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Sample records for lithium selenides

  1. Hydrozirconation of lithium alkynylselenolate anions. Generation and reactions of alpha-zirconated vinyl selenide intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdoub; Begnini; Guerrero; Baroni

    2000-01-14

    Lithium alkynylselenolate anions react completely with 1.0 equiv of Cp(2)Zr(H)Cl in THF at room temperature to give exclusively the alpha-zirconated vinylselenolate intermediates 23-27, which by treatment with an alkyl halide afforded the alpha-zirconated vinyl alkylselenide intermediates 29-33. Reaction of 29-33 with butyltellurenyl bromide results in the formation of ketene telluro(seleno) acetals 35-39 with total control of the regio- and stereochemistry. The synthetic utility of the ketene telluro(seleno) acetals obtained here was demonstrated by reaction of 36 with butyllithium. This promotes the exclusive and stereospecific removal of the tellurium moiety and enables formation of the corresponding selenium-containing allylic alcohol of type 44, alpha-(alkylseleno)-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde 45, ester 46, or carboxylic acid 47, after reaction with different types of electrophiles.

  2. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  3. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  4. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  5. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  6. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  7. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, C.J.; Hammel, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A significantly improved thermoelectric generator has been developed to provide electric power for NASA's Galileo Mission in 1982. Nominal power requirements for Galileo will be about 450 watts at BOL (Beginning of Life), and this will be furnished by two Selenide Isotope Generators (SIG) each powered by a Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) radioisotopic heat source. A Ground Demonstration System (GDS) of a nominal 100 w(e) features a 3M - produced selenide ring module around a shortened MHW-dimensioned electrical heat source, newly developed axially-grooved heat pipes on a disc-shaped radiator, and other innovations which will allow a full-sized generator's weight to be held at about 90 lbs

  8. Fabrication, characterization and applications of iron selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar, E-mail: hussainazadar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lal, Bhajan [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Sukkur Institute of Business Administration (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    This review article presents fabrication of FeSe by solid state reactions, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor deposition, spray pyrolysis and chemical vapor transport. Different properties and applications such as crystal structure and phase transition, band structure, spectroscopy, superconductivity, photocatalytic activity, electrochemical sensing, and fuel cell activity of FeSe have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Iron selenide can be synthesized by solid state reactions, chemical vapor deposition, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor transport and spray pyrolysis. - Highlights: • Different fabrication methods of iron selenide (FeSe) have been reviewed. • Crystal structure, band structure and spectroscopy of FeSe have been discussed. • Superconducting, catalytic and fuel cell application of FeSe have been presented.

  9. Cybernetic prediction of selenide Chevreul's phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, N.N.; Savitskij, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The method of training a computer is used to forecast the possibility for the formation of selenide Chevreul's phases of the Asub(x)Bsub(6)Sesub(8) composition (where A is any chemical element, B-Mo, Cr, W, Re). The peculiarities of applying cybernetic forecasting systems in inorganic chemistry are considered. The critical temperature of transfer into the superconducting state of some phases forecasted is estimated [ru

  10. Neutralization by metal ions of the toxicity of sodium selenide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dauplais

    Full Text Available Inert metal-selenide colloids are found in animals. They are believed to afford cross-protection against the toxicities of both metals and selenocompounds. Here, the toxicities of metal salt and sodium selenide mixtures were systematically studied using the death rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as an indicator. In parallel, the abilities of these mixtures to produce colloids were assessed. Studied metal cations could be classified in three groups: (i metal ions that protect cells against selenium toxicity and form insoluble colloids with selenide (Ag⁺, Cd²⁺, Cu²⁺, Hg²⁺, Pb²⁺ and Zn²⁺, (ii metal ions which protect cells by producing insoluble metal-selenide complexes and by catalyzing hydrogen selenide oxidation in the presence of dioxygen (Co²⁺ and Ni²⁺ and, finally, (iii metal ions which do not afford protection and do not interact (Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Mn²⁺ or weakly interact (Fe²⁺ with selenide under the assayed conditions. When occurring, the insoluble complexes formed from divalent metal ions and selenide contained equimolar amounts of metal and selenium atoms. With the monovalent silver ion, the complex contained two silver atoms per selenium atom. Next, because selenides are compounds prone to oxidation, the stabilities of the above colloids were evaluated under oxidizing conditions. 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB, the reduction of which can be optically followed, was used to promote selenide oxidation. Complexes with cadmium, copper, lead, mercury or silver resisted dissolution by DTNB treatment over several hours. With nickel and cobalt, partial oxidation by DTNB occurred. On the other hand, when starting from ZnSe or FeSe complexes, full decompositions were obtained within a few tens of minutes. The above properties possibly explain why ZnSe and FeSe nanoparticles were not detected in animals exposed to selenocompounds.

  11. Ex situ formation of metal selenide quantum dots using bacterially derived selenide precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellowes, J W; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Charnock, J M; Coker, V S; Mosselmans, J F W; Weng, T-C; Pearce, C I

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (Se II− ) as the precursor. Biogenic Se II− was produced by the reduction of Se IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and β-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological Se II− formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic Se II− included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic Se II− is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, ‘green’ synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams. (paper)

  12. Ex Situ Formation of Metal Selenide Quantum Dots Using Bacterially Derived Selenide Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellowes, Jonathan W.; Pattrick, Richard; Lloyd, Jon; Charnock, John M.; Coker, Victoria S.; Mosselmans, JFW; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pearce, Carolyn I.

    2013-04-12

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (SeII-) as the precursor. Biogenic SeII- was produced by the reduction of Se-IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se-IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and beta-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological SeII- formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic SeII- included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic SeII- is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, 'green' synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams.

  13. Slow recombination centers in cadmium selenide monocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyntyna, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of annealing when concentration of selenium Vacancies decreases due to their diffusion towards the surface, show recombination K-centers begin to influence the photoelectric properties of monocrystalline cadmium selenide layers. Energy levels of K-centers are located by 0.23-0.25 eV over the valent zone ceiling. The nature of K-centers is determined by the presence in the cadmium selenide layer structure of intrisic defects-cadmium vacancies in contrast to r-centers of slow recombination which are bound with impurities in a semiconductor material

  14. Evolution of the chemical bonding nature and electrode activity of indium selenide upon the composite formation with graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Mi; Lee, Eunsil; Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Patil, Sharad B.; Park, Mi Jin; Lim, Young Soo; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Kim, Jong-Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • In 4 Se 2.85 @graphene nanocomposite is easily prepared by high energy mechanical milling process. • The bond covalency of In 4 Se 2.85 is notably changed upon the composite formation with graphene. • In 4 Se 2.85 @graphene nanocomposite shows promising anode performance for lithium ion battery. -- Abstract: Evolution of the chemical bonding nature and electrochemical activity of indium selenide upon the composite formation with carbon species is systematically investigated. Nanocomposites of In 4 Se 2.85 @graphene and In 4 Se 2.85 @carbon-black are synthesized via a solid state reaction between In and Se elements, and the following high energy mechanical milling of In 4 Se 2.85 with graphene and carbon-black, respectively. The high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) of In 4 Se 2.85 with carbon species gives rise to a decrease of particle size with a significant depression of the crystallinity of In 4 Se 2.85 phase. In contrast to the composite formation with carbon-black, that with graphene induces a notable decrease of (In−Se) bond covalency, underscoring significant chemical interaction between graphene and In 4 Se 2.85 . Both the nanocomposites of In 4 Se 2.85 @graphene and In 4 Se 2.85 @carbon-black show much better anode performance for lithium ion batteries with larger discharge capacity and better cyclability than does the pristine In 4 Se 2.85 material, indicating the beneficial effect of composite formation on the electrochemical activity of indium selenide. Between the present nanocomposites, the electrode performance of the In 4 Se 2.85 @graphene nanocomposite is superior to that of the In 4 Se 2.85 @carbon-black nanocomposite, which is attributable to the weakening of (In−Se) bonds upon the composite formation with graphene as well as to the better mixing between In 4 Se 2.85 and graphene. The present study clearly demonstrates that the composite formation with graphene has strong influence

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline lead selenide. Industrial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achimovicova, Marcela; Balaz, Peter [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Geotechnics; Durisin, Juraj [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Research; Daneu, Nina [Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. for Nanostructured Materials; Kovac, Juraj; Satka, Alexander [Slovak Univ. of Technology and International Laser Centre, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Microelectronics; Feldhoff, Armin [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie; Gock, Eberhard [Technical Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Mineral and Waste Processing and Dumping Technology

    2011-04-15

    Mechanochemical synthesis of lead selenide PbSe nanoparticles was performed by high-energy milling of lead and selenium powder in a laboratory planetary ball mill and in an industrial eccentric vibratory mill. Structural properties of the synthesized lead selenide were characterized using X-ray diffraction that confirmed crystalline nature of PbSe nanoparticles. The average size of PbSe crystallites of 37 nm was calculated from X-ray diffraction data using the Williamson-Hall method. The methods of particle size distribution analysis, specific surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for characterization of surface, mean particle size, and morphology of PbSe. An application of industrial mill verified a possibility of the synthesis of a narrow bandgap semiconductor PbSe at ambient temperature and in a relatively short reaction time. (orig.)

  16. Selenide-Based Electrocatalysts and Scaffolds for Water Oxidation Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-11-05

    Selenide-based electrocatalysts and scaffolds on carbon cloth are successfully fabricated and demonstrated for enhanced water oxidation applications. A max­imum current density of 97.5 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of a mere 300 mV and a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec−1 are achieved, suggesting the potential of these materials to serve as advanced oxygen evolution reaction catalysts.

  17. Coulometric titration at low temperatures-nonstoichiometric silver selenide

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Gesa K.; Janek, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A modified coulometric titration technique is described for the investigation of nonstoichiometric phases at low temperatures. It allows to obtain titration curves at temperatures where the conventional coulometric titration technique fails because of too small chemical diffusion coefficients of the mobile component. This method for indirect coulometric titration is applied to silver selenide between -100 and 100 °C. The titration curves are analyzed on the basis of a defect chemical model an...

  18. Selenide-Based Electrocatalysts and Scaffolds for Water Oxidation Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Selenide-based electrocatalysts and scaffolds on carbon cloth are successfully fabricated and demonstrated for enhanced water oxidation applications. A max­imum current density of 97.5 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of a mere 300 mV and a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec−1 are achieved, suggesting the potential of these materials to serve as advanced oxygen evolution reaction catalysts.

  19. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  20. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  1. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  2. Extinction in an extended-face crystal of zinc selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.W.; Barnea, Z.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray intensity measurements from an extended-face single crystal of cubic zinc selenide obtained by McIntyre, Moss and Barnea (1980) have been re-analysed with a view to explaining the unresolved discrepancies between theory and experiment present in the original analysis of the most severely extinguished reflections. The results are shown to complement the recent findings of a wavelength dependent study using the same crystal specimen and foreshadow the need to allow for the presence of the Borrmann effect

  3. Adsorption and gas-chromatographic properties of tungsten selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, T.B.; Kiselev, A.V.; Roshchina, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Method of gas chromatography was used to investigate the surface properties of a series of tungsten selenide WSe 2 samples as well as to determine the role of geometrical and electronic structure of adsorbate molecules and their orientation with respect to the surface during adsorption on WSe 2 . Thermodynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon C 6 -C 10 adsorption at surface occupation close to the zero one were determined. Correlation of the values of thermodynamic characteristics of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption enabled to refer WSe 2 to nonspecific adsorbents. It is noted that the main role during hydrocarbon adsorption on WSe 2 is played by nonpolar basic facets, occupied by selenium atoms

  4. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  5. Interaction distances in oxides, sulfides and selenides with face-centered packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.

    1993-01-01

    Concept of characteristic distances (CD) was specified with account of the principle of topologically face-centered anion packing: calculation method was presented and boundary conditions of CD concept applicability were considered. Tables of CD in oxides, sulfides and selenides, obtained in result of self-consistent calculations on the basis of experimental crystallographic data, are presented. Pair correlations between CD in oxides, sulfides and selenides were considered, their relationship with cation electron structure was established. Peculiarities of chemical bond in oxides, sulfides and selenides with face-centered anion packing were discussed

  6. A facile way to control phase of tin selenide flakes by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Pang, Fei

    2018-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) tin selenides are attracting intense attentions, studies on its phase transition are still relatively few. Here we report a facile way to control the phase growth of tin selenide flakes on mica and SiO2/Si by only adjusting nominal Sn:Se ratio, which refers to the amount of loaded SnO2 and Se precursors. High normal Sn:Se ratio induced SnSe flakes, conversely SnSe2 flakes formed. It could be used as a practical guide to selectively synthesize pure phase of single crystalline 2D layered chalcogenide materials similar to tin selenides.

  7. Green Hydroselenation of Aryl Alkynes: Divinyl Selenides as a Precursor of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Perin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient protocol to prepare divinyl selenides has been developed by the regio- and stereoselective addition of sodium selenide species to aryl alkynes. The nucleophilic species was generates in situ, from the reaction of elemental selenium with NaBH4, utilizing PEG-400 as the solvent. Several divinyl selenides were obtained in moderate to excellent yields with selectivity for the (Z,Z-isomer by a one-step procedure that was carried out at 60 °C in short reaction times. The methodology was extended to tellurium, giving the desired divinyl tellurides in good yields. Furthermore, the Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of bis(3,5-dimethoxystyryl selenide 3f with (4-methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide 5 afforded resveratrol trimethyl ether 6 in 57% yield.

  8. In Silico Studies of Mammalian δ-ALAD Interactions with Selenides and Selenoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei Nogara, Pablo; Batista Teixeira Rocha, João

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the mammalian δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) is inhibited by selenides and selenoxides, which can involve thiol oxidation. However, the precise molecular interaction of selenides and selenoxides with the active center of the enzyme is unknown. Here, we try to explain the interaction of selenides and the respective selenoxides with human δ-ALAD by in silico molecular docking. The in silico data indicated that Se atoms of selenoxides have higher electrophilic character than their respective selenides. Further, the presence of oxygen increased the interaction of selenoxides with the δ-ALAD active site by O…Zn coordination. The interaction of S atom from Cys124 with the Se atom indicated the importance of the nucleophilic attack of the enzyme thiolate to the organoselenium molecules. These observations help us to understand the interaction of target proteins with organoselenium compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Green Hydroselenation of Aryl Alkynes: Divinyl Selenides as a Precursor of Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Gelson; Barcellos, Angelita M; Luz, Eduardo Q; Borges, Elton L; Jacob, Raquel G; Lenardão, Eder J; Sancineto, Luca; Santi, Claudio

    2017-02-20

    A simple and efficient protocol to prepare divinyl selenides has been developed by the regio- and stereoselective addition of sodium selenide species to aryl alkynes. The nucleophilic species was generates in situ , from the reaction of elemental selenium with NaBH₄, utilizing PEG-400 as the solvent. Several divinyl selenides were obtained in moderate to excellent yields with selectivity for the ( Z , Z )-isomer by a one-step procedure that was carried out at 60 °C in short reaction times. The methodology was extended to tellurium, giving the desired divinyl tellurides in good yields. Furthermore, the Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of bis(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) selenide 3f with (4-methoxyphenyl)magnesium bromide 5 afforded resveratrol trimethyl ether 6 in 57% yield.

  10. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  11. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work

  12. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  13. Selective growth of gold onto copper indium sulfide selenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research

    2013-05-15

    Hybrid nanostructures are interesting materials for numerous applications in chemistry, physics, and biology, due to their novel properties and multiple functionalities. Here, we present a synthesis of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures composed of nontoxic I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles and gold. Copper indium sulfide selenide (CuInSSe) nanocrystals with zinc blende structure and trigonal pyramidal shape, capped with dodecanethiol, serve as an original semiconductor part of a new hybrid nanostructure. Metallic gold nanocrystals selectively grow onto vertexes of these CuInSSe pyramids. The hybrid nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy, which allowed us conclusions about their growth mechanism. Hybrid nanocrystals are generated by replacement of a sacrificial domain in the CuInSSe part. At the same time, small selenium nanocrystals form that stay attached to the remaining CuInSSe/Au particles. Additionally, we compare the synthesis and properties of CuInSSe-based hybrid nanostructures with those of copper indium disulfide (CuInS{sub 2}). CuInS{sub 2}/Au nanostructures grow by a different mechanism (surface growth) and do not show any selectivity. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and stability of hydrogen selenide compounds at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Edward J.; Binns, Jack; Alvarez, Miriam Pena; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T. (Edinburgh); (CHPSTAR- China)

    2017-11-14

    The observation of high-temperature superconductivity in hydride sulfide (H2S) at high pressures has generated considerable interest in compressed hydrogen-rich compounds. High-pressure hydrogen selenide (H2Se) has also been predicted to be superconducting at high temperatures; however, its behaviour and stability upon compression remains unknown. In this study, we synthesize H2Se in situ from elemental Se and molecular H2 at pressures of 0.4 GPa and temperatures of 473 K. On compression at 300 K, we observe the high-pressure solid phase sequence (I-I'-IV) of H2Se through Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements, before dissociation into its constituent elements. Through the compression of H2Se in H2 media, we also observe the formation of a host-guest structure, (H2Se)2H2, which is stable at the same conditions as H2Se, with respect to decomposition. These measurements show that the behaviour of H2Se is remarkably similar to that of H2S and provides further understanding of the hydrogen chalcogenides under pressure.

  15. Assessment of fibrous insulation materials for the selenide isotope generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.C; Tennery, V.J.

    1977-11-01

    Fibrous insulations for use in the converter and the heat source of the radioisotope-powered, selenide element, thermoelectric generator (selenide isotope generator) are assessed. The most recent system design and material selection basis is presented. Several fibrous insulation materials which have the potential for use as load-bearing or nonload-bearing thermal insulations are reviewed, and thermophysical properties supplied by manufacturers or published in the literature are presented. Potential problems with the application of fibrous insulations in the selenide isotope generator are as follows: compatibility with graphite, the thermoelectric elements, and the isolation hot frame; devitrification, grain growth, and sintering with an accompanying degradation of insulation quality; impurity diffusion from the insulation to adjoining structures; outgassing and storage of fibrous materials. Areas in which thermophysical data or quantitative information on the insulation and structural stability is lacking are identified

  16. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  17. Metal Selenides as Efficient Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhitong; Zhang, Meirong; Wang, Min; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2017-04-18

    Solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy available to the earth and can meet the energy needs of humankind, but efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity is an urgent issue of scientific research. As the third-generation photovoltaic technology, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have gained great attention since the landmark efficiency of ∼7% reported by O'Regan and Grätzel. The most attractive features of DSSCs include low cost, simple manufacturing processes, medium-purity materials, and theoretically high power conversion efficiencies. As one of the key materials in DSSCs, the counter electrode (CE) plays a crucial role in completing the electric circuit by catalyzing the reduction of the oxidized state to the reduced state for a redox couple (e.g., I 3 - /I - ) in the electrolyte at the CE-electrolyte interface. To lower the cost caused by the typically used Pt CE, which restricts the large-scale application because of its low reserves and high price, great effort has been made to develop new CE materials alternative to Pt. A lot of Pt-free electrocatalysts, such as carbon materials, inorganic compounds, conductive polymers, and their composites with good electrocatalytic activity, have been applied as CEs in DSSCs in the past years. Metal selenides have been widely used as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and light-harvesting materials for solar cells. Our group first expanded their applications to the DSSC field by using in situ-grown Co 0.85 Se nanosheet and Ni 0.85 Se nanoparticle films as CEs. This finding has inspired extensive studies on developing new metal selenides in order to seek more efficient CE materials for low-cost DSSCs, and a lot of meaningful results have been achieved in the past years. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in binary and mutinary metal selenides applied as CEs in DSSCs. The synthetic methods for metal selenides with various morphologies and stoichiometric ratios and

  18. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-01

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe2 with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe2 films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 106 cm-1 at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe2 thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  19. Selenide Mineralization in the Příbram Uranium and Base-Metal District (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Škácha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium mineralization in the Příbram uranium and base-metal district (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic bound to uraninite occurrences in calcite hydrothermal veins is extremely diverse. The selenides antimonselite, athabascaite, bellidoite, berzelianite, brodtkorbite, bukovite, bytízite, cadmoselite, chaméanite, clausthalite, crookesite, dzharkenite, eskebornite, eucairite, ferroselite, giraudite, hakite, klockmannite, naumannite, permingeatite, příbramite, sabatierite, tiemannite, and umangite were found here, including two new mineral phases: Hg-Cu-Sb and Cu-As selenides. Those selenides—and in some cases their sulphidic equivalents—are characterized using wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, reflected light, powder X-ray diffraction, single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The selenide mineralization in the Příbram uranium district is bound to the border of the carbonate-uraninite and subsequent carbonate-sulphidic stages. Selenides crystallized there at temperatures near 100 °C in the neutral-to-weakly-alkaline environment from solutions with high oxygen fugacity and a high Se2/S2 fugacity ratio.

  20. The bulk modulus of cubic spinel selenides: an experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that mainly the selenium sublattice determines the overall compressibility of the cubic spinel selenides, AB2Se4, and that the bulk modulus for these compounds is about 100GPa. The hypothesis is supported by experiments using high-pressure X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation...

  1. A simple and effective approach to the synthesis of alkynyl selenides from terminal alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barahman Movassagh; Mozhgan Navidi

    2012-01-01

    Alkynyl selenides were prepared under very mild conditions by reacting terminal alkynes with respective diorganic diselenides in the presence of potassium t-butoxide.The advantages of this protocol include the use of readily available substrates and reagent and good yield of the products.

  2. Diagnostic Genesis Features of Au-Ag Selenide-Telluride Mineralization of Western Java Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Tintin Yuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.67-76The ore mineralogy of the westernmost part of West Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cikotok, and Cirotan are characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, whereas the eastern part of West Java including Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits. The relative values of ƒSe2(g, ƒTe(g, and ƒS2(g control the actual presence of selenide or telluride minerals within the West Java deposits, which also depend on their concentrations in the hydrothermal fluid. Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Therefore, early sulfide mineral deposition from reduction fluids will not increase the ƒSe2(g/ƒS2(g ratio to form selenide minerals in Te-type deposits of Arinem and Cineam, other than selenium-bearing sulfide mineral such as Se-bearing galena or Se-bearing pyrargyrite-proustite.

  3. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of sea urchin-like nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaohe [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China) and School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)]. E-mail: liuxh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Zhang Ning [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yi Ran [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Qiu Guanzhou [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yan Aiguo [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu Hongyi [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Meng Dapeng [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tang, Motang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2007-05-25

    Sea urchin-like nanorod-based nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals have been selective synthesized via a hydrothermal reduction route in which hydrated nickel chloride and hydrated cobalt chloride were employed to supply Ni and Co source and aqueous hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) was used as reducing agent. The composition, morphology, and structure of final products could be easily controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of reactants and process parameters such as hydrothermal time. The morphology and phase structure of the final products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The probable formation mechanism of the sea urchin-like nanorod-based nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. Electronic band structure and optical properties of antimony selenide under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit, B.K.; Jayaraman, Aditya; Molli, Muralikrishna, E-mail: muralikrishnamolli@sssihl.edu.in [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam, 515 134 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we present the optical properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) under ambient conditions and under pressure of 9.2 GPa obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Optical properties like refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical conductivity are calculated using the WIEN2k code.

  6. Peroxidase-like activity of nanocrystalline cobalt selenide and its application for uric acid detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang QQ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quan-Quan Zhuang,1 Zhi-Hang Lin,1 Yan-Cheng Jiang,1 Hao-Hua Deng,2 Shao-Bin He,1,3 Li-Ting Su,4 Xiao-Qiong Shi,2 Wei Chen2 1Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Quanzhou First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 3Department of Pharmacy, Quanzhou Infectious Disease Hospital, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Quanzhou Medical College, Quanzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Dendrite-like cobalt selenide nanostructures were synthesized from cobalt and selenium powder precursors by a solvothermal method in anhydrous ethylenediamine. The as-prepared nanocrystalline cobalt selenide was found to possess peroxidase-like activity that could catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrates in the presence of H2O2. A spectrophotometric method for uric acid (UA determination was developed based on the nanocrystalline cobalt selenide-catalyzed coupling reaction between N-ethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl-3-methylaniline sodium salt and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP in the presence of H2O2. Under optimum conditions, the absorbance was proportional to the concentration of UA over the range of 2.0–40 µM with a detection limit of 0.5 µM. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determination of UA in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Keywords: enzyme mimics, cobalt selenide, peroxidase-like activity, uric acid, human serum

  7. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of two-magnon Raman scattering in alkaline iron selenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.S. [Department of Physics, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 006004 (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Zhang, A.M. [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Xu, T.F. [Department of Physics, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 006004 (China); Wu, W.C., E-mail: wu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Two-magnon Raman scattering is theoretically studied for alkaline iron selenides. • Underlying spin interactions of the √(5)×√(5) AF superstructure are investigated in details. • Optimal set of exchange parameters is revealed when fitting to experiments. - Abstract: Motivated by the recent experiment of two-magnon Raman scattering in alkaline iron selenide superconductors (Zhang et al., 2012), we investigate in details the underlying spin interactions of the √(5)×√(5) antiferromagnetic superstructure. Based on the linear spin wave approximation, the Fleury-London (FL) two-magnon Raman cross-sections are calculated. By comparing theoretical results with the Raman data in both A{sub g} and B{sub g} channels, an optimal set of exchange parameters which are consistent with the fitting to the neutron scattering data are obtained. It reveals that the experimentally observed broad and asymmetric peaks around 1600 cm{sup −1} are dominantly originated from quasiparticle excitations in two nearly degenerate magnon bands in the (0,±π) and (±π,0) directions. The result thus supports that the magnetic properties in alkaline iron selenide AFe{sub 1.6+x}Se{sub 6} superconductors can be basically described by the quantum spin model with up to third nearest-neighbor exchange couplings.

  9. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  10. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  11. Morphology-Tuned Synthesis of Nickel Cobalt Selenides as Highly Efficient Pt-Free Counter Electrode Catalysts for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Li, Hongmei; Shao, Li; Jiang, Xiancai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-11-02

    In this work, morphology-tuned ternary nickel cobalt selenides based on different Ni/Co molar ratios have been synthesized via a simple precursor conversion method and used as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The experimental facts and mechanism analysis clarified the possible growth process of product. It can be found that the electrochemical performance and structures of ternary nickel cobalt selenides can be optimized by tuning the Ni/Co molar ratio. Benefiting from the unique morphology and tunable composition, among the as-prepared metal selenides, the electrochemical measurements showed that the ternary nickel cobalt selenides exhibited a more superior electrocatalytic activity in comparison with binary Ni and Co selenides. In particular, the three-dimensional dandelion-like Ni 0.33 Co 0.67 Se microspheres delivered much higher power conversion efficiency (9.01%) than that of Pt catalyst (8.30%) under AM 1.5G irradiation.

  12. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide films from sodium citrate-selenosulphite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) film has been carried out from deposition bath containing sodium selenosulphite, along with cadmium complexed with sodium citrate under potentiostatic deposition condition on titanium substrates. The pH of deposition bath was weakly basic (< 9.0). The CdSe films up to 3.0 μm were deposited. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the CdSe films are microcrystalline with increased grain size after annealing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the films are porous with cauliflower-like morphology. The photelectrochemical characterization showed that the CdSe films are photoactive

  14. Enhanced Manifold of States Achieved in Heterostructures of Iron Selenide and Boron-Doped Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cantatore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced superconductivity is sought by employing heterostructures composed of boron-doped graphene and iron selenide. Build-up of a composite manifold of near-degenerate noninteracting states formed by coupling top-of-valence-band states of FeSe to bottom-of-conduction-band states of boron-doped graphene is demonstrated. Intra- and intersubsystem excitons are explored by means of density functional theory in order to articulate a normal state from which superconductivity may emerge. The results are discussed in the context of electron correlation in general and multi-band superconductivity in particular.

  15. Selenide mineralization in the Příbram uranium and base-metal district (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škácha, P.; Sejkora, J.; Plášil, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-56, č. článku 91. ISSN 2075-163X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : selenides * chemical composition * crystal structure * wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction * Příbram Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2016

  16. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  17. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Inho; Gullapalli, Sravani; Wong, Michael S.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  18. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  19. Growth and Evaluation of Nonlinear Optical Crystals for Laser Applications: Lithium Borate, Barium Borate and Silver Gallium Selenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-08

    communication 2. S. A. Kutovi, V. V. Laptev and S. Yu. Matsnev, " Lanthanum scandoborate as a new highly efficient active medium of solid state lasers," Sov. J...34Noncritical detection of tunable C02 laser radiation into green by upconversion in silver thio- gallate ," Applied Physics B53, 19 (1991). 3. N.-H

  20. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  1. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  2. PROPERTIES AND OPTICAL APPLICATION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ZINC SELENIDE OBTAINED BY PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dunaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings on production technology, mechanical and optical properties of polycrystalline zinc selenide are presented. The combination of its physicochemical properties provides wide application of ZnSe in IR optics. Production technology is based on the method of physical vapor deposition on a heated substrate (Physical Vapor Deposition - PVD. The structural features and heterogeneity of elemental composition for the growth surfaces of ZnSe polycrystalline blanks were investigated using CAMEBAX X-ray micro-analyzer. Characteristic pyramid-shaped crystallites were recorded for all growth surfaces. The measurements of the ratio for major elements concentrations show their compliance with the stoichiometry of the ZnSe compounds. Birefringence, optical homogeneity, thermal conductivity, mechanical and optical properties were measured. It is established that regardless of polycrystalline condensate columnar and texturing, the optical material is photomechanically isotropic and homogeneous. The actual performance of parts made of polycrystalline optical zinc selenide in the thermal spectral ranges from 3 to 5 μm and from 8 to 14 μm and in the CO2 laser processing plants with a power density of 500 W/cm2 is shown. The developed technology gives the possibility to produce polycrystalline optical material on an industrial scale.

  3. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-03-20

    Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In₄Se₃ - δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In₄Se₃ - δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In₄Se₃ - δ Cl 0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n -type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  4. Compatibility of Pt-3008 with selected components of the selenide isotope generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    1979-04-01

    The first in a new generation of radioisotopic thermoelectric generators being built by Teledyne Energy Systems and designated the Selenide Isotope Generator has thermoelectric materials that can be degraded by reaction with O 2 , H 2 O, CO, and other gases. Consequently, for at least the first ground demonstration system a protective xenon atmosphere will be maintained over the thermoelectrics. The high-temperature portion of the atmosphere-retaining structure will be fabricated from the alloy Pt-3008 (Pt--30 wt % Rh--8 wt % W), which was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this application Pt-3008 must be compatible with the various insulations and thermoelectric materials. A study of the compatibility of Pt-3008 with these materials and showed that Pt-3008 was embrittled after exposure to some of the insulations that were not adequately outgassed and by one of the thermoelectric materials (Cu 2 Se) in some of the isothermal tests. It is believed that Pt-3008 will be compatible with the Selenide Isotope Generator materials when they are well outgassed and under the temperature gradient conditions of the operating system

  5. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Soo Rhyee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In4Se3−δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In4Se3−δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In4Se3−δCl0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n-type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  6. Two-step synthesis of silver selenide semiconductor with a linear magnetoresistance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fengxia; Xiong, Shuangtao; Liu, Fengxian; Han, Chong; Zhang, Duanming; Xia, Zhengcai

    2012-01-01

    A two-step synthesis method for polycrystalline β-silver selenide (β-Ag 2 Se) was developed. In the first step, nanopowder was prepared using a chemical conversion method at room temperature. In the second step, the nanopowder was compressed and then the bulk Ag 2 Se was fabricated by the solid-state sintering process. The crystalline phase and morphology were examined. The results showed that β-Ag 2 Se was fast fabricated at room temperature. The dense polycrystalline Ag-rich Ag 2 Se was synthesized successfully at 450 °C for 0.5 h under Argon flow. For the polycrystalline, the electronic properties and transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) in a pulsed magnetic field were investigated. The samples displayed n-type semiconducting behaviors and a critical temperature with a broaden temperature range of 140–150 K. Also, it presented a positive and nearly linear dependence on magnetic field H at H ≥ H c (crossover field) ranging from 2 to 20 T. Moreover, the linear dependence of TMR at strong field was non-saturating up to 35 T. Combining with the observation of morphology, it is thought that this unusual TMR effect was caused by slightly excess Ag. This new synthesis method provided a potential route to synthesize nonstoichiometric silver selenide. (paper)

  7. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-04-14

    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  8. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  9. Transition metal oxide nanopowder and ionic liquid: an efficient system for the synthesis of diorganyl selenides, selenocysteine and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; Gul, Kashif; Kawasoko, Cristiane Y.; Singh, Devender; Dornelles, Luciano; Rodrigues, Oscar E.D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSC), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. LabSelen-NanoBio; Braga, Antonio L. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. LabSelen

    2010-07-01

    We have developed an efficient method for the synthesis of diorganyl selenides and {beta}-seleno amines using Zn, catalytic amounts of ZnO nanopowder, as a catalyst and ionic liquid as a recyclable solvent. This ZnO/ionic liquid system shows high efficiency in catalyzing these transformations with the formation of the desired products in high yields. (author)

  10. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  12. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  13. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  14. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  15. Growth and Low Temperature Transport Measurements of Pure and Doped Bismuth Selenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mlack, Jerome Thomas

    Se3, which is a strong spin orbit material and a topological insulator. I describe a synthesis technique and low-temperature transport measurements of nanostructures of Bi2Se3, that when annealed with palladium show evidence of superconductivity. The growth method is a catalyst-free atmospheric...... with palladium via annealing, the transport properties of the samples can be altered to exhibit superconductivity. Thin films of palladium are deposited on prefabricated Bi2Se3 nanodevices and annealed at temperatures in excess of 100 Celsius. We find that Bi2Se3 absorbs Pd under these conditions...... pressure vapor-solid growth. The growth method yields a variety of nanostructures, and materials analysis shows ordered structures of bismuth selenide in all cases. Low-temperature measurements of as-grown nanostructures indicate tunable carrier density in all samples. By doping the nanostructures...

  16. Electron exchange between neutral and ionized impurity iron centers in vitreous arsenic selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A. V. [Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation); Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Egorova, A. Yu. [St.-Petersburg Mining University (Russian Federation); Kiselev, V. S.; Seregin, P. P., E-mail: ppseregin@mail.ru [Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Impurity iron atoms in vitreous arsenic-selenide As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films modified by iron form one-electron donor centers with an ionization energy of 0.24 (3) eV (the energy is counted from the conduction-band bottom). The Fermi level is shifted with an increase in the iron concentration from the mid-gap to the donorlevel position of iron due to the filling of one-electron states of the acceptor type lying below the Fermi level. At an iron concentration of ≥3 at %, the electron-exchange process is observed between neutral and ionized iron centers resulting in a change both in the electron density and in the tensor of the electric-field gradient at iron-atom nuclei with increasing temperature above 350 K.

  17. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ∼1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ∼10 6 /m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80–330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ∼2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response

  18. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ˜1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ˜106/m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80-330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ˜2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response.

  19. Photo-induced cooperative covalent-bond switching in amorphous arsenic selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-290031 (Ukraine); Balitska, V [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-290031 (Ukraine); Filipecki, J [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, Al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL-42201 (Poland)

    2005-01-01

    A microstructural mechanism of photoinduced transformations in amorphous arsenic selenide films was studied with IR Fourier-spectroscopy technique in 300-100 cm{sup -1} region. It was shown that stage of irreversible photostructural changes was connected with cooperative process of coordination defect formation accompanied by homopolar chemical bonds switching in heteropolar ones. On the contrary, reversible photoinduced effects were caused by heteropolar chemical bonds switching in homopolar ones, as well as additional channel of bridge heteropolar bonds switching in short-layer ones. The both processes were associated with formation of anomalously coordinated defect pairs and accompanying atomic displacements at the level of medium-range ordering. The developed mathematical simulation procedure testified in a favour of defect-related origin of the reversible photo-thermallyinduced transformations, since their kinetics corresponded to known stretched-exponential dependence, tending to bimolecular behaviour rather then to single-exponential one.

  20. Radiation-induced physical ageing in network arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, M; Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation-induced physical ageing is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry method in As x Se 100-x (10 ≤ x ≤ 42) and As x S 100-x (30 ≤ x ≤ 42) glasses. Obtained results are compared with conventional physical ageing at normal conditions. Significant radiation-induced physical ageing is recorded for glassy As x S 100-x within 30 ≤ x x Se 100-x glasses from the same compositional interval do not show any measurable changes in DSC curves after γ-irradiation. Observed difference in radiation-induced physical ageing in arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses is explained by a greater lifetime of γ-induced excitations within sulfur-based network in comparison with selenium-based one.

  1. Radiation-induced physical ageing in network arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M; Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Effect of radiation-induced physical ageing is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry method in As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} (10 {<=} x {<=} 42) and As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (30 {<=} x {<=} 42) glasses. Obtained results are compared with conventional physical ageing at normal conditions. Significant radiation-induced physical ageing is recorded for glassy As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} within 30 {<=} x < 40 range, while As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} glasses from the same compositional interval do not show any measurable changes in DSC curves after {gamma}-irradiation. Observed difference in radiation-induced physical ageing in arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses is explained by a greater lifetime of {gamma}-induced excitations within sulfur-based network in comparison with selenium-based one.

  2. Organic molecules passivated Mn doped Zinc Selenide quantum dots and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots of Mn doped Zinc Selenide with N-Methylaniline as the capping agent was prepared by simple and inexpensive wet chemical method. Size of the particles observed by TEM was of the order of 2-4 nm which was well consistent with the size measured by UV analysis. The presence of paramagnetic substance Mn 2+ in the ZnSe quantum dots was confirmed by EPR measurement. Mn doped ZnSe nanoparticles exhibited a strong blue emission that was strongly dependent upon the Mn dopant level and the surface passivation produced by N-Methylaniline. The stability of the product was studied by thermal analysis which shows that this product is highly suitable for opto-electronic applications.

  3. Solar Light Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zinc Selenide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Ibrahim, Sk; Das, Poulomi; Ghosh, Surajit; Pal, Tanusri

    2017-10-01

    Solution processable reduced graphene oxide-zinc selenide (RGO-ZnSe) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by an easy one-pot single-step solvothermal reaction. The RGO-ZnSe composite was characterized structurally and morphologically by the study of XRD analysis, SEM and TEM imaging. Reduction in graphene oxide was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Photocatalytic efficiency of RGO-ZnSe composite was investigated toward the degradation of Rhodamine B under solar light irradiation. Our study indicates that the RGO-ZnSe composite is catalytically more active compared to the controlled-ZnSe under the solar light illumination. Here, RGO plays an important role for photoinduced charge separation and subsequently hinders the electron-hole recombination probability that consequently enhances photocatalytic degradation efficiency. We expect that this type of RGO-based optoelectronics materials opens up a new avenue in the field of photocatalytic degradation of different organic water pollutants.

  4. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.

    1988-07-01

    Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (˜0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (˜6/Wp) and projected (˜I/Wp) production costs.

  5. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cipriani, Curzio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Trosti-Ferroni, Renza

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe 2 ; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe 2 ; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe 2 ) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe 2 and CuSe 2 exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe 2 and CoSe 2 . The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents

  6. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2008-07-14

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  7. Density functional theory study of inter-layer coupling in bulk tin selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Yue; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2018-03-01

    We study the inter-layer coupling in bulk tin selenide (SnSe) through density functional theory based calculations. Different approximations for the exchange-correlation functionals and the van der Waals interaction are employed. By performing comparison with graphite, MoS2 and black phosphorus, we analyze the inter-layer coupling from different points of view, including the binding energy, the low frequency inter-layer optical phonons, and the inter-layer charge transfer. We find that, there is a strong charge transfer between layers of SnSe, resulting in the strongest inter-layer coupling. Moreover, the charge transfer renders the inter-layer coupling in SnSe not of van der Waals type. Mechanical exfoliation has been used to fabricate mono- or few-layer graphene, MoS2 and black phosphorus. But, our results show that it may be difficult to apply similar technique to SnSe.

  8. Short-range order in amorphous thin films of indium selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.P.; Poltavtsev, Yu.G.; Sheremet, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure of the short-range order and a character of interatomic interactions in indium selenides Insub(1-x)Sesub(x) with 0.333 <= x <= 0.75, obtained in the form of amorphous films 0.05-0.80 μm thick are studied using electron diffraction method. It is found out that mostly tetrahedrical coordination of nearest neighbours in the vicinity of indium atoms is characteristic for studied amorphous films, and coordination of selenium atoms is different. Amorphous film with x=0.75 posesses a considereably microheterogeneous structure of the short-range order, which is characterized by the presence of microunclusions of amorphous selenium and atoms of indium, octohedrically coordinated by selenium atoms

  9. Lead Selenide Nanostructures Self-Assembled across Multiple Length Scales and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-assembly approach to lead selenide (PbSe structures that have organized across multiple length scales and multiple dimensions has been achieved. These structures consist of angstrom-scale 0D PbSe crystals, synthesized via a hot solution process, which have stacked into 1D nanorods via aligned dipoles. These 1D nanorods have arranged into nanoscale 2D sheets via directional short-ranged attraction. The nanoscale 2D sheets then further aligned into larger 2D microscale planes. In this study, the authors have characterized the PbSe structures via normal and cryo-TEM and EDX showing that this multiscale multidimensional self-assembled alignment is not due to drying effects. These PbSe structures hold promise for applications in advanced materials—particularly electronic technologies, where alignment can aid in device performance.

  10. Improved microstructure and thermoelectric properties of iodine doped indium selenide as a function of sintering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Pallavi; Kumar, Aparabal; Banerji, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we explored the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, thermal and electrical properties of iodine doped indium selenide in the temperature range 300 - 700 K. Samples were prepared by a collaborative process of vacuum melting, ball milling and spark plasma sintering at 570 K, 630 K and 690 K. Single phase samples were obtained at higher sintering temperature as InSe is stable only at lower temperature. With increasing sintering temperature, densities of the samples were found to improve with larger grain size formation. Negative values of Seebeck coefficient were observed which indicates n-type carrier transport. Seebeck coefficient increases with sintering temperature and found to be the highest for the sample sintered at 690 K. Thermal conductivity found to be lower in the samples sintered at lower temperatures. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit found to be ˜ 1 at 700 K due to the enhanced power factor as a result of improved microstructure.

  11. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-09-01

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se

  12. Investigating Phase Transform Behavior in Indium Selenide Based RAM and Its Validation as a Memory Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sourav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase transform properties of Indium Selenide (In2Se3 based Random Access Memory (RAM have been explored in this paper. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM is an attractive solid-state nonvolatile memory that possesses potential to meet various current technology demands of memory design. Already reported PCRAM models are mainly based upon Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GST materials as their prime constituents. However, PCRAM using GST material lacks some important memory attributes required for memory elements such as larger resistance margin between the highly resistive amorphous and highly conductive crystalline states in phase change materials. This paper investigates various electrical and compositional properties of the Indium Selenide (In2Se3 material and also draws comparison with its counterpart mainly focusing on phase transform properties. To achieve this goal, a SPICE model of In2Se3 based PCRAM model has been reported in this work. The reported model has been also validated to act as a memory cell by associating it with a read/write circuit proposed in this work. Simulation results demonstrate impressive retentivity and low power consumption by requiring a set pulse of 208 μA for a duration of 100 μs to set the PCRAM in crystalline state. Similarly, a reset pulse of 11.7 μA for a duration of 20 ns can set the PCRAM in amorphous state. Modeling of In2Se3 based PCRAM has been done in Verilog-A and simulation results have been extensively verified using SPICE simulator.

  13. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  14. The digital structural analysis of cadmium selenide crystals by a method of ion beam thinning for high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Koichi; Baba, Norio; Naka, Michiaki; Kitagawa, Yukihisa; Suzuki, Kunio

    1986-01-01

    A digital processing method using a scanning densitometer system for structural analysis of electron micrographs was successfully applied to a study of cadmium selenide crystals, which were prepared by an argon-ion beam thinning method. Based on Fourier techniques for structural analysis from a computer-generated diffractogram, it was demonstrated that when cadmium selenide crystals were sufficiently thin to display the higher order diffraction spots at a high resolution approaching the atomic level, they constitute an alternative hexagonal lattice of imperfect wurtzite phase from a superposition of individual harmonic images by the enhanced scattering amplitude and corrected phase. From the structural analysis data, a Fourier synthetic lattice image was reconstructed, representing the precise location and three-dimensional arrangement of each of the atoms in the unit cell. Extensively enhanced lattice defect images of dislocations and stacking faults were also derived and shown graphically. (author)

  15. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  16. Fluorescence imaging technology (FI) for high-throughput screening of selenide-modified nano-TiO2 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Lee, Jianchao; Zhang, Meijuan; Duan, Qiannan; Zhang, Jiarui; Qi, Hailang

    2016-02-18

    A high-throughput screening (HTS) method based on fluorescence imaging (FI) was implemented to evaluate the catalytic performance of selenide-modified nano-TiO2. Chemical ink-jet printing (IJP) technology was reformed to fabricate a catalyst library comprising 1405 (Ni(a)Cu(b)Cd(c)Ce(d)In(e)Y(f))Se(x)/TiO2 (M6Se/Ti) composite photocatalysts. Nineteen M6Se/Tis were screened out from the 1405 candidates efficiently.

  17. Synthesis, structure, and thermal properties of soluble hydrazinium germanium(IV) and tin(IV) selenide salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B

    2005-05-16

    The crystal structures of two hydrazinium-based germanium(IV) and tin(IV) selenide salts are determined. (N(2)H(5))(4)Ge(2)Se(6) (1) [I4(1)cd, a = 12.708(1) Angstroms, c = 21.955(2) Angstroms, Z = 8] and (N(2)H(4))(3)(N(2)H(5))(4)Sn(2)Se(6) (2) [P, a = 6.6475(6) Angstroms, b = 9.5474(9) Angstroms, c = 9.8830(10) Angstroms, alpha = 94.110(2) degrees, beta = 99.429(2) degrees, gamma = 104.141(2) degrees, Z = 1] each consist of anionic dimers of edge-sharing metal selenide tetrahedra, M(2)Se(6)(4-) (M = Ge or Sn), separated by hydrazinium cations and, for 2, additional neutral hydrazine molecules. Substantial hydrogen bonding exists among the hydrazine/hydrazinium molecules as well as between the hydrazinium cations and the selenide anions. Whereas the previously reported tin(IV) sulfide system, (N(2)H(5))(4)Sn(2)S(6), decomposes cleanly to microcrystalline SnS(2) when heated to 200 degrees C in an inert atmosphere, higher temperatures (>300 degrees C) are required to dissociate selenium from 1 and 2 for the analogous preparations of single-phase metal selenides. The metal chalcogenide salts are highly soluble in hydrazine, as well as in a variety of amines and DMSO, highlighting the potential usefulness of these compounds as precursors for the solution deposition of the corresponding metal chalcogenide films.

  18. Study by vibration spectrometry of addition compounds of boron fluoride with some alkyl oxides, sulphides and selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Calve, Jacques

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the vibration spectrum of some addition compounds of boron fluoride with alkyl oxides, sulphides and selenides. The objective was first the assignment of spectra, and then the study of the influence of the formation of a coordination bound on boron fluoride vibrations and on that of its donor. The author also tried to define correlations between spectrum and structures, and studied the effects of physical status and solvents [fr

  19. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  20. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  3. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  4. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  5. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  6. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  7. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  8. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  9. Phase-Engineered Type-II Multimetal-Selenide Heterostructures toward Low-Power Consumption, Flexible, Transparent, and Wide-Spectrum Photoresponse Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ze; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Su, Teng-Yu; Lee, Shao-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chen-Hua; Wang, Kuangye; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2018-05-01

    Phase-engineered type-II metal-selenide heterostructures are demonstrated by directly selenizing indium-tin oxide to form multimetal selenides in a single step. The utilization of a plasma system to assist the selenization facilitates a low-temperature process, which results in large-area films with high uniformity. Compared to single-metal-selenide-based photodetectors, the multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit obviously improved performance, which can be attributed to the Schottky contact at the interface for tuning the carrier transport, as well as the type-II heterostructure that is beneficial for the separation of the electron-hole pairs. The multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit a response to light over a broad spectrum from UV to visible light with a high responsivity of 0.8 A W -1 and an on/off current ratio of up to 10 2 . Interestingly, all-transparent photodetectors are successfully produced in this work. Moreover, the possibility of fabricating devices on flexible substrates is also demonstrated with sustainable performance, high strain tolerance, and high durability during bending tests. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Field Effect Transistors Using Atomically Thin Layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuInSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna; Ghosh, Sujoy; Wasala, Milinda; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel; Talapatra, Saikat

    We will report fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) using few-layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuInSe) flakes exfoliated from crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our transport measurements indicate n-type FET with electron mobility µ ~ 3 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature when Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used as a back gate. Mobility can be further increased significantly when ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) is used as top gate. Similarly subthreshold swing can be further improved from 103 V/dec to 0.55 V/dec by using ionic liquid as a top gate. We also found ON/OFF ratio of ~ 102 for both top and back gate. Comparison between ionic liquid top gate and SiO2 back gate will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through a MURI Grant # W911NF-11-1-0362.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Aqueous Lead Selenide Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ancy; Sreekala, C. O.; Prabhakaran, Malini

    2018-02-01

    High quality, colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) nanoparticles possessing cube shaped morphology have been successfully synthesized by organometallic synthesis method, using oleic acid (OA) as capping agent. The use of non-coordinating solvent, 1-Octadecene (ODE), during the synthesis results in good quality nanocrystals. Morphology analysis by transmission electron microscopy reveals that cube-shaped nanocrystals with a size range of 10 nm have been produced during the synthesis. The absorption and PL spectra analysis showed an emission peak at 675 nm when excited to a wavelength of 610 nm, further confirmed the formation of PbSe nanocrystals. The surface modification of this colloidal quantum dots was then carried out using L- cysteine ligand, to make them water soluble, for solar cell application. The J-V characteristics study of this PbSe quantum dots solar cell (PbSe QDSC) showed a little power conversion efficiency which intern it shows significant advance toward effective utilization of PbSe nanocrystals sensitized in solar cells.

  12. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2013-12-16

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) = 5.45 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) = 0.727 V, and fill factor (FF) = 51%, and a power conversion efficiency = 2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  13. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh 2 ) 2 : Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh 2 ) 2 : CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh 2 ) 2 :CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J sc ) = 5.45 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage (V oc ) = 0.727 V, and fill factor (FF) = 51%, and a power conversion efficiency = 2.02% at 100 mW/cm 2 under AM1.5G illumination. The J sc and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh 2 ) 2 :CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance

  14. Synthesis of Co-Electrospun Lead Selenide Nanostructures within Anatase Titania Nanotubes for Advanced Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan K. Wujcik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nano-scale heterostructures have many advantages over hybrid organic-inorganic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC or Grätzel cells, including their resistance to photo-bleaching, thermal stability, large specific surface areas, and general robustness. This study presents a first-of-its-kind low-cost all-inorganic lead selenide-anatase titania (PbSe/TiO2 nanotube heterostructure material for photovoltaic applications. Herein, PbSe nanostructures have been co-electrospun within a hollow TiO2 nanotube with high connectivity for highly efficient charge carrier flow and electron-hole pair separation. This material has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX to show the morphology and material composition of the synthesized nanocomposite. Photovoltaic characterization has shown this newly synthesized proof-of-concept material can easily produce a photocurrent under solar illumination, and, with further refinement, could reveal a new direction in photovoltaic materials.

  15. Point contacts at the copper-indium-gallium-selenide interface—A theoretical outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercegol, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.bercegol@polytechnique.edu; Chacko, Binoy; Klenk, Reiner; Lauermann, Iver; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert Einstein Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Liero, Matthias [Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-21

    For a long time, it has been assumed that recombination in the space-charge region of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) is dominant, at least in high efficiency solar cells with low band gap. The recent developments like potassium fluoride post deposition treatment and point-contact junction may call this into question. In this work, a theoretical outlook is made using three-dimensional simulations to investigate the effect of point-contact openings through a passivation layer on CIGS solar cell performance. A large set of solar cells is modeled under different scenarios for the charged defect levels and density, radius of the openings, interface quality, and conduction band offset. The positive surface charge created by the passivation layer induces band bending and this influences the contact (CdS) properties, making it beneficial for the open circuit voltage and efficiency, and the effect is even more pronounced when coverage area is more than 95%, and also makes a positive impact on the device performance, even in the presence of a spike at CIGS/CdS heterojunction.

  16. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in optical and electrical properties of cadmium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ritika; Chauhan, Rishi Pal

    2017-07-01

    The modification in various properties of thin films using high energetic ion beam is an exciting area of basic and applied research in semiconductors. In the present investigations, cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were deposited on ITO substrate using electrodeposition technique. To study the swift heavy ion (SHI) induced effects, the deposited thin films were irradiated with 120 MeV heavy Ag9+ ions using pelletron accelerator facility at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Structural phase transformation in CdSe thin film from metastable cubic phase to stable hexagonal phase was observed after irradiation leading to decrease in the band gap from 2.47 eV to 2.12 eV. The phase transformation was analyzed through X-ray diffraction patterns. During SHI irradiation, Generation of high temperature and pressure by thermal spike along the trajectory of incident ions in the thin films might be responsible for modification in the properties of thin films.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. The effect of annealing on structural, optical and photosensitive properties of electrodeposited cadmium selenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mahato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide (CdSe thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate by simple electrodeposition method. X-ray Diffraction (XRD studies identify that the as-deposited CdSe films are highly oriented to [002] direction and they belong to nanocrystalline hexagonal phase. The films are changed to polycrystalline structure after annealing in air for temperatures up to 450 °C and begin to degrade afterwards with the occurrence of oxidation and porosity. CdSe completely ceases to exist at higher annealing temperatures. CdSe films exhibit a maximum absorbance in the violet to blue-green region of an optical spectrum. The absorbance increases while the band gap decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Surface morphology also shows that the increase of the annealing temperature caused the grain growth. In addition, a number of distinct crystals is formed on top of the film surface. Electrical characteristics show that the films are photosensitive with a maximum sensitivity at 350 °C.

  18. Layered bismuth selenide utilized as hole transporting layer for highly stable organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Zhongcheng

    2015-11-01

    Abstract Layered bismuth selenide (L-Bi2Se3) nanoplates were implemented as hole transporting layers (HTLs) for inverted organic solar cells. Device based on L-Bi2Se3 showed increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE) during ambient condition storage process. A PCE of 4.37% was finally obtained after 5 days storage, which outperformed the ones with evaporated-MoO3 using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor. The improved device efficiency can be attributed to the high conductivity and increasing work function of L-Bi2Se3. The work function of L-Bi2Se3 increased with the storage time in ambient condition due to the oxygen atom doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to verify the increased work function, which originated from the p-type doping process. The device based on L-Bi2Se3 exhibited excellent stability in ambient condition up to 4 months, which was much improved compared to the device based on traditional HTLs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Zinc Selenide-Based Schottky Barrier Detectors for Ultraviolet-A and Ultraviolet-B Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as zinc selenide (ZnSe have become popular for ultraviolet (UV photodetectors due to their broad UV spectral response. Schottky barrier detectors made of ZnSe in particular have been shown to have both low dark current and high responsivity. This paper presents the results of electrical and optical characterization of UV sensors based on ZnSe/Ni Schottky diodes fabricated using single-crystal ZnSe substrate with integrated UV-A (320–400 nm and UV-B (280–320 nm filters. For comparison, characteristics characterization of an unfiltered detector is also included. The measured photoresponse showed good discrimination between the two spectral bands. The measured responsivities of the UV-A and UV-B detectors were 50 mA/W and 10 mA/W, respectively. A detector without a UV filter showed a maximum responsivity of about 110 mA/W at 375 nm wavelength. The speed of the unfiltered detector was found to be about 300 kHz primarily limited by the RC time constant determined largely by the detector area.

  20. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  1. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  2. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Rev. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std 239.18 298-102 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLASSIRCTIO OF THIS PAGE (Whun Data Entered) Lade Form 296 ledk (Row. 2-49...did not burn spontaneously in water, and the hydrogen formed did not ignite in air. When a pea-sized piece of lithium was dropped into a container of...Lithium metal flowed through the cracks in the coating and started to burn brilliantly. The LiOH coating was initially protective; but, as it became

  3. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  4. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  5. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  6. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  7. Self-standing nanoribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide with well-defined size and band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Krishnan, Sridevi; Yilmaz, Hulusi; Marin, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Sub-10 nm semiconducting nanostructures are crucial for the realization of nanoscale devices. Fabrication of nanostructures at this scale with homogeneous properties is challenging. Using ab initio calculations, we show that self-standing ribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide of width 1.1 nm exhibit well-defined bandgaps of 1.66 and 2.16 eV, respectively. Molecular dynamics studies show that these ribbons are stable at 500 K. The one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure of these nanoribbons (Sb 2 Se 3 /Sb 2 S 3 ) along the [001] direction shows a straddling type behavior.

  8. Laser Photolysis and Thermolysis of Organic Selenides and Tellurides for Chemical Gas-phase Deposition of Nanostructured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pola

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser radiation-induced decomposition of gaseous organic selenides and tellurides resulting in chemical deposition of nanostructured materials on cold surfaces is reviewed with regard to the mechanism of the gas-phase decomposition and properties of the deposited materials. The laser photolysis and laser thermolysis of the Se and Te precursors leading to chalcogen deposition can also serve as a useful approach to nanostructured chalcogen composites and IVA group (Si, Ge, Sn element chalcogenides provided that it is carried out simultaneously with laser photolysis or thermolysis of polymer and IVA group element precursor.

  9. catena-Poly[[copper(II)-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, Maksym; Haukka, Matti; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se)2](ClO4)2}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetra­gonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide (L) ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21578140

  10. catena-Poly[[copper(II-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Seredyuk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se2](ClO42}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetragonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide (L ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  11. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  12. Analysis on the Performance of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Based Photovoltaic Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the efficiency improvement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Photovoltaic (PV and also solar thermal collector. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T can improve overall efficiency for PV and also solve the problem of limited roof space at urban area. Objective of this study is to clarify the effect of mass flow rate on the efficiency of the PV/T system. A CIGS solar cell is used with rated output power 65 W and 1.18 m2 of area. 4 set of experiments were carried out, which were: thermal collector with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate and PV. It was found that PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate had the highest electrical efficiency, 2.92 %. PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate had the lowest electrical efficiency, 2.68 %. It also had 2 % higher overall efficiency. The efficiency gained is low due to several factors. The rated output power of the PV is low for the area of 1.18 m2. The packing factor of the PV also need to be considered as it may not be operated at the optimal packing factor. Furthermore, aluminium sheet of the PV may affect the PV temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Further study on more values of mass flow rate and also other parameters that affect the efficiency of the PV/T is necessary.

  13. Structural and electrochemical analysis of chemically synthesized microcubic architectured lead selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, T. S.; Shinde, A. V.; Devan, R. S.; Teli, A. M.; Ma, Y. R.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of lead selenide (PbSe) thin films by simple and cost-effective chemical bath deposition method with variation in deposition time. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of as-deposited thin films were examined using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD reveals formation of rock salt phase cubic structured PbSe. FE-SEM images show the formation of microcubic structured morphology. The existence of the PbSe is confirmed from the XPS analysis. On the other hand, CV curves show four reaction peaks corresponding to oxidation [PbSe and Pb(OH)2] and reduction (PbO2 and Pb(OH)2) at the surface of PbSe thin films. The PbSe:2 sample deposited for 80 min. shows maximum specific capacitance of 454 ± 5 F g- 1 obtained at 0.25 mA cm- 2 current density. The maximum energy density of 69 Wh kg- 1 was showed by PbSe:2 electrode with a power density of 1077 W kg- 1. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance studies of PbSe:2 thin film show 80 ± 3% cycling stability even after 500 CV cycles. Such results show the importance of microcubic structured PbSe thin film as an anode in supercapacitor devices.

  14. A transparent nickel selenide counter electrode for high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jia; Wu, Jihuai, E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn; Jia, Jinbiao; Ge, Jinhua; Bao, Quanlin; Wang, Chaotao; Fan, Leqing

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Ni{sub 0.85}Se was obtained by hydrothermal way and the film was gained by spin-coating. • Ni{sub 0.85}Se film has good conductivity and excellent electrocatalytic activity. • DSSC based on transparent Ni{sub 0.85}Se counter electrode obtains PCE of 8.96%. • The PCE reaches 10.76% when putting a mirror under Ni{sub 0.85}Se counter electrode. - Abstract: Nickel selenide (Ni{sub 0.85}Se) was synthesized by a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction and Ni{sub 0.85}Se film was prepared by spin-coating Ni{sub 0.85}Se ink on FTO and used as counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The Ni{sub 0.85}Se CEs not only show high transmittance in visible range, but also possess remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}. The electrocatalytic ability of Ni{sub 0.85}Se films was verified by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization curves. The DSSC using Ni{sub 0.85}Se CE exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.96%, while the DSSC consisting of sputtered Pt CE only exhibits a PCE of 8.15%. When adding a mirror under Ni{sub 0.85}Se CE, the resultant DSSC exhibits a PCE of 10.76%, which exceeds that of a DSSC based on sputtered Pt CE (8.44%) by 27.49%.

  15. Transparent nickel selenide used as counter electrode in high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Jinbiao; Wu, Jihuai, E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn; Tu, Yongguang; Huo, Jinghao; Zheng, Min; Lin, Jianming

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A transparent Ni{sub 0.85}Se is prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction. • Ni{sub 0.85}Se electrode has better electrocatalytic activity than Pt electrode. • DSSC with Ni{sub 0.85}Se electrode obtains efficiency of 8.88%, higher than DSSC with Pt. • DSSC with Ni{sub 0.85}Se/mirror electrode achieves an efficiency of 10.19%. - Abstract: A transparent nickel selenide (Ni{sub 0.85}Se) is prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction and used as an efficient Pt-free counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Field emission scanning electron microscopy observes that the as-prepared Ni{sub 0.85}Se possesses porous structure. Cyclic voltammogram measurement indicates that Ni{sub 0.85}Se electrode has larger current density than Pt electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the Ni{sub 0.85}Se electrode has lower charge-transfer resistance than Pt electrode. Under simulated solar light irradiation with intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2} (AM 1.5), the DSSC based on the Ni{sub 0.85}Se CE achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.88%, which is higher than the solar cell based on Pt CE (8.13%). Based on the transparency of Ni{sub 0.85}Se, the DSSC with Ni{sub 0.85}Se/mirror achieves a PCE of 10.19%.

  16. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  19. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  20. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  2. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  3. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  4. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  5. Phase diagram of (Li(1-x)Fe(x))OHFeSe: a bridge between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Huaxue; Yang, Huaixin; Yuan, Jie; Jin, Kui; Zhou, Fang; Yuan, Dongna; Wei, Linlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Xinqiang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2015-01-14

    Previous experimental results have shown important differences between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors which seem to suggest that the high-temperature superconductivity in these two subgroups of iron-based families may arise from different electronic ground states. Here we report the complete phase diagram of a newly synthesized superconducting (SC) system, (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe, with a structure similar to that of FeAs-based superconductors. In the non-SC samples, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin-density-wave (SDW) transition occurs at ∼127 K. This is the first example to demonstrate such an SDW phase in an FeSe-based superconductor system. Transmission electron microscopy shows that a well-known √5×√5 iron vacancy ordered state, resulting in an AFM order at ∼500 K in AyFe2-xSe2 (A = metal ions) superconductor systems, is absent in both non-SC and SC samples, but a unique superstructure with a modulation wave vector q = (1)/2(1,1,0), identical to that seen in the SC phase of KyFe2-xSe2, is dominant in the optimal SC sample (with an SC transition temperature Tc = 40 K). Hence, we conclude that the high-Tc superconductivity in (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe stems from the similarly weak AFM fluctuations as FeAs-based superconductors, suggesting a universal physical picture for both iron selenide and arsenide superconductors.

  6. Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green by nickel doped bismuth selenide under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mondal, Anup; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal; Banerjee, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi_2Se_3 and Ni doped Bi_2Se_3 were synthesized by solvothermal approach. • Presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. • Complete degradation of malachite green (MG) dye was achieved by Ni doped Bi_2Se_3 with H_2O_2. • Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation by doped bismuth selenide has been explained. • Scavenger tests show degradation of MG is mainly dominated by ·OH oxidation process. - Abstract: Bismuth selenide (Bi_2Se_3) and nickel (Ni) doped Bi_2Se_3 were prepared by a solvothermal approach to explore the photo-catalytic performance of the materials in degradation of malachite green (MG). The presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement in doped Bi_2Se_3. The results showed that the nickel doping played an important role in microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of the samples. Nickel doped Bi_2Se_3 sample exhibited higher photo-catalytic activity than that of the pure Bi_2Se_3 sample under visible-light irradiation. The photo-catalytic degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. Fast degradation kinetics and complete (100% in 5 min of visible light irradiation) removal of MG was achieved by nickel doped Bi_2Se_3 in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) due to modification of band gap energies leading to suppression of photo-generated electron-hole recombination.

  7. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  8. A study on the optics of copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells with ultra-thin absorber layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, M.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Van Deelen, J.; Mourad, M.C.D.; Buskens, P.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of variation of the zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) layer thickness on the absorption characteristics of CIGS solar cells using a simulation program based on finite element method (FEM). We show that the absorption in the

  9. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Leisch, Jennifer [Denver, CO; Taylor, Matthew [West Simsbury, CT; Stanbery, Billy J [Austin, TX

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  10. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  11. Cytocompatibility of direct water synthesized cadmium selenide quantum dots in colo-205 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Marcos R. [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Velez, Christian; Zayas, Beatriz [Universidad Metropolitana, ChemTox Laboratory, School of Environmental Affairs (United States); Rivera, Osvaldo [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Arslan, Zikri [Jackson State University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Gonzalez-Vega, Maxine N. [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States); Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Morell, Gerardo [University of Puerto Rico, Molecular Science Research Center (United States); Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M., E-mail: oprimera1@suagm.edu [Universidad Metropolitana, Nanomaterials Science Laboratory, School of Science and Technology (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs), inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals, are alluring increased attraction due to their highly refined chemistry, availability, and super tunable optical properties suitable for many applications in different research areas, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, environmental sciences, and nanomedicine. Specifically, they are being widely used in bio-imaging in contrast to organic dyes due to their high brightness and improved photo-stability, and their ability to tune their absorption and emission spectra upon changing the crystal size. The production of CdSe QDs is mostly assisted by trioctylphosphine oxide compound, which acts as solvent or solubilizing agent and renders the QDs soluble in organic compounds (such as toluene, chloroform, and hexane) that are highly toxic. To circumvent the toxicity-related factor in CdSe QDs, we report the synthesis of CdSe QDs capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA) in an aqueous medium, and their biocompatibility in colo-205 cancer cells. In this study, the [Cd{sup 2+}]/[TGA] ratio was adjusted to 11:1 and the Se concentration (10 and 15 mM) was monitored in order to evaluate its influence on the optical properties and cytocompatibility. QDs resulted to be quite stable in water (after purification) and RPMI cell medium and no precipitation was observed for long contact times, making them appealing for in vitro experiments. The spectroscopy analysis, advanced electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry studies indicate that the final products were successfully formed exhibiting an improved optical response. Colo-205 cells being exposed to different concentrations of TGA-capped CdSe QDs for 12, 24, and 48 h with doses ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mM show high tolerance reaching cell viabilities as high as 93 %. No evidence of cellular apoptotic pathways was observed as pointed out by our Annexin V assays at higher concentrations. Moreover, confocal microscopy analysis conducted to

  12. Depression-like behavior and mechanical allodynia are reduced by bis selenide treatment in mice with chronic constriction injury: a comparison with fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with significant co-morbidities, including depression, which impact considerably on the overall patient experience. Pain co-morbidity symptoms are rarely assessed in animal models of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is characterized by hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways and remains difficult to treat with standard analgesics. The present study determined the effect of bis selenide and conventional antidepressants (fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion) on neuropathic pain using mechanical allodynic and on depressive-like behavior. Male mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery and were assessed on day 14 after operation. Mice received oral treatment with bis selenide (1-5 mg/kg), fluoxetine, amitriptyline, or bupropion (10-30 mg/kg). The response frequency to mechanical allodynia in mice was measured with von Frey hairs. Mice were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST) test for depression-like behavior. The CCI procedure produced mechanical allodynia and increased depressive-like behavior in the FST. All of the drugs produced antiallodynic effects in CCI mice and produced antidepressant effects in control mice without altering locomotor activity. In CCI animals, however, only the amitriptyline and bis selenide treatments significantly reduced immobility in the FST. These data demonstrate an important dissociation between the antiallodynic and antidepressant effects in mice when tested in a model of neuropathic pain. Depressive behavior in CCI mice was reversed by bis selenide and amitriptyline but not by the conventional antidepressants fluoxetine and buproprion. Bis selenide was more potent than the other drugs tested for antidepressant-like and antiallodynic effects in mice.

  13. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  14. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  15. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  16. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  17. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  18. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  19. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seral-Ascaso, A.; Metel, S.; Pokle, A.; Backes, C.; Zhang, C. J.; Nerl, H. C.; Rode, K.; Berner, N. C.; Downing, C.; McEvoy, N.; Muñoz, E.; Harvey, A.; Gholamvand, Z.; Duesberg, G. S.; Coleman, J. N.; Nicolosi, V.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization.We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01663d

  20. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  1. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  2. Crystal structure of non-stoichiometric copper selenides studied by neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikkulova, N.N.; Yagafarova, Z.A.; Asylguzhina, G.N.; Danilkin, S.A.; Fuess, H.; Skomorokhov, A.N.; Yadrovskii, E.L.; Beskrovnyi, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    Structural characteristics of non-stoichiometric copper selenides were studied by the elastic neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Rietveld analysis was used to refine the structure of the high-temperature β-phase of the Cu 1.75 Se, Cu 1.78 Se, and Cu 1.83 Se samples. The homogeneity ranges of the cubic phase were determined. The modification of the crystal structure accompanying the β-α phase transition was studied for Cu 1.75 Se and Cu 1.98 Se compounds within the 443-10 K temperature range. It was shown that the phase transition is accompanied by distortions of the fcc lattice and the ordering of copper ions

  3. Post-test analysis of components from selenide isotope generator modules M-7, M-15, and M-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.C.; Keiser, J.R.; Crouse, R.S.; Allen, M.D.; Schaffhauser, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    Several critical components removed from SIG (Selenide Isotope Generator) thermoelectric modules M-7, M-15C, M-15D, and M-18 were examined. These modules failed to show the predicted stability and conversion efficiency. Understanding the degradation and identifying means for preventing it necessitated detailed post-test examinations of key parts in the modules. Steel springs, which provided pressure for contacts at the hot and cold ends of P- or N-legs, relaxed more than expected. Beryllium oxide insulators had dark deposits that caused electrical shorts. The GdSe 1 49 N-leg exhibited cracking. The (Cu,Ag) 2 Se P-leg lost weight or sublimed excessively in module M-7 and more than expected in the other modules

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hexagonal nano-sized nickel selenide by simple hydrothermal method assisted by CTAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davar, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Nano-sized nickel selenide powders have been successfully synthesized via an improved hydrothermal route based on the reaction between NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, SeCl{sub 4} and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) in water, in present of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, at various conditions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Effects of temperature, reaction time and reductant agent on the morphology, the particle sizes and the phase of the final products have been investigated. It was found that the phase and morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by these parameters. The synthesis procedure is simple and uses less toxic reagents than the previously reported methods. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  5. Chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide buffer layers for copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide solar cells and device analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Sambhu; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium-free copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide (CIGSS) thin film solar cells have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layers. Shell Solar Industries provided high quality CIGSS absorber layers. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap material than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm 2 ) efficiency of 13.3%. The effect of the ZnS buffer layer thickness on device performance was studied carefully. This paper also presents a discussion of issues relevant to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer material for improving device performance

  6. Efficient cold cathode emission in crystalline-amorphous hybrid: Study on carbon nanotube-cadmium selenide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Banerjee, D.; Das, N. S.; Ghorai, U. K.; Sen, D.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dot (QD) decorated amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) hybrids have been synthesized by simple chemical process. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Lattice image obtained from transmission electron microscopic study confirms the successful attachment of CdSe QDs. It is seen that hybrid samples show an enhanced cold emission properties with good stability. The results have been explained in terms of increased roughness, more numbers of emitting sites and favorable band bending induced electron transport. ANSYS software based calculation has also supported the result. Also a first principle based study has been done which shows that due to the formation of hybrid structure there is a profound upward shift in the Fermi level, i.e. a decrease of work function, which is believed to be another key reason for the observed improved field emission performance.

  7. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T., E-mail: chantler@unimelb.edu.au

    2014-10-15

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques.

  8. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques

  9. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Wehrli, Bernhard [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L{sup −1} molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L{sup −1}. From OPV, copper (14 μg L{sup −1}), zinc (87 μg L{sup −1}) and silver (78 μg L{sup −1}) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics may be disposed in the environment after usage. • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic (OPV) cells were compared. • Morphological and molecular effects were assessed in zebrafish embryos. • Environmental condition affected metal leaching and ecotoxicological activity. • Damaged CIGS cells pose higher risk to the environment than OPV cells.

  11. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  12. Instrinsic defect energies of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the defect structure of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride. A potential model is obtained describing the statics and dynamics of these crystals. Intrinsic defect energies are calculated using the Harwell HADES program which is based on a generalised Mott-Littleton method. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and suggest that the vacancy and interstitial migration mechanisms of anions and cations are all comparable in their contribution to ionic conduction. (author)

  13. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  14. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  15. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  16. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  17. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  18. FTU cooled liquid lithium upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrati, M., E-mail: matteo.iafrati@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of the liquid lithium limiter experiment in Frascati a new auxiliary system was developed in order to provide a better control of the energy fluid vector. The cooled liquid lithium system (CLL) was installed for the first time at the end of 2013, it uses overheated water to heat the lithium and to extract, at the same time, the heat from the metal surface when it gets wet by the plasma. A first version of the system, developed and presented in previous papers, has been modified to optimize the heat flux measurement on the liquid lithium surface. The changes include a new power supply logic for the heating system, new sensors and new read-out electronics compatible with the implementation of a real time control system. The prototype was updated with the aim of achieving a low cost and versatile control system.

  19. Probing quantum effects in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemyad, Shanti; Zhang, Rong

    2018-05-01

    In periodic table lithium is the first element immediately after helium and the lightest metal. While fascinating quantum nature of condensed helium is suppressed at high densities, lithium is expected to adapt more quantum solid behavior under compression. This is due to the presence of long range interactions in metallic systems for which an increase in the de-Boer parameter (λ/σ, where σ is the minimum interatomic distance and λ is the de-Broglie wavelength) is predicted at higher densities [1,2]. Physics of dense lithium offers a rich playground to look for new emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter and has been subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations. In this article recent progress in studying the quantum nature of dense lithium will be discussed.

  20. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  1. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  2. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  3. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  4. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  5. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  6. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  7. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  8. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  10. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  11. Investigation of deep level defects in epitaxial semiconducting zinc sulpho-selenide. Progress report, 15 June 1979-14 June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to understand the defect structure of the ternary II-VI compound zinc sulpho-selenide, the binary compound zinc selenide was investigated. Thin single crystalline films of zinc selenide were heteroepitaxially grown on (100) GaAs. Epitaxial layers from 5 to 50 microns thick could be readily grown using a chemical vapor transport technique. The layers had an excellent morphology with few stacking faults and hillocks. Detailed epitaxial growth kinetics were examined as a function of temperature and reactant concentration. It was found that hydrogen flow rate, source and substrate temperature affect the growth rate of the epitaxial films. Au - ZnSe Schottky barrier diodes and ZnSe - GaAs n-p heterojunctions were prepared from the epitaxial layers. Current-voltage characteristics were measured on both types of diodes. From capacitance-voltage measurements the residual doping density of the epitaxial layers were found to be of the order of 10 14 - 10 15 cm -3 . Finally, we have begun to measure the deep level spectrum of both the Schottky barrier diodes and the heterojunctions. Deep level transient spectroscopy appears to be well suited for determining trapping states in ZnSe provided the material has a low enough resistivity

  12. Exploring the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of uranium selenides: Tl2Ag2USe4 and Tl3Cu4USe6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Din, Haleem Ud; Khenata, Rabah; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2016-01-01

    The electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Tl 2 Ag 2 USe 4 and Tl 3 Cu 4 USe 6 compounds were investigated using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange correlation was treated with the generalized gradient approximation plus optimized effective Hubbard parameter and spin–orbit coupling (GGA+U+SOC). The present uranium selenides show narrow direct energy band gap values of 0.7 and 0.875 eV for Tl 2 Ag 2 USe 4 and Tl 3 Cu 4 USe 6 respectively. For both selenides U-d/f states are responsible for electrical transport properties. Uranium atoms were the most contributors in the magnetic moment compared to other atoms and show ferromagnetic nature. The spin density isosurfaces show the polarization of neighboring atoms of Uranium, such as silver/copper and selenium. Thermoelectric calculations reveal that Tl 3 Cu 4 USe 6 is more suitable for thermoelectric device applications than Tl 2 Ag 2 USe 4 . - Highlights: • Electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of uranium selenides are investigated with DFT. • They show a narrow direct energy band gap of 0.7 and 0.875 eV. • U-d/f states are responsible for electrical transport properties. • Tl 3 Cu 4 USe 6 is more suitable for thermoelectric device applications than Tl 2 Ag 2 USe 4 .

  13. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Paz, M.G., E-mail: myrnasandoval@udec.cl [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Porcile-Saavedra, P.F. [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Trejo-Cruz, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Biobío, Avenue Collao 1202, Box 5C, Concepción 4051381 (Chile)

    2016-07-15

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films. - Graphical abstract: “Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution” by M. G. Sandoval-Paz, C. A. Rodríguez, P. F. Porcile-Saavedra, C. Trejo-Cruz. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Copper (I) selenide thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition. • Orthorhombic to cubic phase change was induced by varying the reaction solution pH. • Orthorhombic phase is obtained mainly from a hydroxides cluster mechanism. • Cubic phase is obtained mainly from an ion by ion mechanism. • Structural, optical and electrical properties are presented as a function of pH.

  14. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  15. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  16. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  17. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  18. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  19. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  20. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  1. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  2. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  3. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  4. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  5. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  6. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  7. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  8. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  10. Facile hot-injection synthesis of stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystals using bis(triethylsilyl) selenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunyu; Ramasamy, Parthiban; Kim, Jinkwon

    2014-07-07

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 is a prospective material as an absorber in thin film solar cells due to its many advantages including direct band gap, high absorption coefficient, low toxicity, and relative abundance (indium-free) of its elements. In this report, CZTSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by the hot-injection method using bis-(triethylsilyl)selenide [(Et3Si)2Se] as the selenium source for the first time. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the stoichiometry of CZTSe nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the nanocrystals were single phase polycrystalline with their size within the range of 25-30 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements ruled out the existence of secondary phases such as Cu2SnSe3 and ZnSe. The effect of reaction time and precursor injection order on the formation of stoichiometric CZTSe nanoparticles has been studied by Raman spectroscopy. UV-vis-NIR data indicate that the CZTSe nanocrystals have an optical band gap of 1.59 eV, which is optimal for photovoltaic applications.

  11. Engineering phase transformation of cobalt selenide in carbon cages and the phases’ bifunctional electrocatalytic activity for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Li; Qiu, Hua-Jun; Wang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Using Co-based metal-organic frameworks as the precursor, we synthesized cobalt selenide (CoSe2) nanoparticles imbedded in carbon cages. By simply controlling the annealing conditions, phase transformation of CoSe2 from the orthorhombic phase to the cubic phase has been realized. Benefitting from the metallic character, the cubic phase CoSe2 shows greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The as-prepared cubic phase CoSe2 electrode possesses onset overpotentials of 43 and 200 mV, and Tafel slopes of 51 and 83 mV dec-1 for HER and OER, respectively, which are remarkably superior to that of the orthorhombic phase CoSe2 catalyst and comparable to those of commercial noble-metal catalysts. In addition, the cubic phase CoSe2 electrode also demonstrates excellent stability after long-term operations. Our work not only provides a high performance catalyst for water splitting, but also introduces a new route to the design of a highly efficient catalyst by phase transformation.

  12. Aspects of a Distinct Cytotoxicity of Selenium Salts and Organic Selenides in Living Cells with Possible Implications for Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethiene Castellucci Estevam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is traditionally considered as an antioxidant element and selenium compounds are often discussed in the context of chemoprevention and therapy. Recent studies, however, have revealed a rather more colorful and diverse biological action of selenium-based compounds, including the modulation of the intracellular redox homeostasis and an often selective interference with regulatory cellular pathways. Our basic activity and mode of action studies with simple selenium and tellurium salts in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that such compounds are sometimes not particularly toxic on their own, yet enhance the antibacterial potential of known antibiotics, possibly via the bioreductive formation of insoluble elemental deposits. Whilst the selenium and tellurium compounds tested do not necessarily act via the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, they seem to interfere with various cellular pathways, including a possible inhibition of the proteasome and hindrance of DNA repair. Here, organic selenides are considerably more active compared to simple salts. The interference of selenium (and tellurium compounds with multiple targets could provide new avenues for the development of effective antibiotic and anticancer agents which may go well beyond the traditional notion of selenium as a simple antioxidant.

  13. Iron selenide films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from single source organometallic precursor in the presence of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: aminbadshah@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Khan, Malik Dilshad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhtar, Javeed [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-09-30

    This article presents the synthesis and characterization (multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, carbon–hydrogen–nitrogen–sulfur analyzer, atomic absorption spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis) of a single source organometallic precursor namely 1-acetyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl)selenourea for the fabrication of iron selenide (FeSe) films on glass substrates using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The changes in the morphologies of the films have been monitored by the use of two different surfactants i.e. triton X-100 and tetraoctylphosphonium bromide during AACVD. The role of surfactant has been evaluated by examining the interaction of the surfactants with the precursor by using UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The fabricated FeSe films have been characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Ferrocene incorporated selenourea (FIS) has been synthesized and characterized. • FeSe thin films have been fabricated from FIS. • Mechanism of film growth was studied with cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  14. Influence of growth and photocatalytic properties of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles using reflux condensation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonia, S. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Influence of reaction conditions on the synthesis of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles and their photo degradation activity is studied. Nearly monodispersed uniform size (23–44 nm) nanoparticles are synthesized by varying the reaction conditions using reflux condensation method. The obtained nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample shows the formation of nanoparticles with hexagonal CuSe structure. The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time from 4 to 12 h, the particle size decreases from 44 to 23 nm, but an increase in the reaction temperature increases the particle size. The calculated band gap E{sub g} is ranging from 2.34 to 3.05 eV which is blue shifted from the bulk CuSe (2.2 eV). The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the CuSe nanoparticles on two organic dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine-B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV region is calculated as 76 and 87% respectively.

  15. Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green by nickel doped bismuth selenide under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mondal, Anup; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal; Banerjee, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) and nickel (Ni) doped Bi2Se3 were prepared by a solvothermal approach to explore the photo-catalytic performance of the materials in degradation of malachite green (MG). The presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement in doped Bi2Se3. The results showed that the nickel doping played an important role in microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of the samples. Nickel doped Bi2Se3 sample exhibited higher photo-catalytic activity than that of the pure Bi2Se3 sample under visible-light irradiation. The photo-catalytic degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. Fast degradation kinetics and complete (100% in 5 min of visible light irradiation) removal of MG was achieved by nickel doped Bi2Se3 in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) due to modification of band gap energies leading to suppression of photo-generated electron-hole recombination.

  16. Enhanced phosphorescence and electroluminescence in triplet emitters by doping gold into cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-W.; Laskar, Inamur R.; Huang, C.-P.; Cheng, J.-A.; Cheng, S.-S.; Luo, L.-Y.; Wang, H.-R.; Chen, T.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Gold-cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (Au-CdSe/ZnS) nanocomposites (NCs) were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The PL intensity in the Au-CdSe/ZnS NCs system was found to be much greater than that of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) alone, because of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering of Au NPs. Adding Au-CdSe/ZnS NCs to the cyclometalated iridium(III) complex (Ir-complex) greatly enhanced the PL intensity of a triplet emitter. Three double-layered electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated where the emitting zone contains the definite mixture of Ir-complex and the NCs [molar concentration of Ir-complex/NCs = 1:0 (Blank, D-1), 1:1 (D-2) and 1:3 (D-3)] and the device D-2 exhibited optimal EL performances

  17. MOF-derived Co-doped nickel selenide/C electrocatalysts supported on Ni foam for overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang

    2016-09-01

    It is of prime importance to develop dual-functional electrocatalysts with good activity for overall water splitting, which remains a great challenge. Herein, we report the synthesis of a Co-doped nickel selenide (a mixture of NiSe and NiSe)/C hybrid nanostructure supported on Ni foam using a metal-organic framework as the precursor. The resulting catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which only requires an overpotential of 275 mV to drive a current density of 30 mA cm. This overpotential is much lower than those reported for precious metal free OER catalysts. The hybrid is also capable of catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) efficiently. A current density of -10 mA cm can be achieved at 90 mV. In addition, such a hybrid nanostructure can achieve 10 and 30 mA cm at potentials of 1.6 and 1.71 V, respectively, along with good durability when functioning as both the cathode and the anode for overall water splitting in basic media.

  18. MOF-derived Co-doped nickel selenide/C electrocatalysts supported on Ni foam for overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang; Liang, Hanfeng; Shi, Huanhuan; Xu, Xun; Mei, Gui; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2016-01-01

    It is of prime importance to develop dual-functional electrocatalysts with good activity for overall water splitting, which remains a great challenge. Herein, we report the synthesis of a Co-doped nickel selenide (a mixture of NiSe and NiSe)/C hybrid nanostructure supported on Ni foam using a metal-organic framework as the precursor. The resulting catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which only requires an overpotential of 275 mV to drive a current density of 30 mA cm. This overpotential is much lower than those reported for precious metal free OER catalysts. The hybrid is also capable of catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) efficiently. A current density of -10 mA cm can be achieved at 90 mV. In addition, such a hybrid nanostructure can achieve 10 and 30 mA cm at potentials of 1.6 and 1.71 V, respectively, along with good durability when functioning as both the cathode and the anode for overall water splitting in basic media.

  19. Electrical and optical characteristics of heterojunction devices composed of silicon nanowires and mercury selenide nanoparticle films on flexible plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Minje; Yun, Junggwon; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-09-01

    A pn heterojunction device based on p-type silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) prepared by top-down method and n-type mercury selenide (HgSe) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by the colloidal method have been fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate. The synthesized HgSe NPs were analyzed through the effective mass approximation. The characteristics of the heterojunction device were examined and studied with the energy band diagram. The device showed typical diode characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 1.5 V and exhibited a high rectification ratio of 10(3) under relatively low forward bias. Under illumination of 633-nm-wavelength light, the device presented photocurrent efficiency of 117.5 and 20.1 nA/W under forward bias and reverse bias conditions, respectively. Moreover, the photocurrent characteristics of the device have been determined by bending of the plastic substrate upward and downward with strain of 0.8%. Even though the photocurrent efficiency has fluctuations during the bending cycles, the values are roughly maintained for 10(4) bending cycles. This result indicates that the fabricated heterojunction device has the potential to be applied as fundamental elements of flexible nanoelectronics.

  20. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Bin Bin [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Industry, Shaanxi Institute of Technology, Xi’an 710300 (China); Wang, Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Xue Qing [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zeng, Jing Hui, E-mail: jhzeng@ustc.edu [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  1. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: copper/water axially-grooved heat pipe topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the major accomplishments for the development, fabrication, and testing of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes for Selenide Isotopic Generator (SIG) applications. The early development consisted of chemical, physical, and analytical studies to define an axially-grooved tube geometry that could be successfully fabricated and provide the desired long term (up to seven years) performance is presented. Heat pipe fabrication procedures, measured performance and accelerated life testing of heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 conducted at B and K Engineering are discussed. S/N AL-5 was the first axially-grooved copper/water heat pipe that was fabricated with the new internal coating process for cupric oxide (CuO) and the cleaning and water preparation methods developed by Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Heat pipe S/N LT-57 was fabricated along with sixty other axially-grooved heat pipes allocated for life testing at Teledyne Energy Systems. As of June 25, 1979, heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 have been accelerated life tested for 13,310 and 6,292 respectively, at a nominal operating temperature of 225 0 C without any signs of thermal performance degradation

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L(-1). From OPV, copper (14 μg L(-1)), zinc (87 μg L(-1)) and silver (78 μg L(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. X-Ray diffraction analysis of thermally evaporated copper tin selenide thin films at different annealing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos; Zainal Abidin Talib; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus; Josephine Liew Ying Chyi; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor thin films Copper Tin Selenide, Cu 2 SnSe 3 , a potential compound for semiconductor radiation detector or solar cell applications were prepared by thermal evaporation method onto well-cleaned glass substrates. The as-deposited films were annealed in flowing purified nitrogen, N 2 , for 2 hours in the temperature range from 100 to 500 degree Celsius. The structure of as-deposited and annealed films has been studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The semi-quantitative analysis indicated from the Reitveld refinement show that the samples composed of Cu 2 SnSe 3 and SnSe. These studies revealed that the films were structured in mixed phase between cubic space group F-43 m (no. 216) and orthorhombic space group P n m a (no. 62). The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined from Scherrer calculation method. The results show that increasing in annealing temperature resulted in direct increase in crystallite size and decrease in lattice strain. (author)

  4. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  5. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  6. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  7. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  8. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  9. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  10. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  11. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  12. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  13. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  14. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  15. Lithium target simulation in TECHNOFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, C.; Arino, X.; Reig, J.; Aleman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to build a facility where testing, under neutronic irradiation, the necessary materials for the construction of future fusion reactors. The intention is produced irradiation in a controlled way by deuterons bombing on a high speed lithium surface specially designed for that.

  16. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  17. Transition-Metal-Free Diarylannulated Sulfide and Selenide Construction via Radical/Anion-Mediated Sulfur-Iodine and Selenium-Iodine Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Fan, Qiaoling; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-04

    A facile, straightforward protocol was established for diarylannulated sulfide and selenide construction through S-I and Se-I exchange without transition metal assistance. Elemental sulfur and selenium served as the chalcogen source. Diarylannulated sulfides were systematically achieved from a five- to eight-membered ring. A trisulfur radical anion was demonstrated as the initiator for this radical process via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study. OFET molecules [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT) and [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzoselenophene (BTBS) were efficiently established.

  18. {sup 77} Se NMR of deuteride vinyl and acetylene selenides; RMn de {sup 77} Se de selenetos vinilicos e acetilenicos deuterados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, L C; Stefani, H A; Arruda Campos, I.P. de; Comasseto, J V [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1992-12-31

    The main objective of this work is a contribution for establishing a data base sufficient for interpretation of the selenium organic compound spectra. Due to the short literature on acetylene and vinyl selenides, the investigation of these compounds using {sup 77} Se NMR has been considered interesting. Particularly, compounds containing the selenium phenyl group have been selected, as they are larger used in organic chemistry. Non usual deuterated compounds have been applied, viewing simplification of the experimental results interpretation, since the use of deuterium virtually eliminates the Se-H coupling constants, due to the protons of the selenium phenyl group 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Transition from Sign-Reversed to Sign-Preserved Cooper-Pairing Symmetry in Sulfur-Doped Iron Selenide Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qisi; Park, J T; Feng, Yu; Shen, Yao; Hao, Yiqing; Pan, Bingying; Lynn, J W; Ivanov, A; Chi, Songxue; Matsuda, M; Cao, Huibo; Birgeneau, R J; Efremov, D V; Zhao, Jun

    2016-05-13

    An essential step toward elucidating the mechanism of superconductivity is to determine the sign or phase of the superconducting order parameter, as it is closely related to the pairing interaction. In conventional superconductors, the electron-phonon interaction induces attraction between electrons near the Fermi energy and results in a sign-preserved s-wave pairing. For high-temperature superconductors, including cuprates and iron-based superconductors, prevalent weak coupling theories suggest that the electron pairing is mediated by spin fluctuations which lead to repulsive interactions, and therefore that a sign-reversed pairing with an s_{±} or d-wave symmetry is favored. Here, by using magnetic neutron scattering, a phase sensitive probe of the superconducting gap, we report the observation of a transition from the sign-reversed to sign-preserved Cooper-pairing symmetry with insignificant changes in T_{c} in the S-doped iron selenide superconductors K_{x}Fe_{2-y}(Se_{1-z}S_{z})_{2}. We show that a rather sharp magnetic resonant mode well below the superconducting gap (2Δ) in the undoped sample (z=0) is replaced by a broad hump structure above 2Δ under 50% S doping. These results cannot be readily explained by simple spin fluctuation-exchange pairing theories and, therefore, multiple pairing channels are required to describe superconductivity in this system. Our findings may also yield a simple explanation for the sometimes contradictory data on the sign of the superconducting order parameter in iron-based materials.

  20. Polyamide–thallium selenide composite materials via temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanauskas, Remigijus; Samardokas, Linas [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu str. 19, Kaunas LT-50254 (Lithuania); Mikolajunas, Marius; Virzonis, Darius [Department of Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Panevezys Faculty, Daukanto 12, 35212 Panevezys (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Single phase polyamide–thallium selenide hybrid functional materials were synthesized for solar energy conversion. - Highlights: • Thallium selenide–polyamide composite materials surfaces synthesized. • Mixed phase composition confirmed by XRD. • Increased temperature resulted in a denser surface packing. • Urbach energies correlated with AFM showing decreased structural disorder. • Annealing in N{sub 2} at 100 °C yielded a single TlSe phase. - Abstract: Composite materials based on III–VI elements are promising in designing efficient photoelectronic devices, such as thin film organic–inorganic solar cells. In this work, TlSe composite materials were synthesized on a model polymer polyamide using temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method via (a) selenization followed by (b) the exposure to the group III metal (Tl) salt solution and their surface morphological, chemical and crystalline phase information was determined with particular focus on their corresponding structure–optical property relationship. XRD analysis yielded a complex crystalline phase distribution which correlated well with the optical and surface morphological properties measured. pH 11.3 and 80 °C yielded well defined, low structural disorder composite material surface. After annealing in N{sub 2} at 100 °C, polycrystalline PA-Tl{sub x}Se{sub y} composite materials yielded a single TlSe phase due to the enhanced diffusion and reaction of thallium ions into the polymer. The method described here can be used to synthesize variety of binary III–VI compounds diffused into the polymer at relatively low temperatures and low overall cost, thus providing for a flexible synthesis route for novel composite solar energy harvesting materials.

  1. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.

    2017-10-01

    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  2. Physical and biophysical assessment of highly fluorescent, magnetic quantum dots of a wurtzite-phase manganese selenide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Runjun; Das, Queen; Hussain, Anowar; Ramteke, Anand; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-07-01

    Combining fluorescence and magnetic features in a non-iron based, select type of quantum dots (QDs) can have immense value in cellular imaging, tagging and other nano-bio interface applications, including targeted drug delivery. Herein, we report on the colloidal synthesis and physical and biophysical assessment of wurtzite-type manganese selenide (MnSe) QDs in cell culture media. Aiming to provide a suitable colloidal system of biological relevance, different concentrations of reactants and ligands (e.g., thioglycolic acid, TGA) have been considered. The average size of the QDs is ˜7 nm, which exhibited a quantum yield of ˜75% as compared to rhodamine 6 G dye®. As revealed from time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) response, the near band edge emission followed a bi-exponential decay feature with characteristic times of ˜0.64 ns and 3.04 ns. At room temperature, the QDs were found to exhibit paramagnetic features with coercivity and remanence impelled by TGA concentrations. With BSA as a dispersing agent, the QDs showed an improved optical stability in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Media® (DMEM) and Minimum Essential Media® (MEM), as compared to the Roswell Park Memorial Institute® (RPMI-1640) media. Finally, the cell viability of lymphocytes was found to be strongly influenced by the concentration of MnSe QDs, and had a safe limit upto 0.5 μM. With BSA inclusion in cell media, the cellular uptake of MnSe QDs was observed to be more prominent, as revealed from fluorescence imaging. The fabrication of water soluble, nontoxic MnSe QDs would open up an alternative strategy in nanobiotechnology, while preserving their luminescent and magnetic properties intact.

  3. Polyamide–thallium selenide composite materials via temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanauskas, Remigijus; Samardokas, Linas; Mikolajunas, Marius; Virzonis, Darius; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Single phase polyamide–thallium selenide hybrid functional materials were synthesized for solar energy conversion. - Highlights: • Thallium selenide–polyamide composite materials surfaces synthesized. • Mixed phase composition confirmed by XRD. • Increased temperature resulted in a denser surface packing. • Urbach energies correlated with AFM showing decreased structural disorder. • Annealing in N 2 at 100 °C yielded a single TlSe phase. - Abstract: Composite materials based on III–VI elements are promising in designing efficient photoelectronic devices, such as thin film organic–inorganic solar cells. In this work, TlSe composite materials were synthesized on a model polymer polyamide using temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method via (a) selenization followed by (b) the exposure to the group III metal (Tl) salt solution and their surface morphological, chemical and crystalline phase information was determined with particular focus on their corresponding structure–optical property relationship. XRD analysis yielded a complex crystalline phase distribution which correlated well with the optical and surface morphological properties measured. pH 11.3 and 80 °C yielded well defined, low structural disorder composite material surface. After annealing in N 2 at 100 °C, polycrystalline PA-Tl x Se y composite materials yielded a single TlSe phase due to the enhanced diffusion and reaction of thallium ions into the polymer. The method described here can be used to synthesize variety of binary III–VI compounds diffused into the polymer at relatively low temperatures and low overall cost, thus providing for a flexible synthesis route for novel composite solar energy harvesting materials

  4. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  5. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  6. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tun Tun Moe

    2011-12-01

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  7. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  8. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  9. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  10. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  11. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking

  12. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  13. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  14. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  15. Abundance of lithium in Pleiades F stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Booth, J.; Hobbs, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of lithium has been determined for 18 stars in the Pleiades cluster with spectral types from A7V to G0V. The pronounced dip in the lithium abundance among the mid-F stars which has been reported for other, older star clusters is not present in the Pleiades. The removal of lithium from the surfaces of middle-F dwarfs therefore occurs principally after about 100 Myr on the main sequence. 25 references

  16. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  17. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  18. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  19. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  20. Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide by the oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride with selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Falk; Hack, Bettina; Schleid, Thomas [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Lerch, Martin [Institute for Chemistry, Technical University of Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride (ZrN) with suitable amounts of selenium (Se) in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) as flux yields small yellow brownish platelets of the first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide with the composition Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The new compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (no. 194) with a = 363.98(2) pm, c = 1316.41(9) pm (c/a = 3.617) and two formula units per unit cell. The crystallographically unique Zr{sup 4+} cations are surrounded by three selenide and four nitride anions in the shape of a capped trigonal antiprism. The Se{sup 2-} anions are coordinated by six Zr{sup 4+} cations as trigonal prism and the N{sup 3-} anions reside in tetrahedral surrounding of Zr{sup 4+} cations. These [NZr{sub 4}]{sup 13+} tetrahedra become interconnected via three edges each to form {sup 2}{sub ∞}{[(NZr_4_/_4)_2]"2"+} double layers parallel to the (001) plane, which are held together by monolayers of Se{sup 2-} anions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Transport properties of Cu-doped bismuth selenide single crystals at high magnetic fields up to 60 Tesla: Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and π-Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Taisiia A.; Knyazev, Dmitry A.; Wang, Zhaosheng; Sadakov, Andrey V.; Prudkoglyad, Valery A.

    2018-05-01

    We report Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) and Hall oscillations in Cu-doped high quality bismuth selenide single crystals. To increase the accuracy of Berry phase determination by means of the of the SdH oscillations phase analysis we present a study of n-type samples with bulk carrier density n ∼1019 -1020cm-3 at high magnetic field up to 60 Tesla. In particular, Landau level fan diagram starting from the value of the Landau index N = 4 was plotted. Thus, from our data we found π-Berry phase that directly indicates the Dirac nature of the carriers in three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI) based on Cu-doped bismuth selenide. We argued that in our samples the magnetotransport is determined by a general group of carriers that exhibit quasi-two-dimensional (2D) behaviour and are characterized by topological π-Berry phase. Along with the main contribution to the conductivity the presence of a small group of bulk carriers was registered. For 3D-pocket Berry phase was identified as zero, which is a characteristic of trivial metallic states.

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  3. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  4. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Palacios G, O.; Bosch G, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  6. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  7. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  8. Lithium Pharmacogenetics: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Melis, Carla; Squassina, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 0.8-1.2% in the general population. Although lithium is considered the first-line treatment, a large percentage of patients do not respond sufficiently. Moreover, lithium can induce severe side effects and has poor tolerance and a narrow therapeutic index. The genetics of lithium response has been largely investigated, but findings have so far failed to identify reliable biomarkers to predict clinical response. This has been largely determined by the highly complex phenotipic and genetic architecture of lithium response. To this regard, collaborative initiatives hold the promise to provide robust and standardized methods to disantenagle this complexity, as well as the capacity to collect large samples of patietnts, a crucial requirement to study the genetics of complex phenotypes. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently published the largest study so far on lithium response reporting significant associations for two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This result provides relevant insights into the pharmacogenetics of lithium supporting the involvement of the noncoding portion of the genome in modulating clinical response. Although a vast body of research is engaged in dissecting the genetic bases of response to lithium, the several drawbacks of lithium therapy have also stimulated multiple efforts to identify new safer treatments. A drug repurposing approach identified ebselen as a potential lithium mimetic, as it shares with lithium the ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase. Ebselen, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase mimetic, represents a valid and promising example of new potential therapeutic interventions for BD, but the paucity of data warrant further investigation to elucidate its potential efficacy and safety in the management of BPD. Nevertheless, findings provided by the growing field of pharmacogenomic

  9. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  10. Controlling Growth High Uniformity Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Nanowires via the Rapid Thermal Annealing Process at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chu; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chiu-Yen

    2017-09-15

    High uniformity Au-catalyzed indium selenide (In 2 Se 3) nanowires are grown with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The diameters of Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires could be controlled with varied thicknesses of Au films, and the uniformity of nanowires is improved via a fast pre-annealing rate, 100 °C/s. Comparing with the slower heating rate, 0.1 °C/s, the average diameters and distributions (standard deviation, SD) of In 2 Se 3 nanowires with and without the RTA process are 97.14 ± 22.95 nm (23.63%) and 119.06 ± 48.75 nm (40.95%), respectively. The in situ annealing TEM is used to study the effect of heating rate on the formation of Au nanoparticles from the as-deposited Au film. The results demonstrate that the average diameters and distributions of Au nanoparticles with and without the RTA process are 19.84 ± 5.96 nm (30.00%) and about 22.06 ± 9.00 nm (40.80%), respectively. It proves that the diameter size, distribution, and uniformity of Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires are reduced and improved via the RTA pre-treated. The systemic study could help to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials through tuning the annealing rate, temperatures of precursor, and growth substrate to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process proved that it can uniform the size distribution of Au nanoparticles, and then it can be used to grow the high uniformity Au-catalyzed In 2 Se 3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Comparing with the general growth condition, the heating rate is slow, 0.1 °C/s, and the growth temperature is a relatively high growth temperature, > 650 °C. RTA pre-treated growth substrate can form smaller and uniform Au nanoparticles to react with the In 2 Se 3 vapor and produce the high uniformity In 2 Se 3 nanowires. The in situ annealing TEM is used to realize the effect of heating

  11. New Antimony Selenide/Nickel Oxide Photocathode Boosts the Efficiency of Graphene Quantum-Dot Co-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolay, Ankita; Kokal, Ramesh K; Kalluri, Ankarao; Macwan, Isaac; Patra, Prabir K; Ghosal, Partha; Deepa, Melepurath

    2017-10-11

    A novel assembly of a photocathode and a photoanode is investigated to explore their complementary effects in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a quantum-dot solar cell (QDSC). While p-type nickel oxide (NiO) has been used previously, antimony selenide (Sb 2 Se 3 ) has not been used in a QDSC, especially as a component of a counter electrode (CE) architecture that doubles as the photocathode. Here, near-infrared (NIR) light-absorbing Sb 2 Se 3 nanoparticles (NPs) coated over electrodeposited NiO nanofibers on a carbon (C) fabric substrate was employed as the highly efficient photocathode. Quasi-spherical Sb 2 Se 3 NPs, with a band gap of 1.13 eV, upon illumination, release photoexcited electrons in addition to other charge carriers at the CE to further enhance the reduction of the oxidized polysulfide. The p-type conducting behavior of Sb 2 Se 3 , coupled with a work function at 4.63 eV, also facilitates electron injection to polysulfide. The effect of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as co-sensitizers as well as electron conduits is also investigated in which a TiO 2 /CdS/GQDs photoanode structure in combination with a C-fabric CE delivered a power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.28%, which is a vast improvement over the 4.23% that is obtained by using a TiO 2 /CdS photoanode (without GQDs) with the same CE. GQDs, due to a superior conductance, impact efficiency more than Sb 2 Se 3 NPs do. The best PCE of a TiO 2 /CdS/GQDs-nS 2- /S n 2- -Sb 2 Se 3 /NiO/C-fabric cell is 5.96% (0.11 cm 2 area), which, when replicated on a smaller area of 0.06 cm 2 , is seen to increase dramatically to 7.19%. The cell is also tested for 6 h of continuous irradiance. The rationalization for the channelized photogenerated electron movement, which augments the cell performance, is furnished in detail in these studies.

  12. A consideration of lithium cell safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

  13. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  14. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  15. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  17. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  18. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  20. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  1. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use

  2. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  3. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  4. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  5. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  6. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  7. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  8. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  9. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid

  10. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  11. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  12. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  13. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  14. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  15. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  16. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  17. Suicide risk in patients treated with lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...

  18. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  19. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  20. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6 Li undergoes transmutation by the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7 Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  1. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  2. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  3. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    in which we developed an algorithm based on a 2-compartment distribution without elimination. The GFR estimate led to plasma concentrations 3-4 times lower than those anticipated. In contrast, the estimates based on V(d) and the algorithm derived from pharmacokinetic modeling led to comparable loading dose...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  4. Lithium concentration dependence of implanted helium retention in lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szocs, D.E., E-mail: szocsd@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szilagyi, E.; Bogdan, Cs.; Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Helium ions of 500 keV were implanted with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} into various lithium silicates to investigate whether a threshold level of helium retention exists in Li-containing silicate ceramics similar to that found in SiO{sub x} in previous work. The composition and phases of the as prepared lithium silicates were determined by proton backscattering spectrometry (p-BS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods with an average error of {+-}10%. Electrostatic charging of the samples was successfully eliminated by wrapping the samples in Al foil. The amounts of the retained helium within the samples were determined by subtracting the non-implanted spectra from the implanted ones. The experimental results show a threshold in helium retention depending on the Li concentration. Under 20 at.% all He is able to escape from the material; at around 30 at.% nearly half of the He, while over 65 at.% all implanted He is retained. With compositions expressed in SiO{sub 2} volume percentages, a trend similar to those reported of SiO{sub x} previously is found.

  5. Structure data of elements and intermetallic phases. SubVol. B. Sulfides, selenides, tellurides. Pt. 1. Ag-Al-Cd-S. Cu-Te-Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwege, K H; Hellwege, A M [eds.; Eisenmann, B; Schaefer, H

    1986-01-01

    Volume III/14 'Structure data of elements and intermetallic phases' is a supplement to and extension of Volume III/6. Since the publication of III/6 in 1971 (considering original papers up to 1967), the amount of new information for these substances has increased rapidly. Therefore the data had to be divided into several parts. The first part, III/14b1, is presented herewith. In Volume III/6, simple sulfides, selenides and tellurides were treated together with the intermetallic phases. The data are compiled in the same way as in III/6: for each substance the space group, lattice constants, their dependence on temperature and pressure, and other information is listed in the tables. In several cases, mostly for solid solutions, diagrams are given which are added in a separate chapter. Original papers containing a complete structure analysis are referred to in the tables. (orig./GSCH).

  6. Coexistence of multiphase superconductivity and ferromagnetism in lithiated iron selenide hydroxide [(L i1 -xF ex) OH ]FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Christian; Valmianski, Ilya; Pachmayr, Ursula; Basaran, Ali C.; Johrendt, Dirk; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2018-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for (a) multiphase superconductivity and (b) coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in a single structural phase of lithiated iron selenide hydroxide [(L i1 -xF ex )OH]FeSe. Magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy data confirms superconductivity with at least two distinct transition temperatures attributed to well-defined superconducting phases at TSC 1=40 ±2 K and TSC 2=35 ±2 K. Magnetometry data for the upper critical fields reveal a change in the magnetic order (TM=12 K) below TSC 1 and TSC 2 that is consistent with ferromagnetism. This occurs because the superconducting coherence length is much smaller than the structural coherence length, allowing for several different electronic and magnetic states on a single crystallite. The results give insight into the physics of complex multinary materials, where several phenomena governed by different characteristic length scales coexist.

  7. Physical, optical and electrical properties of copper selenide (CuSe) thin films deposited by solution growth technique at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosavi, S.R.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gudage, Y.G.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    Copper selenide (CuSe) thin films are grown onto amorphous glass substrate from an aqueous alkaline medium using solution growth technique (SGT) at room temperature. The preparative parameters were optimized to obtain good quality of thin films. The as-deposited films were characterized for physical, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) shows formation of stoichiometric CuSe compound. Uniform deposition of CuSe thin films on glass substrate was observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) micrographs. Average grain size was determined to 144.53 ± 10 nm using atomic force microscopy. The band gap was found to be 2.03 eV with direct band-to-band transition. Semi-conducting behaviour was observed from resistivity measurements. Ohmic behaviour was seen from I-V curve with good electrical conductivity

  8. A study on the optics of copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells with ultra-thin absorber layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wachters, Arthur J H; van Deelen, Joop; Mourad, Maurice C D; Buskens, Pascal J P

    2014-03-10

    We present a systematic study of the effect of variation of the zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) layer thickness on the absorption characteristics of CIGS solar cells using a simulation program based on finite element method (FEM). We show that the absorption in the CIGS layer does not decrease monotonically with its layer thickness due to interference effects. Ergo, high precision is required in the CIGS production process, especially when using ultra-thin absorber layers, to accurately realize the required thickness of the ZnO, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and CIGS layer. We show that patterning the ZnO window layer can strongly suppress these interference effects allowing a higher tolerance in the production process.

  9. Design and fabrication of anti-reflection coating on Gallium Phosphide, Zinc Selenide and Zinc Sulfide substrates for visible and infrared application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrý P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of design and fabrication of a dual-band anti-reflection coating on a gallium phosphide (GaP, zinc selenide (ZnSe and zinc sulfide (ZnS substrates are presented. A multilayer stack structure of antireflection coatings made of zinc sulfide and yttrium fluoride (YF3 was theoretically designed for optical bands between 0.8 and 0.9 μm and between 9.5 and 10.5 μm. This stack was designed as efficient for these materials (GaP, ZnS, ZnSe together. Multilayer stack structure was deposited using thermal evaporation method. Theoretically predicted transmittance spectra were compared with transmitted spectra measured on coated substrates. Efficiency of anti-reflection coating is estimated and discrepancies are analyzed and discussed.

  10. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium?sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium?sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  11. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  12. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu.; Kuteev, Boris V.; Bykov, Aleksey S.; Krylov, Sergey V.; Skokov, Viacheslav G.; Timokhin, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 10 21 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 10 21 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  14. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  15. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  16. Layer Structured Bismuth Selenides of Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for High Energy and Flexible All-Solid-State Micro-Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2017-12-20

    Bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have the layered rhombohedral crystal structure, and found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor application in this work. Bi2Se3 nanoplates as electrode material exhibit much better performance than that of Bi3Se4 nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte system (6 M KOH), which delivers a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F/g) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F/g) at 5 mV/s. This result would may be attributed to that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to its planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). For the demand of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode applying for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). Bi2Se3 AMSCs device delivers a much more excellent supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance 89.5 F/cm3 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F/cm3) at 20 mV/s, a high energy density 17.9 mWh/cm3 and high power density 18.9 W/cm3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, retention 95.5% (90.3%) after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4). Obviously, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital all-solid-sate supercapacitor. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Layer structured bismuth selenides Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for high energy and flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have a layered rhombohedral crystal structure, have been found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications. In a liquid electrolyte system (6M KOH), Bi2Se3 nanoplates exhibit much better performance as an electrode material than Bi3Se4 nanoparticles do, delivering a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F g-1) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F g-1) at 5 mV s-1. This result may be attributed to the fact that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to their planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). To meet the demands of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode to support the all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). The Bi2Se3 AMSC device delivers a much better supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance of 89.5 F cm-3 at 20 mV s-1 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F cm-3), a high energy density of 17.9 mWh cm-3 and a high power density of 18.9 W cm-3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, with 95.5% retention after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4:90.3%). Clearly, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital AMSCs.

  18. CRITIC-I: Instrumented lithium oxide irradiation: Part 1, Lithium oxide fabrication and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, D.S.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1987-06-01

    Fine-grained, sinterable lithium oxide powder was prepared by high-temperature vacuum calcination of molten lithium carbonate. The product was ball milled, cold pressed, and fired in an oxygen atmosphere. The fired density, grain size, and surface roughness varied widely with firing schedule. Most variations were attributed to moisture content. Rings of high-density, sintered lithium oxide will be used in an in-reactor experiment to measure tritium release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Thermochemical investigation of lithium-vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, S.E.; Kesler, Ya.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Gordeev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical investigation was carried out of lithium-vanadium bronzes. The enthalpies of solution and the standard enthalpies of formation of the bronzes β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5) were determined. Investigated was the dependence of the enthalpy of mixing bronzes on the composition; a linear character of the dependence evidences of negligibly small, as compared to the experimental error, energy variations of the matrix V 2 O 5 on introduction of lithium. The variation was calculated of the partial molar enthalpy of lithium in the formation of β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5)

  20. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  1. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  2. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  3. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  5. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  6. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  7. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  8. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted...... to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. RESULTS: Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non...

  9. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  10. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  11. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  12. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  13. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  14. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  15. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  16. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  17. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  18. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  19. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  1. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  3. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  4. Multiphoton Ionization of Laser Cooled Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmann, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    Reaction microscopes enable kinematically complete measurements of atomic and molecular fragmentation. An ultracold atomic target is usually provided by a supersonic gas jet. The apparatus developed in the course of this thesis for the first time combines the principle of the reaction microscope with a magneto-optical trap. This allows for the preparation of lithium atoms in the sub-mK range. Being a three-electron system, its simple atomic structure makes lithium a model system of great topi...

  5. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline wastewater * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metal s * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  6. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  8. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  9. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  10. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  11. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  12. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  13. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  14. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  15. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  16. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: akram@comp.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Shubhchintak, E-mail: shub.shubhchintak@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  17. Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Ishii, Y.; Fukai, K.; Watanabe, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Matsui, H.; Vollath, D.

    1993-11-01

    Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate (Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4]) and Al-doped Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] (Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4]) irradiated with oxygen ions was studied with ionic conductivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR PAS) and transmission electron microscopy. It was seen from the ionic conductivity measurements that lithium-ion vacancies were introduced as irradiation defects for Li-ions sites in both materials due to the irradiation. By the Raman spectroscopy, oxygen atoms in SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra were considered to be preferentially displaced due to the irradiation for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4], although only a decrease of the number of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra occurred for Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by displacement of both silicon and oxygen atoms. Decomposition of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra and formation of some new phases having Si-O-Si and Si-O bonds were found to take place for both Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] and Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by FT-IR PAS. In the electron microscopy, damage microstructure consisting of many voids or cavities and amorphization were observed for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] irradiated with oxygen ions. The recovery behavior of radiation damage mentioned above was also investigated. (author).

  18. Synthesis and characterization of (Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x})Se{sub 2} based ternary selenides as electrocatalyst for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theerthagiri, J.; Senthil, R.A. [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Buraidah, M.H. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Raghavender, M. [Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Madhavan, J., E-mail: jagan.madhavan@gmail.com [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Arof, A.K. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    Ternary metal selenides of (Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x})Se{sub 2} with 0≤x≤1 were synthesized by using one-step hydrothermal reduction route. The synthesized metal selenides were utilized as an efficient, low-cost platinum free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} counter electrode exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and lower charge transfer resistance at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface than the other compositions for reduction of triiodide to iodide. Ternary selenides of Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} offer a synergistic effect to the electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide that might be due to an increase in active catalytic sites and small charge transfer resistance. The DSSC with Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} counter electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 6.02%, which is comparable with that of conventional platinum counter electrode (6.11%). This present investigation demonstrates the potential application of Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Electron-stimulated desorption of lithium ions from lithium halide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of positive lithium ions from thin layers of lithium halides deposited onto Si(1 1 1) are investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The determined values of isotope effect of the lithium ( 6 Li + / 7 Li + ) are 1.60 ± 0.04, 1.466 ± 0.007, 1.282 ± 0.004, 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.33 ± 0.01 for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively. The observed most probable kinetic energies of 7 Li + are 1.0, 1.9, 1.1, 0.9 and 0.9 eV for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively, and seem to be independent of the halide component mass. The values of lithium ion emission yield, lithium kinetic energy and lithium isotope effect suggest that the lattice relaxation is only important in the lithium ion desorption process from the LiH system. In view of possible mechanisms and processes involved into lithium ion desorption the obtained results indicate that for LiH, LiCl, LiBr and LiI the ions desorb in a rather classical way. However, for LiF, ion desorption has a more quantum character and the modified wave packet squeezing model has to be taken into account

  20. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 224 0 C and 843 0 C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 327 0 C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 350 0 C and 600 0 C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  2. In 2015 Lithium Price Tripled,Lithium Battery is In a Draught of the Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    According to'Report on Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategy Analysis of China Power Lithium Battery Industry'of the Qianzhan Industry Institute,currently lithium demand is mainly concentrated in mobile battery and glass,lubricating oil markets,whose percentage is up to 85%,market share of electric vehicle and ESS energy backup system

  3. An improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  4. Improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-01-15

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  5. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  6. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  7. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge to perform a harmful action), and certain mental illnesses in children. Talk to your doctor ... for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  8. Effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W P; Hampson, N A; Packer, R K

    1988-09-01

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 C and at 70 C at a rate of 50 mA/sq cm. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples. 25 references.

  9. Application of neutron radiography to visualize the distribution of lithium in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Sigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have tried to visualize the motion of lithium ions in lithium ion conductors such as Li 1.33 Ti 1.67 O 4 at high temperatures using neutron radiography (NR) technique and confirmed that NR is very effective to the 6 Li containing systems. This means NR may be used as a non-destructive investigating method to study the electrode reactions and the mass transfer in lithium batteries. Here in this work, it was tried to visualize the distribution of lithium in commercial lithium batteries before and after discharge using NR technique. Obtained NR images will be presented with brief explanation on NR method. Further explanations on the principle of NR and on the NR facilities were presented elsewhere. (J.P.N.)

  10. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  11. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  12. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  13. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  14. Lithium- an update on the mechanisms of action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    rons depending on the level of their activity.4 Lithium thus seems to .... clear that MARCKS is crucial in neuronal growth and brain ... lithium's activity is predominantly confined to the left fron- ... This ranges from neurotransmitter production right.

  15. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a

  16. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise

  17. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  18. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  19. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  20. Investigation of Electronic and Opto-Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional (2D) Layers of Copper Indium Selenide Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Dnyaneshwar

    Investigations performed in order to understand the electronic and optoelectronic properties of field effect transistors based on few layers of 2D Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) are reported. In general, field effect transistors (FETs), electric double layer field effect transistors (EDL-FETs), and photodetectors are crucial part of several electronics based applications such as tele-communication, bio-sensing, and opto-electronic industry. After the discovery of graphene, several 2D semiconductor materials like TMDs (MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 etc.), group III-VI materials (InSe, GaSe, and SnS2 etc.) are being studied rigorously in order to develop them as components in next generation FETs. Traditionally, thin films of ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide have been extensively studied and used in optoelectronics industry as photoactive component in solar cells. Thus, it is expected that atomically thin 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide can have optical properties that could potentially be more advantageous than its thin film counterpart and could find use for developing next generation nano devices with utility in opto/nano electronics. Field effect transistors were fabricated using few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes, which were mechanically exfoliated from bulk crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our FET transport characterization measurements indicate n-type behavior with electron field effect mobility microFE ≈ 36 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature when Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used as a back gate. We found that in such back gated field effect transistor an on/off ratio of 104 and a subthreshold swing ≈ 1 V/dec can be obtained. Our investigations further indicate that Electronic performance of these materials can be increased significantly when gated from top using an ionic liquid electrolyte [1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6)]. We found that electron field effect mobility microFE can be increased from

  1. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  2. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, A. M., E-mail: capecea@tcnj.edu [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey 08628 (United States); Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koel, B. E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ{sub e}, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ{sub e} = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  3. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ e , approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O 2 and H 2 O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ e  = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  4. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  5. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  6. Obtainment of lithium metal by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Costa, M.A.Z. da.

    1988-04-01

    The obtainment metallic lithium through KCL + LiCl, using a stainless steel cathode and a graphite anode is studied. The applications of lithium on nuclear energy, aerospatial program, metalurgy and as refining and degassing agent are also presented. The purification of lithium is still mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide

  8. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with [email protected] , with a subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

  9. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  10. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  11. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  12. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  13. 131I therapy of Graves' disease using lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenshi

    1983-01-01

    Lithium is known to cause goiter and hypothyroidism. In the mechanism of goitrogenesis, there is general agreement that lithium inhibits the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland without significantly impairing other thyroid functions. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate the usefulness of lithium in the radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. Nine patients with Graves' disease who were all, except one, previously treated with antithyroid drugs were studied. 600 mg of lithium carbonate were administered daily to investigate the effects on thyroidal 131 I uptake, disappearance rate of 131 I from the prelabeled thyroid and the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Lithium showed no significant effect on the thyroidal 131 I uptake when the 24 hour thyroidal 131 I uptakes were determined both before and during lithium treatment in the five cases. On the other hand, lithium clearly prolonged the mean value of effective half-lives of 131 I to approximately 8 days vs. 5.1 days before lithium treatment (p 4 and T 3 levels significantly decreased during lithium treatment, from 21.3 to 12.4μg/dl (n=9, p 131 I for the Graves' disease can be reduced by using lithium, the radiation exposure to the total body is decreased. Moreover, it is possible to perform the 131 I therapy while improving the thyrotoxicosis with lithium. Finally, it is concluded that lithium is a very useful drug to be combined with the 131 I therapy of Graves' disease. (author)

  14. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  15. Safety assessment of a lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Roberta, Ferri; Barbara, Giannone

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation

  16. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, Rajesh; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ross, P.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilgen, John B.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  17. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  18. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density

  19. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  20. Lithium mass transport in ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this activity is to measure the lithium vaporization from lithium oxide breeder material under differing temperature and moisture partial pressure conditions. Lithium ceramics are being investigated for use as tritium breeding materials. The lithium is readily converted to tritium after reacting with a neutron. With the addition of 1000 ppM H 2 to the He purge gas, the bred tritium is readily recovered from the blanket as HT and HTO above 400 degree C. Within the solid, tritium may also be found as LiOT which may transport lithium to cooler parts of the blanket. The pressure of LiOT(g), HTO(g), or T 2 O(g) above Li 2 O(s) is the same as that for reactions involving hydrogen. In our experiments we were limited to the use of hydrogen. The purpose of this work is to investigate the transport of LiOH(g) from the blanket material. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Direct observation of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries using operando X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Joanna; Bouchet, Renaud; Trabesinger, Sigita; Marino, Cyril; Gubler, Lorenz; Villevieille, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In the on going quest towards lithium-battery chemistries beyond the lithium-ion technology, the lithium-sulfur system is emerging as one of the most promising candidates. The major outstanding challenge on the route to commercialization is controlling the so-called polysulfide shuttle, which is responsible for the poor cycling efficiency of the current generation of lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the mechanistic understanding of the reactions underlying the polysulfide shuttle is still incomplete. Here we report the direct observation of lithium polysulfides in a lithium-sulfur cell during operation by means of operando X-ray diffraction. We identify signatures of polysulfides adsorbed on the surface of a glass-fibre separator and monitor their evolution during cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adsorption of the polysulfides onto SiO2 can be harnessed for buffering the polysulfide redox shuttle. The use of fumed silica as an electrolyte additive therefore significantly improves the specific charge and Coulombic efficiency of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  2. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  3. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  4. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  5. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  6. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  7. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  8. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  9. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  10. Methods of tritium recovery from molten lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farookhi, R.; Rogers, J.E.

    1968-01-01

    It is important to keep the tritium inventory in a blanket of a thermonuclear reactor at a low level both to eliminate possible hydriding of structural components and to reduce inventory cost. Removing the tritium from a lithium blanket by fractional distillation, flash vaporization, and fractional crystallization was investigated. No definitive data are available either on the vapor-liquid equilibrium between lithium and tritium at low T 2 concentrations, or on the rate of formation and decomposition of lithium tritide. The final distinction between the recovery systems discussed in this report will depend on such data, but presently distillation appears to be the best alternate to the diffusion scheme proposed by A.P. Fraas. The capital cost of equipment necessary to remove tritium by distillation appears to be greater than 10 million dollars for a 5000 MW system, whereas the capital cost associated with the diffusion process has been estimated to be 4 million dollars

  11. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  12. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  13. A study of the atmospherically important reactions between dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and molecular halogens (X2 = Cl2, Br2, and I2) with ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyman, Lydia; Armata, Nerina; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Dyke, John M

    2012-06-14

    The atmospherically relevant reactions between dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and the molecular halogens (X(2) = Cl(2), Br(2), and I(2)) have been studied with ab initio calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Geometry optimization calculations showed that the reactions proceed from the reagents to the products (CH(3)SeCH(2)X + HX) via three minima, a van der Waals adduct (DMSe:X(2)), a covalently bound intermediate (DMSeX(2)), and a product-like complex (CH(3)SeCH(2)X:HX). The computed potential energy surfaces are used to predict what molecular species are likely to be observed in spectroscopic experiments such as gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared matrix isolation spectroscopy. It is concluded that, for the reactions of DMSe with Cl(2) and Br(2), the covalent intermediate should be seen in spectroscopic experiments, whereas, in the DMSe + I(2) reaction, the van der Waals adduct DMSe:I(2) should be observed. Comparison is made with previous related calculations and experiments on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with molecular halogens. The relevance of the results to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. The DMSeX(2) and DMSe:X(2) intermediates are likely to be reservoirs of molecular halogens in the atmosphere which will lead on photolysis to ozone depletion.

  14. Zinc sulfide and zinc selenide immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy: evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short near-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Tokoro, Hitoshi; Terada, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of chemical vapor deposition zinc selenide (CVD-ZnS), chemical vapor deposition zinc sulfide (CVD-ZnSe), Si, and GaAs in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of αatt=0.01 to 0.03 cm-1 among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to λ-2, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least >80%, even for the spectral resolution of R=300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  15. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical band gap of lead selenide thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hone, Fekadu Gashaw, E-mail: fekeye@gmail.com [Hawassa University, Department of Physics, Hawassa (Ethiopia); Ampong, Francis Kofi [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2016-11-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on silica glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were deposited at the bath temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 °C respectively and characterized by a variety of techniques. The XRD results revealed that the PbSe thin film deposited at 60 °C was amorphous in nature. Films deposited at higher temperatures exhibited sharp and intense diffraction peaks, indicating an improvement in crystallinety. The deposition temperature also had a strong influence on the preferred orientation of the crystallites as well as other structural parameters such as microstrain and dislocation density. From the SEM study it was observed that film deposited at 90 °C had well defined crystallites, uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the substrate. The EDAX study confirmed that the samples deposited at the higher temperature had a better stoichiometric ratio. The optical band gap varied from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • The crystallinety of the films improved as the deposition temperature increased. • The deposition temperature strongly influenced the preferred orientations. • Microstrain and dislocation density are decreased linearly with deposition temperature. • Band gap decreased from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV as the deposition temperature increased.

  16. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguang Shi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe2/rGO was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe2. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4% and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2% of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5, the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM–100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/N = 3. When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98–107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  17. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Zongshan; Liu, Yi; Liu, Aifeng

    2018-05-22

    Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe₂/rGO) was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe₂. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4%) and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2%) of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5), the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM⁻100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/ N = 3). When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98⁻107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  18. Dependence of Optical Properties of SEL-Deposited Silver Gallium Selenide Thin Films on the On-Line Growth Parameter: Annealing Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M.R.A.; Firoz Hasan, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Silver gallium selenide (AGS) composite thin films were formed onto ultrasonically and chemically cleaned glass substrates by successive on-line thermal evaporation of individual elements and post-deposition annealing at 300 0 C for various durations in vacuum. The annealing duration was varied between 5 and 20 minutes. The structural and optical properties of the films were ascertained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and uv-vis-nir spectrophotometry (photon wavelength ranging between 300 and 2500 nm), respectively. The diffractogram indicated that these films were polycrystalline in nature having tetragonal structure with lattice parameters, a ∼ 6.0034 A and c ∼ 10.9165 A. The optical transmittance and reflectance were utilized to compute the absorption coefficient, refractive index and energy gap of the films. Dependence of the optical and structural properties of the films on various annealing durations has been analyzed. The nature of the optical transitions has been direct allowed with band gap energies ranging between 1.713 and 1.757 eV and refractive indices between 1.596 and 3.351 depending on photon energy as well as annealing duration. (authors)

  19. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Senami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12,0 single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsive force between lithium atoms destabilizes a system for the large number of lithium atoms.

  20. Lithium - An impurity of interest in radiation effects of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. A.; Horiye, H.; Passenheim, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the introduction and annealing of defects produced in lithium-diffused float-zone n-type silicon by 30-MeV electrons and fission neutrons. The introduction rate of recombination centers produced by electron irradiation is dependent on lithium concentration and for neutron irradiation is independent of lithium concentration. The introduction rate of Si-B1 centers also depends on the lithium concentration. The annealing of electron- and neutron-produced recombination centers, Si-B1 centers, and Si-G7 centers in lithium-diffused silicon occurs at much lower temperatures than in nondiffused material.

  1. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  2. Effect of catalysts on lithium passivation in thionyl chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanevskii, L.S.; Avdalyan, M.B.; Kulova, T.L. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The effect that various catalysts added to the electrolyte or the cathode of lithium-thionyl chloride cells for promoting the cathodic process exert on lithium anodes is studied. It is shown that, in the presence of platinum, the lithium anode is subjected to intense corrosion, and this leads to the appearance of a great voltage delay. Macrocyclic complexes activate lithium electrodes. Impedance measurements showed that the introduction of such complexes in the system is accompanied by changes in the passive film characteristics, and this leads to a decrease in the corrosion rate of lithium and a noticeable reduction of the voltage delay.

  3. Electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Campos, Luis; Buljan, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Research on tritium breeder material is fundamental to the development of deuterium-tritium type fusion reactors for producing clean, non contaminating, electrical energy, since only energy and helium, a harmless gas, are produced from the fusion reaction. Lithium titanate ceramic is one of the possible candidates for the tritium breeder material. This last material is thought to form part of the first wall of the nucleus of the reactor which will provide the necessary tritium for the fusion and will also serve as a shield. Lithium titanate has advantageous characteristics compared to other materials. Some of these are low activation under the irradiation of neutrons, good thermal stability, high density of lithium atoms and relatively fast tritium release at low temperatures. However, there are still several physical and chemical properties with respect to the tritium release mechanism and mechanical properties that have not been studied at all. This work presents a theoretical study of the electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic and the corresponding tritiated material. Band calculations using the Extended H kel Tight-Binding approach were carried out. Results show that after substituting lithium for tritium atoms, the electronic states for the latter appear in the middle of prohibited band gap which it is an indication that the tritiated material should behave as a semiconductor, contrary to Li 2 TiO 3 which is a dielectric isolator. A study was also carried out to determine the energetically most favorable sites for the substitution of lithium for tritium atoms. Additionally, we analyzed possible pathways for the diffusion of a tritium atom within the crystalline structure of the Li 2 TiO 3

  4. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V C; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdi-pov, Sh V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systems lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethyl-formamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations.

  5. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.C.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdi- pov, Sh.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systemS lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethylformamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations

  6. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  7. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  8. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  9. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-01

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated

  10. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  11. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  13. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  14. Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2013-06-01

    With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of ΔP = 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D = 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

  15. Lithium vapor trapping at a high-temperature lithium PFC divertor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Michael; Abrams, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; de Temmerman, G.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has been proposed as a novel plasma-facing material for NSTX-U and next-step fusion devices but questions remain on the ultimate temperature limits of such a PFC during plasma bombardment. Lithium targets were exposed to high-flux plasma bombardment in the Magnum-PSI experimental device resulting in a temperature ramp from room-temperature to above 1200°C. A stable lithium vapor cloud was found to form directly in front of the target and persist to temperature above 1000°C. Consideration of mass and momentum balance in the pre-sheath region of an attached plasma indicates an increase in the magnitude of the pre-sheath potential drop with the inclusion of ionization sources as well as the inclusion of momentum loss terms. The low energy of lithium emission from a surface measured in previous experiments (Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  17. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  18. Gas absorption and discharge behaviors of lead-lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakabe, Toshiro; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Kawara, Zensaku; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Teruya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The absorption of argon in the lead-lithium is comparable with that of helium even at the solid state. • For the molten state of lead-lithium, the absorption of argon could be larger than that of helium. • It is observed that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. • It is observed from the TPD-MS analysis that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. - Abstract: The absorption of rare gas in the lead-lithium has been quite low and the gas is used as a cover-gas to control the environment of experiment. In our previous thermo-fluid experiment by using lithium-lead, it was found the cover gas pressure enclosed in the very leak tight container of lithium-lead was decreased with time, that is, the gas-absorption of the solid lithium-lead occurred at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The variation of pressure exceeded the retention of argon in lead-lithium which is expected by the published data. Therefore, we aim to confirm those phenomena under well-controlled experimental condition by using argon, nitrogen and helium. According to the results of gas exposure tests, the absorption of argon in the lead-lithium is comparable with that of helium even at the solid state. For the molten state of lead-lithium, the absorption of argon could be larger than that of helium. It is also observed from the TPD-MS analysis that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. If the retention of argon in the lead-lithium cannot be ignored, the problem of Ar-41 activity should be taken into consideration as well as the problem of argon bubble in the lead-lithium

  19. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  20. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  1. Experimental study of gaseous lithium deuterides and lithium oxides. Implications for the use of lithium and Li2O as breeding materials in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.; Kudo, H.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to LiH, which has been studied extensively by optical spectroscopy, the existence of a number of other stable lithium hydrides has been predicted theoretically. By analysis of the saturated vapour over dilute solutions of the hydrogen isotopes in lithium, using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, all lithium hydrides predicted to be stable were found. Solutions of deuterium in lithium were used predominantly because of practical advantages for mass spectrometric measurements. The heats of dissociation of LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and Li 2 D 2 , and the binding energies of their singly charged positive ions were determined, and the constants of the gas/liquid equilibria were calculated. The existence of these lithium deuterides in the gas phase over solutions of deuterium in lithium leads to enrichment of deuterium in the gas above 1240 K. The enrichment factor, which increases exponentially with temperature and is independent of concentration for low concentrations of deuterium in the liquid, was determined by Rayleigh distillation experiments. It was found that it is thermodynamically possible to separate deuterium from lithium by distillation. One of the alternatives to the use of lithium in (D,T)-fusion reactors as tritium-breeding blanket material is to employ solid lithium oxide. This has a high melting point, a high lithium density and still favourable tritium-breeding properties. Because of its rather high volatility, an experimental study of the vaporization of Li 2 O was undertaken by mass spectrometry. It vaporizes to give lithium and oxygen, and LiO, Li 2 O, Li 3 O and Li 2 O 2 . The molecule Li 3 O was found as a new species. Heats of dissociation, binding energies of the various ions and the constants of the gas/solid equilibria were determined. The effect of using different materials for the Knudsen cells and the relative thermal stabilities of lithium-aluminium oxides were also studied. (author)

  2. Influence of temperature and lithium purity on corrosion of ferrous alloys in a flowing lithium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained on ferritic HT-9 and Fe-9Cr-1Mo steel and austenitic Type 316 stainless steel in a flowing lithium environment at temperatures between 372 and 538 0 C. The corrosion behavior is evaluated by measurements of weight loss as a function of time and temperature. A metallographic characterization of materials exposed to a flowing lithium environment is presented

  3. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  4. Kinetics Tuning the Electrochemistry of Lithium Dendrites Formation in Lithium Batteries through Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ran; Bi, Xuanxuan; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Li, Shu; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Lithium batteries are one of the most advance energy storage devices in the world and have attracted extensive research interests. However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. In this paper, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li"+ salts, LiPF_6, LiAsF_6, LiBF_4 and LiClO_4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. The kinetic parameters of charge transfer step (exchange current density, j_0, transfer coefficient, α) of Li"+/Li redox system, the mass transfer parameters of Li"+ (transfer number of Li"+, t_L_i_+, diffusion coefficient of Li"+, D_L_i_+), and the conductivity (κ) of each electrolyte were studied separately. The results demonstrate that the solvents play a critical role in the measured j_0, t_L_i_+, D_L_i_+, and κ of the electrolyte, while the choice of Li"+ salts only slightly affect the measured parameters. Finally, the understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal.

  5. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  6. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J; Orlovs, A; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 deg. C improves phase composition of lithium titanates

  7. The TFTR lithium blanket module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bertone, P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; File, J.; Graumann, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approximately 80X80X80 cm cubic module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module, that will be installed on the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) in late 1986. The principal objective of the LBM Program is to perform a series of neutron transport and tritium-breeding measurements throughout the LBM when it is exposed to the TFTR toroidal fusion neutron source, and to compare these data with the predictions of Monte Carlo (MCNP) neutronics codes. The LBM consists of 920 2.5-cm diameter breeder rods constructed of lithium oxide (Li 2 O) pellets housed in thin-walled stainless steel tubes. Procedures for mass-producing 25,000 Li 2 O pellets with satisfactory reproducibility were developed using purified Li 2 O powder, and fabrication of all the breeder rods was completed in early 1985. Tritium assay methods were investigated experimentally using both small lithium metal samples and LBM-type pellets. This work demonstrated that the thermal extraction method will be satisfactory for accurate evaluation of the minute concentrations of tritium expected in the LBM pellets (0.1-1nCi/g)

  8. Lithium: Priming the next 50 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... Alvarez G, Munoz-Montano JR, Satrustegui J, Avila J, Bogonez E, Diaz-Nido J. Regulation of tau phosphorylation and protection against beta-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration by lithium. Possible implications for Alzheimer's disease. Bi- polar Disord 2002; 4:153-65. 11. Senatorov VV, Ren M, Kanai H, ...

  9. Concentrations of lithium in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Li, Yanheng; Zhao, Cunliang; Lin, Mingyue; Wang, Jinxi; Qin, Shenjun [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2010-04-15

    Lithium is an important energy metal. Its concentrations in coals have been studied by many geologists. Its average content is only 14 mg/kg in the coals of the world. Lithium has never been reported as a coal associated deposit before. In order to study the concentrations in Chinese coals, 159 coal and gangue samples were taken from six coal mines and were determined by ICP-MS and the minerals in the samples were identified by X-ray powder diffraction. The results indicate that the Li contents in the coal samples from the Antaibao Coal Mine have reached the industry grade of coal associated deposits. In Tongxing Coal Mine, Li contents in the coal floor rock samples have reached the industry grade of independent lithium deposits. Main minerals are polylithionite, triphylite, zinnwaldite, lithionite and cookeite, which were transported into the peats. Therefore, lithium enriched is most likely in the synsedimentary stage in both coal mines. Furthermore, a revised average Li content in Chinese coals was given.

  10. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  12. Toxic effect of lithium in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, P.K.; Smithberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of lithium ion on glucose oxidation in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice was measured in vitro by the conversion of isotopic glucose into 14 CO 2 /mg wet weight. Glucose utilization is unaffected by lowest lithium dosage but is inhibited by high lithium concentrations (197-295 mM). Chronic administration of lithium to adult mice decreased the DNA content of the cerebrum and cerebellum at concentrations of 80 and 108 mM. The DNA content of selected postnatal stages of cerebrum and cerebellum was measured starting on Day 1 or 2. This served as another parameter to evaluate glucose oxidation studies at these ages. On the basis of wet weight, both brain parts of neonates of ages 1 and 10 days were approximately one-half that of the adult counterparts. On the basis of DNA content, the cerebrum enhanced its glucose utilization twofold from Day 1 to Day 10 and tripled its utilization from Day 10 to Day 20. The glucose utilization by cerebrum at Day 20 is similar to adult values. In contrast, glucose oxidation in the cerebellum remained relatively constant throughout the postnatal growth. The relative susceptibility of the two brain parts is discussed

  13. Lithium hydride hydrolysis: experimental and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Maupoix, C.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.; Heintz, O.; Saviot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work has been studied the contribution of various analyses techniques in the framework, on the one hand of revealing the mechanisms implied in lithium hydride hydrolysis, and on the other hand of studying the kinetics of hydrogen production. Among the methods recently investigated, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SIMS seem to be particularly attractive. (O.M.)

  14. Overview of ENEA's Projects on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, F.; Conte, M.; Passerini, S.; Prosini, P. P.

    The increasing need of high performance batteries in various small-scale and large-scale applications (portable electronics, notebooks, palmtops, cellular phones, electric vehicles, UPS, load levelling) in Italy is motivating the R&D efforts of various public and private organizations. Research of lithium batteries in Italy goes back to the beginning of the technological development of primary and secondary lithium systems with national know-how spread in various academic and public institutions with a few private stakeholders. In the field of lithium polymer batteries, ENEA has been dedicating significant efforts in almost two decades to promote and carry out basic R&D and pre-industrial development projects. In recent years, three major national projects have been performed and coordinated by ENEA in co-operation with some universities, governmental research organizations and industry. In these projects novel polymer electrolytes with ceramic additives, low cost manganese oxide-based composite cathodes, environmentally friendly process for polymer electrolyte, fabrication processes of components and cells have been investigated and developed in order to fulfill long-term needs of cost-effective and highly performant lithium polymer batteries.

  15. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  16. Adsorption of Lithium on Finite Graphitic Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Cabria, I.; Lopez, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent discrepancies between density functional (DFT) and Moller-Plesset (MP2) calculations for the interaction of lithium with graphene recently pointed out by Ferre-Vilaplana (J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 3998) are discussed. In his calculations, this author used a finite coronene cluster, C...

  17. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  18. NSTX plasma operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NSTX 2010 experiments tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium molybdenum divertor surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance with the plasma strike point on the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite. The role of lithium impurities in this result is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspection of the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor after the Campaign indicated mechanical damage to supports, and other hardware resulting from forces following plasma current disruptions. - Abstract: NSTX 2010 experiments were conducted using a molybdenum Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) surface installed on the outer part of the lower divertor. This tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. The LLD molybdenum front face has a 45% porosity to provide sufficient wetting to spread 37 g of lithium, and to retain it in the presence of magnetic forces. Lithium Evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. At the beginning of discharges, the LLD lithium surface ranged from solid to liquefied depending on the amount of applied and plasma heating. Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite, e.g., ELM-free, quiescent edge, H-modes. During these experiments with the plasma outer strike point on the LLD, the rate of deuterium retention in the LLD, as indicated by the fueling needed to achieve and maintain stable plasma conditions, was the about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on the graphite prior to the installation of the

  19. Exploring the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of uranium selenides: Tl{sub 2}Ag{sub 2}USe{sub 4} and Tl{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}USe{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 30614 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Din, Haleem Ud [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Khenata, Rabah [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Goumri-Said, Souraya, E-mail: sosaid@alfaisal.edu [College of Science, Physics department, Alfaisal University, P.O. Box 50927, Riyadh 11533 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    The electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Tl{sub 2}Ag{sub 2}USe{sub 4} and Tl{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}USe{sub 6} compounds were investigated using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange correlation was treated with the generalized gradient approximation plus optimized effective Hubbard parameter and spin–orbit coupling (GGA+U+SOC). The present uranium selenides show narrow direct energy band gap values of 0.7 and 0.875 eV for Tl{sub 2}Ag{sub 2}USe{sub 4} and Tl{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}USe{sub 6} respectively. For both selenides U-d/f states are responsible for electrical transport properties. Uranium atoms were the most contributors in the magnetic moment compared to other atoms and show ferromagnetic nature. The spin density isosurfaces show the polarization of neighboring atoms of Uranium, such as silver/copper and selenium. Thermoelectric calculations reveal that Tl{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}USe{sub 6} is more suitable for thermoelectric device applications than Tl{sub 2}Ag{sub 2}USe{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of uranium selenides are investigated with DFT. • They show a narrow direct energy band gap of 0.7 and 0.875 eV. • U-d/f states are responsible for electrical transport properties. • Tl{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}USe{sub 6} is more suitable for thermoelectric device applications than Tl{sub 2}Ag{sub 2}USe{sub 4}.

  20. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines

  1. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  2. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  3. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  4. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  5. Kinetics of liquid lithium reaction with oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, T.K.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in order to characterize the kinetics of lithium chemical reaction with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Three mixed gas compositions were used; 80% N 2 and 20% O 2 , 90% N 2 and 10% O 2 , and 95% N 2 and 5% O 2 . The reaction rate was obtained as a function of lithium temperature and the oxygen fraction. Liquid lithium temperature varied from 400 to 1100 0 C. By varying the composition, the degree of inhibition of the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate due to the presence of oxygen was observed. The results indicate that the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate depended on both the fraction of oxygen present and lithium temperature. The lithium nitride layer formed from the reaction also had a significant inhibition effect on the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate while the lithium-oxygen reaction rate was not as greatly hindered. LITFIRE, a computer code which simulates temperature and pressure history in a containment building following lithium spills, was modified by including (1) an improved model for the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate and (2) a model for the lithium-CO 2 reaction. LITFIRE was used to simulate HEDL's LC-2 and LA-5 experiments, and the predicted temperatures and pressures were in a reasonable agreement. Furthermore, LITFIRE was applied to a prototypical fusion reactor containment in order to simulate the consequences of a lithium spill accident. The result indicated that if nitrogen was used as containment building gas during the accident, the consequences of the accident would be less severe than those with air. The pressure rise in the building was found to be reduced by 50% and the maximum temperature of the combustion zone was limited to 900 0 C instead of 1200 0 C in the case of air

  6. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  7. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  8. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Timothy, E-mail: tim.prior@sipo.gess.ethz.ch [Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Wäger, Patrick A. [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stamp, Anna [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Giurco, Damien [Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy.

  9. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy

  10. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  11. IR Laser-Induced Co-decomposition of Dimethyl Selenide and Trisilane: Gas-Phase Formation of SiSe and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nanostructured H/Si/Se/C Polymers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Urbanová, Markéta; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 188, 2-3 (2007) , s. 399-408 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 846 Grant - others:MCyT(ES) BQU2003/08531/C02/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : laser deposition * laser-induced polymers * silicon selenide Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  12. Lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason

    Batteries based oil intercalation eletrodes are currently being considered for a variety of applications including automobiles. This thesis is concerned with the simulation and experimental investigation of one such system: spinel LiyMn2O4. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of an electrochemical cell containing all intercalation electrode is developed and applied to Li yMn2O4 based systems. The influence of the exchange current density oil the propagation of the reaction through the depth of the electrode is examined theoretically. Galvanostatic cycling and relaxation phenomena on open circuit are simulated for different particle-size distributions. The electrode with uniformly sized particles shows the best performance when the current is on, and relaxes towards equilibrium most quickly. The impedance of a porous electrode containing a particle-size distribution at low frequencies is investigated with all analytic solution and a simplified version of the mathematical model. The presence of the particle-size distribution leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient which has all incorrect concentration dependence. A Li/1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC)/ LiyMn 2O4 cell is used to investigate the influence of side reactions oil the current-potential behavior of intercalation electrodes. Slow cyclic voltammograms and self-discharge data are combined to estimate the reversible potential of the host material and the kinetic parameters for the side reaction. This information is then used, together with estimates of the solid-state diffusion coefficient and main-reaction exchange current density, in a mathematical model of the system. Predictions from the model compare favorably with continuous cycling results and galvanostatic experiments with periodic current interruptions. The variation with respect to composition of' the diffusion coefficient of lithium in LiyMn2O4 is estimated from incomplete galvanostatic discharges following open-circult periods. The

  13. An approach to global rovibrational analysis based on anharmonic ladder operators: Application to Hydrogen Selenide (H{sub 2}{sup 80}Se)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Bajo, O. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Carvajal, M., E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Bernal, F. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of a bent triatomic molecule, depicting the atom numbering, and molecular axis system. An algebraic approach to perform global rovibrational analysis is presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel approach for a global rovibrational analysis of polyatomic molecules spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One-dimensional vibron model limit combined with rotational degrees of freedom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase space Hamiltonian written in terms of anharmonic ladder operators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Algebraic calculations performed with a symmetry-adapted rovibrational basis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of the rovibrational spectrum of H{sub 2}Se in the ground electronic state. - Abstract: An algebraic approach to perform global rovibrational analysis of molecular spectra is presented. The approach combines the one-dimensional limit of the vibron model with rotational degrees of freedom. The model is based on the expression of the phase space Hamiltonian in terms of anharmonic ladder operators and the use of a symmetry-adapted basis set given by the linear combination of products of local vibrational and rotational wavefunctions. As an example we model the rovibrational spectra of a bent triatomic molecule, providing a global analysis for vibrational bands up to polyad 12 and J{sub max} = 5 of Hydrogen Selenide (H{sub 2}Se). Satisfactory fits of vibrational and rovibrational energies are obtained. A prediction of 2579 rovibrational energies up to J Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 5 and polyad 12 for the 140 lowest vibrational bands is also obtained. A possible extension of the model to reach spectroscopic quality results in larger molecular systems is also given.

  14. Determination of the some electronic parameters of nanostructure copper selenide and Cu/Cu3Se2/n-GaAs/In structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güzeldir, B.; Sağlam, M.; Ateş, A.; Türüt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Introducing to a new degree of freedom in the control of effective barrier height by using Cu. • We want to experimentally observe whether or not the diode continues the ideality in the temperature range of 60–400 K. • We have modified the Richardson’s plot using the temperature dependent values of effective area of the patches. - Abstract: The nanostructure copper selenide thin film has been grown on n-type gallium arsenide substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The film has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis of the film confirms a polycrystalline with preferred orientation. The AFM and SEM micrographs of the film reveal smooth and uniform surface pattern without any dark pits, pinholes and microcracks. The Cu/Cu 3 Se 2 /n-GaAs/In structure has been thermally formed in evaporating system after the SILAR process. The electrical analysis of Cu/Cu 3 Se 2 /n-GaAs/In structure has been investigated by means of current–voltage (I–V) measurements in the temperature range of 60–400 K in dark conditions. The values of barrier height (BH) and ideality factor (n) ranged from 0.21 eV and 4.97 (60 K) to 0.83 eV and 1.14 (400 K), respectively. In the calculations, the electrical parameters of the experimental forward bias I–V characteristics of the Cu/Cu 3 Se 2 /n-GaAs/In with the homogeneity in the 60–400 K range have been explained by means of the thermionic emission (TE), considering Gaussian distribution (GD) of BH with linear bias dependence

  15. Determination of the some electronic parameters of nanostructure copper selenide and Cu/Cu{sub 3}Se{sub 2}/n-GaAs/In structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güzeldir, B.; Sağlam, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ateş, A. [Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Türüt, A. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34000 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Introducing to a new degree of freedom in the control of effective barrier height by using Cu. • We want to experimentally observe whether or not the diode continues the ideality in the temperature range of 60–400 K. • We have modified the Richardson’s plot using the temperature dependent values of effective area of the patches. - Abstract: The nanostructure copper selenide thin film has been grown on n-type gallium arsenide substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The film has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis of the film confirms a polycrystalline with preferred orientation. The AFM and SEM micrographs of the film reveal smooth and uniform surface pattern without any dark pits, pinholes and microcracks. The Cu/Cu{sub 3}Se{sub 2}/n-GaAs/In structure has been thermally formed in evaporating system after the SILAR process. The electrical analysis of Cu/Cu{sub 3}Se{sub 2}/n-GaAs/In structure has been investigated by means of current–voltage (I–V) measurements in the temperature range of 60–400 K in dark conditions. The values of barrier height (BH) and ideality factor (n) ranged from 0.21 eV and 4.97 (60 K) to 0.83 eV and 1.14 (400 K), respectively. In the calculations, the electrical parameters of the experimental forward bias I–V characteristics of the Cu/Cu{sub 3}Se{sub 2}/n-GaAs/In with the homogeneity in the 60–400 K range have been explained by means of the thermionic emission (TE), considering Gaussian distribution (GD) of BH with linear bias dependence.

  16. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development...... of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania...

  17. Operational Characteristics of Liquid Lithium Divertor in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Abrams, T.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Maingi, R.; Nygren, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2010-11-01

    Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) have resulted in improved plasma performance on NSTX in deuterium H-mode plasmas with neutral beam heating.^ Salient results included improved electron confinement and ELM suppression. In CDX-U, the use of lithium-coated PFC's and a large-area liquid lithium limiter resulted in a six-fold increase in global energy confinement time. A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) has been installed in NSTX for the 2010 run campaign. The LLD PFC consists of a thin film of lithium on a temperature-controlled substrate to keep the lithium liquefied between shots, and handle heat loads during plasmas. This capability was demonstrated when the LLD withstood a strike point on its surface during discharges with up to 4 MW of neutral beam heating.

  18. Fractionation of lithium isotopes in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kawada, Kazuhiko; Kakihana, Hidetake; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1991-01-01

    Various methods for lithium isotope separation have been developed, and their applicability to large-scale enriched lithium isotope production has been assessed. Ion-exchange chromatography is one such method. Cation-exchange chromatography of lithium was carried out to investigate the lithium isotope effect in aqueous ion-exchange systems. The heavier isotope. 7 Li, was preferentially fractionated into the resin phase in every experiment conducted, and this result is consistent with the results of previous work. The value of the separation factor was 1.00089-1.00171 at 25C. A comparison of lithium isotope effect with those of potassium and rubidium indicated that the isotope effect originating from hydration is larger than the effect due to phase change for lithium, while the opposite is the case with potassium and rubidium

  19. Lithium in Tap Water and Suicide Mortality in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Terao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been used as a mood-stabilizing drug in people with mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may protect against suicide. This study evaluated the association between lithium levels in tap water and the suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR in 40 municipalities of Aomori prefecture, which has the highest levels of suicide mortality rate in Japan. Lithium levels in the tap water supplies of each municipality were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After adjusting for confounders, a statistical trend toward significance was found for the relationship between lithium levels and the average SMR among females. These findings indicate that natural levels of lithium in drinking water might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide among females. Future research is warranted to confirm this association.

  20. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Senami, Masato; Ikeda, Yuji; Fukushima, Akinori; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12, 0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsiv...

  1. Adsorption of lithium-lanthanum films on W (112) face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, M.S.; Smereka, T.P.; Palyukh, B.M.; Babkin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The method of contact potential difference is employed to study the electron adsorption properties (the work function phi and adsorption heat q) lithium films on a lanthanized W(112) surface. It is found that the work function of mixed lithium-lanthanum films is intermediate between phi of the summands. The presence of lanthanum on a W(112) face reduces the adsorption heat of lithium

  2. Evaluation Method for Low-Temperature Performance of Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. W.; Ma, Q.; Fu, Y. L.; Tao, Z. Q.; Xiao, H. Q.; Bai, H.; Bai, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the evaluation method for low temperature performance of lithium battery is established. The low temperature performance level was set up to determine the best operating temperature range of the lithium battery using different cathode materials. Results are shared with the consumers for the proper use of lithium battery to make it have a longer service life and avoid the occurrence of early rejection.

  3. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  4. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  5. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  6. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  7. Description of tritium release from lithium titanate at constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, L; Lagos, S; Jimenez, J; Saravia, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-03-01

    Lithium Titanate Ceramics have been prepared by the solid-state route, pebbles and pellets were fabricated by extrusion and their microstructure was characterized in our laboratories. The ceramic material was irradiated in the La Reina Reactor, RECH-1. A study of post-irradiation annealing test, was performed measuring Tritium release from the Lithium Titanate at constant temperature. The Bertone`s method modified by R. Verrall is used to determine the parameters of Tritium release from Lithium Titanate. (author)

  8. Targeted proteins involved in the neuroprotective effects of lithium citrate

    OpenAIRE

    I. Yu. Torshin; O. A. Gromova; L. A. Mayorova; A. Yu. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Preparations based on organic lithium salts are promising neuroprotective agents that are effective just in the micromolar concentration range and, at the same time, have high safety (Toxicity Class V).Objective: to elucidate more detailed mechanisms responsible for the biological and pharmacological effects of lithium citrate, by analyzing the possible interactions of lithium ion with human proteome proteins that are also represented in the rat proteome.Material and methods. The targets of l...

  9. Safe and recyclable lithium-ion capacitors using sacrificial organic lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, P.; Crosnier, O.; Deunf, E.; Poizot, P.; Béguin, F.; Brousse, T.

    2018-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) shrewdly combine a lithium-ion battery negative electrode capable of reversibly intercalating lithium cations, namely graphite, together with an electrical double-layer positive electrode, namely activated carbon. However, the beauty of this concept is marred by the lack of a lithium-cation source in the device, thus requiring a specific preliminary charging step. The strategies devised thus far in an attempt to rectify this issue all present drawbacks. Our research uncovers a unique approach based on the use of a lithiated organic material, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile dilithium salt. This compound can irreversibly provide lithium cations to the graphite electrode during an initial operando charging step without any negative effects with respect to further operation of the LIC. This method not only restores the low CO2 footprint of LICs, but also possesses far-reaching potential with respect to designing a wide range of greener hybrid devices based on other chemistries, comprising entirely recyclable components.

  10. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectroscopic measurements of lithium influx from an actively water-cooled liquid lithium limiter on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apruzzese, G.M., E-mail: gerarda.apruzzese@enea.it; Apicella, M.L.; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.; Viola, B.

    2017-04-15

    Since 2006, experiments using a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) were successfully performed on FTU, pointing out the problem of the quantity of lithium in the plasma, especially in conditions of strong evaporation due to the high temperature of limiter surface. In order to avoid the strong evaporation it is necessary to control the temperature by removing the heat from the limiter during the plasma exposure. To explore this issue a new actively cooled lithium limiter (CLL) has been installed and tested in FTU. Suitable monitors to detect the presence of lithium in the plasma are the spectroscopic diagnostics in the visible range that permit to measure the flux of lithium, coming from the limiter surface, through the brightness of the LiI spectral lines. For this aim an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) spectrometer and a single wavelength impurities monitor have been used. The analysis of the Li influx signals has permitted to monitor the effects of interaction between the plasma and the limiter connected to the thermal load. Particular attention has been paid on the possible occurrence of sudden rise of the signals, which is an index of a strong interaction that could lead to a disruption. On the other hand, the appearance of significant signals gives useful indication if the interaction with the plasma has taken place.

  12. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  13. Successful lithium treatment of transvestism associated with manic-depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N G

    1975-09-01

    A case of transvestism in a 24-year-old manic-depressive man is described. The behavior had been maintained for 2 years and disappeared soon after lithium treatment was begun. It has not returned during the first year on lithium. Dynamic and behavioral explanations for this unusual therapeutic response are considered. The dynamic explanation involves the assumption that the transvestism was perpetuated by mood-dependent motives that were eliminated by lithium. The behavioral explanation involves the assumption that the manic state itself became an intermittent reinforcer for the transvestism, and the lithium, by eliminating the mania, created a relatively permanent extinction period.

  14. Enantioselective Effect of Flurbiprofen on Lithium Disposition in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwai, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Masashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is administered for treating bipolar disorders and is mainly excreted into urine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit this process. In this study, we examined the enantioselective effect of flurbiprofen on the disposition of lithium in rats. Pharmacokinetic experiments with lithium were performed. Until 60 min after the intravenous administration of lithium chloride at 30 mg/kg as a bolus, 17.8% of lithium injected was recovered into the urine. Its renal clearance was calculated to be 1.62 mL/min/kg. Neither creatinine clearance (Ccr) nor pharmacokinetics of lithium was affected by the simultaneous injection of (R)-flurbiprofen at 20 mg/kg. (S)-flurbiprofen impaired the renal function and interfered with the urinary excretion of lithium. The ratio of renal clearance of lithium to Ccr was decreased by the (S)-enantiomer. This study clarified that the (S)-flurbiprofen but not (R)-flurbiprofen inhibited the renal excretion of lithium in rats. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  17. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  18. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  19. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  20. Conceptual analysis of a tokamak reactor with lithium dust jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B.V.; Krylov, S.V.; Sergeev, V.Yu.; Skokov, V.G.; Timokhin, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    The steady-state operation of tokamak reactors requires radiating a substantial part of the fusion energy dissipated in plasma to make more uniform the heat loads onto the first wall and to reduce the erosion of the divertor plates. One of the approaches to realize this goal uses injection of lithium dust jet into the scrape-off layer (SOL). A quantitative conceptual analysis of the reactor parameters with lithium dust jet injection is presented here. The effects of the lithium on the core and SOL plasma are considered. The first results of developing the lithium jet injection technology and its application to the T-10 tokamak are also presented.