achieving normokalemia (3.5-5.0 mEq/L) were then randomized to receive zirconium cyclosilicate, 5 g (n = 45 patients), 10 g (n = 51), or 15 g (n = 56), or placebo (n = 85) daily for 28 days. The primary end point was mean serum potassium level in each zirconium cyclosilicate group vs placebo during days 8-29 of the randomized phase. In the open-label phase, serum potassium levels declined from 5.6 mEq/L at baseline to 4.5 mEq/L at 48 hours. Median time to normalization was 2.2 hours, with 84% of patients (95% CI, 79%-88%) achieving normokalemia by 24 hours and 98% (95% CI, 96%-99%) by 48 hours. In the randomized phase, serum potassium was significantly lower during days 8-29 with all 3 zirconium cyclosilicate doses vs placebo (4.8 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.6-4.9], 4.5 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.4-4.6], and 4.4 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.3-4.5] for 5 g, 10 g, and 15 g; 5.1 mEq/L [95% CI, 5.0-5.2] for placebo; P zirconium cyclosilicate groups vs placebo (36/45 [80%], 45/50 [90%], and 51/54 [94%] for the 5-g, 10-g, and 15-g groups, vs 38/82 [46%] with placebo; P zirconium cyclosilicate and placebo, although edema was more common in the 15-g group (edema incidence: 2/85 [2%], 1/45 [2%], 3/51 [6%], and 8/56 [14%] patients

  6. Hydrometallurgical recycling of lithium-ion batteries by reductive leaching with sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieceli, Nathália; Nogueira, Carlos A; Guimarães, Carlos; Pereira, Manuel F C; Durão, Fernando O; Margarido, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical extraction of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was investigated. LIBs were first dismantled and a fraction rich in the active material was obtained by physical separation, containing 95% of the initial electrode, 2% of the initial steel and 22% of plastic materials. Several reducers were tested to improve metals dissolution in the leaching step using sulphuric acid. Sodium metabisulphite led to the best results and was studied in more detail. The best concentration of Na 2 S 2 O 5 was 0.1 M. The metals dissolution increased with acid concentration, however, concentrations higher than 1.25 M are unnecessary. Best results were reached using a stirring speed of 400 min -1 . The metals leaching efficiency from the active material (Li, Mn, Ni, Co) increased with the temperature and was above 80% for temperatures higher than 60 °C. The dissolution of metals also rose with the increase in the liquid/solid ratio (L/S), however, extractions above 85% can be reached at L/S as lower as 4.5 L/kg, which is favourable for further purification and recovery operations. About 90% of metals extraction can be achieved after only 0.5 h of leaching. Sodium metabisulphite can be an alternative reducer to increase the leaching of Li, Mn, Co, and Ni from spent LIBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical performance of CuNCN for sodium ion batteries and comparison with ZnNCN and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia-Barrio, A.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Klein, F.; Pinedo, R.; Lezama, L.; Janek, J.; Adelhelm, P.; Rojo, T.

    2017-11-01

    Transition metal carbodiimides (TMNCN) undergo conversion reactions during electrochemical cycling in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Micron sized copper and zinc carbodiimide powders have been prepared as single phase as confirmed by PXRD and IR and their thermal stability has been studied in air and nitrogen atmosphere. CuNCN decomposes at ∼250 °C into CuO or Cu while ZnNCN can be stable until 400 °C and 800 °C in air and nitrogen respectively. Both carbodiimides were electrochemically analysed for sodium and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical Na+ insertion in CuNCN exhibits a relatively high reversible capacity (300 mAh·g-1) which still indicates an incomplete conversion reaction. This incomplete reaction confirmed by ex-situ EPR analysis, is partly due to kinetic limitations as evidenced in the rate capability experiments and in the constant potential measurements. On the other hand, ZnNCN shows incomplete conversion reaction but with good capacity retention and lower hysteresis as negative electrode for sodium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of these materials is comparable to that of other materials which operate through displacement reactions and is surprisingly better in sodium ion batteries in comparison with lithium ion batteries.

  8. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sodium and potassium salts of dichloroisocyanuric acid and their hydrates as antimicrobials agents studied by 35Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, A.; Brycki, B.; Kaczmarek, M.; Poleshchuk, O.Kh.; Ostafin, M.; Nogaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure of dichloroisocyanuric acid derivatives was analysed by 35 Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Here we concentrate our attention on three different factors: type of metallic substituent (sodium and potassium), temperature of the sample (liquid nitrogen and room) and degree of hydration (an amount of water molecules attached to analysed compounds). In particular, all the variations in 35 Cl-NQR frequencies upon hydration of salts containing sodium and potassium ions are explained as a consequence of H-bonds formation and accompanied effects of charge redistribution. Our studies can be useful in searching for the derivatives of dichloroisocyanuric acid revealing higher antimicrobial activity

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. C. Nomenclature and Properties of Calcium-Activated and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Aldrich, Richard W; Chandy, K George; Grissmer, Stephan; Wei, Aguan D; Wulff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    A subset of potassium channels is regulated primarily by changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of ions, including calcium, sodium, chloride, and protons. The eight members of this subfamily were originally all designated as calcium-activated channels. More recent studies have clarified the gating mechanisms for these channels and have documented that not all members are sensitive to calcium. This article describes the molecular relationships between these channels and provides an introduction to their functional properties. It also introduces a new nomenclature that differentiates between calcium- and sodium-activated potassium channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Calculation of thermodynamic properties of sodium and potassium vapors on the base of semiempirical state equation. Group integrals and virial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, T.D.; Semenov, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Statistically significant estimations of the second, third and fourth group integrals of sodium and potassium vapors were obtained in the framework of the initial atom method on the basis of semiempirical equation of state derived by the authors. Possibility is duscussed of estimating dimer, trimer and tetramer concentrations from these data with account of unideality of vapors. High rate of convergence of density and pressure group expansion is demonstrated. Virial coefficients were calculated. It is shown that virial expansions of thermodynamic functions diverge at elevated densities of the gases under study. The estimations of senior virial coefficients of sodium and potassium vapors available in literature were proved to be faulty

  12. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  13. Separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ammon n.; Pack, Michael [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States); Phongikaroon, Spathorn [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl) and strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}) from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8-5 mm/h) and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl{sub 2} separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  14. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites

  15. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of a bilayer tablet comprising of diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Jabbar; Bashir, Sajid; Samie, Muhammad; Laghari, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Diclofenac a phenylacetic acid derivative has long been used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug to treat certain conditions however its sustained release formulation with immediate release loading dose is desirable. The rationale of the current work was to develop and evaluate bilayer tablets with diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core. The diclofenac sodium core was prepared by wet granulation method while the...

  17. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  18. Dietary sodium and potassium intake were associated with hypertension, kidney damage and adverse perinatal outcome in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Türkmen, Gülenay Gençosmanoğlu; Kara, Özgür; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that dietary salt and potassium intake may be related with blood pressure, kidney damage and perinatal outcome in pregnants with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 200 women (50 control women with healthy pregnancy, 150 women with PE) were recruited for the study. Daily salt and potassium intake was estimated based on calculation of 24-hour urinary sodium U[Na+] and potassium U[K+] excretion. U[Na+]/[K+] was calculated by dividing U[Na+] by U[K+]. At the end of the measurements, the pregnant women with PE (n=150) were divided into tertiles according to U[Na+]/[K+]: low Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 1,04±0,32), medium Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 2,49± 0,54), high Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 6,62±3,41). The mean SBP and DBP levels were significantly lower in low Na/K group compared with medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.024, p=0.0002; respectively). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in low Na/K group than high Na/K group (p=0.025). Frequency of severe preeclampsia is lower in low Na/K group than medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.002, p=0.0001; respectively). Birth weight and gestational age at birth were higher in low Na/K group compared with high Na/K group (p=0.045, p=0.0002; respectively). After adjusting for covariates, SBP and DBP and creatinine levels were independently associated with 24 hours urinary [Na+]/[K+] Conclusion: These findings suggest that pregnant with PE with high dietary salt and low potassium intake may have greater maternal and neonatal morbidity risk than pregnant with PE under low dietary salt and high potassium intake.

  19. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; Pblood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Three-Dimensional SnS Decorated Carbon Nano-Networks as Anode Materials for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g−1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g−1, the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles. The initial charge capacity for sodium ion batteries can reach 333 mAh·g−1, and it retains a reversible capacity of 186 mAh·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. The good lithium or sodium storage performances are likely attributed to the synergistic effects of the conductive carbon nano-networks and small SnS nanoparticles.

  1. PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ENHANCEMENT OF RARE-EARTH DOPED-POTASSIUM SODIUM NIOBATE (KNN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Mat Harttat Maziati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline niobate mainly potassium sodium niobate, (KxNa1-x NbO3 (abreviated as KNN has long attracted attention as piezoelectric materials as its high Curie temperature (Tc and piezoelectric properties. The volatility of alkaline element (K, Na is, however detrimental to the stoichiometry of KNN, contributing to the failure to achieve high-density structure and lead to the formation of intrinsic defects. By partially doping of several rare-earth elements, the inherent defects could be improved significantly. Therefore, considerable attempts have been made to develop doped-KNN based ceramic materials with high electrical properties. In this paper, these research activities are reviewed, including dopants type and doping role in KNN perovskite structure.

  2. Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-x precursors from a fused eutectic of sodium and potassium hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.; Nichols, D.H.; Schwegler, J.W.; Crow, J.E.; Myer, G.H.; Salamon, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for preparing YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x from the simultaneous thermal decomposition of the nitrates of yttrium, barium, and copper in an anhydrous fused eutectic of sodium and potassium hydroxide is described. This method eliminates the need for any mechanical grinding or the introduction of carbon containing anions. Products formed are fine powders (∼1 μm) having mole ratios 1.00 Y:2.00 Ba:3.06 Cu. X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that the initial products are Y(OH) 3 , BaO 2 , and CuO, which when air calcinated/ oxygen annealed at 900--950 degree C form the superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . A mechanism is postulated for product formation as a function of reaction conditions

  3. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  4. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  5. High temperature aqueous potassium and sodium phosphate solutions: two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena, 275-4000C; potential applications for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400 0 C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO 4 or Na/PO 4 , were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360 0 C for the potassium system and 279 0 C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360 0 C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs

  6. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  7. The Impact of Additives on the Phosphorus, Potassium, and Sodium Content of Commonly Consumed Meat, Poultry, and Fish Products Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; L'Abbé, Mary; Goldstein, Marc; Arcand, Joanne; Magnuson, Bernadene; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are advised to limit their dietary intake of phosphorus and potassium as hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia are both associated with an increased risk of mortality. There is uncertainty concerning the actual content of these minerals in the Canadian food supply, as phosphorus and potassium are increasingly being used as food additives. This study aimed to determine the impact of food additives on the chemically analyzed content of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and protein in commonly consumed meat, poultry, and fish products (MPFs). Foods representing commonly consumed MPF identified by a food frequency questionnaire in dialysis patients were purchased from three major grocery store chains in Canada. MPF with and without phosphorus and potassium additives listed on their ingredient list (n = 76) as well as reference MPF that was additive free (n = 15) were chemically analyzed for phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and protein content according to Association of Analytical Community official methods. Phosphorus, potassium, and sodium additives were present on the ingredient list in 37%, 9%, and 72% of MPF, respectively. Among MPF categories that contained a phosphorus additive, phosphorus content was significantly (P additives versus MPF without phosphorus additives and MPF reference foods (median [min, max]): (270 [140, 500] mg/100 g) versus (200 [130, 510] mg/100 g) versus (210 [100, 260] mg/100 g), respectively. Among MPF categories containing a potassium additive, foods listing a potassium additive had significantly more (P foods that did not list potassium additives and reference foods (900 [750, 1100] mg/100 g) versus (325 [260, 470] mg/100 g) versus (420 [270, 450] mg/100 g). The use of additives in packaged MPF products as indicated by the ingredient list can significantly contribute to the dietary phosphorus and potassium loads in patients with CKD. Patients with CKD should be educated to avoid MPF foods

  8. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  9. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  10. Recent advances on Fe- and Mn-based cathode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Lin, Tongen; Manning, Eric; Zhang, Yuancheng; Yu, Mengmeng; Zuo, Bin; Wang, Lianzhou

    2018-06-01

    The ever-growing market of electrochemical energy storage impels the advances on cost-effective and environmentally friendly battery chemistries. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the most critical energy storage devices for a variety of applications, while sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are expected to complement LIBs in large-scale applications. In respect to their constituent components, the cathode part is the most significant sector regarding weight fraction and cost. Therefore, the development of cathode materials based on Earth's abundant elements (Fe and Mn) largely determines the prospects of the batteries. Herein, we offer a comprehensive review of the up-to-date advances on Fe- and Mn-based cathode materials for LIBs and SIBs, highlighting some promising candidates, such as Li- and Mn-rich layered oxides, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiFe1-xMnxPO4, NaxFeyMn1-yO2, Na4MnFe2(PO4)(P2O7), and Prussian blue analogs. Also, challenges and prospects are discussed to direct the possible development of cost-effective and high-performance cathode materials for future rechargeable batteries.

  11. New airtight transfer box for SEM experiments: Application to lithium and sodium metals observation and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Nicolas; Grissa, Rabeb; Guillou, Fanch; Bretaudeau, Mickaël; Borjon-Piron, Yann; Guillet, Jacques; Moreau, Philippe

    2018-04-18

    The surface of some materials reacts very quickly on contact with air, either because it is oxidized or because it gets humidity from the air. For the sake of original surface observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we conceived an airtight transfer box to keep the samples under vacuum from the place of manufacturing to the SEM chamber. This object is designed to fit in all the models of SEM including those provided with an airlock chamber. The design is voluntarily simplified to allow the manufacturing of the object by a standard mechanical workshop. The transfer box can be easily opened by gravity inside the SEM and allows the preservation of the best vacuum inside, before opening. SEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses of metallic lithium and sodium samples are presented prior and after exposure to the air. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of all samples are also discussed in order to investigate the chemical environments of the detected elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  13. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M x (SCN)x + 1 - , doubly charged M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (M = Na, K), and triply charged K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M x (SCN)x + 1 - (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M x (SCN)x + 1 - with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters were found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures, those multiply charged

  14. Comparison of the virucidal efficacy of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulphate and sodium hypochlorite on bacteriophages P001 and MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T; Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2015-09-01

    The phagicidal activity of peroxy products against the virulent bacteriophage P001 infecting lactic acid bacteria and bacteriophage MS2 used as a surrogate of enteric viruses (EVs) was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite using the EN 13610 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratories. Infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference P001 phage of Lactoccocus lactis and F-specific RNA phage MS2 of Escherichia coli in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of sodium hypochlorite were phagicidal against both bacteriophages, either at 0·05-0·125% of active chlorine using the suspension test or at 0·12-0·5% using the surface test. For Potassium monopersulphate (MPS), phagicidal concentrations varied from 0·006 to 0·012% whatever the type of test and phages. However, for peracetic acid products (PAP) used in suspension, concentrations 55 times higher were necessary against MS2 (0·271%) than against P001 (0·005%). With the surface test, 0·089-0·178% concentrations of PAP were effective against MS2, but these concentrations were 16-32 times greater than needed against P001. Sodium hypochlorite and MPS had similar phagicidal activities against P001 and MS2, but PAP did not. This is the first comparative study to investigate through suspension and surface tests the difference in resistance to peroxy compounds between a reference bacteriophage (P001) used to evaluate phagicidal concentrations in European standards and a surrogate of EVs (MS2). Results underline the importance of validation tests on pertinent surrogates of viruses or bacteriophages to adjust the concentration of disinfectants for use in the food and water industries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms of uranium species in molten lithium molybdate-sodium molybdate eutectic at 550 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Fukushima, M.; Myochin, M.; Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Yamana, H.; Sato, N.

    2011-01-01

    Absorption spectra of uranium species dissolved in molten lithium molybdate.sodium molybdate eutectic of 0.51Li 2 MoO 4 -0.49Na 2 MoO 4 mixture at 550 C were measured by UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry, and their redox reactions were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. We found that the major ions of uranium species dissolved in the melt were uranyl penta-valent. After purging dry oxygen gas into the melt, pentavalent species were oxidized to the uranyl hexa-valent. In the cyclic voltammetry of the melt without uranium species, it was confirmed that the lithium-sodium molybdenum oxide compounds were deposited on the working electrode at the negative potential and the lithium molybdenum oxide compounds were deposited on the counter electrode at positive potential. When UO 2 was dissolved into the melt, the reductive reaction of the uranium species was observed at the reductive potential of the pure melt. This suggests that the uranium species dissolved in the melts could be recovered as mixed uranium-molybdenum oxides by electrolysis. (orig.)

  17. Carbon Quantum Dot Surface-Engineered VO2 Interwoven Nanowires: A Flexible Cathode Material for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Yang; Lyu, Feiyi; Wang, Fuxin; Yang, Hao; Li, Haibo; Liang, Chaolun; Huang, Miao; Huang, Yongchao; Tong, Yexiang

    2016-04-20

    The use of electrode materials in their powdery form requires binders and conductive additives for the fabrication of the cells, which leads to unsatisfactory energy storage performance. Recently, a new strategy to design flexible, binder-, and additive-free three-dimensional electrodes with nanoscale surface engineering has been exploited in boosting the storage performance of electrode materials. In this paper, we design a new type of free-standing carbon quantum dot coated VO2 interwoven nanowires through a simple fabrication process and demonstrate its potential to be used as cathode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries. The versatile carbon quantum dots that are vastly flexible for surface engineering serve the function of protecting the nanowire surface and play an important role in the diffusion of electrons. Also, the three-dimensional carbon cloth coated with VO2 interwoven nanowires assisted in the diffusion of ions through the inner and the outer surface. With this unique architecture, the carbon quantum dot nanosurface engineered VO2 electrode exhibited capacities of 420 and 328 mAh g(-1) at current density rate of 0.3 C for lithium and sodium storage, respectively. This work serves as a milestone for the potential replacement of lithium ion batteries and next generation postbatteries.

  18. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g -1 , which is about three times of 372 mA h g -1 , the value expected for the LiC 6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  19. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  20. The investigation of lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine as clinical EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelie, S.; Hole, E.O.; Duchateau, M.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.; Verellen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: EPR-dosimetry using L-α-alanine is an established method for measuring high doses of ionizing radiation. However, since a minimum dose of approximately 4 Gy is required to achieve sufficient low uncertainties (1–2%) for clinical application, alternative dosimeter materials are being inquired. Lithium formate (LiFo) monohydrate has been studied by several groups and has revealed several promising properties in the low dose region (<4 Gy). The fading properties, however, are somewhat unpredictable, and depend on properties not yet fully uncovered. This paper reports the results from a study of lithium formate hydrate and N-methyl taurine as potential low dose EPR dosimeters. Methods and materials: Pellet shaped dosimeters of lithium formate monohydrate, lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine were produced using a manual Weber press, L-α-alanine was obtained from Harwell dosimeters and irradiated using 60 kV and 6 MV X-ray beams, and Co-60 gamma-rays to a dose of 30 Gy and dose ranges of 0.5–100 Gy and 2–20 Gy respectively. The dosimeters were measured using an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)-spectrometer. The detector responses for 6 MV and Co-60 radiation beams, the fading behaviors and signal shape in time were investigated. Results: Lithium formate monohydrate and lithium formate hydrate are apparently associated with near identical EPR-spectra (mainly one broad line), and the same spectrum arises for all radiation energies investigated. The shape of the EPR resonance remains constant with time, but the intensities decreases, and the fading is more prominent for the monohydrate than for the hydrate. The EPR resonance associated with N-methyl taurine is more complex than the resonance associated with LiFo and it changes with time, implying radical transitions and growth. Conclusions: The study showed that lithium formate hydrate is a strong candidate for EPR dosimetry with slightly better fading characteristics

  1. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancsak, Stacia E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Donati, George L., E-mail: georgedonati@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg{sup −1}. •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg{sup −1} for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg{sup −1} for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg{sup −1} for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated

  2. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancsak, Stacia E.; Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Donati, George L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg −1 . •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg −1 for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg −1 for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg −1 for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated. Powers of detection are

  3. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun, E-mail: lijuna@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Yang [Department of chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Zhongxiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Multifunctional Electronic Materials and Device Research Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  4. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  5. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  6. [Bis(TrimethylsilylMethyl]Lithium and -Sodium: Solubility in Alkanes and Complexes with O- and N- Donor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus von Pilgrim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to alkyl compounds of lithium, which play an important role in organometallic chemistry, the corresponding heavier alkali metal compounds are less investigated. These compounds are mostly insoluble in inert solvents or undergo solvolysis in coordinating solvents due to their high reactivity. An exception from this typical behavior is demonstrated by bis(trimethylsilylmethylsodium. This study examines alkane solutions of bis(trimethylsilylmethyllithium and -sodium by NMR spectroscopic and cryoscopic methods. In addition, structural studies by X-ray crystallography of the corresponding compounds coordinated by O- and N- ligands (tetrahydrofuran and tetramethylethylenediamine present possible structural motifs of the uncoordinated compounds in solution.

  7. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated β-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated β-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included. (author)

  8. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated. beta. -diketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated ..beta..-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated ..beta..-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included.

  9. TWIK-1 two-pore domain potassium channels change ion selectivity and conduct inward leak sodium currents in hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Zhang, Xuexin; Chen, Haijun

    2011-06-07

    Background potassium (K+) channels, which are normally selectively permeable to K+, maintain the cardiac resting membrane potential at around -80 mV. In subphysiological extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o), which occur in pathological hypokalemia, the resting membrane potential of human cardiomyocytes can depolarize to around -50 mV, whereas rat and mouse cardiomyocytes become hyperpolarized, consistent with the Nernst equation for K+. This paradoxical depolarization of cardiomyocytes in subphysiological [K+]o, which may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias, is thought to involve an inward leak sodium (Na+) current. Here, we show that human cardiac TWIK-1 (also known as K2P1) two-pore domain K+ channels change ion selectivity, becoming permeable to external Na+, and conduct inward leak Na+ currents in subphysiological [K+]o. A specific threonine residue (Thr118) within the pore selectivity sequence TxGYG was required for this altered ion selectivity. Mouse cardiomyocyte-derived HL-1 cells exhibited paradoxical depolarization with ectopic expression of TWIK-1 channels, whereas TWIK-1 knockdown in human spherical primary cardiac myocytes eliminated paradoxical depolarization. These findings indicate that ion selectivity of TWIK-1 K+ channels changes during pathological hypokalemia, elucidate a molecular basis for inward leak Na+ currents that could trigger or contribute to cardiac paradoxical depolarization in lowered [K+]o, and identify a mechanism for regulating cardiac excitability.

  10. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  11. Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by pyrolysis of seeds mango in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities. Seeds mango from Colombian Mango cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and KOH following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 3:1 (weight terms. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating to 823 K with 1 h soaking time. The porous texture of the obtained ACs was characterized by physical adsorptions of N2 at 77 K and CO2 at 273 K. The impregnation ration and hydroxide type had a strong influence on the pore structure of these ACs, which could be easily controlled by simply varying the proportion of the hydroxides used in the activation. Thus, the development of porosity for precursors with low structural order (high reactivity is better with NaOH than KOH, whereas the opposite is observed for the highly ordered ones. Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. In general, KOH produces activated carbons with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH.

  12. Exploring the potential of phyllosilicate minerals as potassium fertilizers using sodium tetraphenylboron and intensive cropping with perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Huoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Zijun; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    In response to addressing potassium (K) deficiency in soil and decreasing agricultural production costs, the potential of K-bearing phyllosilicate minerals that can be directly used as an alternative K source has been investigated using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) extraction and an intensive cropping experiment. The results showed that the critical value of K-release rate and leaf K concentration was 3.30 g kg−1 h−1 and 30.64 g (kg dry matter)−1, respectively under the experimental conditions. According to this critical value, the maximum amount of released K that could be utilized by a plant with no K deficiency symptoms was from biotite (27.80 g kg−1) and vermiculite (5.58 g kg−1), followed by illite, smectite and muscovite with 2.76, 0.88 and 0.49 g kg−1, respectively. Ryegrass grown on phlogopite showed K deficiency symptoms during the overall growth period. It is concluded that biotite and vermiculite can be directly applied as a promising and sustainable alternative to the use of classical K fertilizers, illite can be utilized in combination with soluble K fertilizers, whereas muscovite, phlogopite and smectite may not be suitable for plant growth. Further field experiments are needed to assess the use of these phyllosilicate minerals as sources of K fertilizer. PMID:25782771

  13. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  14. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihuai; Ye, Bin; Shen, Jiaowen; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Lijun; Zhu, Luping; Ma, Teng; Yang, Dongya; Qiu, Fengxian

    2013-06-01

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia and microwave assisted transesterification of soybean oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. It was found that the catalyst of 2.0(n(Na)/n(Zr)) and calcined at 600°C showed the optimum activity. The base strength of the catalysts was tested by the Hammett indicator method, and the results showed that the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was related to their total basicity. The catalyst was also characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD and TEM. The experimental results showed that a 2.0:1 volume ratio of methanol to oil, 65°C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time and 10 wt.% catalyst amount gave the highest the yield of biodiesel. Compared to conventional method, the reaction time of the way of microwave assisted transesterification was shorter. The catalyst had longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  16. Synthesis of potassium sodium niobate nanostructures by hydrothermal combining with the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xianghe; Wang, Wen, E-mail: wangwen@hit.edu.cn; Ke, Hua; Rao, Jiancun; Zhou, Yu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We prepared novel metastable perovskite K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} microstructures with a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal via hydrothermal method with SDS surfactant-assist. - Highlights: • KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}NbO{sub 3} nanowires were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Metastable K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} microfingers have a morphotropic phase boundary. • Sodium dodecyl sulfate could improve the crystallinity of K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} powders. • The Curie temperature of rhombohedral-tetragonal KNN was 555 °C. - Abstract: In this paper the K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}NbO{sub 3}(KNN) nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using KNN gel powders as precursors. KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic KNN nanowires and perovskite KNN microfingers with a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were obtained at 190 °C and 220 °C, respectively. KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic KNN nanowires had rectangular shape and the growth direction of these nanowires was [0 0 1]. The rhombohedral-tetragonal KNN microfingers were metastable, and changed the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase into the orthorhombic phase via thermal treatment at 600 °C then cooled down to room temperature. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant was added to the hydrothermal reaction. It was found that SDS could improve the crystallinity of the rhombohedral-tetragonal K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} and reduce the impurity effectively. The tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature (Tc) of the rhombohedral-tetragonal powders appeared at 555 °C.

  17. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  18. [Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

    2008-11-01

    Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

  19. A CLOUDINESS INDEX FOR TRANSITING EXOPLANETS BASED ON THE SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LINES: TENTATIVE EVIDENCE FOR HOTTER ATMOSPHERES BEING LESS CLOUDY AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-07-20

    We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke and Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of seven hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloud-free at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have fewer clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ∼10{sup 2} cm{sup −3} for WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

  20. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  1. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...... to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2)....

  2. Accumulation and localization of sodium and potassium ions in maize plants on saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kabuzenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is studying the accumulation and distribution of Na+ and K+ in maize hybrids of different salt tolerance under conditions of the chloride salinity. The new corn hybrid Veselka MV (salt-tolerant and Odessa 375 MB (not salt-tolerant were studied. The plants grown in salt-free chernozem soil are control. In the experiment, sodium chloride was dissolved in the irrigation water to form the salinity of test soils up to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0% of ovendry weight. Soil moisture in the pots was maintained at 60% of the full field water capacity, the air temperature was +25…+27 °C, and the light – 10 klux. Plant samples were dried in the oven under 70 °C. Then, the average sample of 10 specimens was thoroughly levigated in the porcelain pounder  and dispersed in distilled water at 100 °C. The ions were extracted, and the extracts were centrifuged for 20 min at 3000 rpm. The ions content in the cell sap was analysed. Plant samples (1 g were incubated 10 min in chloroform, dried carefully with filter paper, and then the cell sap was squeezed. 1 ml of clear top layer of the cell sap was dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water. Ions content was determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer ("Karl Zeiss", Germany. Salt-tolerant maize hybrid Veselka MW (14 days age is characterized by an increased content of Na+ in the root tissues in comparison with the above-ground parts. In Odessa 375 MB hybrid this regularity is less pronounced. With the increase of sodium chloride concentration in the soil the content of Na+ in the aerial parts of plants rises. That may be connected with the reduced role of a root barrier. The salt-tolerant hybrid has a higher content of Na+ in the roots as compared to the above-ground parts. The content of K+ was higher in the above-ground parts, which is more pronounced in the salt-tolerant hybrid Veselka MB. The decrease of K+ in cell sap of the root under saline conditions was

  3. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  4. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a chemical additive based on sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Limin; Smith, Megan L; Benjamim da Silva, Erica; Windle, Michelle C; da Silva, Thiago C; Polukis, Stephanie A

    2018-04-11

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments. Treatments with all of the additives had numerically, but not statistically, fewer yeasts compared with untreated silage. Both application rates of SSL resulted in lower concentrations of ethanol compared with untreated and BPA silages. Treatment with BPA improved the aerobic stability of silages compared with untreated silage, but the effect from SSL was markedly greater. In experiment 2, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 or 3 L of SSL/t or a microbial inoculant containing Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072, and Lactobacillus buchneri LN1819 (final total lactic acid bacteria application rate of 150,000 cfu/g of fresh forage). Silages were air stressed for 24 h at 28 and 42 d of storage and ensiled for 49 d before opening. Inoculation had no effect on acid end products, ethanol, number of yeasts, or aerobic stability compared with other treatments. Treatment with SSL decreased the amount of ethanol, had no effect on number of yeasts, and improved aerobic stability in a dose-dependent manner compared with other treatments. In experiment 3, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 L of SSL/t and ensiled for 5, 15, and 30 d. Treatment with SSL resulted in silage with fewer yeasts and lower concentrations of ethanol after all times of ensiling compared with untreated silage. In addition, SSL improved aerobic stability after each period of ensiling, but the effect was more at 15 and 30 d

  5. Towards a Unified Understanding of Lithium Action in Basic Biology and its Significance for Applied Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Eric; Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Chiu, See-Wing; Fazal, Zeeshan; Kruczek, James; Nunez-Corrales, Santiago; Pandit, Sagar; Pritchet, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic. There is no consensus regarding optimum levels of lithium intake for populations or individuals-with the single exception that lithium is a generally accepted first-line therapy for bipolar disorder, and specific dosage guidelines for sufferers of that condition are generally agreed on. Epidemiological evidence correlating various markers of social dysfunction and disease vs. lithium level in drinking water suggest benefits of moderately elevated lithium compared to average levels of lithium intake. In contrast to other biologically significant ions, lithium is unusual in not having its concentration in fluids of multicellular animals closely regulated. For hydrogen ions, sodium ions, potassium ions, calcium ions, chloride ions, and magnesium ions, blood and extracellular fluid concentrations are closely and necessarily regulated by systems of highly selective channels, and primary and secondary active transporters. Lithium, while having strong biological activity, is tolerated over body fluid concentrations ranging over many orders of magnitude. The lack of biological regulation of lithium appears due to lack of lithium-specific binding sites and selectivity filters. Rather lithium exerts its myriad physiological and biochemical effects by competing for macromolecular sites that are relatively specific for other cations, most especially for sodium and magnesium. This review will consider what is known

  6. Adsorption and Diffusion of Lithium and Sodium on Defective Rhenium Disulfide: A First Principles Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sankha; Banwait, Avinav; Grixti, Sean; Koratkar, Nikhil; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2018-02-14

    Single-layer rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) is a unique material with distinctive, anisotropic electronic, mechanical, and optical properties and has the potential to be used as an anode in alkali-metal-ion batteries. In this work, first principles calculations were performed to systematically evaluate the potential of monolayer pristine and defective ReS 2 as anodes in lithium (Li)- and sodium (Na)-ion batteries. Our calculations suggest that there are several potential adsorption sites for Li and Na on pristine ReS 2 , owing to its low-symmetry structure. Additionally, the adsorption of Li and Na over pristine ReS 2 is very strong with adsorption energies of -2.28 and -1.71 eV, respectively. Interestingly, the presence of point defects causes significantly stronger binding of the alkali-metal atoms with adsorption energies in the range -2.98 to -3.17 eV for Li and -2.66 to -2.92 eV for Na. Re single vacancy was found to be the strongest binding defect for Li adsorption, whereas S single vacancy was found to be the strongest for Na. The diffusion of these two alkali atoms over pristine ReS 2 is anisotropic, with an energy barrier of 0.33 eV for Li and 0.16 eV for Na. The energy barriers associated with escaping a double vacancy and single vacancy for Li atoms are significantly large at 0.60 eV for the double-vacancy case and 0.51 eV for the single-vacancy case. Similarly, for Na, they are 0.59 and 0.47 eV, respectively, which indicates slower migration and sluggish charging/discharging. However, the diffusion energy barrier over a Re single vacancy is found to be merely 0.42 eV for a Li atom and 0.28 eV for Na. Overall, S single and double vacancies can reduce the diffusion rate by 10 3 -10 5 times for Li and Na ions, respectively. These results suggest that monolayer ReS 2 with a Re single vacancy adsorbs Li and Na stronger than pristine ReS 2 , with negligible negotiation with the charging/discharging rate of the battery, and therefore they can be used as an anode

  7. Effect of lithium and sodium salt on the performance of Nb2O5/rGO nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sultan; Rafat, M.

    2018-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of Nb2O5/rGO composite using hydrothermal method and thermal annealing process. The prepared composite was found to have suitable characteristics necessary to be used as electrode material in supercapacitors. These characteristics were ascertained employing the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Further, the electrochemical performance of the prepared composite was compared in two different organic electrolytes, of lithium and sodium salt using the techniques of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements. The organic electrolyte solutions were prepared by dispersing 1 M LiClO4/NaClO4 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (1:1 by volume). The observed results indicate that the composite of Nb2O5/rGO offers higher value of specific capacitance in sodium salt electrolyte and higher cyclic stability in lithium salt electrolyte. This is probably due to ion properties of electrolyte. Specific capacitance is observed according to efficient ion/charge diffusion/exchange and relaxation time (Li+ Li+). Thus, the present study reveals the significant effect of electrolyte ions on electrochemical performance of Nb2O5/rGO composite.

  8. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...... and all other parameters of glomerular filtration and renal sodium handling remained normal throughout the study (with the exception of a fall in fractional sodium excretion after the first treatment series). Plasma magnesium declined during all four treatment periods, signifying renal magnesium wasting....

  9. Analysis of bias in measurements of potassium, sodium and hemoglobin by an emergency department-based blood gas analyzer relative to hospital laboratory autoanalyzer results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The emergency departments (EDs of Chinese hospitals are gradually being equipped with blood gas machines. These machines, along with the measurement of biochemical markers by the hospital laboratory, facilitate the care of patients with severe conditions who present to the ED. However, discrepancies have been noted between the Arterial Blood Gas (ABG analyzers in the ED and the hospital laboratory autoanalyzer in relation to electrolyte and hemoglobin measurements. The present study was performed to determine whether the ABG and laboratory measurements of potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels are equivalent, and whether ABG analyzer results can be used to guide clinical care before the laboratory results become available.Study power analyses revealed that 200 consecutive patients who presented to our ED would allow this prospective single-center cohort study to detect significant differences between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels. Paired arterial and venous blood samples were collected within 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were measured in the ED by an ABL 90 FLEX blood gas analyzer. The biochemistry and blood cell counts of the venous samples were measured in the hospital laboratory. The potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin concentrations obtained by both methods were compared by using paired Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and Deming regression.The mean ABG and laboratory potassium values were 3.77±0.44 and 4.2±0.55, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory sodium values were 137.89±5.44 and 140.93±5.50, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory Hemoglobin values were 12.28±2.62 and 12.35±2.60, respectively (P = 0.24.Although there are the statistical difference and acceptable biases between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium and sodium, the biases do not exceed USCLIA-determined limits. In parallel, there are no statistical differences and

  10. Novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 platelets: High performance cathode materials for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Wu, Xiaomin; Li, Huan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-02-01

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 is developed via a simple hydrothermal route. It is found that ammonium sodium vanadium bronze displays higher discharge capacity and better rate cyclic stability than ammonium vanadium bronze as lithium-ion battery cathode material because of smaller charge transfer resistance, which would favor superior discharge capacity and rate performance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Risk of Stroke in a Multiethnic Urban Population: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua; Gardener, Hannah; Cespedes, Sandino; Cheung, Ying K; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-11-01

    There is growing evidence that increased dietary sodium (Na) intake increases the risk of vascular diseases, including stroke, at least in part via an increase in blood pressure. Higher dietary potassium (K), seen with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, is associated with lower blood pressure. The goal of this study was to determine the association of a dietary Na:K with risk of stroke in a multiethnic urban population. Stroke-free participants from the Northern Manhattan Study, a population-based cohort study of stroke incidence, were followed-up for incident stroke. Baseline food frequency questionnaires were analyzed for Na and K intake. We estimated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of Na:K with incident total stroke using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Among 2570 participants with dietary data (mean age, 69±10 years; 64% women; 21% white; 55% Hispanic; 24% black), the mean Na:K ratio was 1.22±0.43. Over a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 274 strokes. In adjusted models, a higher Na:K ratio was associated with increased risk for stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) and specifically ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1). Na:K intake is an independent predictor of stroke risk. Further studies are required to understand the joint effect of Na and K intake on risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattward, James N; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, José O; Gomes, Fábio P; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2012-11-01

    In ecological setting, sodium (Na(+)) can be beneficial or toxic, depending on plant species and the Na(+) level in the soil. While its effects are more frequently studied at high saline levels, Na(+) has also been shown to be of potential benefit to some species at lower levels of supply, especially in C4 species. Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by Na(+), at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 mmol(c) dm(-3)). At both concentrations, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) increased more than twofold with increasing substitution of K(+) by Na(+). Concomitantly, instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/g(s)) water-use efficiency (WUE) more than doubled. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) exhibited a decline at 2.5 mmol dm(-3), but remained unchanged at 4 mmol dm(-3). Leaf nitrogen content was not impacted by Na(+) supplementation, whereas sulfur (S), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) contents were maximized at 2.5 mmol dm(-3) and intermediate (30-40%) replacement levels. Leaf K(+) did not decline significantly. In contrast, leaf Na(+) content increased steadily. The resultant elevated Na(+)/K(+) ratios in tissue correlated with increased, not decreased, plant performance. The results show that Na(+) can partially replace K(+) in the nutrition of clonal cacao, with significant beneficial effects on photosynthesis, WUE and mineral nutrition in this major perennial C3 crop. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  13. The antipsychotic drug loxapine is an opener of the sodium-activated potassium channel slack (Slo2.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, B; Sethuramanujam, S; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, A; Khessibi, N; Chesney, F; Lanneau, C; Curet, O; Avenet, P

    2012-03-01

    Sodium-activated potassium (K(Na)) channels have been suggested to set the resting potential, to modulate slow after-hyperpolarizations, and to control bursting behavior or spike frequency adaptation (Trends Neurosci 28:422-428, 2005). One of the genes that encodes K(Na) channels is called Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2). Studies found that Slack channels were highly expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons and modulated their firing frequency (J Neurosci 30:14165-14172, 2010). Therefore, Slack channel openers are of significant interest as putative analgesic drugs. We screened the library of pharmacologically active compounds with recombinant human Slack channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, by using rubidium efflux measurements with atomic absorption spectrometry. Riluzole at 500 μM was used as a reference agonist. The antipsychotic drug loxapine and the anthelmintic drug niclosamide were both found to activate Slack channels, which was confirmed by using manual patch-clamp analyses (EC(50) = 4.4 μM and EC(50) = 2.9 μM, respectively). Psychotropic drugs structurally related to loxapine were also evaluated in patch-clamp experiments, but none was found to be as active as loxapine. Loxapine properties were confirmed at the single-channel level with recombinant rat Slack channels. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, loxapine was found to behave as an opener of native K(Na) channels and to increase the rheobase of action potential. This study identifies new K(Na) channel pharmacological tools, which will be useful for further Slack channel investigations.

  14. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasa, Kimmo [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kimmo.rasa@helsinki.fi; Peltovuori, Tommi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hartikainen, Helinae [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-01

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg{sup -1}. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

  15. Modelling soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    The soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) is an index that measures the amount of sodium and potassium adsorbed onto clay and organic matter surfaces, in relation to calcium and magnesium. Assess the potential of soil dispersion or flocculation, a process which has implication in soil hydraulic properties and erosion (Sarah, 2004). Depending on severity and the type of ash produced, fire can changes in the immediate period the soil nutrient status (Bodi et al. 2014). Ash releases onto soil surface a large amount of cations, due the high pH. Previous works showed that SPAR from ash slurries is higher than solutions produced from litter (Pereira et al., 2014a). Normally the spatial distribution of topsoil nutrients in the immediate period after the fire is very heterogeneous, due to the different impacts of fire. Thus it is important to identify the most accurate interpolation method in order to identify with better precision the impacts of fire on soil properties. The objective of this work is to test several interpolation methods. The study area is located in near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire it was designed a plot in a burned area with near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Twenty five samples were collected from the topsoil. The SPAR index was calculated according to the formula: (Na++K+)/(Ca2++Mg2+)1/2 (Sarah, 2004). Data followed the normal distribution, thus no transformation was required previous to data modelling. Several well know interpolation models were tested, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2 and Ordinary Kriging. The best interpolator was the one which had the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (Pereira et al., 2014b). The

  16. Enhanced conductivity of sodium versus lithium salts measured by impedance spectroscopy. Sodium cobaltacarboranes as electrolytes of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabel; Andrio, Andreu; Teixidor, Francesc; Viñas, Clara; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-06-14

    The development of new types of ion conducting materials is one of the most important challenges in the field of energy. Lithium salt polymer electrolytes have been the most convenient, and thus the most widely used in the design of the new generation of batteries. However, in this work, we have observed that Na + ions provide a higher conductivity, or at least a comparable conductivity to that of Li + ions in the same basic material. This provides an excellent possibility to use Na + ions in the design of a new generation of batteries, instead of lithium, to enhance conductivity and ensure wide supply. Our results indicate that the dc-conductivity is larger when the anion is [Co(C 2 B 9 H 11 ) 2 ] - , [COSANE] - , compared to tetraphenylborate, [TPB] - . Our data also prove that the dc-conductivity behavior of Li + and Na + salts is opposite with the two anions. At 40 °C, the conductivity values change from 1.05 × 10 -2 S cm -1 (Li[COSANE]) and 1.75 × 10 -2 S cm -1 (Na[COSANE]) to 2.8 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (Li[TPB]) and 1.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (Na[TPB]). These findings indicate that metallacarboranes can be useful components of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs), providing excellent conductivity when the medium contains sufficient amounts of ionic components and a certain degree of humidity.

  17. Effect of co-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on photoluminescence of cu-doped potassium lithium borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namma, Haydar Aboud; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ariwahjoedi, B. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia and Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University (Iraq); Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The SnO{sub 2} co-doped lithium potassium borate glasses doped with 0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mol% of Cu were synthesized by the melt quenching technique. The SnO{sub 2} co-dope was added to the compounds in the amounts of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mol%. The photoluminescent spectrum for different concentrations of copper was studied. It was observed that the intensity of blue emission (450, 490 nm) varies with concentration mol%. In addition, with different concentration of SnO{sub 2} to 0.10 mol% Cu, the influence of the luminescence has been observed to enhance intensity and shifted to blue and red (490, 535 nm) emissions.

  18. Sodium and potassium ions and accumulation of labelled D-aspartate and GABA in crude synaptosomal fraction from rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, G.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of labelled D-aspartate into crude synaptosomal fraction (P 2 ) prepared from the rat cerebral cortex proceeded by a 'high affinity' system (Ksub(m) = 15.1 μM). The maximal velocity of D-aspartate uptake was higher than that of the 'high affinity' component of L-aspartate uptake and almost equal to that of L-glutamate under the same incubation conditions. Negligible metabolism of labelled D-aspartate was observed in the P 2 fraction. These findings are in accord with those which have been reported for rat cerebral cortical slices. The following observations were made on D-aspartate uptake into rat cerebral P 2 fraction. The requirement of sodium were almost absolute and obligatory. The affinity of the carrier for the substrate was increased by increasing sodium concentration in the medium, but the maximal velocity was not altered. It is suggested that sodium ion is co-transported mole for mole with the substrate molecule. Omission of potassium from the medium inhibited the uptake competitively. Ouabain was a competitive inhibitor on the uptake. Whereas thallium, rubidium and ammonium were efficient substitutes for potassium in exhibiting Na-K ATPase activity of the P 2 fraction, the uptake was activated only by rubidium in the absence of potassium. These observations were in common with the uptake of L-aspartate as well as of L- and D-glutamate, but not with GABA uptake. The requirement of sodium for the uptake of D-glutamate was indicated to be higher than that in the uptake of the other amino acids. Mutual inhibitions of the uptake among L- and D-isomers of glutamate and aspartate suggested that a common carrier is involved in the transport. Mechanisms of the transport of these amino acids in the crude synaptosomal fraction were discussed. (author)

  19. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium–air and sodium–sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Research devoted to room temperature lithium–sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium–oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium–sulfur and lithium–oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  20. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium–air and sodium–sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Adelhelm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research devoted to room temperature lithium–sulfur (Li/S8 and lithium–oxygen (Li/O2 batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium–sulfur and lithium–oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems.

  1. Is Transcellular Potassium Shifting With Insulin, Albuterol, or Sodium Bicarbonate in Emergency Department Patients With Hyperkalemia Associated With Recurrent Hyperkalemia After Dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Brian E; Klein, Lauren R; Chittineni, Chaitanya; Cales, Ellen K; Scott, Nathaniel

    2018-04-13

    Emergency department (ED) treatment of hyperkalemia often involves shifting potassium into the intracellular space. There is uncertainty whether transcellular shifting causes insufficient potassium removal during hemodialysis, resulting in a subsequent need for further medical therapy or multiple sessions of hemodialysis. We sought to determine whether transcellular potassium shifting in ED patients with hyperkalemia who undergo hemodialysis is associated with recurrent hyperkalemia with or without repeat hemodialysis within 24 h. This was a retrospective observational study of ED patients with a potassium value > 5.3 mmol/L and ≥1 hemodialysis run. Transcellular shifting medications were defined as albuterol, insulin, and sodium bicarbonate. Primary outcomes were recurrent hyperkalemia with and without repeat hemodialysis within 24 h of the initial dialysis run. Generalized estimating equation models were created for the outcomes using administration of a shifting medication as the primary predictor. Four hundred seventy-nine encounters were identified. In 238 (50%) encounters, a shifting medication was administered. There were 85 outcomes of recurrent hyperkalemia and 36 outcomes of recurrent hyperkalemia with repeat hemodialysis. After adjustment, administration of shifting medications was not associated with recurrent hyperkalemia (adjusted odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 0.71-2.23) or recurrent hyperkalemia with repeat dialysis (adjusted odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 0.80-4.48). Administration of transcellular shifting medications for hyperkalemia in the ED was not associated with either recurrent hyperkalemia after hemodialysis or the need for a second dialysis session within 24 h. Our findings address the uncertainty regarding transcellular potassium shifting before emergent dialysis and support safe ED administration of medications that shift potassium to the intracellular space. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Ionization of nS, nP, and nD lithium, potassium, and cesium Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ékers, A.

    2008-07-01

    The results of theoretical calculations of the blackbody ionization rates of lithium, potassium, and cesium atoms residing in Rydberg states are presented. The calculations are performed for nS, nP, and nD states in a wide range of principal quantum numbers, n = 8-65, for blackbody radiation temperatures T = 77, 300, and 600 K. The calculations are performed using the known quasi-classical formulas for the photoionization cross sections and for the radial matrix elements of transitions in the discrete spectrum. The effect of the blackbody-radiation-induced population redistribution between Rydberg states on the blackbody ionization rates measured under laboratory conditions is quantitatively analyzed. Simple analytical formulas that approximate the numerical results and that can be used to estimate the blackbody ionization rates of Rydberg atoms are presented. For the S series of lithium, the rate of population of high-lying Rydberg levels by blackbody radiation is found to anomalously behave as a function of n. This anomaly is similar to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the discrete spectrum.

  4. Study of the solubility of yttrium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium sulfates in the presence of sodium and potassium in sulfuric-phosphoric acid solutions at 20 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokshin, Eh.P.; Tareeva, O.A.; Kashulina, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of yttrium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium sulfates in the presence of sodium and potassium ions and the composition of solid phases were studied at 20 deg C in relation to the concentration of acids in sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric-phosphoric acid solutions containing up to 36 wt % H 2 SO 4 and 33.12 g 1 -1 H 3 PO 4 . The formation of double sulfates of praseodymium and neodymium with sodium and potassium ions, as well as of gadolinium sulfate with sodium ions of the composition 1 : 1 was revealed. In water at 20 deg C, the solubility products of PrNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, NdNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, GdNa(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, PrK(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, and NdK(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O are found to be 7.28x10 -8 , 7.84x10 -8 , 3.09x10 -6 , 3.02x10 -6 , and 1.70x10 -6 , respectively [ru

  5. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    increased in response to ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-induced acute hypocalcemia and to the same extent in both vehicle and ouabain groups. The glands were removed, and inhibition of the ATPase was measured by (86)rubidium uptake, which was found to be significantly decreased in ouabain......-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect...... on the secretory response to acute hypocalcemia. Hence, the suggested importance of this ATPase in the regulation of PTH secretion could not be confirmed in this in vivo model....

  7. Test Program For Alumina Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Geinesse, D.

    2011-01-01

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  8. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  9. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  10. radiation and electric field induced effects on the order-disorder phase in lithium sodium sulphate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A. E.; Kassem, M. E.; El-Wahidy, E. F.; El-Abshehy, M. A.

    1995-03-01

    The temperature dependence of specific heat at constant pressure, Cp(T), has been measured for lithium sodium sulphate, LiNaSo4 crystals, at different ?-radiation doses and external bias electric field (Eb), in the temperature range 300-900 K. A nonlinear dependence of transition temperature, T1 and a remarkable change in the thermodynamic parameters, were obtained as the effect of both electric field and ?-radiation. The effect of ?-radiation doses on the phase transition in LiNaSO4 crystals was explained as due to an internal bias field, Eb, originating from the interaction of polar defects with the order parameter of the host lattice. The internal bias field effect on the behaviour of Cp(T) in LiNaSO4 crystals was similar to that of the external electric field (E).

  11. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Massie, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  12. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn 4+ into Mn 2+ into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  14. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  15. Handling of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.; Komurka, M.

    1983-03-01

    As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author) [de

  16. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...... the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone....

  18. Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Fischbach, Michael A; Chu, Frances; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-06

    We report a previously undescribed quorum-sensing mechanism for triggering multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis forms communities of cells known as biofilms in response to an unknown signal. We discovered that biofilm formation is stimulated by a variety of small molecules produced by bacteria--including the B. subtilis nonribosomal peptide surfactin--that share the ability to induce potassium leakage. Natural products that do not cause potassium leakage failed to induce multicellularity. Small-molecule-induced multicellularity was prevented by the addition of potassium, but not sodium or lithium. Evidence is presented that potassium leakage stimulates the activity of a membrane protein kinase, KinC, which governs the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation. We propose that KinC responds to lowered intracellular potassium concentration and that this is a quorum-sensing mechanism that enables B. subtilis to respond to related and unrelated bacteria.

  19. Electrochemical Performance of Electrospun carbon nanofibers as free-standing and binder-free anodes for Sodium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Juan; Shi, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Cheng-yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber webs were prepared by pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile. • The webs as binder-free and current collector-free electrodes for SIBs and LIBs. • Different layer spacing and pore size for Li and Na lead different electrochemical behavior. • Electrochemical performances of the electrodes were high. - Abstract: A series of hard carbon nanofiber-based electrodes derived from electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (PAN-CNFs) have been fabricated by stabilization in air at about 280 °C and then carbonization in N 2 at heat treatment temperatures (HTT) between 800 and 1500 °C. The electrochemical performances of the binder-free, current collector-free carbon nanofiber-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries are systematically investigated and compared. We demonstrate the presence of similar alkali metal insertion mechanisms in both cases, but just the differences of the layer spacing and pore size available for lithium and sodium ion lead the discharge capacity delivered at sloping region and plateau region to vary from the kinds of alkali elements. Although the anodes in sodium-ion batteries show poorer rate capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 275 mAh g −1 and similar cycling stability due to the conductive 3-D network, weakly ordered turbostratic structure and a large interlayer spacing between graphene sheets. The feature of high capacity and stable cycling performance makes PAN-CNFs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries

  20. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  2. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  4. On the concept of resting potential--pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, the resting potential is established by the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions and the different permeabilities of the cell membrane to them. The large concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions are maintained by the Na⁺/K⁺ pump. Under physiological conditions, the pump transports three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell per ATP hydrolyzed. However, unlike other primary or secondary active transporters, the Na⁺/K⁺ pump does not work at the equilibrium state, so the pumping ratio is not a thermodynamic property of the pump. In this article, I propose a dipole-charging model of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump to prove that the three Na⁺ to two K⁺ pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump is determined by the ratio of the ionic mobilities of potassium to sodium ions, which is to ensure the time constant τ and the τ-dependent processes, such as the normal working state of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the propagation of an action potential. Further, the concentration ratios of potassium ions outside and inside the cell to sodium ions inside and outside the cell are 0.3027 and 0.9788, respectively, and the sum of the potassium and sodium equilibrium potentials is -30.3 mV. A comparative study on these constants is made for some marine, freshwater and terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that the pumping ratio of the Na⁺/K⁺ pump and the ion concentration ratios play a role in the evolution of animal cells.

  5. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  6. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg −1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li + ) window at current density of 100 mAg −1 , respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg −1 ) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg −1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  8. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yin, Shengyu [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Guo, Zaiping [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Shiquan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg{sup −1} after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) window at current density of 100 mAg{sup −1}, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg{sup −1}) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg{sup −1} with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Enthalpies of Dissolution of Crystalline Naproxen Sodium in Water and Potassium Hydroxide Aqueous Solutions at 298 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Bychkova, S. A.; Volkov, A. V.; Skvortsov, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The enthalpies of dissolution of crystalline naproxen sodium in water and aqueous solutions of KOH at 298.15 K are measured by direct calorimetric means in a wide range of concentrations. The acid-base properties of naproxen sodium at ionic strength I 0 and I = 0.1 (KNO3) and a temperature of 298.15 K are studied by spectrophotometric means. The concentration and thermodynamic dissociation constants are determined. The standard enthalpies of the formation of naproxen sodium and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution are calculated.

  10. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rui-Tao, E-mail: Ruitao.Wen@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-28

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li{sup +} in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films.

  11. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li + in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films

  12. Electrochemical lithiation performance and characterization of silicon-graphite composites with lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium polyacrylate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Ji; Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Son, Jin-Young; Cui, Yi-Tao; Oji, Hiroshi; Kogure, Akinori; Harada, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Sumihisa; Aoki, Yasuhito; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-02-07

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAH), which is a water soluble polycarboxylic acid, is neutralized by adding different amounts of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and ammonia (NH4OH) aqueous solutions to fix neutralization degrees. The differently neutralized polyacid, alkali and ammonium polyacrylates are examined as polymeric binders for the preparation of Si-graphite composite electrodes as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The electrode performance of the Si-graphite composite depends on the alkali chemicals and neutralization degree. It is found that 80% NaOH-neutralized polyacrylate binder (a pH value of the resultant aqueous solution is ca. 6.7) is the most efficient binder to enhance the electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation performance of the Si-graphite composite electrode compared to that of conventional PVdF and the other binders used in this study. The optimum polyacrylate binder highly improves the dispersion of active material in the composite electrode. The binder also provides the strong adhesion, suitable porosity, and hardness for the composite electrode with 10% (m/m) binder content, resulting in better electrochemical reversibility. From these results, the factors of alkali-neutralized polyacrylate binders affecting the electrode performance of Si-graphite composite electrodes are discussed.

  13. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  14. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  15. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  16. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  17. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  18. Potentiometric and Conductometric Study of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium and Sodium Salts of Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Jiří, Vohlídal; Cerar, Janez

    2012-09-01

    The title polymer, PTAA, practically free of ester groups was obtained by oxidative polymerization of methyl thiophen-3-ylacetate and subsequent basic hydrolysis of primary polymer. Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) has been thoroughly characterized by NMR, IR, Raman, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The polyacid behavior during neutralization titrations with lithium and sodium hydroxides, carried out under nitrogen atmosphere, has been studied by conductometry and potentiometry. Henderson-Hasselbach plots of potentiometric titration curves show a break point at pH around 6, where the curve slope drops from 1.8 (at lower pH) to a value from 1.05 to 1.3 (at higher pH values). The UV/Vis spectra monitored during back titration show: (i) monotonous decrease of both λmax and εmax as pH decreases, (ii) the presence of the isosbestic point at 401 nm that can be ascribed to conformational transition of PTAA chains, and (iii) absence of the isosbestic point at 392 nm reported previously by other authors.

  19. EPR and optical absorption studies of paramagnetic molecular ion (VO2+) in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbulakshmi, N.; Kumar, M. Saravana; Sheela, K. Juliet; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of VO2+ ions as paramagnetic impurity in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate (LiNaP) single crystal have been done at room temperature on X-Band microwave frequency. The lattice parameter values are obtained for the chosen system from Single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Among the number of hyperfine lines in the EPR spectra only two sets are reported from EPR data. The principal values of g and A tensors are evaluated for the two different VO2+ sites I and II. They possess the crystalline field around the VO2+ as orthorhombic. Site II VO2+ ion is identified as substitutional in place of Na1 location and the other site I is identified as interstitial location. For both sites in LiNaP, VO2+ are identified in octahedral coordination with tetragonal distortion as seen from the spin Hamiltonian parameter values. The ground state of vanadyl ion in the LiNaP single crystal is dxy. Using optical absorption data the octahedral and tetragonal parameters are calculated. By correlating EPR and optical data, the molecular orbital bonding parameters have been discussed for both sites.

  20. Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on {UCON + (sodium or potassium) phosphate salts} aqueous two-phase systems: Hydrophobicity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverio, Sara C.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Teixeira, Jose A.; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy of transfer of a suitable hydrophobic probe can be regarded as a measure of the relative hydrophobicity of the different phases. The methylene group (CH 2 ) can be considered hydrophobic, and thus be a suitable probe for hydrophobicity. In this work, the partition coefficients of a series of five dinitrophenylated-amino acids were experimentally determined, at 23 o C, in three different tie-lines of the biphasic systems: (UCON + K 2 HPO 4 ), (UCON + potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7), (UCON + KH 2 PO 4 ), (UCON + Na 2 HPO 4 ), (UCON + sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7), and (UCON + NaH 2 PO 4 ). The Gibbs free energy of transfer of CH 2 units were calculated from the partition coefficients and used to compare the relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases. The largest relative hydrophobicity was found for the ATPS formed by dihydrogen phosphate salts.

  1. Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuyong; Zou, Hailin; Xiang, Hongfa; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tianpei; Wu, Yucheng; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-13

    Two-dimensional Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets are prepared via a surfactant assisted hydrothermal process. Polyether (P123) was added as the surfactant to modify the surface and control the microstructure of the hydrothermal products and thus affect the electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LTO anode material. XRD results show that the addition of P123 can restrain the growth of Li2TiO3 during the hydrothermal process, thus affecting the morphology and enhancing the rate performance of the final products. With the addition of P123, the growth of LTO can be restrained and ultrathin LTO nanosheets can be obtained after high temperature sintering, which is beneficial for the charge transfer and Li+ ion diffusion. The rate performance of these two different LTO materials is very different because of their differences in phase composition and fine morphology. The P123-assisted nanostructured LTO sample (P-LTO) shows a much higher rate capability than the LTO sample without P123, with over 130 mAh g-1 capacity retained at the charge-discharge rate of 64C when used in a lithium battery. For intercalation of larger size Na+ ions, the P-LTO still exhibit a capacity of 115 mAh g-1 at a charge (de-sodiation process) rate of 10C and maintains 96% capacity after 400 cycles

  2. Two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena at 275 to 4000C for high-temperature aqueous potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate solutions. Potential applications for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400 0 C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO 4 or Na/PO 4 , were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360 0 C for the potassium system and 279 0 C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360 0 C did not produce solid phases or liquid-liquid immisibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators

  3. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  4. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  5. Template-Free Synthesis of Sb2S3 Hollow Microspheres as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Min; Ouyang, Yan; Nie, Su; Wang, Xianyou

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical Sb2S3 hollow microspheres assembled by nanowires have been successfully synthesized by a simple and practical hydrothermal reaction. The possible formation process of this architecture was investigated by X-ray diffraction, focused-ion beam-scanning electron microscopy dual-beam system, and transmission electron microscopy. When used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, Sb2S3 hollow microspheres manifest excellent rate property and enhanced lithium-storage capability and can deliver a discharge capacity of 674 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 5000 mA g-1, a discharge capacity of 541 mAh g-1 is achieved. Sb2S3 hollow microspheres also display a prominent sodium-storage capacity and maintain a reversible discharge capacity of 384 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The remarkable lithium/sodium-storage property may be attributed to the synergetic effect of its nanometer size and three-dimensional hierarchical architecture, and the outstanding stability property is attributed to the sufficient interior void space, which can buffer the volume expansion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  7. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  8. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  9. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p pregnancy (r = -0.590, p pregnancy BMI was significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p sodium (r = 0.254, p = 0.070) levels. Multiple linear regression indicated that mid-trimester AF uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p pregnancy BMI is significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  10. Moessbauer study of FePO4 cathode for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsuaki Nishida; Masahiro Tokunaga; Toshiharu Nishizumi; Takafumi Yamamoto; Tomoyuki Shiratsuchi; Shigeto Okada; Jun-ichi Yamaki

    2005-01-01

    LiFePO 4 of olivine type has attracted much interest as a rare-metal free cathode for lithium-ion battery. The present authors' group has found a low-cost preparation method for new cathode material FePO 4 (P 321 ) from an aqueous solution of metallic iron and P 2 O 5 . A cathode pellet was prepared by mixing FePO 4 , acetylene black (AB) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder at a mass ratio of 70:25:5. Electrochemical cathode performance was investigated under a constant current density of 0.1 mA/cm 2 with a coin-type cell with an anode of metallic Li and Na for Li- and Na-ion batteries, respectively. Moessbauer spectra were measured by a constant accele- ration method with a Moessbauer source of 57 Co(Pd) and an α-Fe foil as a reference of the isomer shift. Moessbauer spectra of the original cathode pellet top left and right) composed of amorphous FePO 4 indicate that all the Fe III atoms have a tetrahedral symmetry. After discharging the Li-(second left) and Na-batteries (second right), all the Fe III were reduced to octahedral Fe II . The reduction of Fe III to Fe II indicates penetration of Li + and Na + into the FePO 4 cathode which accompanies an electron capture; Li + (or Na + ) + Fe III PO 4 + e - = LiFe II PO 4 (or NaFe II PO 4 ) After charging the Li-cell (bottom left), all the Fen atoms were oxidized to tetrahedral Fe III , while 69 % of Fe II was oxidized to Fe III in the Na-ion cell (bottom right) due to a lower cell voltage: 4.0 V. Oxidation of Fe II to Fe III reflects a release of Li + or Na + ions from the FePO 4 cathode to the electrolyte, i.e., an inverse reaction of eq.

  11. Characterization of starter-free Queso Fresco made with sodium-potassium salt blends over 12 weeks of 4°C storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Renye, J A; Tomasula, P M

    2017-07-01

    Development of reduced-sodium cheese to meet the demands of consumers concerned about sodium levels in their diet is challenging when a high-moisture, higher pH, fresh cheese, such as Queso Fresco (QF), depends on its NaCl salt content to obtain its signature flavor and quality traits. This study evaluated the effects of different Na-K salt blends on the compositional, sensorial, microbial, functional, and rheological properties of QF stored for up to 12 wk at 4°C. Queso Fresco curd from each vat was divided into 6 portions and salted with different blends of NaCl-KCl (Na-K, %): 0.75-0.75, 1.0-0.5, 1.0-1.0, 1.0-1.3, 1.0-1.5, and 2.0-0 (control). Within this narrow salt range (1.5 to 2.5% total salt), the moisture, protein, fat, and lactose levels; water activity; pH; and the textural and rheological properties were not affected by salt treatment or aging. The total salt, sodium, potassium, and ash contents reflected the different Na-K ratios added to the QF. Total aerobic microbial count, overall proteolysis, the release of casein phosphopeptides, and the level of volatile compounds were affected by aging but not by the salt treatment. Only the 1.0-1.3 and 1.0-1.5 Na-K cheeses had sensory saltiness scores similar to that of the 2.0-0 Na-K control QF. Loss of free serum from the cheese matrix increased steadily over the 12 wk, with higher losses found in QF containing 1.5% total salt compared with the higher Na-K blends. In conclusion, KCl substitution is a viable means for reduction of sodium in QF resulting in only minor differences in the quality traits, and levels of 1.0-1.3 and 1.0-1.5 Na-K are recommended to match the saltiness intensity of the 2.0-0 Na-K control. The findings from this study will aid cheese producers in creating reduced-sodium QF for health-conscious consumers. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of Ti3C2 MXene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of Li and Na ion adsorption on the electronic transport in Ti 3 C 2 MXene is studied. • Fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered. • Enhanced charge transport is obtained for fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. • Electronic transmission is reduced in the oxidized sample. • The pristine and oxidized MXene samples are found to be sensitive to the ions adsorption. - Abstract: MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of the MXene, Ti 3 C 2 . Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced electronic transport in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, transport properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the electronic transport is less affected by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced electronic transport as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are sodium and potassium salts of citric acid. The Panel considers that sodium and potassium salts of citric acid are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “acid-base balance and bone health”. The target...... using a higher dose of potassium citrate did not show an effect on bone mineral density. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of potassium or sodium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal...

  14. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  15. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  16. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Superabsorbent Sodium Alginate-G-Poly (Potassium Acrylate Hydrogels Prepared By Using Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Erizal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to use gamma rays as sources for the preparation of superabsorbent hydrogels through radiation induced copolymerization. A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from aqueous solution containing partially neutralized acrylic acid (15% with different sodium alginate (NaAlg concentrations (0.5% to 1.5% by ionizing gamma irradiation (10 kGy to 40 kGy at room temperature. The effect of NaAlg concentration and irradiation doses on the water absorption behavior of the obtained hydrogels was investigated. The structural changes of hydrogels were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR whereas the morphologies of hydrogels were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The results showed the swelling of hydrogel in water and NaCl solution increases with increasing NaAlg concentration and decreases with increasing irradiation dose up to 40 kGy. The extend of gel fraction increases as a function of NaAlg concentration. The results of FTIR analysis revealed that acrylic acid and sodium alginate had been successfully grafted, while SEM examination showed that the hydrogels demonstrated large numbers of pores.     

  18. The influence of salinity and drought stress on sodium,potassium and proline content of solanum lycopersicum l. cv. rio grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Rab, A.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of salinity and drought stress on sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and proline content of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) cv. Rio Grande was investigated by exposing the plants to five salinity levels i.e., 0 (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl and four drought regimes i.e. 0 (Control), 2, 4 and 6 days, applied from seedling (4-5 true leaves) to the harvesting stage. The means across salinity levels showed an increase in proline content and Na+ concentration but a reduced K+ concentrations, resulting in high Na+/K+ ratios in shoot and root tissue. In contrast, drought stress decreased the Na+ and K+ content, Na+/K+ ratio but increased the proline content in both the root and shoot tissue. The interaction of salinity and drought significantly affected the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) contents, Na+/K+ and proline content of the shoot but K+ content and proline accumulation were not significant. The root and shoot tissue of control plants (0 mMNaCl + 0 Days drought stress) had the minimum Na+ content (2316 and 3490 mu M/g D.wt.), Na+/ K+ ratio (0.399 and 0.364) and proline content (0.72 and 1.91 mu M/g F.wt.) but the highest K+ content (6399 and 9603 mu M/g D.wt.). Whereas, the Na+ content increased with salinity, the K+ content declined. It resulted in the maximum Na+/K+ ratio of the root (1.26) and shoot (0.76) with 200 mMNaCl + 0 Days drought stress. The drought stress also increased the Na+/K+ ratio. Thus, the highest Na+/K+ ratio of root (0.78) and shoot (0.77) was recorded in plants grown under 200 mMNaCl+ 6 Days drought stress. The proline content of the root and shoot were 0.462 and 1.904 mu M/g F.wt. respectively in control plants which increased with increasing salinity and drought stress duration. Thus, the maximum proline content of root (10.61 mu M/g F.wt.) and shoot (28.05 mu M/g F.wt.) was recorded in plants exposed to 200 mMNaCl + 6 days drought stress combination. (author)

  19. Binding of the water of primary hydration to the sodium and cesium salts of deoxyribonucleic acid and potassium hyaluronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, K. B.; Lukan, A. M.; Marlowe, R. L.; Lee, S. A.; Anthony, L.; Rupprecht, A.

    1998-08-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to evaluate the average enthalpy of desorption of the water of primary hydration bound to wet-spun films of potassium hyaluronate (KHA) and CsDNA. The enthalpies were measured to be 0.24+/-0.08 eV/H2O molecule for KHA and 0.32+/-0.10 eV/H2O molecule for CsDNA. A Kissinger analysis was used to extract the net activation energy (0.61+/-0.04 eV) for the desorption of this water from KHA by analyzing DSC data acquired at different heating rates. The average effective force constants at 295 K of this water bound to KHA (63+/-3 μdyn/Å) and NaDNA (17+/-4 μdyn/Å) are determined from Rayleigh scattering of Mossbauer radiation data [G. Albanese, A. Deriu, F. Cavatorta, and A. Rupprecht, Hyperfine Interact. 95, 97 (1995)] via a harmonic approximation.

  20. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  1. Comparison of the virucidal efficiency of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulfate and sodium hypochlorite on hepatitis A and enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Morin, T; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2013-10-01

    The virucidal activity of peroxy-products was evaluated and compared with sodium hypochlorite using the EN 14675 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratory. The classical approach on infectivity of viruses was complemented with a prospective approach on virus genomes. Both infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference bovine enterovirus type 1 [enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus (ECBO)] and resistant hepatitis A virus (HAV) in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of active chlorine were virucidal against both viruses, either at 0·062% using the suspension test or at 0·50-1% using the surface test. However, for potassium monopersulfate and peracetic acid products, concentrations of approximately three times (3%) to 72 times (9%) higher were necessary against HAV than ECBO when determined with the suspension test. With the surface test, 4-8% peroxy-products were virucidal against HAV, either 16 times more peroxy-products concentrations than against ECBO. No significant impact on the targeted area of the viral genome measured by real-time RT-PCRs was obtained for ECBO and HAV suspensions treated with disinfectants, even with doses higher than the minimal virucidal concentrations. Sodium hypochlorite, but not peroxy-products, had similar activity against ECBO and HAV. No relation could be established between infectivity tests and genome destruction. This is the first comparative study that investigates with novel suspension and surface tests the reduction of infectivity and genome destruction of two resistant viruses by peroxy-compounds. The results and conclusions collected with European standards are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effect of co-doping of sodium on the thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, A.; Wagiran, H.; Saeed, M.A.; Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Kadir, A.B.A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5–1000 Gy is investigated. The results show that the thermal fading behaviour is improved significantly. - Highlights: • Dosimetry properties of an improved TL dosimeter. • The dosimeter is made of lithium borate, modified with ZnO, doped with CuO and co-doped with Na 2 O. • With addition of Na to Cu in the ZLB host, TL yield and sensitivity has significantly enhanced. • The fading behaviour has also been minimized significantly. • The new material is also characterized with the linear dose response, and good reproducibility behaviour.

  3. Physico-Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticulate NiO/C Composites for High Performance Lithium and Sodium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iturrondobeitia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticulate NiO and NiO/C composites with different carbon proportions have been prepared for anode application in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Structural characterization demonstrated the presence of metallic Ni in the composites. Morphological study revealed that the NiO and Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed in the matrix of amorphous carbon. The electrochemical study showed that the lithium ion batteries (LIBs, containing composites with carbon, have promising electrochemical performances, delivering specific discharge capacities of 550 mAh/g after operating for 100 cycles at 1C. These excellent results could be explained by the homogeneity of particle size and structure, as well as the uniform distribution of NiO/Ni nanoparticles in the in situ generated amorphous carbon matrix. On the other hand, the sodium ion battery (NIB with the NiO/C composite revealed a poor cycling stability. Post-mortem analyses revealed that this fact could be ascribed to the absence of a stable Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI or passivation layer upon cycling.

  4. Cauliflower-like MnO@C/N composites with multiscale, expanded hierarchical ordered structures as electrode materials for Lithium- and Sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting; Wu, Zhenguo; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Enhui; Chen, Tingru; Guo, Xiaodong; Chen, Yanxiao; Zhong, Benhe

    2017-01-01

    MnO@C/N composite with expanded cauliflower-like morphology was prepared via one-pot L-tryptophan assisted hydrothermal method following by annealing in Ar atmosphere. The cauliflower structure was assembled by porous nanowires that composed of MnO nanoparticles wrapped by continuous N-doped amorphous carbon matrix. Superior electrochemical performances were obtained in both lithium/sodium ion batteries. And the reaction kinetics of MnO@C/N in lithium/sodium ion batteries were analyzed and compared. More than 837 mAh g −1 could be retained after 300 cycles at 500 mA g −1 . And a high reversible capacity of 336 mAh g −1 at 5000 mA g −1 also demonstrate the excellent rate performance of MnO@C/N for LIBs. As to SIBs, 123 mAh g −1 could be maintained after 200 cycles at 100 mA g −1 . The superior performances could be attributed to the peculiar porous micro-nano structure and N-doped amorphous carbon coating. The reaction kinetics results revealed that the capacitive-controlled capacity would dominate of the electrochemical performance in SIBs and the diffusion-controlled capacity could play a more important role in LIBs, due to the atom weight and size of Na + is larger than Li + .

  5. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  6. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  7. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Oscar; Giraldo, Carolina; Camargo, Sergio S.; Tobón, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure

  8. Determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by using a microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric method after closed-vessel microwave digestion: method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekri, Rachida; Noël, Laurent; Vastel, Christelle; Millour, Sandrine; Kadar, Ali; Guérin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a validation process in compliance with the NFIEN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the determination of the macrominerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by microsampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave digestion. The French Standards Commission (Agence Francaise de Normalisation) standards NF V03-110, NF EN V03-115, and XP T-90-210 were used to evaluate this method. The method was validated in the context of an analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Several performance criteria (linearity, LOQ, specificity, trueness, precision under repeatability conditions, and intermediate precision reproducibility) were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was monitored by several internal quality controls. The LOQ values obtained (25, 5, 8.3, and 8.3 mg/kg for Ca, Mg, Na, and K, respectively) were in compliance with the needs of the TDS. The method provided accurate results as demonstrated by a repeatability CV (CVr) of < 7% and a reproducibility CV (CVR) of < 12% for all the elements. Therefore, the results indicated that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these four elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance.

  9. Purification of labeled cyanogen bromide peptides of the alpha polypeptide from sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase modified with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, D.T.

    1986-05-06

    Sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase, isolated from canine kidney, was reacted with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide while it was poised in three different conformations, ostensibly E2-P, E2, and E1, respectively. These assignments were made from a consideration of the particular concentrations of ligands in the respective alkylation mixtures. After a 30-min reaction, the remaining enzymatic activity was found to vary among these three different samples from 90 to 30% of that of unalkylated controls. In all cases, the alpha polypeptide was purified and subjected to digestion with cyanogen bromide, and in each digest the same two distinct radioactive peptides were identified and purified by gel filtration on a column of Sephadex LH-60. The incorporation of N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide into one of these two peptides correlated closely with enzymatic inactivation, while the incorporation into the other was most extensive when the portion of the active site to which ATP binds was unoccupied. Alkylation of the residue within the latter peptide, however, does not result in inactivation of the enzyme. Both peptides were further purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined by manual dansyl Edman or solid-phase techniques. The peptide containing the sulfhydryl protected by ATP has, as its amino terminus, the lysine that reacts exclusively with fluoresceinyl 5'-isothiocyanate.

  10. Purification of the labeled cyanogen bromide peptides of the α polypeptide from sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosinetriphosphatase modified with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosinetriphosphatase, isolated from canine kidney, was reacted with N-[ 3 H]ethylmaleimide under three different conditions, defined by particular concentrations of ligands for the enzyme, such that after the same amount of time the remaining activity of then enzyme varied from 90% to 30%. The conformation of the enzyme also differed among the three conditions. In all cases, the α-polypeptide was purified and subjected to cyanogen bromide digestion. Two distinct, radioactive peptides were separated by gel filtration of the cyanogen bromide digest on a column of Sephadex LH-60 equilibrated with 95% ethanol: 88% formic acid:4:1. One of the radioactive peptides was shown to contain the sulfhydryl residue whose reaction with N-ethylmaleimide inactivates the enzyme. The other radioactive peptide contained a sulfhydryl residue that seems to react with N-ethylmaleimide only when the binding site for ATP is not occupied. Alkylation of this residue, however, does not result in inactivation of enzyme. Both peptides were purified further by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined by the manual dansyl-Edman or solid-phase techniques. The peptide containing the sulfhydryl protected by ATP has, as its amino terminus, the lysine that reacts exclusively with fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate

  11. Purification of labeled cyanogen bromide peptides of the alpha polypeptide from sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase modified with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium ion and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase, isolated from canine kidney, was reacted with N-[ 3 H]ethylmaleimide while it was poised in three different conformations, ostensibly E2-P, E2, and E1, respectively. These assignments were made from a consideration of the particular concentrations of ligands in the respective alkylation mixtures. After a 30-min reaction, the remaining enzymatic activity was found to vary among these three different samples from 90 to 30% of that of unalkylated controls. In all cases, the alpha polypeptide was purified and subjected to digestion with cyanogen bromide, and in each digest the same two distinct radioactive peptides were identified and purified by gel filtration on a column of Sephadex LH-60. The incorporation of N-[ 3 H]ethylmaleimide into one of these two peptides correlated closely with enzymatic inactivation, while the incorporation into the other was most extensive when the portion of the active site to which ATP binds was unoccupied. Alkylation of the residue within the latter peptide, however, does not result in inactivation of the enzyme. Both peptides were further purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined by manual dansyl Edman or solid-phase techniques. The peptide containing the sulfhydryl protected by ATP has, as its amino terminus, the lysine that reacts exclusively with fluoresceinyl 5'-isothiocyanate

  12. [Unification of methods for determining the trace quantities of lead, zinc, sodium and potassium ions in the assessment of drinking water adn transfusion fluid quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, V A; Golovina, N V; Evgrafov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results of long-term studies made by the Department of General Chemistry, I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, that deals with unification of methods for determining some ions of metals (lead, zinc, sodium, and potassium) in the assessment of the quality of drinking water and transfusion fluids are summarized. A procedure was developed to determine the trace impurities of zinc, lead, and silver by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) by using sorption concentration. C-80-2-aminothiazole, a new sorbent synthesized at the Research Institute of Polymers, was used to detect these ions in the drinking water. With regards to the chosen optimal conditions, drinking water samples were analyzed via their direct spraying in the air-acetylene flame. The prior sorption concentration determined drinking water zinc and lead ions in the concentrations equal to or less than their permissible dose concentrations. The studies indicated that the used methods to determine the trace quantities of metals in the drinking water and aqueous solutions show a high sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity of sample preparation.

  13. Influence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism on sodium-potassium permeability in human red blood cells: studies with bisulfite and other redox agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John C.

    1969-01-01

    It is known that bisulfite ions can selectively deplete red blood cells of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Studies of the effects of bisulfite on sodium-potassium permeability and metabolism were undertaken to clarify the physiologic role of the abundant quantities of 2,3-DPG in human erythrocytes. Treatment of cells with bisulfite results in a reversible increase in the passive permeability to Na and K ions. Metabolism of glucose to lactate is increased, with a rise in the intracellular ratio of fructose diphosphate to hexose monophosphate. Cell 2,3-DPG is quantitatively converted to pyruvate and inorganic phosphate. The permeability effects of bisulfite are countered by ethacrynic acid and by such oxidizing agents as pyruvate and methylene blue. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects on Na-K flux of bisulfite are related more to the reducing potential of this anion than to its capacity to deplete cells of 2,3-DPG. PMID:5765015

  14. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods for determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in food and beverages: performances of local accredited laboratories via proficiency tests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, Ahmet C; Bilsel, Gökhan; Şimşek, Adnan; Bilsel, Mine; Akçadağ, Fatma; Topal, Kevser; Ozgen, Hasan

    2015-05-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography LC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods and beverages. HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were compared for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in a representative ketchup sample. Optimisation of the methods enabled the chromatographic separation of the analytes in less than 4 min. A correlation coefficient of 0.999 was achieved over the measured calibration range for both compounds and methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS). The uncertainty values of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were found as 0.199 and 0.150 mg/L by HPLC and 0.072 and 0.044 mg/L by LC-MS/MS, respectively. Proficiency testing performance of Turkish accredited laboratories between the years 2005 and 2013 was evaluated and reported herein. The aim of the proficiency testing scheme was to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, analysing benzoate and sorbate in tomato ketchup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  16. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  17. Post-processing application of chemical solutions for control of Listeria monocytogenes, cultured under different conditions, on commercial smoked sausage formulated with and without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geornaras, Ifigenia; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated post-processing chemical solutions for their antilisterial effects on commercial smoked sausage formulated with or without 1.5% potassium lactate plus 0.05% sodium diacetate, and contaminated (approximately 3-4 log cfu/cm(2)) with 10-strain composite Listeria monocytogenes inocula prepared under various conditions. Inoculated samples were left untreated, or were immersed (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in solutions of acetic acid (2.5%), lactic acid (2.5%), potassium benzoate (5%) or Nisaplin (0.5%, equivalent to 5000 IU/ml of nisin) alone, and in sequence (Nisaplin followed by acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate), before vacuum packaging and storage at 10 degrees C (48 days). Acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate applied alone reduced initial L. monocytogenes populations by 0.4-1.5 log cfu/cm(2), while treatments including Nisaplin caused reductions of 2.1-3.3 log cfu/cm(2). L. monocytogenes on untreated sausage formulated with antimicrobials had a lag phase duration of 10.2 days and maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) of 0.089 per day, compared to no lag phase and mu(max) of 0.300 per day for L. monocytogenes on untreated product that did not contain antimicrobials in the formulation. The immersion treatments inhibited growth of the pathogen for 4.9-14.8 days on sausage formulated without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate; however, in all cases significant (P meat processors in their efforts to select required regulatory alternatives for control of post-processing contamination in meat products.

  18. Nucleophilic behavior of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide of sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase consistent with a role in binding adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.Y.; Kyte, J.

    1989-01-01

    An immunoadsorbent specific for the carboxy-terminal sequence -GAPER, which comprises residues 502-506 of the alpha-polypeptide of ovine sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase [(Na+ + K+)-ATPase], was used to isolate the products of the reaction between the lysine immediately preceding this sequence in the intact protein and either [3H]acetic anhydride or fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate. Changes in the apparent nucleophilicity of this lysine, Lys501, were observed with both reagents when ATP was bound by the intact, native enzyme poised in the E1 conformation or when the structure of the enzyme was changed from the E1 conformation into the E2-P conformation. With both reagents, a decrease of more than 4-fold in the yield of incorporation occurred during the former change, but a decrease of only 2-fold occurred during the latter. Because a much larger decrease occurred when ATP was bound in the absence of a conformational change than occurred when a major conformational change took place in the absence of the occupation of the active site, these changes in the incorporation of [3H]acetyl suggest that Lys501 from the alpha polypeptide is directly involved in binding ATP within the active site of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. The immunochemical reactions between the specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the sequence-GAPER and denatured or enzymically active (Na+ + K+)-ATPase were also investigated. Western blots and the inhibition of enzymic activity caused by the antibody have shown that it can bind to both the denatured and the native form of the alpha-polypeptide, respectively

  19. Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristbjornsdottir Oddny K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data is available on sodium (Na and potassium (K intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. Methods The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76. Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. Results Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD, 1.64 (0.54 g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h and 1.22 (0.43 g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06 per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4 while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29. Conclusions Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.

  20. Effect of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant on electrical and optical properties of potassium sodium niobate silicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsiri, Ploypailin [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sirisoonthorn, Somnuk [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pengpat, Kamonpan, E-mail: kamonpan.p@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The KNN–SiO{sub 2} doped Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramics was prepared by incorporation method. • High dielectric constant (458.41 at 100 kHz) and low loss (0.0005) could be obtained. • TEM and SEM confirmed the existence of KNN crystals embedded in glass matrix. • The Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant causes insignificant effect on modifying E{sub g} value. - Abstract: In this study, transparent glass-ceramics from potassium sodium niobate (KNN)-silicate glass system doped with erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were successfully prepared by incorporation method. KNN was added in glass batches as heterogeneous nucleating agent. The KNN powder was mixed with SiO{sub 2} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant with KNN and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varied between 70–80 and 0.5–1.0 mol%, respectively. Each batch was subsequently melted at 1300 °C for 15 min in a platinum crucible using an electric furnace. The quenched glasses were then subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures for 4 h. XRD results showed that the prepared glass ceramics contained crystals of KNN solid solution. In contrary, dielectric constant (ϵ{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature. Additionally, optical properties such as absorbance and energy band gap have been investigated.

  1. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  2. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  3. Technology Maturation Plan For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    This Technology Maturation Plan schedules the development process that will bring the Lithium Hydrotalcite waste pretreatment process from its current estimated Technology Readiness Level of 3, to a level of 6. This maturation approach involves chemical and engineering research and development work, from laboratory scale to pilot scale testing, to incrementally make the process progress towards its integration in a fully qualified industrial system.

  4. Optical properties of nanocrystalline potassium lithium niobate in the glass system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, M Niyaz; Varma, K B R

    2009-08-01

    Optically clear glasses of various compositions in the system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5) (2 glasses comprising potassium lithium niobate (K3Li2Nb5O15) microcrystallites on the surface and nanocrystallites within the glass were obtained by controlled heat-treatment of the as-quenched glasses just above the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The optical transmission spectra of these glasses and glass-crystal composites of various compositions were recorded in the 200-2500 nm wavelength range. Various optical parameters such as optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index were determined. Second order optical non-linearity was established in the heat-treated samples by employing the Maker-Fringe method.

  5. Preparation of a Si/SiO2 -Ordered-Mesoporous-Carbon Nanocomposite as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Liu, Renpin; Han, Lei; Luo, Fenqiang; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jianbiao; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2018-04-03

    In this work, an Si/SiO 2 -ordered-mesoporous carbon (Si/SiO 2 -OMC) nanocomposite was initially fabricated through a magnesiothermic reduction strategy by using a two-dimensional bicontinuous mesochannel of SiO 2 -OMC as a precursor, combined with an NaOH etching process, in which crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles were encapsulated into the OMC matrix. Not only can such unique porous crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the OMC matrix mitigate the volume change of active materials during the cycling process, but they can also improve electrical conductivity of Si/SiO 2 and facilitate the Li + /Na + diffusion. When applied as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the Si/SiO 2 -OMC composite displayed superior reversible capacity (958 mA h g -1 at 0.2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and good cycling life (retaining a capacity of 459 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 after 1000 cycles). For sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), the composite maintained a high capacity of 423 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 0.05 A g -1 and an extremely stable reversible capacity of 190 mA h g -1 was retained even after 500 cycles at 1 A g -1 . This performance is one of the best long-term cycling properties of Si-based SIB anode materials. The Si/SiO 2 -OMC composites exhibited great potential as an alternative material for both lithium- and sodium-ion battery anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Self-doped carbon architectures with heteroatoms containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur as high-performance anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Mingjie; Yu, Wenhua; Shi, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Huanlei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Self-doped carbon architectures with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur are derived from Carrageen. •The obtained carbon materials exhibit excellent electrochemical property. •The strategy provides a one-step synthesis route to design advanced anodes for batteries. -- Abstract: Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur tridoped porous carbons have been successfully synthesized from natural biomass algae-Carrageen by using a simultaneous carbonization and activation procedure. The doped carbons with sponge-like interconnected architecture, partially ordered graphitic structure, and abundant heteroatom doping perform outstanding features for electrochemical energy storage. When tested as lithium-ion battery anodes, a high reversible capacity of 839 mAh g −1 can be obtained at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 228 mAh g −1 can be maintained at 10 A g −1 . Tested against sodium, a high specific capacity of 227 can be delivered at 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 109 mAh g −1 can be achieved at 10 A g −1 . These results turn out that the doped carbons would be potential anode materials for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, which can be achieved by a one-step and large-scale synthesis route. Our observation indicates that heteroatom doping (especially sulfur) can significantly promote ion storage and reduce irreversible ion trapping to some extent. This work gives a general route for designing carbon nanostructures with heteroatom doping for efficient energy storage.

  7. Preparation of potassium-reduced tantalum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, V.N.; Miroshnichenko, M.N.; Orlov, V.M.; Prokhorova, T.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of tantalum powders prepared by reduction of molten potassium heptafluorotantalate with liquid potassium are studied in a temperature range of 750 - 850 deg C using potassium chloride as a flux at a ratio of K 2 TaF 7 : KCl = 1, 2, and 3. The use of potassium as a reducing agent facilitates washing of tantalum powders for impurity salt removal, reduces sodium content and leakage currents in the anodes. As compared to sodium process, the potassium reduction results in a high yield of sponge material, a decrease in the specific surface area and yield of tantalum powder suitable for manufacture of capacitor anodes [ru

  8. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  10. Crown-ether functionalized carbon nanotubes for purification of lithium compounds: computational and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Deb, A.K.; Arora, S.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K.T.; Goyal, Aiana

    2015-01-01

    Lithium compounds finds several applications in nuclear science and technology, viz, lithium fluoride/hydroxide/alloys are used as dosimetric materials in luminescence devices, molten-salt breeder reactor, international thermonuclear experimental reactor, single crystal based neutron detectors etc. The lithium compounds should be in a proper state of purity; especially it should not contain other alkali metal cations which can downgrade the performance. Hence, there is a need to develop a process for purification of the lithium salt to achieve the desired quality. Therefore an attempt has been made to develop advanced nanomaterials for purification of the lithium salts. In this work, benzo-15-crown-5(B15C5) functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to the good adsorption properties of CNT and alkali metal encapsulation behaviour of B15C5, were showed to bind preferentially with sodium and potassium ions compared to lithium ions. DFT based computation calculations have shown that the free energy of complexation of Na + and K + by B15C5-CNT is higher than that of Li + , implying that B15C5-CNT selectively binds Na + and K + . The experimental batch solid-liquid extraction has also revealed the same trend as in the calculations. The crown-ethers functionalized CNTs have the potentiality for use in purifying lithium compounds. (author)

  11. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  12. Li and Na storage behavior of bowl-like hollow Co3O4 microspheres as an anode material for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jian-Wu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zang, Yong; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Yu, Yan; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A unique bowl-like hollow spherical Co 3 O 4 structure is prepared through a simple, low-cost and mass-yield method. • Such a bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microsphere demonstrates extraordinary rate and cycling performance for Li-storage. • The sodium-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 is investigated for the first time. - Abstract: Bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are prepared via a simple and low-cost route by thermally treating Co-containing resorcinol-formaldehyde composites gel in air. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrate that these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are composed of hollow inner cavities and outer shell walls (70 nm thickness), on which a considerable amount of mesopores centered around 5-17 nm size are distributed. When employed as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres exhibit extraordinary cycling performance (111% retention after 50 cycles owing to capacity rise), fairly high rate capacity (650 mAh g −1 at 5 C) and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Meanwhile, the Na-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 as an anode material of Na-ion batteries is initially investigated based on such a hollow structure and it exhibits similar feature of discharge/charge profiles and a high initial discharge capacity but relatively moderate capacity retention compared with the Li-storage performance

  13. Mesoporous Tin-Based Oxide Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Composites as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Half/Full Cells and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Dong, Caifu; Li, Chuanchuan; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-10-04

    The large volume variations of tin-based oxides hinder their extensive application in the field of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, structure design, hybrid fabrication, and carbon-coating approaches have been simultaneously adopted to address these shortcomings. To this end, uniform mesoporous NiO/SnO 2 @rGO, Ni-Sn oxide@rGO, and SnO 2 @rGO nanosphere composites have been selectively fabricated. Among them, the obtained NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite exhibited a high capacity of 800 mAh g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 after 400 cycles. The electrochemical mechanism of NiO/SnO 2 as an anode for LIBs has been preliminarily investigated by ex situ XRD pattern analysis. Furthermore, an NiO/SnO 2 @rGO-LiCoO 2 lithium-ion full cell showed a high capacity of 467.8 mAh g -1 at 500 mA g -1 after 100 cycles. Notably, the NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite also showed good performance when investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). It is believed that the unique mesoporous nanospherical framework, synergistic effects between the various components, and uniform rGO wrapping of NiO/SnO 2 shorten the Li + ion diffusion pathways, maintain sufficient contact between the active material and the electrolyte, mitigate volume changes, and finally improve the electrical conductivity of the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The 'active mass' (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 deg C) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the 'active mass' was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 deg C) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils) affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the 'active mass'. (author)

  15. The structural, morphological and thermal properties of grafted pH-sensitive interpenetrating highly porous polymeric composites of sodium alginate/acrylic acid copolymers for controlled delivery of diclofenac potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Aamir; Khan, Samiullah; Naeem, Fahad; Haider, Malik Suleman; Sarwar, Shoaib; Riaz, Amna; Ranjha, Nazar Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In present investigation new formulations of Sodium Alginate/Acrylic acid hydrogels with high porous structure were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique for the controlled drug delivery of analgesic agent to colon. Many structural parameters like molecular weight between crosslinks ( M c ), crosslink density ( M r ), volume interaction parameter ( v 2, s ), Flory Huggins water interaction parameter and diffusion coefficient ( Q ) were calculated. Water uptake studies was conducted in different USP phosphate buffer solutions. All samples showed higher swelling ratio with increasing pH values because of ionization of carboxylic groups at higher pH values. Porosity and gel fraction of all the samples were calculated. New selected samples were loaded with the model drug (diclofenac potassium).The amount of drug loaded and released was determined and it was found that all the samples showed higher release of drug at higher pH values. Release of diclofenac potassium was found to be dependent on the ratio of sodium alginate/acrylic acid, EGDMA and pH of the medium. Experimental data was fitted to various model equations and corresponding parameters were calculated to study the release mechanism. The Structural, Morphological and Thermal Properties of interpenetrating hydrogels were studied by FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM.

  16. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  17. Comparison of Clinical Efficacies of Preoperatively Initiated Naproxen Sodium-Codeine Phosphate in Combination, Diclofenac Potassium, and Benzydamine Hydrochloride for Pain, Edema, and Trismus After Extraction of Impacted Lower Third Molar: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigerim, Levent; Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate in combination, benzydamine hydrochloride, and diclofenac potassium for pain, edema, and trismus after lower third molar extraction. Ninety healthy volunteers in whom impacted third molar extraction was indicated were randomly distributed into 3 groups. One hour before the tooth-extraction process, patients were administered one of the following drugs: naproxen sodium, 550 mg, and codeine phosphate, 30 mg, in a tablet; diclofenac potassium, 50 mg, in a coated pill; or benzydamine hydrochloride, 50 mg, in a coated pill. Pain assessment was conducted via a visual analog scale; edema assessment, by measuring the distances between predetermined facial landmarks; and trismus assessment, by measuring interincisal distance. Regarding rescue analgesics (paracetamol, 500 mg), the number and time of use by patients were recorded. Naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate was more effective for pain, edema, and trismus than diclofenac potassium and benzydamine hydrochloride (P hydrochloride yielded similar clinical responses to diclofenac potassium (P > .05). No drug-related side effects were observed. Naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate constitutes the drug of choice after the extraction of a patient's impacted lower third molar. Benzydamine hydrochloride has similar efficacy to diclofenac potassium, and it can be used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic drug. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. pH-sensitive membranes for lithium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, Katarzyna; Bryjak, Marek; Wolska, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes followed by grafting of poly(acrylic acid) and copolymers of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The evaluation by IR and XPS spectroscopies showed that both polymers were successfully grafted to the porous membranes. Determination of permeate fluxes pointed the membranes to have excellent responses to pH changes when grafting yield was not so high. When grafting exceeded 0.1 mg cm −2 stimuli response gel-filled membranes were formed that could be used for transport of alkaline ions. The best permselectivity was observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes grafted with 1:2 copolymer of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The dialysis was more effectively facilitated for lithium than for potassium or sodium salts at solution of pH = 5.5. - Highlights: • Preparation of pore-filled stimuli response membranes that facilitate transport of alkaline salts. • pH controlled transport of alkaline salts. • Facilitation of lithium transport over sodium and potassium

  19. Honeycomb-inspired design of ultrafine SnO2@C nanospheres embedded in carbon film as anode materials for high performance lithium- and sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xiang; Jiang, Jianjun; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jianwu; Wang, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) has been considered as one of the most promising anodes for advanced rechargeable batteries due to its advantages such as high energy density, earth abundance and environmental friendly. However, its large volume change during the Li-Sn/Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying processes will result in a fast capacity degradation over a long term cycling. To solve this issue, in this work we design and synthesize a novel honeycomb-like composite composing of carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanospheres embedded in carbon film by using dual templates of SiO2 and NaCl. Using these composites as anodes both in lithium ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries, no discernable capacity degradation is observed over hundreds of long term cycles at both low current density (100 mA g-1) and high current density (500 mA g-1). Such a good cyclic stability and high delivered capacity have been attributed to the high conductivity of the supported carbon film and hollow encapsulated carbon shells, which not only provide enough space to accommodate the volume expansion but also prevent further aggregation of SnO2 nanoparticles upon cycling. By engineering electrodes of accommodating high volume expansion, we demonstrate a prototype to achieve high performance batteries, especially high-power batteries.

  20. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g -1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g -1 and 1185 mA h g -1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g -1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  1. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Satya N., E-mail: satyanarayantripathy@gmail.com; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Knapik, Justyna; Paluch, Marian [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Shirota, Hideaki [Department of Nanomaterial Science and Department of Chemistry, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Biswas, Ranjit [Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-05-14

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10{sup −1}-10{sup 6} Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai’s coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors.

  2. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  3. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  4. The use of lithium compounds for inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction effects in pavement structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapała-Sławeta, J.; Owsiak, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Internal corrosion of concrete caused by the reaction of reactive aggregate with sodium and potassium hydroxides from cement is a threat to the durability of concrete pavements. Traditional methods for reducing the negative effects of the reaction include the use of unreactive aggregates, low alkali cements, mineral additives or chemical admixtures, incorporated during mixing. Lowering the relative humidity of the concrete below 80% is another measure for limiting the destructive reaction. The incorporation of lithium compounds, in particular lithium nitrate and lithium hydroxide, to the concrete mix is a method of limiting alkali-silica reaction effects. The challenge is to reduce the negative effects of aggregate reactivity in members in which the reaction has occurred because the aggregate happened to be reactive. The paper presents ways of limiting the deterioration of ASR-affected concrete in road pavements and other forms of transportation infrastructure, mainly through the use of lithium compounds, i.e. lithium nitrate. Impregnation methods that allow the penetration of lithium ions into the concrete structure were characterized, as was the effectiveness of the solutions applied.

  5. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  6. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining; Caracterizacao do po de titanato de bario dopado com ions sodio e potasio com o refinamento de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R., E-mail: mcalixto@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Araujo, J.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FFP/UERJ), Sao Goncalo, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Formacao de Professores; Moreira, E.L.; Moraes, V.C.A.; Lopes, A.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO{sub 3} formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  7. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Modelling the performance parameters of a horizontal falling film absorber with aqueous (lithium, potassium, sodium) nitrate solution using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, María E.; Hernández, José A.; Bourouis, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    An ANN (artificial neural network) model was developed to determine the efficiency parameters of a horizontal falling film absorber at operating conditions of interest for absorption cooling systems. The aqueous nitrate solution LiNO_3 + KNO_3 + NaNO_3 with salt mass percentages of 53%, 28% and 19%, respectively, was used as a working fluid. The authors created the ANN from the database they had compiled with the results of experiments that they had performed in a set-up designed and built for this purpose. The ANN structure consisted of 6 input variables: inlet solution and cooling water temperatures, cooling water and solution mass flow rates, absorber pressure and inlet solution concentration; 4 output variables which facilitated the assessment of the performance of the absorber: heat and mass transfer coefficients, absorption mass flux and the degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber. The hidden layer contained 9 neurons which were determined by training and test procedures. The results showed that the deviation between the experimental data and the estimated values was well adjusted. This indicated that the ANN model was an effective tool for predicting the efficiency parameters of the absorber. The solution flow rate was also observed to be the most significant operating variable which affected the performance of the absorber. - Highlights: • An ANN was developed to predict the efficiency parameters of a falling film absorber. • The ANN was created using a database corresponding to a triple-effect absorption chiller. • The ANN predicts the efficiency parameters of falling film absorbers with r"2 > 0.95. • The solution flow rate is the variable that most affects the performance of the absorber.

  9. Electrochemical characterization of LiFePO{sub 4}/poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-multi walled carbon nanotube composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van Hiep; Wang, Wan Lin; Jin, En Mei; Gu, Hal-Bon, E-mail: hbgu@chonnam.ac.kr

    2013-08-25

    Highlights: •LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS–MWCNT successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method. •LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) shows the best electrochemical performances. •PSS stacks and forms a layer about 3–6 nm around the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. •The electronic conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) is 6.3 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. -- Abstract: LiFePO{sub 4} is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries and is prepared by a hydrothermal method. However, its practical application is limited due to its poor conductivity. In order to improve the electronic conductivity, we added poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in LiFePO{sub 4}. In the results, PSS stacks and forms a layer about 3–6 nm around the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. MWCNT provides pathways for electron transport. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic discharge testing results indicate that LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS–MWCNT composite exhibits higher discharge capacity than pure LiFePO{sub 4}. LiFePO{sub 4}/PSS(2.5%)–MWCNT(2.5%) shows the best discharge capacity of 144 mAh g{sup −1} at 2nd cycle, and high electronic conductivity of 6.3 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}.

  10. One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Oxyhydroxy-Fluoride Rods and Research on the Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-ion Batteries and Sodium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Gao, Zhan; Wang, Dake; Hao, Qiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yongkun; Tang, Kaibin

    2015-12-01

    Titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride, TiO0.9(OH)0.9F1.2 · 0.59H2O rods with a hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) structure, was synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, and component of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatograph, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, and so on. Different rod morphologies which ranged from nanoscale to submicron scale were simply obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. With one-dimension channels for Li/Na intercalation/de-intercalation, the electrochemical performance of titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) was also studied. Electrochemical tests revealed that, for LIBs, titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride exhibited a stabilized reversible capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) at 25 mA g(-1) up to 120 cycles in the electrode potential range of 3.0-1.2 V and 140 mAh g(-1) at 250 mA g(-1) up to 500 cycles, especially; for SIBs, a high capacity of 100 mAh g(-1) was maintained at 25 mA g(-1) after 115 cycles in the potential range of 2.9-0.5 V.

  11. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  12. Thermal stability and oxidizing properties of mixed alkaline earth-alkali molten carbonates: A focus on the lithium-sodium carbonate eutectic system with magnesium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangini, Stefano; Scaccia, Silvera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TG/DSC analysis was conducted on magnesium-containing eutectic Li/Na eutectic carbonates. • Magnesium influence on the oxygen solubility properties of carbonate was also experimentally determined at 600 °C and 650 °C. • A reproducible partial decarbonation process in premelting region caused formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases. • The acidobase buffering action of magnesium oxycarbonate species could explain the high basic/oxidizing properties of such carbonate melts. • A general correlation between thermal instability in premelting region and basic/oxidizing melt properties was established. - Abstract: A comparative study on thermal behavior and oxygen solubility properties of eutectic 52/48 lithium/sodium carbonate salt containing minor additions of magnesium up to 10 mol% has been made in order to determine whether a general correlation between these two properties can be found or not. Consecutive TG/DSC heating/cooling thermal cycles carried out under alternating CO 2 and N 2 gas flows allowed to assign thermal events observed in the premelting region to a partial decarbonation process of the magnesium-alkali mixed carbonates. The observed decarbonation process at 460 °C is believed to come from initial stage of thermal decomposition of magnesium carbonate resulting in the metastable formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases MgO·2MgCO 3 , in a similar manner as previously reported for lanthanum. Reversible formation and decomposition of the magnesium carbonate phase has been observed under a CO 2 gas atmosphere. The intensity of the decomposition process shows a maximum for a 3 mol% MgO addition that gives also the highest oxygen solubility, suggesting therefore that instability thermal analysis in the premelting region can be considered as providing an effective measure of the basicity/oxidizing properties of alkali carbonate melts with magnesium or, in more general terms, with cations that are strong modifiers of

  13. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  14. Modeling the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat cooked meat products as a function of the product salt, moisture, potassium lactate, and sodium diacetate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, J D; Seman, D L; Milkowski, A L; Hirschey, J A; Vandeven, M H

    2004-10-01

    A central composite response surface design was used to determine the time to growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of four continuous variables: added sodium chloride (0.8 to 3.6%), sodium diacetate (0 to 0.2%), potassium lactate syrup (60% [wt/wt]; 0.25 to 9.25%), and finished-product moisture (45.5 to 83.5%) in ready-to-eat cured meat products. The design was repeated for ready-to-eat uncured meat products giving a fifth categorical variable for cure status. Products were stored at 4 degrees C. The results were modeled using a generalized regression approach. All five main effects, six two-factor interactions, and two quadratic terms were statistically significant. The model was used to show the boundary between growth and no-growth conditions at 4 degrees C using contour plots of time to growth. It was validated using independent challenge studies of cured and uncured products. Generally, the model predicted well, particularly for cured products, where it will be useful for establishing conditions that prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes. For uncured products, there was good agreement overall between predicted and observed times to growth, but the model is less thoroughly validated than for cured products. The model should initially only be used for screening of formulations likely to prevent growth of Listeria monocytogenes in uncured products, with recommendations subject to confirmation by challenge studies.

  15. A Lithium-Sensitive and Sodium-Tolerant 3′-Phosphoadenosine-5′-Phosphatase Encoded by halA from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis Is Closely Related to Its Counterparts from Yeasts and Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3′-Phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to th...

  16. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  17. The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Kronengold, Jack; Yan, Yangyang; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Ma, Liqun; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Yang, Youshan; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Sigworth, Fred J; Salkoff, Larry; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2009-04-29

    Potassium channels activated by intracellular Na(+) ions (K(Na)) play several distinct roles in regulating the firing patterns of neurons, and, at the single channel level, their properties are quite diverse. Two known genes, Slick and Slack, encode K(Na) channels. We have now found that Slick and Slack subunits coassemble to form heteromeric channels that differ from the homomers in their unitary conductance, kinetic behavior, subcellular localization, and response to activation of protein kinase C. Heteromer formation requires the N-terminal domain of Slack-B, one of the alternative splice variants of the Slack channel. This cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Slack-B also facilitates the localization of heteromeric K(Na) channels to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Slick and Slack-B subunits are coexpressed in many central neurons. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for some of the diversity in reported properties of neuronal K(Na) channels.

  18. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  19. Effects of externally supplied lithium on the suppression of ASR expansion in mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Mitsunori; Kodera, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Lithium salts are being externally supplied for mitigating the progress of deterioration of ASR-affected concrete structures. However, it is not clear whether the sodium or potassium in the ASR gel in concrete is replaced by the lithium supplied from the outside. In this article, we examine changes in the composition of the ASR gel, previously formed in mortar specimens, after they are immersed in LiOH solution, using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, associated with length change measurement of the mortar prisms. The intrusion of lithium ions into mortar specimens containing a reactive aggregate could arrest their further expansion within a relatively short time after immersion in 0.50 N LiOH solution. The alkali ions incorporated in most ASR gels, located not far away from interfaces between the cement paste and reactive aggregate particles, appear to be replaced by the lithium ions supplied from the solution. However, the ASR gel within the reacted aggregate particles did not appear to have been affected by the lithium ions

  20. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  1. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain other liquids including low-fat white or chocolate milk, flat soda, orange juice, raspberry syrup, or ... Potassium iodide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: swollen glands metallic taste in the ...

  2. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low potassium (hypokalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal potassium level ... 2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) ...

  3. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries; Recuperacao de cobalto e de litio de baterias ion-litio usadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    The 'active mass' (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 deg C) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the 'active mass' was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 deg C) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils) affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the 'active mass'. (author)

  4. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Purification of the labeled cyanogen bromide peptides of the. cap alpha. polypeptide from sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosinetriphosphatase modified with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosinetriphosphatase, isolated from canine kidney, was reacted with N-(/sup 3/H)ethylmaleimide under three different conditions, defined by particular concentrations of ligands for the enzyme, such that after the same amount of time the remaining activity of then enzyme varied from 90% to 30%. The conformation of the enzyme also differed among the three conditions. In all cases, the ..cap alpha..-polypeptide was purified and subjected to cyanogen bromide digestion. Two distinct, radioactive peptides were separated by gel filtration of the cyanogen bromide digest on a column of Sephadex LH-60 equilibrated with 95% ethanol: 88% formic acid:4:1. One of the radioactive peptides was shown to contain the sulfhydryl residue whose reaction with N-ethylmaleimide inactivates the enzyme. The other radioactive peptide contained a sulfhydryl residue that seems to react with N-ethylmaleimide only when the binding site for ATP is not occupied. Alkylation of this residue, however, does not result in inactivation of enzyme. Both peptides were purified further by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined by the manual dansyl-Edman or solid-phase techniques. The peptide containing the sulfhydryl protected by ATP has, as its amino terminus, the lysine that reacts exclusively with fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate.

  6. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  7. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  8. Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baldev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.

  9. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  10. Energy analysis of a diffusion absorption cooling system using lithium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate and water as absorbent substances and ammonia as the refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuña, A.; Velázquez, N.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion absorption cooling system is analyzed to determine the appropriate fluid for the unit, based on the coefficient of performance (COP) and operating conditions, by comparing lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and water (H 2 O) as absorbent substances and by using ammonia (NH 3 ) as the refrigerant. The presence of crystallization in the system is analyzed as a function of the generator and absorber temperatures. Additionally, the effects on the efficiency of the system from adding the inert gas helium (He) or hydrogen (H 2 ) are studied. A mathematical model is developed and compared to experimental studies reported in the literature. At an evaporator temperature of −15 °C, a generator temperature of 120 °C and absorber and condenser temperatures of 40 °C, the results show that the best performance is achieved by the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, with a COP of 0.48. This mixture performs 27–46% more efficient than the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. The NH 3 –H 2 O mixture is 52–69% less efficient than the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture. However, when the evaporator runs at 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture achieves a more efficient COP than does the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, and the NH 3 –NaSCN–He and NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixtures achieve the same COP when the evaporator is at 10 °C. At temperatures below 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –NaSCN–He mixture achieves a higher COP than does the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture. The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture shows crystallization at higher temperatures in the generator than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. Moreover, at the same evaporator temperature, the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture works at activation temperatures lower than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. -- Highlights: ► We studied a diffusion absorption cooling system with different working mixtures. ► The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture showed more efficiency than NH 3 –H 2 O mixture and NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. ► The generator and absorber temperature

  11. Cyclophilin B interacts with sodium-potassium ATPase and is required for pump activity in proximal tubule cells of the kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Suñé

    Full Text Available Cyclophilins (Cyps, the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA, are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1 that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.

  12. Cyclophilin B interacts with sodium-potassium ATPase and is required for pump activity in proximal tubule cells of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñé, Guillermo; Sarró, Eduard; Puigmulé, Marta; López-Hellín, Joan; Zufferey, Madeleine; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy; Meseguer, Anna

    2010-11-10

    Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA), are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1) that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.

  13. Sodium effect on self-organization of amphiphilic carboxylates: formation of structured micelles and superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlehner, Karin; Schade, Boris; Böttcher, Christoph; Jäger, Christof M; Clark, Timothy; Heinemann, Frank W; Hirsch, Andreas

    2010-08-16

    Not only the self-aggregation of dendritic polycarboxylates into structurally persistent micelles, but also that of the micelles themselves into superlattices is controlled by alkali-metal counterions and shows a pronounced sodium effect. Our combined experimental and computational work has revealed the formation of superlattices for the first time. The behavior of a variety of amphiphilic carboxylates and the different effects of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) have been investigated by conductivity measurements, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Together, these show that sodium salts of the amphiphiles give the most stable micelles, followed by lithium and potassium. Our results suggest that ion multiplets in bridging positions, rather than contact ion pairs, are responsible for the enhanced stability and the formation of hexagonally ordered superlattices with sodium counterions. Potassium ions do not form such ion multiplets and cannot therefore induce aggregation of the micelles. This sodium effect has far-reaching consequences for a large number of biological and technical systems and sheds new light on the origin of specific-ion effects.

  14. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  15. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  16. Effect of lithium and of other drugs used in the treatment of manic illness on the cation-transporting properties of Na+,K+-ATPase in mouse brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A J; Elphick, M; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1989-04-01

    We have developed and used a novel technique to investigate the effects of lithium and other psychotropic drugs on the cation-transporting properties of the sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase enzyme (Na+,K+-ATPase) in intact synaptosomes. Rubidium-86 uptake into intact synaptosomes is an active process and is inhibited by approximately 75% in the presence of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor acetylstrophanthidin. In vitro addition of lithium to synaptosomes prepared from untreated mice causes a progressive inhibition of acetylstrophanthidin-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake, but only at concentrations higher than the clinical therapeutic range. However, pretreatment of mice for 14 days in vivo with lithium, carbamazepine, and haloperidol, but not phenytoin, causes a significant stimulation of /sup 86/Rb uptake into synaptosomes via Na+,K+-ATPase.

  17. Recuperação de cobalto e de lítio de baterias íon-lítio usadas Recovery of cobalt and lithium fromspent Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Giovanini Busnardo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The "active mass" (cathode + anode + electrolyte of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a it was calcined (500 ºC and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b the "active mass" was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 ºC and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the "active mass".

  18. Determination of the physiological plasmatic values of sodium, potassium and ion calcium and its pre and post exercise Variations in “paso fino” horses in the bogota savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Valdés Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to be a contribution to the Colombian sports equine medicine by providing data on electrolytes standards, a field where there is a substantial lack of literature. This research analyze and determines the normal values of sodium (Na+,potassium (K+ and ion calcium (iCa2+ electrolytes for Colombian Paso Fine horses. The establishment of the reference intervals was done at rest and after exercise. To achieve this, blood samples were taken from farms located in the Bogotá savannah. The 115 mares and stallions used for this study were actively competing with ages ranging from 43 to 78 months old. The samples were taken at three intervals: T0 (Rest,T1 (immediately after 45 minutes of exercise, and T2(1 hour post exercise. The samples were processed using a portable blood analyzer i-STAT® and the data was interpreted using descriptive and comparative statistic according to Turkey tests. The normal values for the breed were established and an electrolytic behavior curve was created, using values inside interval sat 95% confidence levels. The values obtained inmEq/L were: for T0: Na+ (136,71+/-0,23, K+ (4,05+/-0,03, Ca2+ (1,58+/-0,006; for T1: Na+ (136,44+/-0,24, K+ (3,92+/-0,24, Ca2+ (1,42+/-0,008; and for T2: Na+ (137,32+/-0,23, K+ (3,68+/-0,03, Ca2+(1,51+/-0,009. Na+ values increased after exercise. On the contrary K+ and Ca2+ values didn’t increase inT1. Calcium increased on T2 and K+ decreased. The findings of this research will serve as a framework for future analysis. Moreover, further studies and developments in this field are recommended and will prove to be very useful for equine practitioners.

  19. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  1. Fractionation of lithium isotopes in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kawada, Kazuhiko; Kakihana, Hidetake; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1991-01-01

    Various methods for lithium isotope separation have been developed, and their applicability to large-scale enriched lithium isotope production has been assessed. Ion-exchange chromatography is one such method. Cation-exchange chromatography of lithium was carried out to investigate the lithium isotope effect in aqueous ion-exchange systems. The heavier isotope. 7 Li, was preferentially fractionated into the resin phase in every experiment conducted, and this result is consistent with the results of previous work. The value of the separation factor was 1.00089-1.00171 at 25C. A comparison of lithium isotope effect with those of potassium and rubidium indicated that the isotope effect originating from hydration is larger than the effect due to phase change for lithium, while the opposite is the case with potassium and rubidium

  2. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  3. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances

  4. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  5. Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis in the Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Michael Jakob; Poulsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Metallomics and the Cell provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 37 internationally recognized experts from 9 nations, and supported by more than 3000 references, several tables, and 110 illustrations, mostly in color, a most up-to-date view of the "m......Metallomics and the Cell provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 37 internationally recognized experts from 9 nations, and supported by more than 3000 references, several tables, and 110 illustrations, mostly in color, a most up-to-date view...

  6. Lack of effect of non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs on lithium clearance and on delivery of tubular fluid to the loop of Henle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, E; Thomsen, K; Sørensen, S S; Pedersen, E B

    1986-11-01

    This paper examines a possible interaction between non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAI drugs) and renal lithium clearance in conscious, unoperated rats with diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain) and ordinary Wistar rats. The drugs were given with the food for 5 days before clearance determinations in the following daily doses per kg body weight: acetylsalicyclic acid 115 mg/kg, phenylbutazone 20 mg/kg, indomethacin 5 mg/kg, and penicillamine 65 mg/kg. None of the drugs affected the lithium clearance. Also urine flow, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, and prostaglandin E2 excretion remained unaffected by the treatments. The results suggest that a continued lowering of lithium clearance cannot be produced, at least not by administration of the drugs with the food. Since lithium clearance is a quantitative measure of the delivery of tubular fluid from the proximal tubules to the loop of Henle, the results also suggest that chronic administration of NSAI drugs does not influence delivery from the proximal tubules in rats. The lowering of lithium clearance observed by others after administration of the drugs by injection or by gastric tube may have been transient, lasting only for a short period after each administration.

  7. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  8. The mutagenic potentials of potassium bromate and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food additives are substances added to preserve flavour or improve the taste and appearance of food. The continuous consumption of these food additives could be hazardous to human health. Food additives including sodium bicarbonate, sodium benzoate, ammonium bicarbonate and potassium bromate were subjected ...

  9. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    insipidus develops because of urinary concentration defects due to the detrimental effects of lithium on re-absorption of water and sodium at the level of collector tubules. Close screening of renal functions is very important in the prevention of renal damage during treatment with lithium. Moreover, it is also of importance to screen serum lithium levels as lithium intoxication episodes may increase the risk of renal failure. As a conclusion lithium still preserves its indispensability in affective disorders. Clinicians should have current knowledge about the side effects of lithium and take preventive measures to apply such an important treatment to the patients.

  10. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  11. Graphene nanoribbon and nanostructured SnO2 composite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Xiang, Changsheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Yan, Zheng; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2013-07-23

    A composite made from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is synthesized and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The conductive GNRs, prepared using sodium/potassium unzipping of multiwall carbon nanotubes, can boost the lithium storage performance of SnO2 NPs. The composite, as an anode material for LIBs, exhibits reversible capacities of over 1520 and 1130 mAh/g for the first discharge and charge, respectively, which is more than the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The reversible capacity retains ~825 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Further, the composite shows good power performance with a reversible capacity of ~580 mAh/g at the current density of 2 A/g. The high capacity, good power performance and retention can be attributed to uniformly distributed SnO2 NPs along the high-aspect-ratio GNRs. The GNRs act as conductive additives that buffer the volume changes of SnO2 during cycling. This work provides a starting point for exploring the composites made from GNRs and other transition metal oxides for lithium storage applications.

  12. Study of the electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of green anodes for Lithium ion batteries prepared with anatase TiO2 and water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water soluble CMC and PVDF binders are used to prepare anatase TiO 2 electrodes. ► The electrochemical behavior of the different electrodes is studied between 20 and −30 °C. ► CMC/TiO 2 anodes show lower ICL, lower polarization and higher low-temperature capacity at high rates than PVDF/TiO 2 anodes. ► Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results show better kinetics for CMC/TiO 2 electrodes. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of anatase TiO 2 electrodes for Lithium ion batteries have been evaluated by galvanostatic cycles in the temperature range 20 to −30 °C. Two different manufacturing processes have been used to prepare anatase anodes containing water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. The low temperature performances at different charge/discharge rates of TiO 2 /CMC and TiO 2 /PVDF electrodes are compared and discussed in terms of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) at the first cycle, capacity retention and reversible capacity. The kinetics of the electrodes containing CMC or PVDF is evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

  13. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  14. Penicillin V Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other ... heart valves and other symptoms) from coming back. Penicillin V potassium is in a class of medications ...

  15. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:This study investigated maldistribution of concentrated 15% potassium chloride after injection into .... and latter experiments referred to for example as “Control 1” ..... be further investigated as a reliable, simple method of potassium.

  16. Study of the diffusion of lithium and sodium ions in solids under regardment of the dimensionality of the crystal lattice; Untersuchung der Diffusion von Lithium- und Natrium-Ionen in Festkoerpern unter Beruecksichtigung der Dimensionalitaet des Kristallgitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volgmann, Kai Tristan

    2016-07-29

    Low-dimensional diffusion was investigated to improve the understanding of the fundamentals of ion movement in condensed matter. Different model systems with different dimensionality of cation migration pathways were investigated using solidstate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Both experimental methods made it possible to complementarily study both Li and Na mobility over a wide range of jump rates. Metallic lithium as a well-known model system for isotropic diffusion was investigated using {sup 7}Li field-cycling NMR. The spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) rates were separated into an electronic contribution and a diffusion-induced contribution. The Korringa product was calculated from the actual measurements. The main focus was the comparison of different theoretical models describing the Li motion in metallic lithium. The well-known model by Bloembergen, Purcell and Pound already reproduced the data well, but two models by Sholl improved the results taking into account the type of crystal lattice and jump correlation effects. A single-vacancy diffusion mechanism was observed, but a double-vacancy mechanism was not excluded as elevated temperatures near the melting point of lithium were not available. Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}S{sub 4} is isostructural to Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}Se{sub 4} which was reported as possible 1D Li ion conductor due to its channel structure. Thus, Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}S{sub 4} was investigated as 1D model system using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy gave insights into structural properties. Li dynamics was observed by several NMR methods over a wide temperature range. {sup 7}Li NMR motional narrowing led to an estimate of the activation energy for local Li hopping. {sup 7}Li NMR spin-alignment echo (SAE) was used for the determination of Li jump rates on a macroscopic scale. Possible dimensionality effects were investigated by {sup 7}Li NMR SLR. Out of the phase system Li{sub 2}O

  17. Absolute proton hydration free energy, surface potential of water, and redox potential of the hydrogen electrode from first principles: QM/MM MD free-energy simulations of sodium and potassium hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2018-06-01

    The absolute intrinsic hydration free energy GH+,w a t ◦ of the proton, the surface electric potential jump χwa t ◦ upon entering bulk water, and the absolute redox potential VH+,w a t ◦ of the reference hydrogen electrode are cornerstone quantities for formulating single-ion thermodynamics on absolute scales. They can be easily calculated from each other but remain fundamentally elusive, i.e., they cannot be determined experimentally without invoking some extra-thermodynamic assumption (ETA). The Born model provides a natural framework to formulate such an assumption (Born ETA), as it automatically factors out the contribution of crossing the water surface from the hydration free energy. However, this model describes the short-range solvation inaccurately and relies on the choice of arbitrary ion-size parameters. In the present study, both shortcomings are alleviated by performing first-principle calculations of the hydration free energies of the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. The calculations rely on thermodynamic integration based on quantum-mechanical molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving the ion and 2000 water molecules. The ion and its first hydration shell are described using a correlated ab initio method, namely resolution-of-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (RIMP2). The next hydration shells are described using the extended simple point charge water model (SPC/E). The hydration free energy is first calculated at the MM level and subsequently increased by a quantization term accounting for the transformation to a QM/MM description. It is also corrected for finite-size, approximate-electrostatics, and potential-summation errors, as well as standard-state definition. These computationally intensive simulations provide accurate first-principle estimates for GH+,w a t ◦, χwa t ◦, and VH+,w a t ◦, reported with statistical errors based on a confidence interval of 99%. The values obtained

  18. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  19. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  20. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  1. Reverse iontophoresis of lithium: electrode formulation using a thermoreversible polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascotte, Valentine; Leboulanger, Benoît; Guy, Richard H; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M

    2005-01-01

    This work investigated the use of a thermoreversible gel as a collector vehicle in reverse iontophoresis applications. A 20% (w/w) aqueous gel of Pluronic F127 was a suitable receptor medium to be used at the cathodal chamber. In vitro iontophoresis experiments investigated the simultaneous extraction of lithium (analyte of interest) and sodium (used as an internal standard) into either a control buffer or a gelled receptor. The gelification process at room temperature provided a suitable consistency and contact with the skin surface during the iontophoresis experiments. Subsequent cooling of the gelled solution to 4 degrees C allows an easy recovery of lithium and sodium for later quantification. Both the lithium extraction fluxes and the lithium to sodium ratio of extraction fluxes were linearly related to the subdermal lithium concentration. On the whole, the results show that thermoreversible polymer solutions offer a simple and convenient way to handle samples in reverse iontophoresis studies.

  2. Hydrogen and helium adsorption on potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Mulders, N.; Hess, G.

    1995-01-01

    A previous quartz microbalance study of adsorption of helium on sodium indicates that the inert layer is surprisingly small. Similar experiments with hydrogen on sodium show layer by layer growth below a temperature of 7K. These results motivated the authors to extend the experiments to lower temperatures. A suitable apparatus, capable of reaching 0.45 K, while still enabling them to do in situ alkali evaporation, has been constructed. The authors will report on the results of microbalance adsorption experiments of helium and hydrogen on potassium

  3. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  4. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  5. A lithium-sensitive and sodium-tolerant 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by halA from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is closely related to its counterparts from yeasts and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.

  6. Muzzle secretion electrolytes as a possible indicator of sodium status in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves: effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Singh, S P

    1981-01-01

    In two separate experiments, the effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration on sodium and potassium concentrations in muzzle secretion, saliva and urine were studied in buffalo calves. Sodium deficiency in the animals was experimentally produced by unilateral parotid saliva deprivation for 18 days. During sodium depletion, the sodium levels in saliva and muzzle secretion gradually fell while the potassium level gradually rose. The concentrations of both of these cations in urine gradually fell during the course of sodium depletion. Aldosterone administration in normal (sodium-replete) animals simulated the effects of sodium depletion as far as cationic changes in saliva were concerned. However, aldosterone did not affect sodium and potassium concentration in the urine and in muzzle secretion in a manner similar to that caused by sodium depletion. Though the hormone decreased urinary sodium without affecting urinary potassium, it did not affect the muzzle sodium or potassium. Results suggest that aldosterone affects the composition of saliva and urine in buffaloes as it does in sheep and other ruminants. Similar changes in composition of muzzle secretion and saliva during sodium depletion indicate that the concentration of sodium in muzzle secretion could possibly be used to evaluate the sodium status of animals.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.24} and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62} inorganic–organic Brannerites in lithium and sodium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández de Luis, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.fernandez@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ponrouch, Alexandre, E-mail: aponrouch@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Rosa Palacín, M., E-mail: rosa.palacin@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Karmele Urtiaga, M., E-mail: karmele.urtiaga@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Arriortua, María I., E-mail: maribel.arriortua@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    The performance of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} (MnV) and its [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.16} (MnBpy) and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62}(MnBpy0.5) hybrid derivative compounds was investigated against sodium and lithium counter electrodes. For MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} stable capacities of 850 mAh/g were achieved in lithium cells, the best value reported so far. The whole capacity is ascribed to a conversion reaction in which the amorphization of the compounds takes place. No significant differences in the capacities for the inorganic compound and the hybrid ones were observed. Interestingly, the potential hysteresis decreases in the hybrid compounds. The difference between Li and Na cell capacity most probably comes from the difference of standard potential of the two redox couples Li{sup +}/Li and Na{sup +}/Na of about ca. 0.3 V leading to an incomplete conversion reaction and thus lowers capacity in the case of Na cells. The Raman and IR ex-situ experiments after cycling indicate that the bipyridine organic ligands are completely decomposed during the electrochemical testing. The IR studies in MnV inorganic and MnBpy and MnBpy0.5 hybrid electrodes after the electrochemical cycling, suggest that the SEI formation and bipyridine degradation give rise to different aliphatic compounds. - Graphical abstract: The electrochemical performance of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.16} and [(Mn(Bpy){sub 0.5})(VO{sub 3}){sub 2}]≈(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.62} against sodium and lithium counter electrodes give rise to the structural collapse of the initial compounds. The IR and Raman studies show that the Bpy organic ligand is completely decomposed during the during the electrochemical testing. However, after the amorphization stable capacities as high as 850 mAh/g for lithium cells were achieved. - Highlights: • We test the lithium and sodium insertion in hybrid brannerites. • Capacities as large as 850 mAh/g were obtained

  8. Nutrição de mudas de açaizeiro sob relações cálcio:potássio:sódio em solução nutritiva Nutrition of açai seedlings (Euterpe oleracea Mart. under different ratios of calcium:potassium: sodium in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Umbelino de Sousa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar diferentes relações entre os cátions cálcio, potássio e sódio na produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de macronutrientes em mudas de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart., realizou-se um experimento em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualisados com nove tratamentos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por nove relações cálcio: potássio: sódio (4:2:1, 3:3:1, 2:4:1, 1:5:1, 5:1:1, 4:1:2, 6:0:1; 0:6:1, e 4:2:0 em solução nutritiva. A unidade experimental constituiu-se de um vaso com capacidade para três litros de solução, contendo duas plantas. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características: produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo dos macronutrientes fósforo, cálcio, potássio, magnésio e enxofre na matéria seca da planta. A relação cálcio:potássio:sódio influenciou todas as características avaliadas; as soluções contendo cálcio, potássio e sódio nas relações 4:2:1 e 3:3:1 resultaram no desenvolvimento de mudas com maior produção de matéria seca e maior acúmulo de nutrientes.Aiming to evaluate the effects of different ratios of calcium, potassium and sodium cations on the mineral nutrition of açai seedlings (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a greenhouse experiment was carried out in the Soil Science Department at the Federal University of Lavras-UFLA. The randomized block design, with nine treatments and four replications, was used. The treatments were nine ratios of calcium, potassium and sodium (4:2:1, 3:3:1, 2:4:1, 1:5:1, 5:1:1, 4:1:2, 6:0:1; 0:6:1, e 4:2:0 in the nutrient solution. The experimental unit was a plastic pot with three liters of solution, containing two plants. The total dry matter and nutrient accumulation were evaluated. The relationship calcium:potassium:sodium influenced all the appraised characteristics, and the solutions containing calcium, potassium and sodium in the ratios

  9. Evaluation of aldosterone-and cortisol levels in blood plasma in normal conditions of ingestion of sodium and potassium, after saline-increase and depletion, in regard to position, and after stimulation with ACTH and angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for the determination of plasma aldosterone and cortisol, by radioimmunoassay, were performed utilizing highly specific antisera. With this methodology it was possible to evaluate cortisol and aldosterone secretion, in six normal subjects, submitted to a basal rice diet on standing and recumbent positions, the effects of exogenous cortrosyn (β1-24 ACTH) and angiotensin II and the same manoevres with progressively increased Na + content of the diet. Aldosterone basal levels decreased with the increase of Na + content in the diet. However, there were no significant differences between the relative increments observed on the recumbent position, at the three levels of sodium intake. The relative increase of plasma aldosterone after ACTH was similar for each basal level of aldosterone induced by different sodium intakes. The responsiveness of aldosterone secretion to cortrosyn and standing position was similar, with no relation to the sodium intake. The infusion of angiotensin II induced an increase in plasma aldosterone, and the relative increment in the levels of the hormone were higher with high sodium than on the rice diet. The average basal cortisol value at the different levels of sodium intake was significantly different being greater on the basal, rice diet, and there was a decrease in cortisol level after recumbency, with the theree diets. The injection of ACTH induced similar cortisol secretion with no relation to the sodium intake. The infusion of non-hypertensive doses of angiotensin II resulted in an anomalous fall in cortisol level, probably because of 'shunt' of substrates to biosynthesis with the added effect of cortisol diurnal rhythmycity. (Author) [pt

  10. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  11. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetable in your diet, leach them before using. Leaching is a process by which some potassium can be pulled out ... out of my favorite high-potassium vegetables? The process of leaching will help pull potassium out of some high- ...

  12. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension...

  13. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  14. Potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in 8-10 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Catarina; Padrão, Patrícia; Moreira, André; Pinto, Mariana; Neto, Mafalda; Santos, Tânia; Madureira, Joana; Fernandes, Eduardo de Oliveira; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-05-17

    Data from studies assessing the intake of potassium, and the concomitant sodium-to-potassium ratio are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio intake in 8-10 year-old children. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to June 2014 and data from 163 children (81 boys) were included. Potassium intake was estimated by 24-h urine collection and coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were also analysed. A 24-h dietary recall was used to provide information on dietary sources of potassium. Height and weight were measured according to international standards. The mean urinary potassium excretion was 1701 ± 594 mg/day in boys, and 1682 ± 541 mg/day in girls (p = 0.835); 8.0% of children met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. The mean sodium excretion was 2935 ± 1075 mg/day in boys and 2381 ± 1045 mg/day in girls (p <0.001) and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.2 ± 1.4 in boys, and 2.5 ± 1.1 in girls (p = 0.002). The mean fruit and vegetable intake was 353.1 ± 232.5 g/day in boys, and 290.8 ± 213.1 g/day in girls (p = 0.101). This study reported a low compliance of potassium intake recommendations in 8-10 year-old children. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to broaden public awareness of potassium inadequacy and to increase potassium intake.

  15. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  16. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  17. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  18. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Potassium, Serum; 426–27 p. Lab ...

  19. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat and prevent low level of potassium. These foods include: Avocados Baked potato Bananas Bran Carrots Cooked lean beef Milk Oranges Peanut butter Peas and beans Salmon Seaweed Spinach Tomatoes Wheat germ

  1. New nonabsorbable potassium-exchange resins in hyperkalaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscioni, Sara S.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo

    New data suggest that treatment with patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate for up to 8 weeks reduces plasma potassium levels in hyperkalaemic patients. If proven safe and effective for long-term use, these therapies might be administered together with intensive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

  2. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  3. Lithium an emerging contaminant: Bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.tkatcheva@gmail.com [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I.; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J. [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada); Sherry, James P.; Simmons, Denina B.D. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Lithium is highly bioavailable and elevated in fish brain after 48 h of waterborne Li-exposure. • Elevated Li correlated with decreased Na and Ca, and resulted in down regulation of LDL and Ptgs2. • Increased expression of Atp7b and WDr38 was observed with increased Li-exposure. • We identify the need for data on the occurrence of Li in surface, waste and drinking waters. - Abstract: Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0 mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC–MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48 h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation.

  4. Lithium an emerging contaminant: Bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria; Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I.; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa; Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J.; Sherry, James P.; Simmons, Denina B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium is highly bioavailable and elevated in fish brain after 48 h of waterborne Li-exposure. • Elevated Li correlated with decreased Na and Ca, and resulted in down regulation of LDL and Ptgs2. • Increased expression of Atp7b and WDr38 was observed with increased Li-exposure. • We identify the need for data on the occurrence of Li in surface, waste and drinking waters. - Abstract: Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0 mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC–MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48 h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na + /K + ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation

  5. Sodium intake and prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyung Park

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In order to control the effect of sodium on diseases, attention must also be paid to the influence of potassium on diseases as a covariate, and it is considered that additional research should be made regarding the role of potassium in studying the impact of sodium on health in the future.

  6. A double-blind randomized-controlled trial comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Giovanna; Procaccini, Maurizio; Manzoli, Lamberto; Giuliodori, Francesca; Lorenzini, Alessandro; Putignano, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Several dentifrices have shown to be effective in reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more effective products are needed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice based on zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanocrystals. Using a double-blind, randomized design, the new dentifrice was compared with potassium nitrate/fluoride dentifrice (active control). The participant's DH was evaluated at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks using airblast (primary outcome), tactile, cold water and subjective tests (secondary outcomes). The final sample consisted of 70 subjects with baseline DH; 36 received the new dentifrice and 34 the control one. Both dentifrices were largely effective; the percentage of score reduction from baseline to 8 weeks was greater than 28% for all tests (and greater than 55% for the cold water test) in both groups. As compared with controls, experimental subjects had a significantly greater improvement in the airblast test score (mean percentage of reduction of 46.0%versus 29.4% in controls) and the subjective test score (47.5%versus 28.1%, respectively), with both differences already being significant after 4 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant difference between groups for either the tactile or cold water tests at any time point and with any outcome. This study documented that the new dentifrice containing zinc-CHA nanocrystals significantly reduced dentinal hypersensitivity after 4 and 8 weeks, supporting its utility in clinical practice.

  7. Potassium hydroxide: an alternative reagent to perform the modified apt test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, Henry; Hellstrand, Karl; Lerer, Trudy; Smith, Sharon; Sylvester, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    We tested the performance of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the modified Apt test under different experimental conditions using sodium hydroxide as a positive control. Like sodium hydroxide, KOH differentiated fresh fetal and adult blood stains on a cloth but not dried blood. KOH may be used to perform the Apt test at the bedside. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  9. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na 2 CO 3 and Na 3 PO 4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li 2 CO 3 and pure Li 3 PO 4 , respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na 2 CO 3 and Li 3 PO 4 vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li 2 CO 3 containing the impurity of Na 2 CO 3 is used to prepare LiMn 2 O 4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na 2 CO 3 in raw Li 2 CO 3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn 2 O 4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g -1 . The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li 2 CO 3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  12. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  13. Effect of osmolarity on potassium transport in isolated cerebral microvessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Potassium transport in microvessels isolated from rat brain by a technique involving density gradient centrifugation was studied in HEPES buffer solutions of varying osmolarity from 200 to 420 mosmols, containing different concentration of sodium chloride, choline chloride, or sodium nitrate. The flux of 86 Rb into and out of the endothelial cells was estimated. Potassium influx was very sensitive to the osmolarity of the medium. Ouabain-insensitive K-component was reduced in hypotonic medium and was increased in medium made hypertonic with sodium chloride or mannitol. Choline chloride replacement caused a large reduction in K influx. Potassium influx was significant decrease when nitrate is substituted for chloride ion in isotonic and hypertonic media, whereas a slight decrease was found in hypotonic medium. The decrease of K influx in the ion-replacement medium is due to a decrement of the ouabain-insensitive component. Potassium efflux was unchanged in hypotonic medium but was somewhat reduced in hypertonic medium. The marked effect of medium osmolarity of K fluxes suggests that these fluxes may be responsible for the volume regulatory K movements. The possible mechanism of changes of K flux under anisotonic media is also discussed

  14. Diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta no balanço de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre em ovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820 Dietary cation-anion difference on sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur in sheep - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Marisa Azevedo Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças no balanço cátion-aniônico de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre da dieta (BCAD no balanço de minerais e na concentração sérica de sódio, potássio e cloro foram avaliados através de um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo 7 de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133 mEq/kg MS da ração. Verificou-se que a manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais em carneiros adultos.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB differences in the sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur mineral balance and serum concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride were evaluated of digestibility trial used in sixteen adult sheeps, from Santa Inês breed, during 26 days, being 7 days for adaptation. The design used was randomized complete blocks with four treatments. For DCAB manipulations were added calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in order to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133 mEq/kg DM. The manipulation of DCAB interfered the metabolism of macrominerals in sheeps.

  15. Ionophore-based optical nanosensors incorporating hydrophobic carbon dots and a pH-sensitive quencher dye for sodium detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, A A; Behr, M R; Cash, K J

    2018-01-21

    Nanosensors present a biological monitoring method that is biocompatible, reversible, and nano-scale, and they offer many advantages over traditional organic indicators. Typical ionophore-based nanosensors incorporate nile-blue derivative pH indicators but suffer from photobleaching while quantum dot alternatives pose a potential toxicity risk. In order to address this challenge, sodium selective nanosensors containing carbon dots and a pH-sensitive quencher molecule were developed based on an ion-exchange theory and a decoupled recognition element from the pH indicator. Carbon dots were synthesized and integrated into nanosensors containing a pH-indicator, an analyte-binding ligand (ionophore), and a charge-balancing additive. These nanosensors are ion-selective against potassium (selectivity coefficient of 0.4) and lithium (selectivity coefficient of 0.9). Reversible nanosensor response to sodium is also demonstrated. The carbon dot nanosensors are resistant to changes in optical properties for at least 12 h and display stable selectivity to physiologically-relevant sodium (alpha = 0.5 of 200 mM NaCl) for a minimum of 6 days.

  16. Preparation of potassium tantalum fluoride from tantalum hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.T. da; Espinola, A.; Dutra, A.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Potassium tantalum fluoride (K 2 TaF 7 ) is an intermediary product in the processing of tantaliferous materials; it is the basic raw material for both reduction processes in use presently: reduction by metallic sodium and electrolysis in molten halides. It is normally obtained from a fluorotantalic acid solution to which potassium ions are added the precipitation of white acicular crystals of K 2 TaF 7 . The conditions for precipitation and recrystallization were studied, and crystal characterization were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and thermodifferential analyses. (Author) [pt

  17. Assessing the nutritional potential of sodium in combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of sodium (Na) in combination with potassium (K) in the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) was studied in soil culture. Sodium was applied at 0, 5, 10, 20 mg / kg soil as NaCl and K at 0, 20, 40, 80 mg / kg soil as KCl. Records of components of growth and mineral nutrient uptake and ...

  18. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  19. Performance analysis of a potassium-base AMTEC cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; Hendricks, T.J.; Hunt, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium-BASE Alkali-Metal-Thermal-to-Electric-Conversion (AMTEC) cells have been receiving increased attention and funding from the Department of Energy, NASA and the United States Air Force. Recently, sodium-BASE (Na-BASE) AMTEC cells were selected for the Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) program for the next generation of deep-space missions and spacecraft. Potassium-BASE (K-BASE) AMTEC cells have not received as much attention to date, even though the vapor pressure of potassium is higher than that of sodium at the same temperature. So that, K-BASE AMTEC cells with potentially higher open circuit voltage and higher power output than Na-BASE AMTEC cells are possible. Because the surface tension of potassium is about half of the surface tension of sodium at the same temperature, the artery and evaporator design in a potassium AMTEC cell has much more challenging pore size requirements than designs using sodium. This paper uses a flexible thermal/fluid/electrical model to predict the performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell. Pore sizes in the artery of K-BASE AMTEC cells must be smaller by an order of magnitude than in Na-BASE AMTEC cells. The performance of a K-BASE AMTEC cell was higher than a Na-BASE AMTEC cell at low voltages/high currents. K-BASE AMTEC cells also have the potential of much better electrode performance, thereby creating another avenue for potentially better performance in K-BASE AMTEC cells

  20. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  1. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium

  2. alphaENaC-mediated lithium absorption promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, B.M.; Zuber, A.M.; Loffing, J.; Stehle, J.C.; Deen, P.M.T.; Rossier, B.C.; Hummler, E.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is accompanied by polyuria, downregulation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2), and cellular remodeling of the collecting duct (CD). The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a likely candidate for lithium entry. Here, we subjected transgenic

  3. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  4. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    potassium application [120 kg ha -1 extract, all extracts showed high and similar DPPH scavenging activity. The highest phenolic compounds were obtained with 30 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 , whereas the use of 60 kg ha -1 caused the highest total flavonoid content. This plant is a good source of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 , and Cl -1 . In this study, increasing doses of potassium sulfate had significant effect on element, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the milk thistle. All tested extracts were active against all tested microbial species.All extracts have shown high and similar DPPH scavenging activity.There was a gradual increase in the biological properties of the milk thistle seeds with rising levels of potassium sulfate.The milk thistle seeds are rather rich sources of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 and Cl -1 potentially bioavailable for human consumption. Abbreviations used: AlCl 3 : aluminum chloride, Ca +2 : calcium, Cl - : chloride, Cr: chromium CE: catechol equivalents, DPPH: 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, DAP: diamonyum fosfat, F - : fluoride, Fe: iron, K 2 SO 4 : potassium sulfate, K+ : potassium, Li+: lithium, Mg +2 : magnesium, NH 4 + : amonyum, Na + : sodium, NO 2 - : nitrite, NO 3 - : nitrate, Ni: nickel, NaNO 2 : sodium nitrite, NaOH: sodium hidroksit. ND: Not detectable, PO4 -3 : phosphorus, Zn: zinc.

  5. Effects of acute volume loading on kidney function in patients with essential hypertension, as estimated by the lithium clearance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Svendsen, U G; Leyssac, P P

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying the exaggerated natriuresis seen in patients with essential hypertension. The study used the lithium clearance method, which permits accurate determination of both proximal and distal sodium reabsorption in man. One litre of isotonic sodium chlorid...... the normal response to sodium loading being reset to a lower level. This resetting may be a secondary consequence of the high blood pressure, since lowering the pressure abolishes the phenomenon.......This study investigated the mechanism underlying the exaggerated natriuresis seen in patients with essential hypertension. The study used the lithium clearance method, which permits accurate determination of both proximal and distal sodium reabsorption in man. One litre of isotonic sodium chloride......, intravenously (i.v.), produced a significant increase in sodium excretion in patients with essential hypertension, both during and after the infusion. This increase in sodium excretion was accompanied by a significant increase in the clearance of lithium, indicating an increased output of isotonic fluid from...

  6. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li2CO3 and pure Li3PO4...... of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2......O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g-1. The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve....

  7. Anomalous dielectric relaxation in lithium-potassium tantalate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussineau, P.; Farssi, Y.; Frénois, C.; Levelut, A.; Toulouse, J.; Ziolkiewicz, S.

    1994-08-01

    In order to describe the unusual dielectric properties observed in Ki{1-χ}Li{χ}TaO3. crystals a new approchh is proposed. The dynamical Glauber theory, previously applied to spinglasses, is modifiéd by the introduction of the spectral distribution of the random interactions between the dipoles associated with the Li+ ions. Moreover, the dipole corrélations are taken into account by the Onsager réaction field. As a result, the calculated dielectric constant reproduces well the unusual features of the Argand diagrams and, in particular, their finite slope at low frequencies and infinite slope at high frequencies (strophoidal shape). The temperature dépendance of some parameters shows, however, the limits of a spin-glass type model in describing the collective behaviour of randomly distributed dipoles in a highly polarizable medium. Une nouvelle approche est présentée qui permet de décrire les propriétés diélectriques particulières de cristaux mixtes de Ki{1-χ}Li{χ}TaO3. Elle s'appuie sur la théorie dynamique de Glauber, déjà utilisée pour les verres de spins, et modifiée par l'introduction d'une distribution spectrale spécifique aux interactions aléatoires des dipôles électriques associés aux ions Li+. En outre, les corrélations entre dipôles sont prises en compte par le champ de réaction d'Onsager. II s'ensuit que la constante diélectrique complexe ainsi calculée reproduit fidèlement les particularités des diagrammes d'Argand, telles que la pente finie aux basses fréquences et la pente infinie aux hautes fréquences (forme strophoïdale). La dépendance en température de certains paramètres déterminés par le calcul montre les limites de l'analogie avec les verres de spins et met en évidence le rôle d'un réseau très polarisable dans le comportement collectif d'une assemblée de dipôles électriques.

  8. Internal cation mobilities in molten lithium. Potassium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Haruaki; Ohashi, Ryo; Chou, Pao-Hwa; Takagi, Ryuzo

    2006-01-01

    Relative differences between internal cation mobilities in molten (Li, K) F have been measured by countercurrent electromigration (Klemm method) at 1023 K. Internal mobilities of K + are larger than those of Li + in all composition on which we have measured so far. More striking feature is that the isotherms have minimum of mobilities at ca. x K =0.5. The local structural parameters would be highly related to the ionic conduction behavior in molten fluorides. (author)

  9. Structural Injury after Lithium Treatment in Human and Rat Kidney involves Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Positive Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glyco....... Lithium causes proliferation, structural injury and increases inactive pGSK-3β abundance in these segments. The data are compatible with epithelial entry of lithium and a causal role for GSK-3β in postnatal developing cortical collecting duct epithelium....

  10. Evaluating Status Change of Soil Potassium from Path Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenming; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K). Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K), the chemical index of alteration (CIA), Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM), Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN), and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3), Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK), Non-exchangeable potassium (neK) and water-soluble potassium (wsK) under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth. PMID:24204659

  11. Evaluating status change of soil potassium from path model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming He

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K. Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K, the chemical index of alteration (CIA, Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM, Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN, and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3, Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK, Non-exchangeable potassium (neK and water-soluble potassium (wsK under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth.

  12. Effect of potassium-salt muds on gamma ray, and spontaneous potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.W.; Raymer, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Interpretations of the gamma ray and Spontaneous Potential curves generally assume the presence of sodium chloride as the dominant salt in both the formation water and the mud filtrate. However, potassium-salt muds are increasingly being used by the oil industry. The potassium cation is significantly different from the sodium cation in its radioactive and electrochemical properties. Natural potassium contains a radioactive isotope which emits gamma rays. Thus, the presence of potassium salts in the mud system may contribute to Gamma-Ray tool response. Since the Gamma Ray is used quantitatively in many geological sequences as an indicator of clay content, a way to correct for the effect of potassium in the mud column is desirable. Correction methods and charts based on laboratory measurements and field observations are presented. The effect of temperature on the resistivity of potassium muds is also briefly discussed. From data available, it appears to be similar to that for NaCl muds. On the bases of field observations and laboratory work, the electrochemical properties of potassium-chloride and potassium-carbonate muds and mud filtrates are discussed. Activity relationships are proposed, and the influence of these salts on the SP component potentials--namely, the liquid-junction, membrane, and bi-ionic potentials--is described. Several field examples are presented

  13. Effects of lithium environment on the fatigue properties of ferritic and austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Low-cycle fatigue data have been obtained on HT-9 alloy and Type 304 stainless steel at 755 K in a flowing lithium environment of controlled purity. The results show that the fatigue properties of these materials are strongly influenced by the concentration of nitrogen in lithium. For HT-9 alloy, the fatigue life in lithium containing 1000-1500 wppm nitrogen is a factor of 2 to 5 lower than that in lithium with 100-200 wppm nitrogen. The reduction in fatigue life in high-nitrogen lithium can be attributed to internal corrosive attack of the material. The specimens tested in high-nitrogen lithium show considerable surface corrosion, internal corrosive attack, secondary cracks, and partial intergranular fracture mode. This behavior is not observed in specimens tested either in low-nitrogen lithium or a sodium environment. (orig.)

  14. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  16. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  18. The Effects of Changing Membrane Compositions and Internal Electrolytes on the Respon of Potassium Ion Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ulianas, Alizar; Heng, Lee Yook

    2015-01-01

    A study on the changing of membrane compositions and internal solution towards the response potassium ion sensor was carried out. Potassium ion sensor based on photocured cross linking poly(n-butyl acrylate) membranes with varying composition of valinomycin (val), sodium tetrakis [3.5-bis(trifluoro-methyl) phenyl] borat (NaTFPB), types ion of internal solution were investigated. Effects of varying composition of val, NaTFPB, types and concentration of internal solution were observed on potass...

  19. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  20. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)