WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithium isotope effect

  1. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  2. Quantum and isotope effects in lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Graeme J.; Dunuwille, Mihindra; Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Loa, Ingo; Zhang, Rong; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Cai, Weizhao; Deemyad, Shanti

    2017-06-01

    The crystal structure of elements at zero pressure and temperature is the most fundamental information in condensed matter physics. For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, we show that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. The actual ground state is face-centered cubic (fcc). We find that isotopes of lithium, under similar thermal paths, exhibit a considerable difference in martensitic transition temperature. Lithium exhibits nuclear quantum mechanical effects, serving as a metallic intermediate between helium, with its quantum effect-dominated structures, and the higher-mass elements. By disentangling the quantum kinetic complexities, we prove that fcc lithium is the ground state, and we synthesize it by decompression.

  3. Lithium isotope separation by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, T.; Maruyama, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shiba, K.

    1982-01-01

    A lithium isotope separation was performed using a laser isotope separation method. It was found that the lithium atoms with a natural isotopic abundance enhanced its /sup 6/Li concentration up to over 90% by tuning the laser wavelength to the /sup 2/Psub(1/2) of /sup 6/Li. Too high power, however, leads to a loss of enrichment due to the power broadening effect which was analysed by the equation of motion of density matrices.

  4. Isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Florian; Blaum, Klaus; Block, Michael; Chenmarev, Stanislav; Eliseev, Sergey; Glazov, Dmitry A.; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hou, Jiamin; Kracke, Anke; Nesterenko, Dmitri A.; Novikov, Yuri N.; Quint, Wolfgang; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Shabaev, Vladimir M.; Sturm, Sven; Volotka, Andrey V.; Werth, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic moment μ of a bound electron, generally expressed by the g-factor μ=-g μB s ħ-1 with μB the Bohr magneton and s the electron's spin, can be calculated by bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED) to very high precision. The recent ultra-precise experiment on hydrogen-like silicon determined this value to eleven significant digits, and thus allowed to rigorously probe the validity of BS-QED. Yet, the investigation of one of the most interesting contribution to the g-factor, the relativistic interaction between electron and nucleus, is limited by our knowledge of BS-QED effects. By comparing the g-factors of two isotopes, it is possible to cancel most of these contributions and sensitively probe nuclear effects. Here, we present calculations and experiments on the isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium ions. The good agreement between the theoretical predicted recoil contribution and the high-precision g-factor measurements paves the way for a new generation of BS-QED tests.

  5. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  6. Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of lithium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ignacio E.; González, Iván A.

    2016-10-01

    We study Doppler-limited laser intensity absorption, in a thermal lithium vapor containing 7Li and 6Li atoms in a 9 to 1 ratio, using a narrow-linewidth single-longitudinal-mode tunable external cavity diode laser at the wavelength of 670.8 nm. The lithium vapor was embedded in helium or argon buffer gas. The spectral lineshapes were rigorously predicted for D_1 and D_2 for the lithium 6 and 7 isotope lines using reduced optical Bloch equations, specifically derived, from a density matrix analysis. Here, a detailed comparison is provided of the predicted lineshapes with the measured 7Li-D_2, 7Li-D_1, 6Li-D_2 and 6Li-D_1 lines, in the case of high vapor density and with intensity above the saturation intensity. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such detailed comparison is reported in the open literature. The calculations were also extended to saturated absorption spectra and compared to measured Doppler-free 7Li-D_2 and 6Li-D_2 hyperfine lines.

  7. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  8. Lithium Isotopic Fractionation in Subduction Zones: Clues From Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    Lithium isotope ratios show such large variations in nature (>30 per mil), that many areas of geosciences are exploring the usefulness of this system in explaining the evolution of particular rocks. Here we show how the lithium isotope ratios change during the transformation of smectite clay minerals to illite during burial metamorphism. Such a transition may be a common feature in the shallow regions of subduction zones and may ultimately affect the Li isotope compositions of fluids contributing to arc magmatism. Lithium is a ubiquitous trace element in natural formation waters that, like B, shows large isotopic fractionation especially during interactions with clay minerals. Lithium is adsorbed in the interlayer region of expandable clay minerals but is easily exchanged. Lithium is also incorporated into the octahedral sites. The substitutions of Li in two crystallographic sites of clay minerals may complicate interpretations of bulk Li-isotope ratios. We suggest that the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation of Li between fluid and clay is different in the interlayer sites of clay minerals than in the octahedral sites of clay minerals. Examination of Li contents and isotope variations in experimental reactions of smectite to illite (300C, 100MPa) shows changes with structural re-arrangement of the clay layers. The Li-isotope trend declines (from ~+6 to -13 per mil, expressed as ratios of 7/6) throughout R1-ordering of the mixed-layered illite smectite (I/S). However, the equilibrium end products of the reaction have R3-ordering and show a heavier isotope ratio (~0 per mil). This observation is very similar to the trends we observed for B-isotopes, where the interlayer B initially overprinted the tetrahedral-layer B isotope composition, but as the interlayer sites were collapsed during illitization, the equilibrium isotope composition was approached. The significant Li and B isotopic changes that occur during ordering of I/S coincides with the temperatures

  9. The lithium isotopic ratio in very metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt

    2013-01-01

    Un-evolved, very metal-poor stars are the most important tracers of the cosmic abundance of lithium in the early universe. Combining the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model with Galactic production through cosmic ray spallation, these stars at [Fe/H]<-2 are expected to show an undetectably small 6Li/7Li isotopic signature. Evidence to the contrary may necessitate an additional pre-galactic production source or a revision of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We revisit the isotopic analysis of four halo stars, two with claimed 6Li-detections in the literature, to investigate the influence of improved model atmospheres and line formation treatment. For the first time, a combined 3D, NLTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) modelling technique for Li, Na, and Ca lines is utilised to constrain the intrinsic line-broadening and to determine the Li isotopic ratio. We discuss the influence of 3D NLTE effects on line profile shapes and assess the realism of our modelling using the Ca excitation...

  10. Temperature dependence of the rate constant of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuri [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mukanova, Aliya [Al’ Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuri; Barsukov, Nikolay; Tulubaev, Evgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Platacis, Erik [University of Latvia (IPUL), Riga (Latvia); Kenzhin, Ergazy [Shakarim Semey State University, Semey (Kazakhstan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The experiments with Li CPS sample were carried out at reactor IVG-1.M. • The gas absorption technique was used to study hydrogen isotope interaction with lithium CPS. • The temperature dependence of constants of interaction rate was obtained for various power rates of the reactor. • Determination of the activation energies, and pre-exponents of Arrhenius dependence. • The effect of increase of the rate constant under reaction irradiation. -- Abstract: Experiments with a sample of a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) were performed at the reactor IVG-1.M of the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the parameters of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium CPS. The absorption technique was used during the experiments, and this technique allowed the temperature dependences of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate constants with the lithium CPS to be obtained under various reactor powers. The obtained dependencies were used to determine the main interaction parameters: the activation energies and the pre-exponents of the Arrhenius dependence of the hydrogen interaction rate constants with lithium and the lithium CPS. An increase of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate with the lithium CPS was observed under reactor irradiation.

  11. Solution behavior of hydrogen isotopes and other non-metallic elements in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, V.A.; Calaway, W.F.; Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of experimental studies to measure selected thermodynamic properties for systems of lithium with non-metallic elements are reported. Investigations of the Li-H, Li-D, and Li-T systems have led to the elucidation of the dilute solution behavior and the H/D/T isotope effects. In the case of the Li-H and Li-D systems, the principal features of the respective phase diagrams have been delineated. The solubility of Li-D in liquid lithium has been measured down to 200/sup 0/C. The solubility of Li/sub 3/N in liquid lithium and the thermal decomposition of Li/sub 3/N have also been studied. From these data, the free energy of formation of Li/sub 3/N and the Sieverts' constant for dissolution of nitrogen in lithium have been determined. Based on studies of the distribution of non-metallic elements between liquid lithium and selected molten salts, it appears that molten salt extraction offers promise as a means of removing these impurity elements (e.g., H, D, T, O, N, C) from liquid lithium.

  12. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  13. Delayed Particle Study of Neutron Rich Lithium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Perrot, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to make a systematic complete coincidence study of $\\beta$-delayed particles from the decay of neutron-rich lithium isotopes. The lithium isotopes with A=9,10,11 have proven to contain a vast information on nuclear structure and especially on the formation of halo nuclei. A mapping of the $\\beta$-strength at high energies in the daughter nucleus will make possible a detailed test of our understanding of their structure. An essential step is the comparison of $\\beta$-strength patterns in $^{11}$Li and the core nucleus $^{9}$Li, another is the full characterization of the break-up processes following the $\\beta$-decay. To enable such a measurement of the full decay process we will use a highly segmented detection system where energy and emission angles of both charged and neutral particles are detected in coincidence and with high efficiency and accuracy. We ask for a total of 30 shifts (21 shifts for $^{11}$Li, 9 shifts $^{9}$Li adding 5 shifts for setting up with stable beam) using a Ta-foil target...

  14. A Record of Oceanic Lithium Isotope Composition for the Last 7Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C. S.; Henderson, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Continental weathering plays an important role in global climate change but has proved difficult to reconstruct for the past. New geological tools with which to assess the past rate and style of weathering are therefore urgently required. One such tool is Li isotope fractionation. Recent studies [1,2] have shown preferential release of 7Li into the aqueous phase and retention/adsorption of 6Li during weathering processes such as partial dissolution and secondary mineral formation. Lithium behaves conservatively in the oceans, with a residence time of ˜1Ma, so that a history of ocean Li isotope composition provides information about the average rate and style of global continental weathering on long timescales. The incorporation of lithium as a trace element in marine carbonates enables the construction of a record of oceanic Li-isotopic variation and is the focus of this work. Carbonate Li-isotope compositions are lighter than seawater by ˜8 per mil, but this fractionation is not temperature dependent. This has been demonstrated by measurement of Li isotopes in inorganically precipitated calcites (5-30° C) [3], in coralline aragonite (25-30° C) [3] and in benthic foraminifera Uvigerina (7-23° C). This lack of T-dependent fractionation suggests that the variation in the isotope composition of planktonic foraminifera will solely reflect changes in oceanic Li isotope composition, which in turn is strongly influence by changes in continental weathering. ODP site 758, located on the Ninetyeast Ridge in the Indian Ocean (5° N, 90° E; 2925m), was sampled at 2m intervals, over a depth corresponding to the last 7Ma, to produce 55 samples with a temporal resolution of approximately 130Ka. Site 758 is previously well studied with an existing chronology and high resolution Sr, O and Nd isotope data. Individual foram species in the core top were first investigated to assess inter-species fractionation effects. Down core lithium isotope variation was examined by

  15. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies; Separacao isotopica de litio: estudos preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-07-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  16. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  17. New Constraints on K-Pg boundary Environmental Changes with Lithium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, N.; Ravizza, G. E.; Nagashima, K.; Norris, R. D.; Petit, S.; Beaufort, D.; Karpoff, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic and oceanic perturbations associated with the Deccan Traps eruption and with the Chicxulub impact are still strongly debated. Because lithium isotopes significantly fractionate during low temperature processes, the composition of mineral phases formed across the K-Pg boundary can provide quantitative information concerning environmental changes at that time. In this study, we investigate in parallel the Li isotope composition of both marine authigenic smectite and benthic foraminifera over a time window of 3 Ma. Comparing both phases is important because the d7Li of foraminifera may be subject to vital effects during calcification, while authigenic clays are not. The objectives are: 1/ To determine the long-term variation of seawater d7Li due to changes in continental flux and alteration rate and 2/ To detect short-term variations of the ocean carbon chemistry, recorded by Li isotope fractionation during foraminifera growth. Li isotopes are measured in clays by MC-ICP-MS, and in benthic foraminifera tests using the ims 1280 ion microprobe, at University of Hawaii. Initial results show a limited variation (Chicxulub, possibly related to eruption events in the Deccan.

  18. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, I. L., E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz; Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, Ye. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of {sup 6}Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  19. Effect of lithium therapy on glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, P; Oliver, J A; Sciacca, R R; Colt, E; Fieve, R R

    1983-08-01

    Patients taking lithium had a slightly higher serum creatinine concentration than controls. Creatinine concentration was independent of lithium level or therapy length, suggesting that lithium decreases glomerular filtration but that this effect is small, noncumulative, and of marginal clinical significance.

  20. 冠状化合物在锂同位素分离中的应用%Application of Crown Compounds in Lithium Isotopes Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束玉珍; 吴继宗; 邓惟勤

    2015-01-01

    Lithium is composed of two stable isotopes that both have important application in the nuclear power industry.The industrial method for lithium isotope separation is with amalgam,but huge volumes of toxic mercury used in this method bring about serious health and environmental problems.Thus,it is imperative to look for a green and effective method for lithium isotope separation.Since the crown ether was synthesized,it has become a research focus for its excellent properties on lithium isotope separation.In this paper,to provide a reference for the further research,nearly 40 years of research achievements in lithi-um isotopes separation by crown compounds were classified and summarized.%锂有两种稳定的同位素且在核能工业中都有重要的应用,工业上分离锂同位素的方法为锂汞齐法,但该法需使用大量有毒的汞,对人类健康和环境卫生带来了严重问题,因此寻找一种绿色有效的替代方法势在必行。自冠醚和穴醚合成后,在锂同位素分离上的优良特性使其成为了国内外研究热点,本工作将近40年来冠状化合物在锂同位素分离中的研究成果进行了系统的归类和总结,为该领域的进一步研究提供参考。

  1. Tracking the weathering of basalts on Mars using lithium isotope fractionation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G.; Losa-Adams, Elisabeth; Gil-Lozano, Carolina; Gago-Duport, Luis; Uceda, Esther R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-04-01

    Lithium (Li), the lightest of the alkali elements, has geochemical properties that include high aqueous solubility (Li is the most fluid mobile element) and high relative abundance in basalt-forming minerals (values ranking between 0.2 and 12 ppm). Li isotopes are particularly subject to fractionation because the two stable isotopes of lithium—7Li and 6Li—have a large relative mass difference (˜15%) that results in significant fractionation between water and solid phases. The extent of Li isotope fractionation during aqueous alteration of basalt depends on the dissolution rate of primary minerals—the source of Li—and on the precipitation kinetics, leading to formation of secondary phases. Consequently, a detailed analysis of Li isotopic ratios in both solution and secondary mineral lattices could provide clues about past Martian weathering conditions, including weathering extent, temperature, pH, supersaturation, and evaporation rate of the initial solutions in contact with basalt rocks. In this paper, we discuss ways in which Martian aqueous processes could have lead to Li isotope fractionation. We show that Li isotopic data obtained by future exploration of Mars could be relevant to highlighting different processes of Li isotopic fractionation in the past, and therefore to understanding basalt weathering and environmental conditions early in the planet's history.

  2. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  3. Lithium isotope behaviour during weathering in the Ganges Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Frings, Patrick J.; Murphy, Melissa J.

    2017-02-01

    The Ganges river system is responsible for the transportation of a large flux of dissolved materials derived from Himalayan weathering to the oceans. Silicate weathering-driven cooling resulting from uplift of the Himalayas has been proposed to be a key player in Cenozoic climate variation. This study has analysed Li isotope (δ7Li) ratios from over 50 Ganges river waters and sediments, in order to trace silicate weathering processes. Sediments have δ7Li of ∼0‰, identical to bulk continental crust, however suspended sediment depth profiles do not display variations associated with grain size that have been observed in other large river systems. Dissolved δ7Li are low (∼11‰) in the Ganges headwaters, but reach a constant value of 21 ± 1.6‰ within a relatively short distance downstream, which is then maintained for almost 2000 km to the Ganges mouth. Given that Li isotopes are controlled by the ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation, this suggests that the Ganges floodplain is at steady-state in terms of these processes for most of its length. Low δ7Li in the mountainous regions suggest silicate weathering is therefore at its most congruent where uplift and fresh silicate exposure rates are high. However, there is no correlation between δ7Li and the silicate weathering rate in these rivers, suggesting that Li isotopes cannot be used as a weathering-rate tracer, although they do inform on weathering congruency and intensity. The close-to-constant δ7Li values for the final 2000 km of Ganges flow also suggest that once the size of the alluvial plain reached more than ∼500 km (the flow distance after which riverine δ7Li stops varying), the Ganges exerted little influence on the changing Cenozoic seawater δ7Li, because riverine δ7Li attained a near steady-state composition.

  4. Isotope Effects in ESR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the relationship between ESR spectroscopy and isotope effects three levels are considered: (i ESR spectroscopy is described on a general level up to the models for interpretation of the experimental spectra, which go beyond the usually used time and mass independent spin-Hamilton operator, (ii the main characteristics of the generalized isotope effects are worked out, and finally (iii the basic, mainly quantum mechanical effects are used to describe the coupling of electron spins with the degrees of freedom, which are accessible under the selected conditions, of the respective paramagnetic object under investigation. The ESR parameters and the respective models are formalized so far, that they include the time and mass depending influences and reflect the specific isotope effects. Relations will be established between the effects in ESR spectra to spin relaxation, to spin exchange, to the magnetic isotope effect, to the Jahn-Teller effects, as well as to the influence of zero-point vibrations. Examples will be presented which demonstrate the influence of isotopes as well as the kind of accessible information. It will be differentiated with respect to isotope effects in paramagnetic centres itself and in the respective matrices up to the technique of ESR imaging. It is shown that the use of isotope effects is indispensable in ESR spectroscopy.

  5. Assessing Silicate Weathering in Permafrost-Dominated Catchments Using Lithium Isotopes: The Lena River, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. J.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Porcelli, D.; Katchinoff, J. A.; Moreras Martí, A.; Hirst, C. A.; Andersson, P. S.; Maximov, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising global temperatures have the potential to influence the Earth's climate feedback cycles due to permafrost thawing, altering the freshwater input and trace metal and carbon fluxes into the ocean and atmosphere. Riverine lithium isotope ratios (d7Li) are a tracer of silicate weathering processes, which are key in the removal of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales. Despite this, little is known about the effects of permafrost thawing on d7Li variations. Strong seasonal changes in the thawed active layer thickness dictate surficial water flow paths, which may influence intra-annual riverine d7Li signatures. We present a study of the dissolved d7Li from the large permafrost-dominated watersheds of the Lena River (Siberia), which drain into the Arctic Ocean. This work comprises a temporal study during the May 2015 spring flood, from ice breakup through peak flooding, thus monitoring changes in water-rock and water-soil interaction, both processes that control weathering and hence Li isotopes. Before riverine ice started to break up, high [Li] are observed as the river signature is governed by winter base flow conditions. As the river ice breaks up, surface runoff flows over the impermeable permafrost, interacting with leaf litter, diluting the [Li]. We compare d7Li over the spring flood period with a greater spatial study conducted over two summer field seasons (2012/2013) of the main Lena River channel and its tributaries, which drain a variety of lithologies/topographies. During the summer, the thawed active layer promotes deeper water flow paths, greater water-rock interaction and enhanced secondary minerals formation which preferentially take up 6Li. Summer riverine d7Li typically fall between +14.5 ‰ to +28.5 ‰, with rivers draining the Central Siberian Plateau typically exhibiting high [Li], but similar δ7Li to rivers draining the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range. Overall, this study demonstrates how Li isotopes respond to weathering in a permafrost

  6. Lithium isotopic abundances in metal-poor halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Asplund, M; Nissen, P E; Primas, F; Smith, V V; Asplund, Martin; Lambert, David L.; Nissen, Poul Erik; Primas, Francesca; Smith, Verne V.

    2005-01-01

    Very high-quality spectra of 24 metal-poor halo dwarfs and subgiants have been acquired with ESO's VLT/UVES for the purpose of determining Li isotopic abundances. The derived 1D, non-LTE 7Li abundances from the LiI 670.8nm line reveal a pronounced dependence on metallicity but with negligible scatter around this trend. Very good agreement is found between the abundances from the LiI 670.8nm line and the LiI 610.4nm line. The estimated primordial 7Li abundance is $7Li/H = 1.1-1.5 x 10^-10, which is a factor of three to four lower than predicted from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis with the baryon density inferred from the cosmic microwave background. Interestingly, 6Li is detected in nine of our 24 stars at the >2sigma significance level. Our observations suggest the existence of a 6Li plateau at the level of log 6Li = 0.8; however, taking into account predictions for 6Li destruction during the pre-main sequence evolution tilts the plateau such that the 6Li abundances apparently increase with metallicity. Ou...

  7. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  8. Lithium Toxicity and Neurologic Effects: Probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Resulting from Lithium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamede Edokpolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present the case of a patient who developed lithium toxicity with normal therapeutic levels, as a result of pharmacokinetic interaction with Valsartan, and probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from the ensuing lithium toxicity. Case Presentation. A 59-year old black male with bipolar disorder maintained on lithium and fluphenazine therapy presented with a 2 week history of worsening confusion, tremor, and gait abnormality. He recently had his dose of Valsartan increased. At presentation, patient had signs of autonomic instability, he was confused, dehydrated, and had rigidity of upper extremities. Significant labs on admission were lithium level-1.2, elevated CK-6008, leukocytosis WBC-22, and renal impairment; Creatinine-4.1, BUN-35, HCO3-20.1, and blood glucose 145. CT/MRI brain showed old cerebral infarcts, and there was no evidence of an infective process. Lithium and fluphenazine were discontinued, his lithium levels gradually decreased, and he improved with supportive treatment including rehydration and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Conclusions. This case illustrates that lithium toxicity can occur within therapeutic levels, and the neurotoxic effect of lithium can include Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the risk associated with drug interactions with lithium.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  10. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  11. Laboratory experiments of uptake and release of hydrogen isotopes in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, E., E-mail: eider.oyarzabal@externos.ciemat.es; Martin-Rojo, A.B.; Tabarés, F.L.

    2015-08-15

    Laboratory studies of hydrogen and deuterium retention/desorption and hydride formation in liquid lithium samples exposed to those gases at 200 °C and 400 °C are reported in the present work. Two distinct absorption phases with different kinetics are observed and discussed. The calculated absorption rate constants show a preferential absorption of D{sub 2} over H{sub 2} in clean lithium and a faster absorption of H{sub 2} for predeuterated samples. First dynamic experiments on Li samples preimplanted with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} show no evidence of isotope exchange at least up to 500 °C. TDS of Li samples exposed to H/D and of Li/LiH powder mixtures present desorption peaks at ∼500 °C, well below the observed decomposition temperature for LiH powder and no precipitated LiH is detected after the complete evaporation of Li (∼700 °C). Also, preferential release of H{sub 2} retained in the solution with respect to the formation of LiH is deduced from the desorption spectra.

  12. Well-defined functional mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids prepared by an ICAR ATRP technique integrated with bio-inspired polydopamine chemistry for lithium isotope separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuekun; Liu, Xuegang; Ye, Gang; Song, Yang; Liu, Fei; Huo, Xiaomei; Chen, Jing

    2017-05-09

    Mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids with well-preserved mesoporosity were prepared by integrating the initiators for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique with the bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. By manipulating the auto-oxidative polymerization of dopamine, uniform PDA layers were deposited on the surfaces and pore walls of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs), thereby promoting the immobilization of ATRP initiators. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were then grown from the OMSs by using the ICAR ATRP technique. The evolution of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids during synthesis, in terms of morphology, structure, surface and porous properties, was detailed. And, parameters influencing the controlled growth of polymer chains in the ICAR ATRP system were studied. Taking advantage of the abundant epoxy groups in the PGMA platform, post-functionalization of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids by the covalent attachment of macrocyclic ligands for the adsorptive separation of lithium isotopes was realized. Adsorption behavior of the functionalized hybrids toward lithium ions was fully investigated, highlighting the good selectivity, and effects of temperature, solvent and counter ions. The ability for lithium isotope separation was evaluated. A higher separation factor could be obtained in systems with softer counter anions and lower polarity solvents. More importantly, due to the versatility of the ICAR ATRP technique, combined with the non-surface specific PDA chemistry, the methodology established in this work would provide new opportunities for the preparation of advanced organic-inorganic porous hybrids for broadened applications.

  13. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal ...

  14. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  15. Heavy atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneth, Piotr

    1994-05-01

    The theory of isotope effects, which has proved to be extremely useful in providing geometrical details of transition states in a variety of chemical reactions, has recently found an application in studies of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. These reactions are multistep in nature with few steps being partially rate-limiting, thus interpretation of these isotope effects is more complex. The theoretical framework of heavy-atom isotope effects on enzymatic reactions is critically analyzed on the basis of recent results of: carbon kinetic isotope effects on carbonic anhydrase and catalytic antibodies; multiple carbon, deuterium isotope effects on reactions catalyzed by formate decarboxylase; oxygen isotope effects on binding processes in reactions catalyzed by pyruvate kinase; and equilibrium oxygen isotope effect on binding an inhibitor to lactate dehydrogenase. The advantages and disadvantages of reaction complexity in learning details of formal and molecular mechanisms are discussed in the examples of reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, orotidine decarboxylase and glutamine synthetase.

  16. Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, F.

    2003-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of quantum degenerate atomic gases of fermionic ^6Li and bosonic ^7Li. Degeneracy is reached by evaporative cooling of ^7Li in a strongly confining magnetic trap. Since at low temperatures direct evaporative cooling is not possible for a polarized fermionic gas, ^6Li is sympathetically cooled by thermal contact with ^7Li. In a first series of experiments both isotopes are trapped in their low-field seeking higher hyperfine states. A Fermi degeneracy of T/T_F=0.25(5) is achieved for 10^5 fermions. For more than 300 atoms, the ^7Li condensate collapses, due to the attractive interatomic interaction in this state. This limits the degeneracy reached for both species. To overcome this limit, in a second series of experiments ^7Li and ^6Li atoms are transferred to their low field seeking lower hyperfine states, where the boson-boson interaction is repulsive but weak. The inter-isotope collisions are used to thermalize the mixture. A ^7Li Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 10^4 atoms immersed in a Fermi sea is produced. The BEC is quasi-one-dimensional and the thermal fraction can be negligible. The measured degeneracies are T/T_C=T/T_F=0.2(1). The temperature is measured using the bosonic thermal fraction, which vanishes at the lowest temperatures, limiting our measurement sensitivity. In a third series of experiments, the bosons are transferred into an optical trap and their internal state is changed to |F=1,m_F=1rangle, the lowest energy state. A Feshbach resonance is detected and used to produce a BEC with tunable atomic interactions. When the effective interaction between atoms is tuned to be small and attractive, we observe the formation of a matter-wave bright soliton. Propagation of the soliton without spreading over a macroscopic distance of 1.1 mm is observed. Mélanges de gaz ultrafroids: mer de Fermi et condensat de Bose-Einstein des isotopes du lithium Cette thèse décrit l'étude des gaz de fermions ^6Li et de bosons ^7Li dans le

  17. alfa-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in reactions of methyllithium. Is better aggregation the cause of lower reactivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1996-01-01

    The value of kH/kD for alfa deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of methyllithium and methylmagnesium iodid with a series of substrates are consistently ca. 10-15 % higher for the lithium reagent. This may indicate a pre-equilibrium...

  18. Isotope effects of hydrogen and atom tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Pliss, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    The abnormally high mass-dependent isotope effects in liquid-phase hydrogen (deuterium) atom transfer reactions, which are customarily regarded as quantum effects, are actually the products of two classical effects, namely, kinetic and thermodynamic ones. The former is determined by the rate constants for atom transfer and the latter is caused by nonbonded (or noncovalent) isotope effects in the solvation of protiated and deuterated reacting molecules. This product can mimic the large isotope effects that are usually attributed to tunnelling. In enzymatic reactions, tunnelling is of particular interest; its existence characterizes an enzyme as a rigid molecular machine in which the residence time of reactants on the reaction coordinate exceeds the waiting time for the tunnelling event. The magnitude of isotope effect becomes a characteristic parameter of the internal dynamics of the enzyme catalytic site. The bibliography includes 61 references.

  19. The isotope effect: Prediction, discussion, and discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The precise position of a spectral line emitted by an atomic system depends on the mass of the atomic nucleus and is therefore different for isotopes belonging to the same element. The possible presence of an isotope effect followed from Bohr's atomic theory of 1913, but it took several years before it was confirmed experimentally. Its early history involves the childhood not only of the quantum atom, but also of the concept of isotopy. Bohr's prediction of the isotope effect was apparently at odds with early attempts to distinguish between isotopes by means of their optical spectra. However, in 1920 the effect was discovered in HCl molecules, which gave rise to a fruitful development in molecular spectroscopy. The first detection of an atomic isotope effect was no less important, as it was by this means that the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium was discovered in 1932. The early development of isotope spectroscopy illustrates the complex relationship between theory and experiment, and is also instructive with...

  20. Newtonian kinetic isotope effects. Observation, prediction, and origin of heavy-atom dynamic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kelmara K; Hirschi, Jennifer S; Singleton, Daniel A

    2009-06-24

    Intramolecular (13)C kinetic isotope effects were determined for the dimerization of cyclopentadiene. Substantial isotope effects were observed in three positions, despite the C(2) symmetry of the cycloaddition transition state and the absence of dynamical bottlenecks after this transition state. The observed isotope effects were predicted well from trajectory studies by extrapolating the outcomes of trajectories incorporating superheavy isotopes of carbon, ranging from (20)C to (140)C. Trajectory studies suggest that the isotope effects are unrelated to zero-point energy or the geometrical and momentum properties of the transition state. However, steepest-descent paths in mass-weighted coordinates correctly predict the direction of the isotope effects, supporting a novel origin in Newton's second law of motion.

  1. Non-linear Isotope Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    The isotopic fractionation associated with photodissociation of N2O, OCS and CO2, at different altitudes in Earth’s atmosphere, is investigated theoretically using constructed quantum mechanical models of the dissociation processes (i.e. potential energy surfaces and relevant coupling elements...... or moderate, and overall sulfur fractionation in the stratosphere is very weak which does not exclude OCS from being an acceptable background the Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol layer. (iii) CO2 photolysis in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere is highly fractionating in both isotopes, enriching...

  2. Lithium effects: protection against nitrogen narcosis, potentiation of HPNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P B; Leventhal, B L; Coggin, R; Roby, J; Racanska, L

    1980-03-01

    The effect of either 10, 8, or 6 meq/kg of intraperitoneal lithium chloride or sodium chloride on the loss of righting response (RR50) produced by 18.2 ATA N2-ATA O2 was examined in rats. Results were compared to the effects of 10, 8, 6, or 4 meq/kg of intraperitoneal lithium chloride given 24 h before determination of the convulsion pressure (PC) in 40 rats compressed with He-O2 at 160 atm/h at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Lithium (10 meq/kg) prevented the nitrogen-narcosis-induced loss of righting response but significantly potentiated the pressure (depth) at which convulsions and tremors occurred.

  3. Experimental Evidence for Fast Lithium Diffusion and Isotope Fractionation in Water-bearing Rhyolitic Melts at Magmatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, S. B.; Till, C. B.; Roggensack, K.; Hervig, R. L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to extend the existing database of experimentally-determined lithium diffusion coefficients to more natural cases of water-bearing melts at the pressure-temperature range of the upper crust. In particular, we are investigating Li intra-melt and melt-vapor diffusion and Li isotope fractionation, which have the potential to record short-lived magmatic processes (seconds to hours) in the shallow crust, especially during decompression-induced magma degassing. Hydrated intra-melt Li diffusion-couple experiments on Los Posos rhyolite glass [1] were performed in a piston cylinder at 300 MPa and 1050 °C. The polished interfaces between the diffusion couples were marked by addition of Pt powder for post-run detection. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses indicate that lithium diffuses extremely fast in the presence of water. Re-equilibration of a hydrated ~2.5 mm long diffusion-couple experiment was observed during the heating period from room temperature to the final temperature of 1050 °C at a rate of ~32 °C/min. Fractionation of ~40‰ δ7Li was also detected in this zero-time experiment. The 0.5h and 3h runs show progressively higher degrees of re-equilibration, while the isotope fractionation becomes imperceptible. Li contamination was observed in some experiments when flakes filed off Pt tubing were used to mark the diffusion couple boundary, while the use of high purity Pt powder produced better results and allowed easier detection of the diffusion-couple boundary. The preliminary lithium isotope fractionation results (δ7Li vs. distance) support findings from [2] that 6Li diffuses substantially faster than 7Li. Further experimental sets are in progress, including lower run temperatures (e.g. 900 °C), faster heating procedure (~100 °C/min), shorter run durations and the extension to mafic systems. [1] Stanton (1990) Ph.D. thesis, Arizona State Univ., [2] Richter et al. (2003) GCA 67, 3905-3923.

  4. What we need to know about the effect of lithium on the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rujun; Wang, Pei; Dworkin, Lance

    2016-12-01

    Lithium has been a valuable treatment for bipolar affective disorders for decades. Clinical use of lithium, however, has been problematic due to its narrow therapeutic index and concerns for its toxicity in various organ systems. Renal side effects associated with lithium include polyuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, proteinuria, distal renal tubular acidosis, and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Histologically, chronic lithium nephrotoxicity is characterized by interstitial nephritis with microcyst formation and occasional focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nevertheless, this type of toxicity is uncommon, with the strongest risk factors being high serum levels of lithium and longer time on lithium therapy. In contrast, in experimental models of acute kidney injury and glomerular disease, lithium has antiproteinuric, kidney protective, and reparative effects. This paradox may be partially explained by lower lithium doses and short duration of therapy. While long-term exposure to higher psychiatric doses of lithium may be nephrotoxic, short-term low dose of lithium may be beneficial and ameliorate kidney and podocyte injury. Mechanistically, lithium targets glycogen synthase kinase-3β, a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in the processes of tissue injury, repair, and regeneration in multiple organ systems, including the kidney. Future studies are warranted to discover the exact "kidney-protective dose" of lithium and test the effects of low-dose lithium on acute and chronic kidney disease in humans.

  5. Hydrogen isotope effect on the Dimits shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope effect on the Dimits shift in drift wave turbulence (Dimits et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 969) is discussed using the theory of zonal flows, in which the nonlinear damping rate of zonal flows is taken into account. The up-shift of the critical linear growth rate of the drift waves, above which drift wave fluctuations develop, is investigated. The dependence on the mass number of the hydrogen isotope is discussed.

  6. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted signific...

  7. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  8. Lithium isotope systematics in a forested granitic catchment (Strengbach, Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Emmanuel; Chabaux, François; Vigier, Nathalie; Millot, Romain; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    2010-08-01

    Over the last decade it has become apparent that Li isotopes may be a good proxy to trace silicate weathering. However, the exact mechanisms which drive the behaviour of Li isotopes in surface environments are not totally understood and there is a need to better calibrate and characterize this proxy. In this study, we analysed the Li concentrations and isotopic compositions in the various surface reservoirs (soils, rocks, waters and plants) of a small forested granitic catchment located in the Vosges Mountains (Strengbach catchment, France, OHGE http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr). Li fluxes were calculated in both soil profiles and at the basin scale and it was found that even in this forested basin, atmospheric inputs and litter fall represented a minor flux compared to input derived from the weathering of rocks and soil minerals (which together represent a minimum of 70% of dissolved Li). Li isotope ratios in soil pore waters show large depth dependent variations. Average dissolved δ 7Li decreases from -1.1‰ to -14.4‰ between 0 and -30 cm, but is +30.7‰ at -60 cm. This range of Li isotopic compositions is very large and it encompasses almost the entire range of terrestrial Li isotope compositions that have been previously reported. We interpret these variations to result from both the dissolution and precipitation of secondary phases. Large isotopic variations were also measured in the springs and stream waters, with δ 7Li varying from +5.3‰ to +19.6‰. δ 7Li increases from the top to the bottom of the basin and also covaries with discharge at the outlet. These variations are interpreted to reflect isotopic fractionations occurring during secondary phase precipitation along the water pathway through the rocks. We suggest that the dissolved δ 7Li increases with increasing residence time of waters through the rocks, and so with increasing time of interaction between waters and solids. A dissolution precipitation model was used to fit the dissolved Li isotopic

  9. [The effect of long-term lithium treatment on kidney function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Drogowska, Joanna; Abramowicz, Maria; Chłopocka-Woźniak, Maria; Czekalski, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    In 1963 it was first demonstrated that long-term lithium administration exerts a "mood-stabilising" effect, preventing recurrences of mania and depression in bipolar affective disorder. Despite the introduction of many other drugs having mood-stabilising effect, lithium still remains the first choice drug for the prophylaxis of affective episodes in mood disorder. Lithium is eliminated nearly exclusively by the kidneys: lithium clearance is proportional to creatinine clearance and is influenced by natriuretic and antinatriuretic factors. Nowadays, nearly 40-year experience with long-term lithium treatment point to a possibility of nephrotoxic effects of this ion. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, which, in a few patients can reach an intensity of diabetes insipidus, can occur after several weeks of lithium administration. Favourable results in the treatment of diabetes insipidus have been obtained with amiloride, the drug which block epithelial sodium channel. However, after 10-20 years of treatment, lithium-induced interstitial nephropathy may be demonstrated in some patients, which, in small proportion of the latter may lead to end-stage renal disease. Lithium-induced hipercalcemia and nephrotic syndrome are rare complications of lithium therapy. In patients on long-term lithium therapy periodic monitoring of kidney function by measuring serum creatinine concentration and glomerular filtration rate is necessary. In case of detecting nephropathy, a discontinuation of lithium sho uld be considered. The patient in whom lithium was discontinued due to nephropathy should remain in nephrological treatment.

  10. Effect of lithium on the casting microstructure of Cu-Li alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Dachuan; SONG Mingzhao; YANG Dingming; CHEN Jiazhao; TU Mingjing

    2005-01-01

    The effect of lithium on the casting microstructure of Cu-Li alloys was studied via the Wild MPS 46 Automatic camera, Deitz Diaplan, and scanning electron microscope. The result shows that trace lithium added to copper coarsens the grains of Cu-Li alloys in equiaxed crystal area because of the excellent purification effect. With the amount of lithium increasing, the average grain size increases sharply. But when the amount of lithium increases more, the average grain size decreases instead. At the same time, the typical dentritic crystal area of copper is diminished when lithium is added to pure copper.

  11. Isotope effects of hafnium in solvent extraction using crown ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moriyama, Hirotake [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Takafumi [Laboratory for Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishizawa, Kazushige [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Hafnium isotopes were fractionated in a liquid-liquid extraction system by using seven types of crown ethers, tributyl phosphate, or {omicron}-diethoxybenzene. The largest isotope effect was observed in the isotope pair of {sup 177}Hf-{sup 179}Hf with dibenzo-24-crown-8; the isotope enrichment factor was observed to be 0.0129{+-}0.0032. (author)

  12. Effect of acute lithium administration on penile erection: involvement of nitric oxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Sandoughdaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown. Objective: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE. We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Erectile function was determined using rat model of apomorphine-induced erections. For evaluating the effect of lithium on penile erection, rats received intraperitoneal injection of graded doses of lithium chloride 30 mins before subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. To determine the possible role of NO pathway, sub-effective dose of N (G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, was administered 15 min before administration of sub-effective dose of lithium chloride. In other separate experimental groups, sub- effective dose of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, or Sildenafil was injected into the animals 15 min before administration of a potent dose of lithium. 30 min after administration of lithium chloride, animals were assessed in apomorphine test. Serum lithium levels were measured 30 min after administration of effective dose of lithium. Results: Lithium at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased number of PE (p<0.001, whereas at lower doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg had no effect on apomorphine induced PE. The serum Li+ level of rats receiving 50 mg/kg lithium was 1±0.15 mmol/L which is in therapeutic range of lithium. The inhibitory effect of Lithium was blocked by administration of sub-effective dose of nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg (p<0.001 and sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg (p<0.001 whereas pretreatment with a low and sub-effective dose of L-NAME (10mg/kg potentiated sub-effective

  13. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y

    2015-11-23

    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5-20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ(7)Li values range from -14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, -22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and -4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ(7)Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ(7)Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ(7)Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data.

  14. Lack of effect of amisulpride on the pharmacokinetics and safety of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Muriel; Legangneux, Eric; van Lier, Jan Jaap; van Vliet, Andre Antonius; Coulouvrat, Catherine

    2003-06-01

    Lithium may be used as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic patients and antipsychotics can be employed during the early phases of lithium therapy in patients with bipolar disorder. The issue of interactions between lithium and antipsychotics is therefore important. This study investigates the potential influence of repeated administration of amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic, on the pharmacokinetics of lithium at steady state. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers (aged 1833 yr) received lithium carbonate (500 mg b.i.d.) for 14 d. All subjects were shown to have stable lithium serum concentrations after 57 d and were then randomized to receive double-blind administration of amisulpride (100 mg b.i.d.) or placebo bid from day 8 of lithium administration. Complete pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained on days 7 and 14 for lithium and trough plasma concentrations on days 10, 12 and 14 for amisulpride. Co-administration of amisulpride appeared to exert no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lithium. All treatments were well tolerated and safety assessment revealed no differences between the lithium+placebo and lithium+amisulpride groups. This finding permits the flexible use of amisulpride in patients already receiving lithium therapy.

  15. Lithium isotopes and implications on chemical weathering in the catchment of Lake Donggi Cona, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynell, Marc; Wiechert, Uwe; Schuessler, Jan A.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents lithium (Li) isotope ratios (δ7Li) for rocks, sediments, suspended particulate material, and dissolved Li from the Lake Donggi Cona catchment, located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The average δ7Li = +1.9‰ of the bedrocks is estimated from local loess. δ7Li values decrease progressively within the sediment cascade from loess, to river and lake floor sediments. The lake floor sediments average at -0.7‰. The difference between bedrock and lake sediments reflects the preferential fractionation of dissolved 6Li into clay minerals (mostly illite) in the weathering zone and grain-size sorting during fluvial sediment transport. The δ7Li values of stream and lake water samples range from +13.6 to +20.8‰, whereas thermal waters fall between +5.9 and +11.6‰. The δ7Li values of lake water samples are close to +17‰ and reflect mixing of waters from two perennial inflows and thermal waters. Dissolved Li in streams represents an integrated isotopic signal derived from soil solutions in the weathering zone. An apparent isotopic fractionation of -17.8 ± 1.6‰ (αsec-sol ∼ 0.982) between secondary minerals and solution was determined. An inflow that drains a sub-catchment in the north carries a high proportion of thermal waters. Despite of the high proportion of admixed thermal waters with high Li concentrations and low δ7Li, this stream has the highest δ7Li values of about +21‰. This is consistent with admixing of thermal waters to solutions in the weathering zone and subsequent fractionation by preferential uptake of isotopically light dissolved Li into secondary phases. Based on Li isotope ratios of the dissolved and solid export flux from the weathering zone we calculated that around five times more Li is exported in particles than dissolved in streams. An average δ7Li value of about +17‰ of most streams and the lake is reflecting a low weathering intensity and chemical weathering rate of about 4 t/km2/a. Low

  16. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Leader, John P; Bedford, Jennifer J; Verlander, Jill W; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid-base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long-term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium-treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium-treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium-treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium-treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium-treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg.

  17. Tests of the cryogenic target for lithium and hydrogen isotopes extraction from the chamber of T-11M tokamak without its venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnov, Sergey V., E-mail: mirnov@triniti.ru [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Djigailo, Nadejda T.; Dzhurik, Sergey P.; Kostina, Anastasiya N.; Kravchuk, Sergey I.; Lazarev, Vladimir B. [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, Igor E. [JSC “Red Star”, Elektrolitnyj pr. 1A, Moscow 113 230 (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Nesterenko, Vladislav M.; Petrov, Yuri V. [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Aleksei V.; Zharkov, Mikhail Yu. [JSC “Red Star”, Elektrolitnyj pr. 1A, Moscow 113 230 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We tested the cryogenic target as pump of Li ions sputtered from tokamak chamber by glow discharge. • We found a positive effect on the Li collection an addition of the residual gases to glow discharge. • Cooled target can be used during plasma operation to collect and remove Li and H from tokamak chamber. - Abstract: T-11M lithium program is focused on a solution of technological issues of a steady-state tokamak with liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFC). Lithium, collected by the chamber wall of such tokamak is able to capture a considerable amount of tritium, which is unacceptable. In order to restrict the level of lithium deposited on the chamber wall and captured tritium it was suggested early to use a cryogenic target technique. Such target placed in the plasma of glow discharge (GDH, He or Ar) during the tokamak conditioning can play the role of collector of lithium and tritium atoms which were sputtered by GD bombardment of the wall. The collected lithium and tritium can be evacuated mechanically together with target from tokamak chamber through vacuum lock without venting. Cryogenic target, cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN), was installed in the T-11M and tested in different modes of wall conditioning and tokamak operations. The maximum speed of the lithium collection during GDH was 3.5 mg/h, that corresponds “to contamination” of wall by lithium during approximately 200 regular shots of T-11M which are equivalent to two-week regular operations. It was established that considerable part of lithium was collected in ionized state. On this basis it can be suggested the creation in tokamak chamber an equivalent ionic pump for extraction both lithium and tritium from chamber without venting during regular tokamak operation.

  18. Systematic Effect for an Ultralong Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Ye, Yusheng; Chen, Renjie; Qian, Ji; Zhao, Teng; Li, Li; Li, Wenhui

    2015-11-11

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive candidates for energy storage devices because they have five times the theoretical energy storage of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The main problems plaguing Li-S batteries are poor cycle life and limited rate capability, caused by the insulating nature of S and the shuttle effect associated with the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides. Here, we report the use of biocell-inspired polydopamine (PD) as a coating agent on both the cathode and separator to address these problems (the "systematic effects"). The PD-modified cathode and separator play key roles in facilitating ion diffusion and keeping the cathode structure stable, leading to uniform lithium deposition and a solid electrolyte interphase. As a result, an ultralong cycle performance of more than 3000 cycles, with a capacity fade of only 0.018% per cycle, was achieved at 2 C. It is believed that the systematic modification of the cathode and separator for Li-S batteries is a new strategy for practical applications.

  19. The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden; Lukzen, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole–dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair....... Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar...

  20. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  1. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals.

  2. The effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-04-01

    Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s. Lithium improves homing of stem cells, the ability to form colonies and HSC self-renewal. Lithium also exerts a favorable influence on the proliferation and maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Studies on the effect of lithium on neurogenesis have indicated an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and enhanced mitotic activity of Schwann cells. This may be connected with the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of lithium, reflected in an improvement in synaptic plasticity promoting cell survival and inhibiting apoptosis. In clinical studies, lithium treatment increases cerebral gray matter, mainly in the frontal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala. Recent findings also suggest that lithium may reduce the risk of dementia and exert a beneficial effect in neurodegenerative diseases. The most important mediators and signaling pathways of lithium action are the glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Recently, to study of bipolar disorder pathogenesis and the mechanism of lithium action, the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) obtained from bipolar patients have been used.

  3. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  4. Study on hydrogen isotopes permeation in fluidized state of liquid lithium-lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, S.; Yoshimura, R.; Okada, M.; Fukada, S.; Edao, Y. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Lithium-lead (Li-Pb) is one of the most promising candidate materials for the liquid blanket of fusion reactors. Hydrogen transfer under a fluidized condition of Li-Pb is investigated experimentally to design a Li-Pb blanket system. Li-Pb eutectic alloy flows inside a Ni tube in the experimental system, where H{sub 2} permeates into and out of the forced Li-Pb flow. The overall H{sub 2} permeation rate is analyzed using a mass balance model. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in Ni and Li-Pb. The steady-state H{sub 2} permeation rate obtained by this experiment is smaller than the result of the calculation model. A resistance factor is introduced to the present analysis in order to evaluate the influence of other H{sub 2} transfer mechanisms, such as diffusion in Li-Pb and dissolution reaction between Ni and Li-Pb. The contribution of the resistance to the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate becomes large when the flow rate of Li-Pb is low. This is because the boundary layer thickness between Ni and Li-Pb affects the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate. When the flow velocity of Li-Pb increases, the thickness of the boundary layer becomes thin, and the driving force of H{sub 2} permeation through the Ni wall becomes bigger. (authors)

  5. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  6. Differential effects of endogenous lithium on neurobehavioural functioning: a study on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norra, Christine; Feilhauer, Johanna; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas; Kunert, Hanns Jürgen

    2010-06-30

    Lithium occurs naturally in food and water. Low environmental concentrations in drinking water are associated with mental illnesses and behavioural offences, and at therapeutic dosages it is used to treat psychiatric (especially affective) disorders, partly by facilitating serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission. As little is known about the psychophysiological role of nutritional lithium in the general population, endogenous lithium concentrations were hypothesised to be associated with measurable effects on emotional liability and the loudness dependence (LD) that is proposed as one of the most valid indicators of 5-HT neurotransmission. Auditory evoked potentials of healthy volunteers [N=36] with high (>2.5 microg/l) or low (<1.5 microg/l) lithium serum concentrations were recorded. Emotional liability was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Low-lithium levels correlated with Somatisation while correlations between lithium and LD were not significant. Still, LD correlated positively with Paranoid Ideation, negatively with Anxiety and, in the high-lithium group, inversely with further aspects of emotional liability (Depression, Psychological Distress). In conclusion, the effects of low levels of endogenous lithium are associated with emotional liability, and high levels with some protective effects, although findings remain inconclusive regarding LD. Potential benefits of endogenous lithium on neurobehavioural functioning, especially in high-risk individuals, would have public health implications.

  7. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  8. Lithium isotopes in speleothems: Temperature-controlled variation in silicate weathering during glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Jacob, Ezekiel; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2017-07-01

    Terrestrial chemical weathering of silicate minerals is a fundamental component of the global cycle of carbon and other elements. Past changes in temperature, rainfall, ice cover, sea-level and physical erosion are thought to affect weathering but the relative impact of these controls through time remains poorly constrained. This problem could be addressed if the nature of past weathering could be constrained at individual sites. In this study, we investigate the use of speleothems as local recorders of the silicate weathering proxy, Li isotopes. We analysed δ7 Li and [Li] in speleothems that formed during the past 200 ka in two well-studied Israeli caves (Soreq and Tzavoa), as well as in the overlying soils and rocks. Leaching and mass balance of these soils and rocks show that Li is dominantly sourced from weathering of the overlying aeolian silicate soils. Speleothem δ7 Li values are ubiquitously higher during glacials (∼23‰) than during interglacials (∼10‰), implying more congruent silicate weathering during interglacials (where ;congruent; means a high ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation). These records provide information on the processes controlling weathering in Israel. Consideration of possible processes causing this change of weathering congruency indicates a primary role for temperature, with higher temperatures causing more congruent weathering (lower δ7Lispeleo). The strong relationship observed between speleothem δ7 Li and climate at these locations suggests that Li isotopes may be a powerful tool with which to understand the local controls on weathering at other sites, and could be used to assess the distribution of weathering changes accompanying climate change, such as that of Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  9. Isotope and multiband effects in layered superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Keller, Hugo

    2012-06-13

    In this review we consider three classes of superconductors, namely cuprate superconductors, MgB(2) and the new Fe based superconductors. All of these three systems are layered materials and multiband compounds. Their pairing mechanisms are under discussion with the exception of MgB(2), which is widely accepted to be a 'conventional' electron-phonon interaction mediated superconductor, but extending the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory to account for multiband effects. Cuprates and Fe based superconductors have higher superconducting transition temperatures and more complex structures. Superconductivity is doping dependent in these material classes unlike in MgB(2) which, as a pure compound, has the highest values of T(c) and a rapid suppression of superconductivity with doping takes place. In all three material classes isotope effects have been observed, including exotic ones in the cuprates, and controversial ones in the Fe based materials. Before the area of high-temperature superconductivity, isotope effects on T(c) were the signature for phonon mediated superconductivity-even when deviations from the BCS value to smaller values were observed. Since the discovery of high T(c) materials this is no longer evident since competing mechanisms might exist and other mediating pairing interactions are discussed which are of purely electronic origin. In this work we will compare the three different material classes and especially discuss the experimentally observed isotope effects of all three systems and present a rather general analysis of them. Furthermore, we will concentrate on multiband signatures which are not generally accepted in cuprates even though they are manifest in various experiments, the evidence for those in MgB(2), and indications for them in the Fe based compounds. Mostly we will consider experimental data, but when possible also discuss theoretical models which are suited to explain the data.

  10. Effects of a liquid lithium curtain as the first wall in a fusion reactor plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cheng-Yue; J.P. Allain; Deng Bai-Quan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a liquid lithium curtain on fusion reactor plasma, such curtain is utilized as the first wall for the engineering outline design of the Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB-E). The relationships between the surface temperature of a liquid lithium curtain and the effective plasma charge, fuel dilution and fusion power production have been derived. Results indicate that under normal operation, the evaporation of liquid lithium does not seriously affect the effective plasma charge, but effects on fuel dilution and fusion power are more sensitive. As an example, it has investigated the relationships between the liquid lithium curtain flow velocity and the rise of surface temperature based on operation scenario Ⅱ of the FEB-E design with reversed shear configuration and high power density. Results show that even if the liquid lithium curtain flow velocity is as low as 0.5 m/s, the effects of evaporation from the liquid lithium curtain on plasma are negligible. In the present design, the sputtering of liquid lithium curtain and the particle removal effects of the divertor are not yet considered in detail. Further studies are in progress, and in this work implication of lithium erosion and divertor physics on fusion reactor operation are discussed.

  11. Isotope shifts and transition frequencies for the S and P states of lithium: Bethe logarithms and second-order relativistic recoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. M.; Li, Chun; Yan, Z.-C.; Drake, G. W. F.

    2017-03-01

    Isotope shifts and total transition frequencies are calculated for the 2 2S-3 2S transition of the lithium isotopes 6Li, 7Li, 8Li, 9Li, and the halo nucleus 11Li. The accuracy is improved for previously calculated relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections, and in particular a disagreement for the Bethe logarithm is resolved for the ground 2S state. Our previous result is confirmed for the 2 2P state. We use the pseudostate expansion method to perform the sum over virtual intermediate states. Results for the second-order relativistic recoil term of order α2(μ/M ) 2 Ry are shown to make a significant contribution relative to the theoretical uncertainty, but because of accidental cancellations the final result for the isotope shift is nearly unchanged. However, the spin-orbit term makes an unexpectedly large contribution to the splitting isotope shift (SIS) for the 2 1/2 2P -2 3/2 2P fine structure, increasing the theoretical value for the 6Li-7Li isotopes to 0.556 31 (7 )±0.001 MHz. A comparison is made with high-precision measurements and other calculations for the SIS and for the total 2 2S-3 2S transition frequency.

  12. Protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Jiang Li; Tao Hsu; Hui-Xian Li; Jin-Zheng Shi; Mei-Ling Du; Xiao-Yuan Wang; Wen-Ting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(I-RI) in rats.Methods:A total of60SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group with15 in each.TheI-RI model was established in model group, the lithium chloride intervention group andL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group by method of seaming along left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial, control group was only opened the chest without seaming,ST-elevation within2 min was regarded as modeling success.Model group did not adopted any intervention, lithium chloride intervention group was treated with lithium chloride injection 15 mg/kg by jugular venipuncture preoperatively,L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of30 mg•kg-1•d-1L-arginine methyl ester7 d before the test, and intravenous catheter of15 mg/kg lithium chloride preoperatively. The hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase(HBDH), creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) level and nitric oxide synthase(NOS) activites were tested.Each large area of myocardial ischemia tissue was extracted for determination of the MDA content,SOD activity in tissue and serum, and morphological changes of myocardial tissue.Results:SOD activity was highest in lithium chloride intervention group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, control group and model group (P0.05);HBDH andCK-MB of plasma were highest in model group, followed byL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, lithium chloride intervention group and control group(P<0.05).A significantly lighter myocardial damage was observed microscopically in lithium chloride intervention group than that inL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium

  13. Combinatorial effects on clumped isotopes and their significance in biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.

    2016-01-01

    The arrangement of isotopes within a collection of molecules records their physical and chemical histories. Clumped-isotope analysis interrogates these arrangements, i.e., how often rare isotopes are bound together, which in many cases can be explained by equilibrium and/or kinetic isotope fractionation. However, purely combinatorial effects, rooted in the statistics of pairing atoms in a closed system, are also relevant, and not well understood. Here, I show that combinatorial isotope effects are most important when two identical atoms are neighbors on the same molecule (e.g., O2, N2, and D-D clumping in CH4). When the two halves of an atom pair are either assembled with different isotopic preferences or drawn from different reservoirs, combinatorial effects cause depletions in clumped-isotope abundance that are most likely between zero and -1‰, although they could potentially be -10‰ or larger for D-D pairs. These depletions are of similar magnitude, but of opposite sign, to low-temperature equilibrium clumped-isotope effects for many small molecules. Enzymatic isotope-pairing reactions, which can have site-specific isotopic fractionation factors and atom reservoirs, should express this class of combinatorial isotope effect, although it is not limited to biological reactions. Chemical-kinetic isotope effects, which are related to a bond-forming transition state, arise independently and express second-order combinatorial effects related to the abundance of the rare isotope. Heteronuclear moeties (e.g., Csbnd O and Csbnd H), are insensitive to direct combinatorial influences, but secondary combinatorial influences are evident. In general, both combinatorial and chemical-kinetic factors are important for calculating and interpreting clumped-isotope signatures of kinetically controlled reactions. I apply this analytical framework to isotope-pairing reactions relevant to geochemical oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen cycling that may be influenced by combinatorial

  14. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  15. Discrete spatial solitons formed in periodically poled lithium niobate by electro-optical effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Gu (顾希); Xianfeng Chen (陈险峰); Yuping Chen (陈玉萍); Yuxing Xia (夏宇兴); Yingli Chen (陈英礼)

    2003-01-01

    We report the numerical observation of discrete spatial solitons in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide array by applying an electrical field through electro-optical effect. We show that discrete spatial soliton can be controlled by applied voltage in the periodically poled lithium niobate.

  16. Effect of powder compaction on radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-titanium ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Effect of powder compaction on the efficiency of thermal and radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-substituted ferrites was investigated by X-Ray diffraction and specific magnetization analysis. It was shown that the radiation-thermal heating of compacted powder reagents mixture leads to an increase in efficiency of lithium-titanium ferrites synthesis.

  17. Isotope Effects of Solid Hydrogenic Pellet Ablation in Fusion Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng; WANGXiaoyu

    2003-01-01

    The isotope effects of ablation processes in fusion plasma for five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic pellets H2, HD, D2,DT, T2 have been first time studied. The resuits show that the modifications caused by isotope effects for pellet erosion speeds range from 1 for hydrogen pellet down to 0. 487 for tritium pellet and are not negligible in ablation rate calculations. These effects lead to deeper mass deposition and improved core fueling efficiency.

  18. Novel insights into lithium's mechanism of action: neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zarate, Carlos A; Manji, Husseini K

    2010-01-01

    The monovalent cation lithium partially exerts its effects by activating neurotrophic and neuroprotective cellular cascades. Here, we discuss the effects of lithium on oxidative stress, programmed cell death (apoptosis), inflammation, glial dysfunction, neurotrophic factor functioning, excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial stability. In particular, we review evidence demonstrating the action of lithium on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signal transduction, cAMP response element binding activation, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the phosphatidylinositide cascade, protein kinase C inhibition, glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition, and B-cell lymphoma 2 expression. Notably, we also review data from clinical studies demonstrating neurotrophic effects of lithium. We expect that a better understanding of the clinically relevant pathophysiological targets of lithium will lead to improved treatments for those who suffer from mood as well as neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Interstitial capillary changes in lithium nephropathy: effects of antihypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyum, Helle; Marcussen, Niels; Nielsen, Steen Horne; Christensen, Sten

    2004-10-01

    Histopathological changes were investigated in the tubulointerstitium and in the capillaries of male Wistar rats with lithium-induced nephropathy using stereological methods. Two antihypertensive drugs with opposite effects on the renin-angiotensin system, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic, modified the nephropathy. Generally, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduction in GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the reduction in the volume of intact tubular structures and interstitial capillaries. A significant negative correlation was seen between the reduction in GFR and the increase in tubulocapillary distance and the absolute volume of interstitial connective tissue, respectively. Treatment with perindopril, and to some extent hydrochlorothiazide, reversed the rise in systolic blood pressure associated with lithium-induced nephropathy but did not affect the progression to terminal uraemia, the structural renal changes or the mortality. In conclusion, severe tubular and capillary changes are seen in this model of chronic renal failure. Tubular atrophy is associated with a decrease in interstitial capillaries and with an increase in the tubulocapillary distance. Systemic hypertension or activation of the renin-angiotensin system may not be important factors for the progression to terminal renal failure.

  20. Combining solvent isotope effects with substrate isotope effects in mechanistic studies of alcohol and amine oxidation by enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  1. Pharmacometabolomic signature of ataxia SCA1 mouse model and lithium effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Perroud

    Full Text Available We have shown that lithium treatment improves motor coordination in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 disease mouse model (Sca1(154Q/+. To learn more about disease pathogenesis and molecular contributions to the neuroprotective effects of lithium, we investigated metabolomic profiles of cerebellar tissue and plasma from SCA1-model treated and untreated mice. Metabolomic analyses of wild-type and Sca1(154Q/+ mice, with and without lithium treatment, were performed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and BinBase mass spectral annotations. We detected 416 metabolites, of which 130 were identified. We observed specific metabolic perturbations in Sca1(154Q/+ mice and major effects of lithium on metabolism, centrally and peripherally. Compared to wild-type, Sca1(154Q/+ cerebella metabolic profile revealed changes in glucose, lipids, and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and purines. Fewer metabolic differences were noted in Sca1(154Q/+ mouse plasma versus wild-type. In both genotypes, the major lithium responses in cerebellum involved energy metabolism, purines, unsaturated free fatty acids, and aromatic and sulphur-containing amino acids. The largest metabolic difference with lithium was a 10-fold increase in ascorbate levels in wild-type cerebella (p<0.002, with lower threonate levels, a major ascorbate catabolite. In contrast, Sca1(154Q/+ mice that received lithium showed no elevated cerebellar ascorbate levels. Our data emphasize that lithium regulates a variety of metabolic pathways, including purine, oxidative stress and energy production pathways. The purine metabolite level, reduced in the Sca1(154Q/+ mice and restored upon lithium treatment, might relate to lithium neuroprotective properties.

  2. Time course effects of lithium administration on spatial memory acquisition and cholinergic marker expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Karimfar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of chronic lithium exposure on spatial memory in rats remain controversial. In this study a time course of the effects of lithium, administered systemically, on spatial memory acquisition in Morris water maze was investigated. Material and Methods: Lithium (600 mg/L was administered to four groups of rats in their drinking water; the first group of animals received lithium for one week, the second group for two weeks, the third group for three weeks, and the fourth group for four weeks.  As controls, four groups of animals received only normal drinking water for the same period of time.  Toward the end of their lithium or water treatment, all animals were trained for four days; each day included one block and each block contained four trials.  Test trials were conducted 48 hrs after completion of the lithium treatment. Escape latency, traveled distance and swimming speed were evaluated during testing trials. Brain tissues from animals were processed according to the standard protocols for immunohistochemical analysis.  Results: Lithium treatment decreased escape latency and traveled distance, but not swimming speed, compared with controls, suggesting significant spatial memory acquisition enhancement by lithium. Quantitative analysis showed that lithium, particularly after four weeks of exposure, significantly increased the number and density of immunostained ChAT-containing (choline acetyltransferase neurons in the medial septal area in comparison with control groups.  There was also a significant correlation between the number of immunostained ChAT neurons and behavioral measures. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic oral administration of lithium causes spatial memory acquisition improvement in rats and an increase in ChAT immunostaining levels in medial septal nuclei.

  3. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on serum lithium level and mental state in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Nazar, Zahid; Akhtar, Javaid; Akhter, Javed; Irfan, Muhammad; Irafn, Mohammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ejaz Hassan; Khatak, Ijaz Hassan; Naeem, Farooq

    2010-11-01

    The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder and on prophylactic lithium therapy before, during and after Ramadan. Sixty-two patients meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Research Diagnostic Criteria of bipolar affective disorder receiving lithium treatment for prophylaxis were recruited in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Serum lithium, electrolytes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were assessed at three points, 1 week before Ramadan, midRamadan and 1 week after Ramadan. The side effects and toxicity were measured by a symptoms and signs checklist. There was no significant difference in mean serum lithium levels at three time points (preRamadan=0.45±0.21, midRamadan=0.51±0.20 and postRamadan=0.44±0.23 milli equivalents/litre, P=0.116). The scores on HDRS and YMRS showed significant decrease during Ramadan (F=34.12, P=0.00, for HDRS and F=15.6, P=0.000 for YMRS). The side effects and toxicity also did not differ significantly at three points. In conclusion, the patients who have stable mental state and lithium levels before Ramadan can be maintained on lithium during Ramadan. Fasting in an average temperature of 28°C for up to 12 h per day did not result in elevated serum lithium levels or more side effects and did not have adverse effects on mental state of patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder.

  5. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  6. Effects of lithium therapy on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ushasi; Dasgupta, Anindya; Rout, Jayanta Kumar; Singh, Om Prakash

    2012-04-27

    Oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation along with a reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders (BPD). Although, lithium therapy results in significant improvement in the symptoms of the disease, studies regarding its effect on the altered sodium pump activity and lipid peroxidation status have come out with conflicting results. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the status of lipid peroxidation and analyze the role of lithium and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in its regulation in BPD patients in our region. We measured RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) level in 73 BPD patients and serum lithium, in addition, in 48 patients receiving lithium therapy among them. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum TBARS level were significantly decreased and increased respectively in all BPD patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Same trend was observed in the BPD patients stabilized on lithium therapy compared to the lithium naive ones. Although, the enzyme activity showed a reciprocal relationship with TBARS in all patients of BPD, a significant positive correlation and dependence of the enzyme activity was evident with serum lithium level only in the lithium stabilized BPD group. BPD patients showed significantly compromised Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Lithium induced improvement in the enzyme activity was associated with significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Enhancement of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by optimum dosage of lithium may be a potential contributing factor for reducing oxidative stress in BPD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotope exchange reactions on ceramic breeder materials and their effect on tritium inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, M.; Baba, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.

    1998-03-01

    Though lithium ceramic materials such as Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are considered as breeding materials in the blanket of a D-T fusion reactor, the release behavior of the bred tritium in these solid breeder materials has not been fully understood. The isotope exchange reaction rate between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of breeding materials have not been quantified yet, although helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas in the recent blanket designs. The mass transfer coefficient representing the isotope exchange reaction between H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}O or that between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ceramic breeding materials bed is experimentally obtained in this study. Effects of isotope exchange reactions on the tritium inventory in the bleeding blanket is discussed based on data obtained in this study where effects of diffusion of tritium in the grain, absorption of water in the bulk of grain, and adsorption of water on the surface of grain, together with two types of isotope exchange reactions are considered. The way to estimate the tritium inventory in a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} blanket used in this study shows a good agreement with data obtained in such in-situ experiments as MOZART, EXOTIC-5, 6 and TRINE experiments. (author)

  8. Effects of Acute Lithium Treatment on Brain Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Poststroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Few therapeutic options with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of this disabling disease. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder. Moreover, lithium has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects and therapeutic efficacy as a treatment of other neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium on brain inflammatory mediators levels, fever, and mortality in postischemic stroke rats. Ischemic stroke was induced by occlusion of the mid cerebral artery (MCAO. Pretreatment with a single dose of lithium at 2 hours before MCAO induction significantly reduced the elevation in interleukin- (IL- 6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in brain of post-MCAO rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. On the other hand, lithium did not affect the elevation in IL-1α, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in brain of post-MCAO rats. Moreover, pretreatment with lithium did not alter post-MCAO fever and mortality. These results suggest that acute pretreatment with a single dose of lithium did not markedly affect post-MCAO morbidity and mortality in rats.

  9. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9689 Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing ...PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration Neil S. Spinner,* Katherine M. Hinnant...geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available

  10. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on feline calicivirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Liu, Chunguo; Liu, Dafei; Liu, Jiasen; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2015-12-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes oral and upper respiratory tract disease in cats. Despite widespread vaccination, the prevalence of FCV remains high. Furthermore, a high gene mutation rate has led to the emergence of variants, and some infections are lethal. To date, there is no effective antiviral drug available for treating FCV infection. Here, we show that lithium chloride (LiCl) effectively suppresses the replication of FCV strain F9 in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. The antiviral activity of LiCl occurred primarily during the early stage of infection and in a dose-dependent manner. LiCl treatment also inhibited the cytopathic effect. LiCl treatment exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against a panel of other two reference strains and two recent FCV isolates from China. These results demonstrate that LiCl might be an effective anti-FCV drug for controlling FCV disease. Further studies are required to explore the antiviral activity of LiCl against FCV replication in vivo.

  11. Agmatine enhances the antidepressant-like effect of lithium in mouse forced swimming test through NMDA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Gholmreza; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Imran-Khan, Muhammad; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Samira; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-04-01

    Depression is one the world leading global burdens leading to various comorbidities. Lithium as a mainstay in the treatment of depression is still considered gold standard treatment. Similar to lithium another agent agmatine has also central protective role against depression. Since, both agmatine and lithium modulate various effects through interaction with NMDA receptor, therefore, in current study we aimed to investigate the synergistic antidepressant-like effect of agmatine with lithium in mouse force swimming test. Also to know whether if such effect is due to interaction with NMDA receptor. In our present study we found that when potent dose of lithium (30mg/kg) was administered, it significantly decreased the immobility time. Also, when subeffective dose of agmatine (0.01mg/kg) was coadministered with subeffective dose of lithium (3mg/kg), it potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of subeffective dose of lithium. For the involvement of NMDA receptor in such effect, we administered NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05mg/kg) with a combination of subeffective dose of lithium (3mg/kg) and agmatine (0.001mg/kg). A significant antidepressant-like effect was observed. Furthermore, when subeffective dose (50 and 75mg/kg) of NMDA was given it inhibited the synergistic effect of agmatine (0.01mg/kg) with lithium (3mg/kg). Hence, our finding demonstrate that agmatine have synergistic effect with lithium which is mediated by NMDA receptor pathway.

  12. The effects of lithium and anticonvulsants on brain structure in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaná, C; Kempton, M J; Sarnicola, A; Christodoulou, T; Haldane, M; Hadjulis, M; Girardi, P; Tatarelli, R; Frangou, S

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effect of lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics on brain structure in bipolar disorder (BD). A cross-sectional structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study of 74 remitted patients with BD, aged 18-65, who were receiving long-term prophylactic treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants or antipsychotics. Global and regional grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes were compared between treatment groups. Grey matter in the subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus on the right (extending into the hypothalamus) and in the postcentral gyrus, the hippocampus/amygdale complex and the insula on the left was greater in BD patients on lithium treatment compared to all other treatment groups. Lithium treatment in BD has a significant effect on brain structure particularly in limbic/paralimbic regions associated with emotional processing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Protective Effects of Lithium on Sumatriptan-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is a drug used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has several mechanisms of action, and recently it is shown that lithium can antagonize the 5-HT1B/1D serotonin receptors. Sumatriptan is a 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used for the treatment of cluster headaches and migraine which might cause memory impairment as a potential side effect. In this study, effects of lithium on sumatriptan-induced memory impairment have been determined in a two-trial recognition Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Male mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into several groups randomly. In Y-maze test, effects of lithium (1,5,10,20,40,80 mg/kg and sumatriptan (1,5,10 mg/kg were assessed on memory acquisition, then lithium (0.1,1,10 mg/kg and sumatriptan (1,10 mg/kg were studied in passive avoidance test. Effects of lithium (1mg/kg on sumatriptan (10 mg/kg-induced memory impairment were studied in both of tests. The present study demonstrated that sumatriptan impaired memory in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively. Lithium did not show any significant effect on memory function compared to saline-treated control group in both tests (P>0.05, but significantly reversed sumatriptan-induced memory impairment in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests (P<0.001, P<0.05, respectively. It is concluded that lithium reverses the sumatriptan-induced memory impairment probably through 5-HT1B/1D receptors antagonism.

  14. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yunyan; Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Dai, Jinxing; Katz, Barry; Zhang, Shuichang; Tang, Yongchun

    2011-05-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2 cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using δD values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the δ 13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that δD values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that δD values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane.

  16. Protective Effects of Lithium on Sumatriptan-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoui, Vahid; Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Salehi, Mahtab; Behestani, Selda; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    Lithium is a drug used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has several mechanisms of action, and recently it is shown that lithium can antagonize the 5-HT1B/1D serotonin receptors. Sumatriptan is a 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used for the treatment of cluster headaches and migraine which might cause memory impairment as a potential side effect. In this study, effects of lithium on sumatriptan-induced memory impairment have been determined in a two-trial recognition Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Male mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into several groups randomly. In Y-maze test, effects of lithium (1,5,10,20,40,80 mg/kg) and sumatriptan (1,5,10 mg/kg) were assessed on memory acquisition, then lithium (0.1,1,10 mg/kg) and sumatriptan (1,10 mg/kg) were studied in passive avoidance test. Effects of lithium (1mg/kg) on sumatriptan (10 mg/kg)-induced memory impairment were studied in both of tests. The present study demonstrated that sumatriptan impaired memory in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests (Pmemory function compared to saline-treated control group in both tests (P>0.05), but significantly reversed sumatriptan-induced memory impairment in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests (Pmemory impairment probably through 5-HT1B/1D receptors antagonism.

  17. Distinct lithium-induced gene expression effects in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Gabriel R; Colpo, Gabriela D; Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Zhao, Junfei; Zhao, Zhongming; Arnold, Jodi G; Bowden, Charles L; Walss-Bass, Consuelo

    2017-09-19

    Lithium is the most commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are still unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of lithium treatment in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from BD patients and controls. LCLs were generated from sixty-two BD patients (based on DSM-IV) and seventeen healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinics from February 2012 to October 2014. LCLs were treated with 1mM lithium for 7 days followed by microarray gene expression assay and validation by real-time quantitative PCR. Baseline differences between groups, as well as differences between vehicle- and lithium-treated cells within each group were analyzed. The biological significance of differentially expressed genes was examined by pathway enrichment analysis. No significant differences in baseline gene expression (adjusted p-value Lithium treatment of LCLs from controls did not lead to any significant differences. However, lithium altered the expression of 236 genes in LCLs from patients; those genes were enriched for signaling pathways related to apoptosis. Among those genes, the alterations in the expression of PIK3CG, SERP1 and UPP1 were validated by real-time PCR. A significant correlation was also found between circadian functioning and CEBPG and FGF2 expression levels. In summary, our results suggest that lithium treatment induces expression changes in genes associated with the apoptosis pathway in BD LCLs. The more pronounced effects of lithium in patients compared to controls suggest a disease-specific effect of this drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Different Polishing Protocols on Lithium Disilicate Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Silva, Eduardo Galera da; Pagani, Clóvis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing protocols on surface roughness and morphology of lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD). Fifty ceramic bars (2.0x3.0x2.5 mm) were produced and randomly divided into five groups (n=10), according to surface treatments: C: Control; Cer: Ceramaster (60 s); CW: cloth wheel with large-grit diamond (30 s) + cloth wheel with fine-grit diamond paste (30 s); E: grey Exa-Cerapol (20 s) + pink Exa-Cerapol (20 s) + Cerapol Super (20 s); F: Felt wheel with large-grit diamond paste (30 s) + Felt wheel with fine-grit diamond paste (30 s). The samples were evaluated quantitatively for surface roughness (Ra) and qualitatively by SEM, at different moments: initial (prior to roughening), after roughening and after polishing procedures. Ra means were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (ppolishing protocols, no statistically significant differences were observed between the Cer and E groups (p=0.6347), E and CW groups (p=0.1366), and CW and FW groups (p=0.5433). Comparing different stages in the same group, it was possible to observe that CW (ppolishing systems were effective in reducing the surface roughness of the studied ceramic type.

  19. Magnetophotorefractive effect and interference filters in lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental photorefractive and photovoltaic properties of iron-doped lithium niobate crystals. Experimental observations of a strong magnetic field effect on the energy coupling and grating formation in a vectorial interaction scheme are presented. To the author`s knowledge these are the first reported results in the field. It is shown that an enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of 60% is possible by applying even a moderate magnetic field of 0.23 T. A new theoretical model of the magnetophotorefractive effect in the vectorial interaction scheme is presented. It describes the space-charge field formation, two-wave mixing and grating formation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field. Good agreement with the experimental results and the first measurement of nondiagonal components of the magnetophotovoltaic tensor are reported. A theoretical model for the temperature properties of photorefractive interference filters with subangstrom bandwidths are presented and compared favourably with experimental investigations. A novel method for determining the spectral response of these filters from a combined thermal and angular response measurements is described. (au) 9 tabs., 30 ills., 84 refs.

  20. Effects of lithium chloride on outward potassium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chaofeng; DU Huizhi; YANG Pin

    2006-01-01

    Although lithium possesses neuroprotective functions, the molecular mechanism underlying its actions has not been fully elucidated. In the present paper, the effects of lithium chloride on voltage-dependent potassium currents in the CA1 pyramidal neurons acutely isolated from rat hippocampus were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Depolarizing test pulses activated two components of outward potassium currents: a rapidly activating and inactivating component, IA and a delayed component, IK. Results showed that lithium chloride increased the amplitude of IA in a concentration-dependent manner. Half enhancement concentration (EC50) was 22.80±5.45 μmol·L-1. Lithium chloride of 25 μmol·L-1 shifted the steady-state activation curve and inactivation curve of IA to more negative potentials, but mainly affected the activation kinetics. The amplitude and the activation processes of IK were not affected by lithium chloride. The effects of lithium chloride on potassium channel appear to possess neuroprotective properties by Ca2+-lowing effects modulate neuronal excitability by activating IA in rat hippocampal neurons.

  1. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders. PMID:27562248

  2. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders.

  3. Medical applications of Cu, Zn, and S isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, Francis; Télouk, Philippe; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Oger, Philippe; Bonaventura, Paola; Miossec, Pierre; Fujii, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    This review examines recent applications of stable copper, zinc and sulfur isotopes to medical cases and notably cancer. The distribution of the natural stable isotopes of a particular element among coexisting molecular species varies as a function of the bond strength, the ionic charge, and the coordination, and it also changes with kinetics. Ab initio calculations show that compounds in which a metal binds to oxygen- (sulfate, phosphate, lactate) and nitrogen-bearing moieties (histidine) favor heavy isotopes, whereas bonds with sulfur (cysteine, methionine) favor light isotopes. Oxidized cations (e.g., Cu(ii)) and low coordination numbers are expected to favor heavy isotopes relative to their reduced counterparts (Cu(i)) and high coordination numbers. Here we discuss the first observations of Cu, Zn, and S isotopic variations, three elements closely related along multiple biological pathways, with emphasis on serum samples of healthy volunteers and of cancer patients. It was found that heavy isotopes of Zn and to an even greater extent Cu are enriched in erythrocytes relative to serum, while the difference is small for sulfur. Isotopic variations related to age and sex are relatively small. The (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratio in the serum of patients with colon, breast, and liver cancer is conspicuously low relative to healthy subjects. The characteristic time over which Cu isotopes may change with disease progression (a few weeks) is consistent with both the turnover time of the element and albumin half-life. A parallel effect on sulfur isotopes is detected in a few un-medicated patients. Copper in liver tumor tissue is isotopically heavy. In contrast, Zn in breast cancer tumors is isotopically lighter than in healthy breast tissue. (66)Zn/(64)Zn is very similar in the serum of cancer patients and in controls. Possible reasons for Cu isotope variations may be related to the cytosolic storage of Cu lactate (Warburg effect), release of intracellular copper from cysteine

  4. Effect of Branching on Rod-coil Polyimides as Membrane Materials for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Cubon, Valerie A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a series of rod-coil block co-polymers that produce easy to fabricate, dimensionally stable films with good ionic conductivity down to room temperature for use as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polymers consist of short, rigid rod polyimide segments, alternating with flexible, polyalkylene oxide coil segments. The highly incompatible rods and coils should phase separate, especially in the presence of lithium ions. The coil phase would allow for conduction of lithium ions, while the rigid rod phase would provide a high degree of dimensional stability. An optimization study was carried out to study the effect of four variables (degree of branching, formulated molecular weight, polymerization solvent and lithium salt concentration) on ionic conductivity, glass transition temperature and dimensional stability in this system.

  5. Effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on intact muscle tissue and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bgatova, N P; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, V V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I

    2014-05-01

    The effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on muscle tissue structure and development of experimental hepatocarcinoma-29 transplanted into the hip were studied in CBA mice. Necrotic changes in all structural components of the muscle were detected after intramuscular injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles to intact animals. Regeneration of the muscle fibers after lithium carbonate treatment was associated with a significant increase in macrophage count, number of microvessels, activation of fibroblasts, and complete recovery of the organ structure. Injection of lithium carbonate nanoparticles at the periphery of tumor growth caused tumor cell necrosis, destruction of the vascular bed, and attraction of neutrophils and macrophages to the tumor focus. After the preparation was discontinued, the tumor developed with lesser number of vessels, smaller tumor cells, and lesser deformation of the cell nuclei structure.

  6. Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coo, Ilse F; Haan, Joost

    2016-07-01

    Preventive treatment with lithium carbonate is a therapeutic option for chronic cluster headache. Lithium can lead to a broad spectrum of severe side effects, many of which are generally unknown. One week after starting treatment with lithium, a 55-year-old man with chronic cluster headache noticed a strange and unpleasant taste of various foods and a diminished smell. After 4 weeks, he decided to stop the therapy because of these complaints, but 9 months later both taste and smell still had not returned to normal. We present the first description of long-lasting dysgeusia and hyposmia as a side effect of lithium therapy in cluster headache. Dysgeusia has only rarely been reported as a side effect of lithium in other conditions and hyposmia has not previously been reported. Physicians should be aware of this rare, but severe, side effect when prescribing lithium. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  7. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies.

  8. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Wu, Zhigang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Hemley, Russell J; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2007-03-06

    High-temperature superconductivity in cuprates was discovered almost exactly 20 years ago, but a satisfactory theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is still lacking. The isotope effect has played an important role in establishing electron-phonon interaction as the dominant interaction in conventional superconductors. Here we present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon-mediated d-wave pairing model within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. We show that this model accounts for the magnitude of the isotope exponent as functions of the doping level as well as the variation between different cuprate superconductors. The isotope effect on the superconducting transition is also found to resemble the effect of pressure on the transition. These results indicate that the role of phonons should not be overlooked for explaining the superconductivity in cuprates.

  9. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  10. [Lithium nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  11. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes; Diffusion elastique et inelastique des protons de 2 a 10 MeV par les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of {sup 8}Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [French] Nous decrivons le dispositif experimental mis au point pour effectuer les mesures de spectrometrie et de section efficace absolue pour les reactions induites par des protons acceleres par un Van de Graaff Tandem 12 MeV. Les particules sont detectees par des jonctions au silicium, le poids des cibles (de l'ordre d'une dizaine de {mu}g/cm{sup 2}), mesure par la methode du quartz. L'ensemble de l'appareillage a ete controle par l'etude de la diffusion des protons par le lithium 6, et nous a permis de preciser les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques (excitation du 1er niveau) des protons de 2 a 9 MeV par le lithium 7. La structure observee a permis de determiner les spin et parite les plus probables de six niveaux du {sup 8}Be entre 19 et 25 MeV d'energie d'excitation. (auteur)

  12. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert U

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Albert,1 David De Cori,1 Andrea Aguglia,1 Francesca Barbaro,1 Fabio Lanfranco,2 Filippo Bogetto,1 Giuseppe Maina3 1Anxiety and Mood Disorders Unit, Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Torino, Italy; 2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Torino, Italy; 3Department of Mental Health, San Luigi-Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy Objective: The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcium levels. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results: A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL; the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion: Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. Keywords: bipolar disorder, follow-up study, lithium

  13. H/D Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Filarowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (1H,2H on d (1H. This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  14. Modeling the isotope effect in Walden inversion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Israel

    1991-05-01

    A simple model to explain the isotope effect in the Walden exchange reaction is suggested. It is developed in the spirit of the line-of-centers models, and considers a hard-sphere collision that transfers energy from the relative translation to the desired vibrational mode, as well as geometrical properties and steric requirements. This model reproduces the recently measured cross sections for the reactions of hydrogen with isotopic silanes and older measurements of the substitution reactions of tritium atoms with isotopic methanes. Unlike previously given explanations, this model explains the effect of the attacking atom as well as of the other participating atoms. The model provides also qualitative explanation of the measured relative yields and thresholds of CH 3T and CH 2TF from the reaction T + CH 3F. Predictions for isotope effects and cross sections of some unmeasured reactions are given.

  15. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O......-H/O-D vibration frequencies, the mobility of H+/D+ carriers, the kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation of H2/D2, the solubilities of H2O/D2O and, finally, the spontaneous electromotive force that appears across H2/D2 cells with proton conducting electrolytes. Comparable work on tritium-exchanged materials...... is also discussed. The results highlight the usefulness of isotope effects in the study of high temperature proton conductors....

  16. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M.; Duarte, T.; Pace, G.; do Nascimento, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a function of mass. The data for the open clusters Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67, are compatible with lithium abundance being a function of both age and mass for stars in these clusters. Our models with meridional circulation qualitatively reproduce the general trend of lithium abundance evolution as a function of stellar mass in all three clusters. This study points out the importance of mass dependence in the evolution of lithium abundance as a function of age. Comparison between models with and without rotation-induced mixing shows that the inclusion of meridional circulation is essential to account for lithium depletion in low-mass stars. However, our results suggest that other mechanisms should be included to explain the Li-dip and the lithium dispersion in low-mass stars.

  17. The Effects of Lithium Carbonate Supplemented with Nitrazepam on Sleep Disturbance during Cannabis Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Johnston, Jennifer; Helliwell, David; Winstock, Adam; McGregor, Iain S; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Sleep disturbance is a hallmark feature of cannabis withdrawal. In this study we explored the effects of lithium treatment supplemented with nitrazepam on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality during inpatient cannabis withdrawal. Treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 38) were admitted for 8 days to an inpatient withdrawal unit and randomized to either oral lithium (500 mg) or placebo, twice daily in a double-blind RCT. Restricted nitrazepam (10 mg) was available on demand (in response to poor sleep) on any 3 of the 7 nights. Dependent outcome measures for analysis included repeated daily objective actigraphy and subjective sleep measures throughout the 8 day detox, subjective cannabis withdrawal ratings, and detoxification completion rates. Based on actigraphy, lithium resulted in less fragmented sleep compared to placebo (p = 0.04), but no other objective measures were improved by lithium. Of the subjective measures, only nightmares were suppressed by lithium (p = 0.04). Lithium did not have a significant impact on the use of nitrazepam. Sleep bout length (p cannabis withdrawal. However the nitrazepam improved several actigraphy measures of sleep disturbance, warranting further investigation. Discord between objective and subjective sleep indices suggest caution in evaluating treatment interventions with self-report sleep data only. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Simultaneous measurements of photoionization cross-sections of lithium isotopes from 3p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2, 3/2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M; Hussain, Shahid; Rafiq, M; Baig, M A [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-12-28

    We present the first measurements of the photoionization cross-section of the 3p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2, 3/2} excited states for both the lithium isotopes Li{sup 6} and Li{sup 7} in the region close to the Li{sup +} 1s{sup 2 1}S threshold (from 0 to 3 eV) using the two-step photoionization and the saturation technique. Narrow linewidth dye lasers have been used in combination with a locally developed atomic beam-TOF mass spectrometer to measure the photoion signals as a function of energy density of the ionizing laser. It is observed that the cross-section is maximum near the ionization threshold and decreases monotonically as the excess photon energy of the ionizing laser is increased. The deduced number densities of the isotopes are Li{sup 6} (1.2 x 10{sup 8} atoms cm{sup -3}) and Li{sup 7} (1.2 x 10{sup 9} atoms cm{sup -3}), which are found to be close to their natural abundance ratio within the experimental error. Our experimental results of the measurement of the cross-section are also in good agreement with earlier theoretical work.

  19. Isotope and density profile effects on pedestal neoclassical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, S.; Pusztai, I.

    2017-10-01

    Cross-field neoclassical transport of heat, particles and momentum is studied in sharp density pedestals, with a focus on isotope and profile effects, using a radially global approach. Global effects—which tend to reduce the peak ion heat flux, and shift it outward—increase with isotope mass for fixed profiles. The heat flux reduction exhibits a saturation with a favorable isotopic trend. A significant part of the heat flux can be convective even in pure plasmas, unlike in the plasma core, and it is sensitive to how momentum sources are distributed between the various species. In particular, if only ion momentum sources are allowed, in global simulations of pure plasmas the ion particle flux remains close to its local value, while this may not be the case for simulations with isotope mixtures or electron momentum sources. The radial angular momentum transport that is a finite orbit width effect, is found to be strongly correlated with heat sources.

  20. Heat Capacity of PbS: Isotope Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, M.; Kremer, R. K.; Lauck, R.; Siegle, G.; Serrano, J.; Romero, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the availability of highly pure stable isotopes has made possible the investigation of the dependence of the physical properties of crystals, in particular semiconductors, on their isotopic composition. Following the investigation of the specific heat ($C_p$, $C_v$) of monatomic crystals such as diamond, silicon, and germanium, similar investigations have been undertaken for the tetrahedral diatomic systems ZnO and GaN (wurtzite structure), for which the effect of the mass of...

  1. Synergistic effects of prostaglandin E1 and lithium in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong RAN; Bo GAO; Rui SHENG; Li-sha ZHANG; Hui-lin ZHANG; Zhen-lun GU; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important regulators of cellular survival and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia.Both prostaglandin El (PGEI) and lithium have been reported to protect neurons against ischemic injury.The present study was undertaken to examine if lithium could potentiate the neuroprotection of PGE 1 against cerebral ischemia,and if the synergetic effects take place at the level of HSPs.Methods:Brain ischemia was induced by a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats.Rats were pretreated with subcutaneous injection of lithium for 2 d and a single intravenous administration of PGEI immediately after ischemic insult.Cerebrocortical blood flow of each group was closely monitored prior to onset of ischemia,5 min,15 rain,30 min and 60 min after surgical operation.Body temperature was measured before,5 min,2 h and 24 h after the onset of pMCAO.The infarct volume,brain edema and motor behavior deficits were analyzed 24 h after ischemic insult.Cytoprotective HSP70 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were detected by immunoblotting.Brain sections from the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were double-labeled with the anti-HSP70 antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).Results:Treatment with PGEI (8 and 16 ~tg/kg,iv) or lithium (0.5 mEq/kg,sc) alone reduced infarct volume,neurological deficits and brain edema induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Moreover,a greater neuroprotection was observed when PGEI and lithium were given together.Co-administration of PGE1 and lithium significantly upregulated cytoprotective HSP70 and HO-1 protein levels.Conclusion:Lithium and PGEI may exert synergistic effects in treatment of cerebral ischemia and thus may have potential clinical value for the treatment of stroke.

  2. Nuclear quantum and electronic exchange-correlation effects on the high pressure phase diagram of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Raymond; Morales, Miguel; Bonev, Stanimir

    Lithium at ambient conditions is the simplest alkali metal and exhibits textbook nearly-free electron character. However, increased core/valence electron overlap under compression leads to surprisingly complex behavior. Dense lithium is known to posses a maximum in the melting line, a metal to semiconductor phase transition around 80GPa, reemergent metallicity around 120GPa, and low coordination solid and liquid phases. In addition to its complex electronic structure at high pressure, the atomic mass of lithium is low enough that nuclear quantum effects could have a nontrivial impact on its phase diagram. Through a combination of density functional theory based path-integral and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the impact of both nuclear quantum effects and anharmonicity on the melting line and solid phase boundaries. Additionally, we have determined the robustness of previously predicted tetrahedral clustering in the dense liquid to the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects and approximate treatment of electronic exchange-correlation effects.

  3. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  4. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  5. The association of the effect of lithium in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium plasma levels : a post hoc analysis of a double-blind study comparing switching to lithium or placebo in patients who responded to quetiapine (Trial 144)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolen, Willem A.; Weisler, Richard H.

    Nolen WA, Weisler RH. The association of the effect of lithium in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium plasma levels: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind study comparing switching to lithium or placebo in patients who responded to quetiapine (Trial 144). Bipolar Disord 2012:

  6. A new look at an old drug: neuroprotective effects and therapeutic potentials of lithium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso, Claudia Del Grande, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Laura Musetti Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Increasing evidence highlights bipolar disorder as being associated with impaired neurogenesis, cellular plasticity, and resiliency, as well as with cell atrophy or loss in specific brain regions. This has led most recent research to focus on the possible neuroprotective effects of medications, and particularly interesting findings have emerged for lithium. A growing body of evidence from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies has in fact documented its neuroprotective effects from different insults acting on cellular signaling pathways, both preventing apoptosis and increasing neurotrophins and cell-survival molecules. Furthermore, positive effects of lithium on neurogenesis, brain remodeling, angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells functioning, and inflammation have been revealed, with a key role played through the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase-3, a serine/threonine kinase implicated in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. These recent evidences suggest the potential utility of lithium in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, and hypoxic–ischemic/traumatic brain injury, with positive results at even lower lithium doses than those traditionally considered to be antimanic. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the potential benefits of lithium salts on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, emphasizing preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting new therapeutic potentials of this drug beyond its mood stabilizing properties. Keywords: bipolar disorder, GSK-3, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, neurodevelopmental disorders

  7. Secondary. beta. -deuterium isotope effects in decarboxylation and elimination reactions of. cap alpha. -lactylthiamin: intrinsic isotope effects of pyruvate decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, R.; Brandl, M.

    1986-11-26

    The reactions of the adduct of pyruvate and thiamine, lactylthiamin (2-(lact-2-yl)thiamine), are accurate nonenzymic models for reactions of intermediates formed during catalysis by pyruvate decarboxylase. The enzymatic reaction generates lactylthiamin diphosphate from pyruvate and thiamine diphosphate. ..beta..-Deuterium isotope effects were determined for the nonenzymic reactions, and the results were related to isotope effects on the enzymic reaction. 2-(Lact-2-yl-..beta..-d/sub 3/) thiamine was prepared by condensation of methyl pyruvate-d/sub 3/ with thiamine followed by hydrolysis. The isotope effect for decarboxylation of lactylthiamin in acidic solution at 25/sup 0/C (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.09 (standard deviation (SD) 0.015) in pH 3.8, 0.5 M sodium acetate: isotope effect = 1.095 (SD 0.014) in 0.001 M HCl. The reaction was also studied using 38% ethanolic aqueous sodium acetate (pH 3.8 before mixing with ethanol) since the enzymic sites are less polar than water and the reaction is significantly accelerated by the cosolvent. The isotope effect is within statistical range of that for the reaction in water, 1.105 (SD 0.016), indicating that acceleration by the solvent does not change the extent of hyperconjugative stabilization of the transition state relative to the ground state. The isotope effect for the base-catalyzed elimination of pyruvate from lactylthiamin was determined from kinetic studies by using multiwavelength analysis for reactions in pH 11 sodium carbonate solution. The isotope effect (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.12 (SD 0.01), which is slightly higher than the effect on decarboxylation.

  8. Alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on the period and phase of the behavioral free-running activity rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Nara F; Carlson, Karen N; Amaral, Danielle N; Logan, Ryan W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar patients have a high prevalence of comorbid alcohol use and abuse disorders, while chronic alcohol drinking may increase the presence and severity of certain symptoms of bipolar disorder. As such, there may be many individuals that are prescribed lithium to alleviate the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder, but also drink alcohol concurrently. In addition, both alcoholics and individuals with bipolar disorder often exhibit disruptions to their sleep-wake cycles and other circadian rhythms. Interestingly, both ethanol and lithium are known to alter both the period and the phase of free-running rhythms in mammals. While lithium is known to lengthen the period, ethanol seems to shorten the period and attenuate the responses to acute light pulses. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether ethanol and lithium have opposing effects on the circadian pacemaker when administered together. C57BL/6J mice were provided drinking solutions containing lithium, alcohol, or both, and their free-running rhythms along with their response to photic phase shifts were investigated. Mice treated with lithium displayed period lengthening, which was almost completely negated when ethanol was added. Moreover, ethanol significantly attenuated light-induced phase delays while the addition of lithium partially restored this response. These results indicate that alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on behavioral circadian rhythms. Individuals with bipolar disorder who are prescribed lithium and who drink alcohol might be inadvertently altering their sleep and circadian cycles, which may exacerbate their symptoms.

  9. The effect of long-term lithium treatment of bipolar disorder on stem cells circulating in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Michalak, Michal; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term lithium treatment on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulating in peripheral blood (PB), in bipolar disorder (BD). The study included 15 BD patients (aged 55 ± 6 years) treated with lithium for 8-40 years (mean 16 years), 15 BD patients (aged 53 ± 7 years) with duration of illness >10 years, who had never received lithium, and 15 healthy controls (aged 50 ± 5 years). The VSELs, HSCs, MSCs and EPCs were measured by flow cytometric analysis. In BD subjects not taking lithium the number of CD34(+ )VSELs was significantly higher, and MSCs and EPCs numerically higher, than in control subjects and the number of CD34(+ )VSELs correlated with the duration of illness. In lithium-treated patients these values were similar to controls and the number of CD34(+ )VSELs correlated negatively with the duration of lithium treatment and serum lithium concentration. Long-term treatment with lithium may suppress the activation of regenerative processes by reducing the number of VSELs circulating in PB. These cells, in BD patients not treated with lithium, may provide a new potential biological marker of the illness and its clinical progress.

  10. The effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, W. P.; Hampson, N. A.; Packer, R. K.

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 °C and at 70 °C at a rate of 50 mA cm -2. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples.

  11. Effect of the size-selective silver clusters on lithium peroxide morphology in lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Cheng, Lei; Lau, Kah Chun; Tyo, Eric; Luo, Xiangyi; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean; Assary, Rajeev S; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Redfern, Paul; Wu, Huiming; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook; Vajda, Stefan; Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A

    2014-09-12

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have the potential needed for long-range electric vehicles, but the charge and discharge chemistries are complex and not well understood. The active sites on cathode surfaces and their role in electrochemical reactions in aprotic lithium-oxygen cells are difficult to ascertain because the exact nature of the sites is unknown. Here we report the deposition of subnanometre silver clusters of exact size and number of atoms on passivated carbon to study the discharge process in lithium-oxygen cells. The results reveal dramatically different morphologies of the electrochemically grown lithium peroxide dependent on the size of the clusters. This dependence is found to be due to the influence of the cluster size on the formation mechanism, which also affects the charge process. The results of this study suggest that precise control of subnanometre surface structure on cathodes can be used as a means to improve the performance of lithium-oxygen cells.

  12. The effects of structural properties on the lithium storage behavior of mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Meng, Wen; Wang, Shiyao; Liu, Dan; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Deng, Bohua; Liu, Jinping

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the effects of structural properties on the lithium storage behavior of mesoporous TiO2 is crucial for further optimizing its performance through rational structure design. To achieve this, herein, the surface area and the grain size of the prepared mesoporous TiO2 are intentionally adjusted by controlling the calcination temperatures. It is found that the capacities of the mesoporous TiO2 contain both the lithium-ion insertion into the bulk phase (Q in) and the additional surface lithium storage (Q as). The Q in gradually increases with grain sizes to a steady level and then slightly drops. By contrast, the Q as is directly proportional to the specific surface area of the mesoporous TiO2 and is ascribed to the capacity originated from the lithium-ion insertion into the surface layer. The experimental comparison and analysis demonstrate that the fast kinetics of the Q as ensure both the better rate performance and capacity retention of mesoporous TiO2 than bulk ones. Specially, the mesoporous TiO2 calcinated at 350 °C shows the highest reversible specific capacity of 250.2 mA h g-1, the best rate capability (132.5 mA h g-1 at 2C) and good cycling stability. Our findings shed great light on the design of high-performance nanostructured TiO2 with surface lithium storage.

  13. The Effects of Lithium Administration on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplan, Selmin; Ozdemir, Semra; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Akyolcu, M Can; Ozcelik, Dervis; Darıyerli, Nuran

    2016-02-01

    Present study was planned to determine possible dose-dependent effects of lithium (Li) on oxidant-antioxidant status and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney tissues. For this purpose, twenty-four Wistar male rats were equally divided into three groups: the rats in group I served as controls, drinking tap water without lithium. Groups II and III received 0.1 and 0.2 % lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) through their drinking water, respectively, for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, lithium concentrations, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in considered tissues. Histomorphological study was also performed on liver and kidney tissues. Compared to controls, MDA was significantly higher but GSH level lower in groups II and III. SOD activity was higher in group III, but no difference was determined in group II in liver tissue. In kidney tissue, there was no difference determined in MDA and GSH levels between control and experimental groups but SOD activity in groups II and III was significantly higher. In histologic sections of both experimental liver and kidney tissues, specific degenerations were observed. The results of the present study show that treatment with lithium carbonate may result in liver and kidney tissue abnormalities and oxidative damage.

  14. Effect of Lithium on Cell Cycle Progression of Pig Airway Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文书; 吴人亮; 王曦; 李媛; 郝天玲

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of lithium on cell cycle progression of airway epithelial cells,primary pig tracheobronchial epithelial cells were incubated with lithium chloride (LiCl) at different concentrations (0, 5 mmol/L, and 10 mmol/L) and time (12 h, 16 h and 24 h). After the treatment, cells were counted, cell cycle profile was measured by BrdU labeling and flow cytometry, and expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that after 24h of 10mmol/L but not 5mmol/L LiCl treatment, proliferation of cells was slowed down as manifested by delayed confluence and cell number accumulation (P<0.05). Lithium did not change the percentage of cells in S phase (P>0.05), but 24 h incubation with 10 mmol/L LiCl induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, 10mmol/L LiCl elevated cyclin D1 expression after 12h treatment, while expression of cyclin B1 increased more significantly after 24h incubation. These data demonstrate that lithium inhibits proliferation of pig airway epithelial cells by inhibiting cell cycle progression, and suggest that lithium-sensitive molecule(s) such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 may have a role in the regulation of growth of airway epithelial cells.

  15. Comparison of the effect of lithium plus quetiapine with lithium plus risperidone in children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nastaran; Dodangi, Nasrin; Nazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the treatment of bipolar disorder in youths, often more than one medication should be prescribed. In the current study, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of lithium and quetiapine with lithium and risperidone in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes in children and adolescents. Methods: Thirty patients (aged 10-18 years) who were hospitalized for a manic or mixed episode were recruited from consecutive inpatient admissions to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit at Razi Psychiatric Hospital (University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran) from June 2012 to September. They were randomly treated with lithium (with the usual dose to achieve blood levels 0.8-1) and quetiapine (400-600 mg per day) or risperidone (0.5-6 mg per day). The primary outcome measure with respect to efficacy was the mean decrease in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score. Side effects were also assessed. The independent t test and two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for data analysis. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The reduction in YMRS scores was similar in both groups. The remission rate (YMRS lithium in manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents was not superior to lithium and risperidone, but was associated with fewer complications.

  16. Beneficial effects of mood stabilizers lithium,valproate and lamotrigine in experimental stroke models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-fei WANG; Emily Bame FESSLER; De-Maw CHUANG

    2011-01-01

    The mood stabilizers lithium,valproate and lamotrigine are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder.However,accumulating evidence suggests that these drugs have broad neuroprotective properties and may therefore be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases,including stroke.Lithium,valproate and lamotrigine exert protective effects in diverse experimental stroke models by acting on their respective primary targets,ie,glycogen synthase kinase-3,histone deacetytases and voltage-gated sodium channels,respectively.This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena,which will pave the way for clinical investigations that use mood stabilizers to treat stroke.We also propose several future research avenues that may extend our understanding of the benefits of lithium,valproate and lamotrigine in improving stroke outcomes.

  17. Boron isotope effect in superconducting MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud'ko, S L; Lapertot, G; Petrovic, C; Cunningham, C E; Anderson, N; Canfield, P C

    2001-02-26

    We report the preparation method of and boron isotope effect for MgB2, a new binary intermetallic superconductor with a remarkably high superconducting transition temperature T(c)(10B) = 40.2 K. Measurements of both temperature dependent magnetization and specific heat reveal a 1.0 K shift in T(c) between Mg11B2 and Mg10B2. Whereas such a high transition temperature might imply exotic coupling mechanisms, the boron isotope effect in MgB2 is consistent with the material being a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.

  18. [Side effects and risk profile of lithium: critical assessment of a systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschor, T; Bauer, M

    2013-07-01

    Lithium is the only drug that obtained the highest level of recommendation for maintenance therapy in the recent German S3 guidelines on bipolar disorders. In addition it is the only drug with proven efficacy for the prevention of manic as well as depressive episodes in studies with a non-enriched design. Therefore, it is highly welcomed that The Lancet recently published a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risks and side effects of lithium. This is the most comprehensive review on this topic so far.The glomerular filtration rate and maximum urinary concentration ability are slightly reduced under lithium. More patients suffered from renal failure compared to controls; however, renal failure remains a very rare event. The review confirmed the well known suppressive effects of lithium on the thyroid. An increase of serum calcium could be observed relatively frequently, therefore, regular control of serum calcium under lithium therapy is recommended. A relevant increase in body weight is more frequent under lithium than under placebo but less frequent than under olanzapine. No statistically significant increase could be found for hair loss, skin disorders or major congenital abnormalities.Lithium treatment is a safe therapy when clinicians follow the established recommendations. Data indicate that a risk for renal failure exists especially in patients without regular monitoring or with too high lithium serum levels. A (subclinical) hypothyroidism is not an indication to stop administration of lithium but is an indication for l-thyroxin substitution therapy. In pregnancy the risks of continuing lithium should be balanced against the risks of stopping lithium together with the patient.

  19. Microscale reservoir effects on microbial sulfur isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Stilianos; Crowe, Sean A.

    2017-04-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction can impart strong sulfur isotope fractionation by preferentially using the lighter 32SO42- over the heavier 34SO42-. The magnitude of fractionation depends on a number of factors, including ambient concentrations of sulfate and electron donors. Sulfur isotope compositions in sedimentary rocks thus facilitate reconstruction of past environmental conditions, such as seawater sulfate concentrations, primary productivity, organic carbon burial, and sulfur fluxes into or out of the ocean. Knowing the processes that regulate the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is necessary for the correct interpretation of the geological record, but so far theoretical work has focused mostly on internal cellular processes. In sulfate-limited environments, like low sulfate lakes and the Archean ocean, microbial sulfate reduction can lead to sulfate depletion in the water column and an enrichment in isotopically heavy sulfate. This reservoir effect in turn mutes the fractionation expressed in the water column and ultimately preserved in sediments relative to the biologically induced fractionation. Here we use mathematical modeling to show that similar reservoir effects can also appear at the microscale in close proximity to sulfate-reducing cells. These microscale reservoir effects have the potential to modulate sulfur isotope fractionation to a considerable degree, especially at low (micromolar) sulfate concentrations. As a result, background sulfate concentrations, sulfate reduction rates, and extracellular ion diffusion rates can influence the fractionation expressed even if the physiologically induced fractionation is constant. This has implications for the interpretation of biogenic sulfur isotope fractionations expressed in the geological record, because the correct estimation of the environmental conditions that would promote these fractionations requires consideration of microscale reservoir effects. We discuss these implications, and

  20. Chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratio mass spectrometry suggest intramolecular C-Cl bond competition in trichloroethene (TCE) reductive dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretnik, Stefan; Bernstein, Anat; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Löffler, Frank; Elsner, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii) of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were -19.0‰ ± 0.9‰ (PCE) and -12.2‰ ± 1.0‰ (TCE) (95% confidence intervals). Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (-5.0‰ ± 0.1‰) and TCE (-3.6‰ ± 0.2‰). In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by -16.3‰ ± 1.4‰ (standard error)) than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of -2.4‰ ± 0.3‰ and the product chloride an isotope effect of -6.5‰ ± 2.5‰, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals). A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect). These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition). This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I) or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms.

  1. Chlorine Isotope Effects from Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Suggest Intramolecular C-Cl Bond Competition in Trichloroethene (TCE Reductive Dehalogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Cretnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (biochemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i of tetrachloroethene (PCE to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were −19.0‰ ± 0.9‰ (PCE and −12.2‰ ± 1.0‰ (TCE (95% confidence intervals. Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (−5.0‰ ± 0.1‰ and TCE (−3.6‰ ± 0.2‰. In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by −16.3‰ ± 1.4‰ (standard error than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of −2.4‰ ± 0.3‰ and the product chloride an isotope effect of −6.5‰ ± 2.5‰, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals. A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect. These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition. This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms.

  2. Rapid Determination of 226Ra and Uranium Isotopes in Solid Samples by Fusion with Lithium Metaborate and Alpha Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bojanowski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method has been developed to determine 226Ra in rocks, soils, and sediments. Samples are decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in a solution containing sulfates and citric acid. During the dissolution, a fine suspension of mixed barium and radium sulfates is formed. The microcrystals are collected on a membrane filter (pore size 0.1 μm and analysed in an alpha spectrometer. Application of a 133Ba tracer enables us to assess the loss of the analyte, which only rarely exceeds 10%. All analytical operations, beginning from sample decomposition to source preparation for alpha spectrometry, can be accomplished within 1 or 2 h.

  3. Oxford Lithium Trial (OxLith) of the early affective, cognitive, neural and biochemical effects of lithium carbonate in bipolar disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kate E A; Cipriani, Andrea; Rendell, Jennifer; Attenburrow, Mary-Jane; Nelissen, Natalie; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant; Goodwin, Guy M; Nobre, Anna C; Harmer, Catherine J; Harrison, Paul J; Geddes, John R

    2016-03-02

    Despite lithium's being the most effective drug for bipolar disorder and in clinical use for decades, we still know very little about its early effects relevant to its mode of action. The Oxford Lithium Trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of 6-week lithium treatment in participants with bipolar disorder and mood instability. Its aim is to identify early clinical, neurocognitive and biological effects. Participants (n = 40) will undergo an intensive battery of multi-modal investigations, including remote monitoring of mood, activity and physiology, as well as cognitive testing, fMRI and magnetoencephalography, together with biochemical and gene expression measurements to assess renal, inflammatory and circadian effects. The findings derived from this trial may be of value in predicting subsequent therapeutic response or side effects, not only relevant to the use of lithium but also providing a potential signature to help in more rapid evaluation of novel mood stabilisers. In this respect, OxLith is a step towards the development of a valid experimental medicine model for bipolar disorder. ISRCTN91624955 . Registered on 22 January 2015.

  4. Effectiveness of lithium-based products in concrete made with Canadian aggregates susceptible to ASR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, C.; Berube, M.A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Fournier, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab; Thomas, M.D.A. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The durability and service-life of concrete structures is affected by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) that occurs in some siliceous aggregates. During ASR, a swelling gel is produced that causes the expansion and premature deterioration of the concrete elements. Studies have indicated that lithium-based products can suppress the ASR expansion when used at an adequate dosage. The efficacy of LiNO{sub 3} has been recognized because it is not susceptible to pessimum effects, and does not increasing the pH of the pore solution compared to some LiOH and other lithium salts. The alkali content of concrete is a critical parameter for the ASR and also impacts significantly on the efficacy of the lithium-based products. This paper presented the results of a 3 year study in which the feasibility of combining lithium admixture and supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) was investigated. In the study, 87 concrete mixtures were subjected to concrete prism expansion tests in humid air at 38 degrees C for 2 years and up to 9 months at 60 degrees C. The mixtures incorporated 12 different Canadian reactive aggregates and one non-reactive aggregate along with different amounts of lithium-based admixtures. The pore solution of these mixtures was extracted under high pressure at different times for chemical analysis. The combination of lithium admixture and SCMs proved to be beneficial in reducing ASR. The required dosage of LiNO{sub 3} was not related to the degree of reactivity of the aggregate to counteract expansion. 22 refs., 11 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (−0.6‰ appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (−1.4‰, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  6. The origin of carbon isotope vital effects in coccolith calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, H. L. O.; Bruggeman, J.; Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2017-03-01

    Calcite microfossils are widely used to study climate and oceanography in Earth's geological past. Coccoliths, readily preserved calcite plates produced by a group of single-celled surface-ocean dwelling algae called coccolithophores, have formed a significant fraction of marine sediments since the Late Triassic. However, unlike the shells of foraminifera, their zooplankton counterparts, coccoliths remain underused in palaeo-reconstructions. Precipitated in an intracellular chemical and isotopic microenvironment, coccolith calcite exhibits large and enigmatic departures from the isotopic composition of abiogenic calcite, known as vital effects. Here we show that the calcification to carbon fixation ratio determines whether coccolith calcite is isotopically heavier or lighter than abiogenic calcite, and that the size of the deviation is determined by the degree of carbon utilization. We discuss the theoretical potential for, and current limitations of, coccolith-based CO2 paleobarometry, that may eventually facilitate use of the ubiquitous and geologically extensive sedimentary archive.

  7. The origin of carbon isotope vital effects in coccolith calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, H. L. O.; Bruggeman, J.; Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcite microfossils are widely used to study climate and oceanography in Earth's geological past. Coccoliths, readily preserved calcite plates produced by a group of single-celled surface-ocean dwelling algae called coccolithophores, have formed a significant fraction of marine sediments since the Late Triassic. However, unlike the shells of foraminifera, their zooplankton counterparts, coccoliths remain underused in palaeo-reconstructions. Precipitated in an intracellular chemical and isotopic microenvironment, coccolith calcite exhibits large and enigmatic departures from the isotopic composition of abiogenic calcite, known as vital effects. Here we show that the calcification to carbon fixation ratio determines whether coccolith calcite is isotopically heavier or lighter than abiogenic calcite, and that the size of the deviation is determined by the degree of carbon utilization. We discuss the theoretical potential for, and current limitations of, coccolith-based CO2 paleobarometry, that may eventually facilitate use of the ubiquitous and geologically extensive sedimentary archive. PMID:28262764

  8. Greatly Suppressed Shuttle Effect for Improved Lithium Sulfur Battery Performance through Short Chain Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Na; Qian, Tao; Liu, Xuejun; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-01-11

    The high solubility of long-chain lithium polysulfides and their infamous shuttle effect in lithium sulfur battery lead to rapid capacity fading along with low Coulombic efficiency. To address above issues, we propose a new strategy to suppress the shuttle effect for greatly enhanced lithium sulfur battery performance mainly through the formation of short-chain intermediates during discharging, which allows significant improvements including high capacity retention of 1022 mAh/g with 87% retention for 450 cycles. Without LiNO3-containing electrolytes, the excellent Coulombic efficiency of ∼99.5% for more than 500 cycles is obtained, suggesting the greatly suppressed shuttle effect. In situ UV/vis analysis of electrolyte during cycling reveals that the short-chain Li2S2 and Li2S3 polysulfides are detected as main intermediates, which are theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our strategy may open up a new avenue for practical application of lithium sulfur battery.

  9. Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Methyl Iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    a-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE's) have been determined for the reaction of methyl iodide with a series of reducing agents. Reagents which transfer hydride ion in an SN2 reaction show small inverse or small normal KIE's. Reagents which transfer an electron to methyl iodide to produce...

  10. Kinetic secondary deuterium isotope effects for substituted benzaldehyde cyanohydrin formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, V.; do Amaral, L.; Cordes, E.H.

    1976-07-07

    ..cap alpha.. secondary deuterium isotope effects have been measured for the observed rate constants for addition of cyanide ion to a series of substituted benzaldehydes in aqueous solution at 25/sup 0/C. Under the experimental conditions employed, these reactions did not proceed to completion, and the observed isotope effects were corrected to account for the influence of the reverse reaction employing measured equilibrium constants for cyanohydrin formation and previously determined secondary deuterium isotope effect for the equilibrium constant for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde cyanohydrin formation. In the four cases studied, values of k/sub D//k/sub H/ varied from 1.15 to 1.20, only slightly lower than the calculated maximal value for complete formation of the anionic tetrahedral species which is the immediate product of the rate-determining step, 1.21. A trend in isotope effect as a function of substrate reactivity could not be definitively established. The results suffice to establish that addition of cyanide to benzaldehydes proceeds via transition states in which rehybridization of carbonyl carbon to the tetrahedral geometry is nearly complete.

  11. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  12. Clumped isotope effects during OH and Cl oxidation of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Andrew R.; Joelsson, Lars Magnus T.; Schmidt, Johan A.; Wang, David T.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Ono, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the clumped (13CH3D) methane kinetic isotope effects during oxidation of methane by OH and Cl radicals, the major sink reactions for atmospheric methane. Experiments were performed in a 100 L quartz photochemical reactor, in which OH was produced from the reaction of O(1D) (from O3 photolysis) with H2O, and Cl was from photolysis of Cl2. Samples were taken from the reaction cell and analyzed for methane (12CH4, 12CH3D, 13CH4, 13CH3D) isotopologue ratios using tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy. Measured kinetic isotope effects for singly substituted species were consistent with previous experimental studies. For doubly substituted methane, 13CH3D, the observed kinetic isotope effects closely follow the product of the kinetic isotope effects for the 13C and deuterium substituted species (i.e., 13,2KIE = 13KIE × 2KIE). The deviation from this relationship is 0.3‰ ± 1.2‰ and 3.5‰ ± 0.7‰ for OH and Cl oxidation, respectively. This is consistent with model calculations performed using quantum chemistry and transition state theory. The OH and Cl reactions enrich the residual methane in the clumped isotopologue in open system reactions. In a closed system, however, this effect is overtaken by the large D/H isotope effect, which causes the residual methane to become anti-clumped relative to the initial methane. Based on these results, we demonstrate that oxidation of methane by OH, the predominant oxidant for tropospheric methane, will only have a minor (∼0.3‰) impact on the clumped isotope signature (Δ13CH3D, measured as a deviation from a stochastic distribution of isotopes) of tropospheric methane. This paper shows that Δ13CH3D will provide constraints on methane source strengths, and predicts that Δ12CH2D2 can provide information on methane sink strengths.

  13. The development of pure β-NQR techniques for measurements of nuclear ground state quadrupole moments in lithium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2011-09-01

    A β-NQR spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarise the nuclei of interest. Recently, the β-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first-time to measure ratios of static nuclear quadrupole moments of, Li. Preliminary results of the experiment determining the ratios Q9/Q8 and Q11/Q9 show agreement with present literature values with improved precision.

  14. Polysulfide-Scission Reagents for the Suppression of the Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wuxing; Yang, Zhi; Nie, Huagui; Li, Zhongyu; Yang, Jizhang; Guo, Zeqing; Ruan, Chunping; Chen, Xi'an; Huang, Shaoming

    2017-02-28

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have become an appealing candidate for next-generation energy-storage technologies because of their low cost and high energy density. However, one of their major practical problems is the high solubility of long-chain lithium polysulfides and their infamous shuttle effect, which causes low Coulombic efficiency and sulfur loss. Here, we introduced a concept involving the dithiothreitol (DTT) assisted scission of polysulfides into lithium-sulfur system. Our designed porous carbon nanotube/S cathode coupling with a lightweight graphene/DTT interlayer (PCNTs-S@Gra/DTT) exhibited ultrahigh cycle-ability even at 5 C over 1100 cycles, with a capacity degradation rate of 0.036% per cycle. Additionally, the PCNTs-S@Gra/DTT electrode with a 3.51 mg cm(-2) sulfur mass loading delivered a high initial areal capacity of 5.29 mAh cm(-2) (1509 mAh g(-1)) at current density of 0.58 mA cm(-2), and the reversible areal capacity of the cell was maintained at 3.45 mAh cm(-2) (984 mAh g(-1)) over 200 cycles at a higher current density of 1.17 mA cm(-2). Employing this molecule scission principle offers a promising avenue to achieve high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

  15. The effect of lithium on resting-state brain networks in patients with bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhong Liu; Xin Ma; Yuan Zhen; Yu Zhang; Lirong Tang; Feng Li; Changle Tie; Chuanyue Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although lithium has been a commonly prescribed neurotrophic/neuroprotective mood-stabilizing agents, its effect on spontaneous brain activity in patients with bipolar depression remains un-clear. The aim of this study is to reveal the basic mech-anism underlying the pathological influences of lithium on resting-state brain function of bipolar depression pa-tients. Methods:97 subjects including 9 bipolar depres-sion patients with lithium treatment, 19 bipolar depres-sion patients without lithium treatment and 69 healthy controls, were recruited to participate in this study. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation ( ALFF ) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation ( fALFF) were used to capture the changes of spontane-ous brain activity among different groups. In addition, further analysis in terms of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the number of depressive episodes, and illness duration in pooled bipolar depression patients were con-ducted, which combined FLEF and fALEF to identify the basic neural features of bipolar depression patients. Results: It was observed from the imaging results that both the bipolar depression patients receiving lithium treatment and healthy control subjects showed signifi-cantly decreased ALFF/fALFF values in the right anteri-or cingulate cortex and right middle frontal gyrus com-pared to that from the bipolar depression patients with-out lithium treatmetn. The ALFF values of the right middle temporal gyrus was also found to be negative re-lated to the number of depressive episode and the total episodes. Conclusions:Our findings suggested that the bipolar depression subjects were identified to have ab-normal ALFF/ fALFF in the cortico-limbic systems, in-cluding regions like right anterior cingulate cortex, bi-lateral middle frontal gyrus, right orbital frontal gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus. In addition, it was al-so revealed that the decreased ALFF/fALFF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and right

  16. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis.

  17. Theoretical Investigations of the Effects of Lithium Intercalation on the Properties of Indium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Costa, Manuel Pedro Fernandes

    The effect of intercalating lithium into gamma-InSe and beta -InSe has been investigated. The energy bands of pure gamma -InSe and pure beta-InSe were calculated using an overlap-reduced semi-empirical tight-binding method. The parameters for the interactions of Li atoms with In and Se atoms were obtained using the atomic wave-functions of Clementi and Roetti and the Heine-Abarenkov model potential. We established the positions of minimum potential inside the unit cell of the two InSe polytypes where the lithium atoms are most likely to be found. By placing lithium atoms in these sites, we calculated the modifications of the energy bands produced by the introduction of one Li atom per unit cell in gamma-InSe and two lithium atoms per unit cell in beta -InSe. The activation energy for movement of a Li atom between local energy minima was also calculated. The results have been correlated with the optical absorption and photoluminescence data of InSe and Li-intercalated InSe. The lattice dynamics of both the pure gamma- and beta-polytypes of the layer compound InSe have been investigated using a model containing short-range central forces and long -range Coulomb interactions. The normal mode frequencies and eigenvectors were determined by diagonalizing the dynamical matrix. The results have been correlated with the infrared and Raman spectra in InSe. The procedure was then extended to include one lithium ion per unit cell in a site of minimum potential in both the gamma-InSe and the beta-InSe polytypes. The effect of intercalated Li atoms on the vibrational modes and on the infrared and Raman spectra was then investigated.

  18. Kinetic isotope effects for fast deuterium and proton exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Estel; Mammoli, Daniele; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Pelupessy, Philippe; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2016-04-21

    By monitoring the effect of deuterium decoupling on the decay of transverse (15)N magnetization in D-(15)N spin pairs during multiple-refocusing echo sequences, we have determined fast D-D exchange rates kD and compared them with fast H-H exchange rates kH in tryptophan to determine the kinetic isotope effect as a function of pH and temperature.

  19. Isotopic separation by ion chromatography; La separation isotopique par chromatographie ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, M.G.; Barre, Y.; Neige, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 26 - Pierrelatte (France). Dept. de Technologie de l`Enrichissement

    1994-12-31

    The isotopic exchange reaction and the isotopic separation factor are first recalled; the principles of ion chromatography applied to lithium isotope separation are then reviewed (displacement chromatography) and the process is modelled in the view of dimensioning and optimizing the industrial process; the various dimensioning parameters are the isotopic separation factor, the isotopic exchange kinetics and the material flow rate. Effects of the resin type and structure are presented. Dimensioning is also affected by physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters. Industrial implementation features are also discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  20. Isotope effects in photo dissociation of ozone with visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früchtl, Marion; Janssen, Christof; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for many chemical oxidation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. In these chemical reactions, ozone can transfer oxygen to other trace gases. This is particularly interesting, since O3 has a very peculiar isotope composition. Following the mass dependent fractionation equation δ17O = 0.52 * δ18O, most fractionation processes depend directly on mass. However, O3 shows an offset to the mass dependent fractionation line. Processes, which show such anomalies, are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). A very well studied example for a chemical reaction that leads to mass independent fractionation is the O3 formation reaction. To what degree O3 destruction reactions need to be considered in order to understand the isotope composition of atmospheric O3 is still not fully understood and an open question within scientific community. We set up new experiments to investigate the isotope effect resulting from photo dissociation of O3 in the Chappuis band (R1). Initial O3 is produced by an electric discharge. After photolysis O3 is collected in a cold trap at the triple point temperature of nitrogen (63K). O3 is then converted to O2 in order to measure the oxygen isotopes of O3 using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To isolate O3 photo dissociation (R1) from O3 decomposition (R2) and secondary O3 formation (R3), we use varying amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) as O atom quencher (R4). In this way we suppress the O + O3 reaction (R3) and determine the isotope fractionation in R1 and R2 separately. We present first results on the isotope effects in O3 photo dissociation with visible light in the presence of different bath gases. Results are interpreted based on chemical kinetics modeling. (R1) O3 + hυ → O (3P) + O2 (R2) O3 + O (3P) → 2 O2 (R3) O + O2 + M → O3 + M (R4) O (3P) + CO + M → CO2 + M

  1. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E.

    1978-04-01

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited.

  2. The Perinatal Effects of Lithium Carbonate on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal in Adult Female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim hosseini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female offspring was performed. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant mice were divided into 5 groups of 8, including a control group. The control and the experimental groups consumed three dosages of 60, 120, and 180 mg/kg lithium carbonate for 21 days. At the end of the sixth week postpartum, 10 mice were randomly selected from the offspring in each group and were then phlebotomized in order to measure the estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones. Their ovaries were removed, and after preparing and staining the tissue sections, the types of follicles were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS-18 software and ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Finally, the significant difference of data P  0/05 was considered. Results: The results showed that lithium caused a significant increase in the number of atresia follicles and a reduction in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles, graph and corpus luteum, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones in the first generation offspring at P≤ 0/05. Conclusion: Using lithium during pregnancy led to an increase in the atresia follicle and a decrease in other follicles in the first generation offspring; moreover, the sex hormone levels also decreased probably due to the reduction in the follicle and corpus luteum.

  3. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

    2009-05-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known.

  4. MC-ICP-MS高精度测定Li同位素分析方法%High-precision measurement of lithium isotopes using MC-ICP-MS.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏嫒娜; 杨竹森; 田世洪; 李真真; 侯增谦; 侯可军; 胡文洁; 高延光; 杨丹; 李延河

    2011-01-01

    A high-yield lithium separation technique for rock samples has been established together with precise Li isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS. The solutions with different concentration of lithiumelement standard reference materials and single element standard samples of potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium and iron were used to evaluate the analytical methods applied. Three separate stages of ion-exchange chromatography were carried out using organic cation exchange resin (AG 50W-XS,200-400 mesh). Lithium was enriched in different eluants for the different stages. 2. 8 mol/L HCI, 0. 15 mol/L HCI and 0. 5 rnol/L HCI in 30% ethanol were used for the different three stages. Two kinds of columns which are made of polypropylene for the first and second stages and quartz for the third stage were used, which is different from those used abroad.Total reagent volume for the entire chemical process was reduced to 38 mL for the rock samples and the recovery is more than 97. 6%. The precision of this technique is conservatively estimated to be ±0. 60%0-0. 94%(2σ population), which is similar to the precision of other methods used abroad. The δ7Li value (7Li/6Li relative to the IRMM-016 standard) determined for AGV-2 is 5. 13%. The δ7Li values determined for BHVO-2 (7Li/6Li relative to the IRMM-016 standard) and IRMM-016 (7Li/6Li relative to the L-SVEC standard) are 4.08%0 and 0. 038%0, respectively. In addition, the results for the same kinds of samples analyzed by my lab are the same as those by isotope lab of Maryland University. All the analytical results are consistent with those reported by others. Moreover, the δ7I.i value (7Li/61.i relative to the IRMM-016 standard) determined for substandard NKT-1 nephelinite obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is 8. 71%0 and its precision is ±0. 46%0. According to the experiments, it is concluded that this proposed procedure is a suitable method for determining the lithium isotopic composition of

  5. Isotope Effects in Low Energy Ion-Atom Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; Thomas, J. D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Kvale, Thomas Jay [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH

    2009-01-01

    Isotope effects for charge transfer processes have recently received increased attention. The ion-atom merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to measure charge transfer for low energy collisions of multi-charged ions with H and D and is therefore well suited to investigate isotope effects. The apparatus has been relocated and upgraded to accept high velocity beams from the 250 kV High Voltage Platform at the Multi-Charged Ion Research Facility. The intense higher velocity multi-charged ion beams allow, for the first time, measurements with both H and D from keV/u down to meV/u collision energies in the center-of-mass frame. When charge transfer occurs at relatively large inter-nuclear distances (via radial couplings) the ion-induced dipole attraction can lead to trajectory effects, causing differences in the charge transfer cross sections for H and D. A strong isotope effect (nearly a factor of two) has been observed in the cross section for Si4+ + H(D) below 0.1 eV/u. However, little or no difference is observed for N2+ + H(D). Recently, strong effects have been predicted for the fundamental system He2+ + H(D,T) at collision energies below 200 eV/u where charge transfer occurs primarily through united-atom rotational coupling. We are currently exploring systems where rotational coupling is important and isotopic differences in the cross section can be observed.

  6. [Anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects of lithium chloride under preventive and therapeutic treatments of male mice with repeated experience of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2014-01-01

    Repeated experience of aggression in daily agonistic interactions is accompanied by development of changes in behaviors and psychoemotional states indicating the development of the psychopathology of aggressive behavior, which are difficult to correct by drugs used for decrease of aggression in the clinics. In this paper the influence of lithium chloride on the behavior of aggressive males in different tests assessing anxiety, communication and exploratory activity (elevated plus maze test, social interaction test, partition test), as well as aggressiveness (agonistic interaction test) were studied. Lithium chloride (Sigma-Aldrich Co, 100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered preventively to male in ranging from the 7th day of agonistic interactions, as well as therapeutically to males with 21 days of aggression experience during the period without agonistic interactions. Also the effects of chronic lithium chloride treatment on behaviors of animals without agonistic interactions (intact mice) were studied. Period of drug and saline (as the controls) treatment--14 days. It has been shown that preventive lithium chloride treatment of male mice with repeated experience of aggression induced pronounced anxiogenic effect, under therapeutic treatment--nxiolytic effects. Anxiolytic effect was also observed in intact males. There is no effect of lithium chloride on aggression. Differences in the effects of lithium chloride under preveitive and therapeutic treatments, as well as the causes of individual sensitivity to the drug in male mice in one group were discussed.

  7. Isotope effects in a multicusp tandem ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, W.G. (Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (Northern Ireland))

    1992-10-05

    Measurements of plasma parameters, including electron density, electron energy distribution function (eedf), and negative ion density, have been made in the driver and extractor regions of a multicusp tandem ion source. Here results which focus on comparing operation in hydrogen and deuterium are presented. Several isotope effects are evident. In particular, for the same operating conditions, the electron density is found to be higher in deuterium than in hydrogen while the negative ion density is consistently lower.

  8. Isotope compositions of dissolved lithium in the rivers Jinshajiang, Lancangjiang, and Nujiang: Implications for weathering in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Congqiang, E-mail: liucongqiang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Rd., Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhao Zhiqi; Wang Qilian; Gao Bo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Rd., Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-06-15

    The Li isotope geochemistry of the Jinshajiang (upper reach of the Changjiang), Lancangjiang (Meckong) and the Nujiang (Salween) rivers have been studied to better understanding the weathering of continental crust. The three rivers show different water geochemistry, the Jinshajiang followed by the Lancangjiang contains much solute from dissolution of evaporites; the Jinshajiang has the highest average Li content and {delta}{sup 7}Li values. The relatively low {delta}{sup 7}Li values (+4.74{approx}+12.9 per mille) of the river waters, compared to those of large rivers in the world, probably reflect less weathering intensity in this arid and cold region. The Jinshajiang water has relatively high and constant {delta}{sup 7}Li values, and is considered to be affected by evaporite dissolution and the high {delta}{sup 7}Li values indicating that precipitation of salt minerals might have resulted in enrichment of {sup 7}Li in the remaining water. It is thought that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} has been involved in crustal weathering in the region, especially in the Nujiang basin.

  9. Isotopic modeling of the sub-cloud evaporation effect in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamalikis, V., E-mail: vsalamalik@upatras.gr [Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras (Greece); Argiriou, A.A. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras (Greece); Dotsika, E. [Stable Isotope Unit, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center of Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    In dry and warm environments sub-cloud evaporation influences the falling raindrops modifying their final stable isotopic content. During their descent from the cloud base towards the ground surface, through the unsaturated atmosphere, hydrometeors are subjected to evaporation whereas the kinetic fractionation results to less depleted or enriched isotopic signatures compared to the initial isotopic composition of the raindrops at cloud base. Nowadays the development of Generalized Climate Models (GCMs) that include isotopic content calculation modules are of great interest for the isotopic tracing of the global hydrological cycle. Therefore the accurate description of the underlying processes affecting stable isotopic content can improve the performance of iso-GCMs. The aim of this study is to model the sub-cloud evaporation effect using a) mixing and b) numerical isotope evaporation models. The isotope-mixing evaporation model simulates the isotopic enrichment (difference between the ground and the cloud base isotopic composition of raindrops) in terms of raindrop size, ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) at ground level. The isotopic enrichment (Δδ) varies linearly with the evaporated raindrops mass fraction of the raindrop resulting to higher values at drier atmospheres and for smaller raindrops. The relationship between Δδ and RH is described by a ‘heat capacity’ model providing high correlation coefficients for both isotopes (R{sup 2} > 80%) indicating that RH is an ideal indicator of the sub-cloud evaporation effect. Vertical distribution of stable isotopes in falling raindrops is also investigated using a numerical isotope-evaporation model. Temperature and humidity dependence of the vertical isotopic variation is clearly described by the numerical isotopic model showing an increase in the isotopic values with increasing temperature and decreasing RH. At an almost saturated atmosphere (RH = 95%) sub-cloud evaporation is negligible and the

  10. Beneficial Effects of Lithium and Radioiodine Therapy in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Barud

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous contrast media used for coronary angiography are iodine-based and could induce thyroid gland dysfunction. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with coronary artery disease who developed hyperthyroidism after percutaneus coronary intervention. Treatment with thiamazole induced agranulocytosis, complicated with severe tonsillitis. During recurrence of hyperthyroidism, after careful assessment of available methods of treatment, she was recommended to undergo radioiodine therapy (131I. The patient received lithium carbonate as pre-treatment. After 13 days of pre-treatment, patient received the therapeutic dose of 131I. Neither thyrotoxicosis progression nor acute coronary syndrome occurred. After 3 weeks, her thyroid hormones were found to be within normal ranges. Lithium therapy could be used as an effective treatment in patients who developed serious side-effects due to previous treatment with thionamides. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 92-94

  11. A failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Christopher; Williard, Nick; Mathew, Sony; Pecht, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are popular energy storage devices for a wide variety of applications. As batteries have transitioned from being used in portable electronics to being used in longer lifetime and more safety-critical applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and aircraft, the cost of failure has become more significant both in terms of liability as well as the cost of replacement. Failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) provides a rigorous framework to define the ways in which lithium-ion batteries can fail, how failures can be detected, what processes cause the failures, and how to model failures for failure prediction. This enables a physics-of-failure (PoF) approach to battery life prediction that takes into account life cycle conditions, multiple failure mechanisms, and their effects on battery health and safety. This paper presents an FMMEA of battery failure and describes how this process enables improved battery failure mitigation control strategies.

  12. Anharmonic phonons and the isotope effect in superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H.; Cohen, M.L. (Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (USA) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA)); Penn, D.R. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Anharmonic interionic potentials are examined in an Einstein model to study the unusual isotope-effect exponents for the high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} oxides. The mass dependences of the electron-phonon coupling constant {lambda} and the average phonon frequency {radical}{l angle}{omega}{sup 2}{r angle} are computed from weighted sums over the oscillator levels. The isotope-effect exponent is depressed below 1/2 by either a double-well potential or a potential with positive quadratic and quartic parts. Numerical solutions of Schroedinger's equation for double-well potentials produce {lambda}'s in the range 1.5--4 for a material with a vanishing isotope-effect parameter {alpha}. However, low phonon frequencies limit {ital T}{sub {ital c}} to roughly 15 K. A negative quartic perturbation to a harmonic well can increase {alpha} above 1/2. In the extreme-strong-coupling limit, {alpha} is 1/2, regardless of anharmonicity.

  13. Effect of carbon on the reactivity of lithium with SO2 and SOCl2 battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. D.; Smith, P. H.; Kilroy, W. P.

    1983-10-01

    The normal inertness of lithium to SOCl2 and SO2 battery electrolytes changes dramatically if the Li has first been ground with carbon black. Spontaneous ignition on mixing then becomes common, especially with SOCl2 electrolyte. The effect of the nature and proportion of carbon in Li-C grinds on their reactivity was examined. It is concluded that the carbon's external surface area acting via local electrochemical cells is crucial to its catalytic activity.

  14. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yangping eSheng; Christopher R. Fell; Yong Kyu Son; Bernhard M. Metz; Junwei eJiang; Benjamin C. Church

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline ...

  15. Effect of interband interaction on isotope effect exponent of MgB2 superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Udomsamuthirun; C Kumvongsa; A Burakorn; P Changkanarth

    2006-03-01

    The exact formula of c's equation and the isotope effect exponent of two-band s-wave superconductors in the weak-coupling limit are derived by considering the influence of interband interaction. In each band, our model consists of two pairing interactions: the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction. We find that the isotope effect exponent of MgB2, = 0.3 with c ≈ 40 K can be found in the weak coupling regime and interband interaction of electron-phonon shows more effect on the isotope effect exponent than on the interband interaction of non-phonon.

  16. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C.

  17. Probing isotope effects in chemical reactions using single ions

    CERN Document Server

    Staanum, Peter F; Wester, Roland; Drewsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Isotope effects in reactions between Mg+ in the 3p 2P3/2 excited state and molecular hydrogen at thermal energies are studied through single reaction events. From only ~250 reactions with HD, the branching ratio between formation of MgD+ and MgH+ is found to be larger than 5. From additional 65 reactions with H2 and D2 we find that the overall decay probability of the intermediate MgH2+, MgHD+ or MgD2+ complexes is the same. Our study shows that few single ion reactions can provide quantitative information on ion-neutral reactions. Hence, the method is well-suited for reaction studies involving rare species, e.g., rare isotopes or short-lived unstable elements.

  18. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  19. Why Do Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Fail: Parasitic Chemical Reactions and Their Synergistic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiahui; Dong, Qi; Cheng, Qingmei; Wang, Dunwei

    2016-09-12

    As an electrochemical energy-storage technology with the highest theoretical capacity, lithium-oxygen batteries face critical challenges in terms of poor stabilities and low charge/discharge round-trip efficiencies. It is generally recognized that these issues are connected to the parasitic chemical reactions at the anode, electrolyte, and cathode. While the detailed mechanisms of these reactions have been studied separately, the possible synergistic effects between these reactions remain poorly understood. To fill in the knowledge gap, this Minireview examines literature reports on the parasitic chemical reactions and finds the reactive oxygen species a key chemical mediator that participates in or facilitates nearly all parasitic chemical reactions. Given the ubiquitous presence of oxygen in all test cells, this finding is important. It offers new insights into how to stabilize various components of lithium-oxygen batteries for high-performance operations and how to eventually materialize the full potentials of this promising technology.

  20. The hippocampus and dorsal raphe nucleus are key brain areas associated with the antidepressant effects of lithium augmentation of desipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussotto, Sofia; Cryan, John F; O'Leary, Olivia F

    2017-03-27

    Approximately 50% of depressed individuals fail to achieve remission with first-line antidepressant drugs and a third remain treatment-resistant. When first-line antidepressant treatment is unsuccessful, second-line strategies include dose optimisation, switching to another antidepressant, combination with another antidepressant, or augmentation with a non-antidepressant medication. Much of the evidence for the efficacy of augmentation strategies comes from studies using lithium to augment the effects of tricyclic antidepressants. The neural circuitry underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium augmentation is not yet fully understood. Recently, we reported that chronic treatment with a combination of lithium and the antidepressant desipramine, exerted antidepressant-like behavioural effects in a mouse strain (BALB/cOLaHsd) that did not exhibit an antidepressant-like behavioural response to either drug alone. In the present study, we used this model in combination with ΔFosB/FosB immunohistochemistry to identify brain regions chronically affected by lithium augmentation of desipramine when compared to either treatment alone. The data suggest that the dorsal raphe nucleus and the CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus are key nodes in the neural circuitry underlying antidepressant action of lithium augmentation of desipramine. These data give new insight into the neurobiology underlying the mechanism of lithium augmentation in the context of treatment-resistant depression.

  1. IP3 accumulation and/or inositol depletion: two downstream lithium's effects that may mediate its behavioral and cellular changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Y; Toker, L; Kara, N Z; Einat, H; Rapoport, S; Moechars, D; Berry, G T; Bersudsky, Y; Agam, G

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is the prototype mood stabilizer but its mechanism is still unresolved. Two hypotheses dominate—the consequences of lithium's inhibition of inositol monophosphatase at therapeutically relevant concentrations (the ‘inositol depletion' hypothesis), and of glycogen-synthase kinase-3. To further elaborate the inositol depletion hypothesis that did not decisively determine whether inositol depletion per se, or phosphoinositols accumulation induces the beneficial effects, we utilized knockout mice of either of two inositol metabolism-related genes—IMPA1 or SMIT1, both mimic several lithium's behavioral and biochemical effects. We assessed in vivo, under non-agonist-stimulated conditions, 3H-inositol incorporation into brain phosphoinositols and phosphoinositides in wild-type, lithium-treated, IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout mice. Lithium treatment increased frontal cortex and hippocampal phosphoinositols labeling by several fold, but decreased phosphoinositides labeling in the frontal cortex of the wild-type mice of the IMPA1 colony strain by ~50%. Inositol metabolites were differently affected by IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout. Inositoltrisphosphate administered intracerebroventricularly affected bipolar-related behaviors and autophagy markers in a lithium-like manner. Namely, IP3 but not IP1 reduced the immobility time of wild-type mice in the forced swim test model of antidepressant action by 30%, an effect that was reversed by an antagonist of all three IP3 receptors; amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion of wild-type mice (distance traveled) was 35% reduced by IP3 administration; IP3 administration increased hippocampal messenger RNA levels of Beclin-1 (required for autophagy execution) and hippocampal and frontal cortex protein levels ratio of Beclin-1/p62 by about threefold (p62 is degraded by autophagy). To conclude, lithium affects the phosphatidylinositol signaling system in two ways: depleting inositol, consequently decreasing phosphoinositides; elevating

  2. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  3. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  4. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva; Debora Esperancini-Tebar

    2014-01-01

    Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  5. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  6. Effective boson number calculations in Mo and Cd isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cata, G.; Bucurescu, D.; Cutoiu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Zamfir, N.V. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))

    1990-03-01

    The effects of the neutron-proton interaction on the low-lying levels of Mo and Cd isotopes have been considered in the frame of the IBA-1 model by taking into account an effective boson number (N{sub eff}). Both an empirical procedure based on previous IBA-2 mixing calculations and the N{sub p}N{sub n} scheme provide comparable N{sub eff} values. Level spectra and electromagnetic transitions are investigated. The results support the idea that IBA-1 calculations with a suitable N{sub eff} can largely simulate IBA-2 mixing calculations, taking advantage of simplicity and a smaller number of parameters. (orig.).

  7. Comparative neurocognitive effects of lithium and anticonvulsants in long-term stable bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Ana; García-Blanco, Ana C; Verdet, Hélade M; Sierra, Pilar; Ribes, Josep; Villar, Irene; Lara, Mª José; Arnal, Pilar; Rojo, Luis; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2016-01-15

    The aim of choosing a mood-stabilizing drug (lithium or anticonvulsants) or a combination of them with minimal neurocognitive effects is to stimulate the development of criteria for a therapeutic adequacy, particularly in Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients who are clinically stabilized. Three groups of BD patients were established according to their treatment: (i) lithium monotherapy (n=29); (ii) lithium together with one or more anticonvulsants (n=28); and (iii) one or more anticonvulsants (n=16). A group of healthy controls served as the control (n=25). The following tests were applied: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Trail Making Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rey Complex Figure Test, Stroop color-word test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of Hanoi, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Relative to healthy controls, BD patients showed the following: (i) those on lithium monotherapy, but not other BD groups, had preserved short-term auditory memory, long-term memory, and attention; (ii) those who took only anticonvulsants showed worse findings in short-term visual memory, working memory, and several executive functions; and (iii) all BD patients showed worse performance in processing speed, resistance to interference, and emotion recognition. Medication alone cannot explain why all BD patients showed common cognitive deficits despite different pharmacological treatment. The impairment on some executive functions and emotion recognition is an inherent trait in BD patients, regardless of their pharmacological treatment. However, while memory, attention, and most of the executive functions are preserved in long-term stable BD patients, these cognitive functions are impaired in those who take anticonvulsants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of lithium on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield volumes in psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumatos, C I; Nanda, P; Mathew, I T; Tandon, N; Shah, J; Bishop, J R; Clementz, B A; Pearlson, G D; Sweeney, J A; Tamminga, C A; Keshavan, M S

    2015-02-01

    Relative to healthy controls, lithium free bipolar patients exhibit significant gray matter abnormalities. Lithium, the long-time reference standard medication treatment for bipolar disorder, has been proposed to be neuro-protective against these abnormalities. However, its effects on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield (HSF) volumes remain unstudied and unclear, respectively, in bipolar disorder. This study included 342 healthy controls (HC), 51 lithium free PBD patients (NoLi), and 51 PBD patients taking lithium (Li). Regional gray matter thickness and HSF volume values were extracted from 3T MRI images. After matching NoLi and Li samples, regions where HC differed from either Li or NoLi were identified. In regions of significant or trending HC-NoLi difference, Li-NoLi comparisons were made. No significant HC-Li thickness or HSF volume differences were found. Significantly thinner occipital cortices were observed in NoLi compared to HC. In these regions, Li consistently exhibited non-significant trends for greater cortical thickness relative to NoLi. Significantly less volume was observed in NoLi compared to both HC and Li in right HSFs. Our results suggest that PBD in patients not treated with Li is associated with thinner occipital cortices and reduced HSF volumes compared with HC. Patients treated with Li exhibited significantly larger HSF volumes than NoLi, and those treated with Li were no different from HC in cortical thickness or hippocampal volumes. This evidence directly supports the hypothesis that Li may counteract the locally thinner and smaller gray matter structure found in PBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  10. Effect of additives on size and shape of lithium carbonate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborga, P.; Brito, I.; Graber, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, properties such internal structure, shape, and size distribution influence the reactivity, fluidity and wettability of the crystals, and may be modified by the use of additives such as polyelectrolytes or surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different additives on the size and morphology of lithium carbonate crystals obtained by reactive crystallization from solutions of LiCl and Na2CO3. The additives used were: polyethylenimine (PEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid), (P4SA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Obtained crystals were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the crystal size distribution was determined by a size image analyzer, and the crystal structure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of PEI, PEG and P4SA, increased the length of the lithium carbonate particles. The presence of SDS decreases the crystals size. Using SDBS as additive, the crystals had a needle-like shape, Finally PAA allowed the production of Li2CO3 spherulites. Crystal structure of lithium carbonate did not change in the presence of the tested additives.

  11. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M67

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Matthieu; Pace, Giancarlo; Nascimento, José Dias do

    2016-01-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a funct...

  12. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, D. (Calcutta Univ. (India))

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta}-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD and 17 {beta}-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters.

  13. Culture Studies of Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects Associated with Nitrate Assimilation and Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, D. M.; Granger, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Difiore, P. J.; Tortell, P. D.

    2007-12-01

    The isotope effects of nitrate-consuming reactions such as nitrate assimilation and denitrification are potential indicators of the physiological state of the organisms carrying out these reactions. Moreover, an understanding of these isotope effects is needed to use the stable isotopes to investigate the fluxes associated with these reactions in modern and ancient environments. We have used batch cultures to investigate the nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope effects of (1) nitrate assimilation by eukaryotic and prokaryotic algae and by heterotrophic bacteria, and (2) nitrate reduction by denitrifying bacteria. We observe intra- and inter-specific variation in isotope effect amplitudes and, in the case of denitrifiers, indications of isotope effect decreases during individual nitrate drawdown experiments. However, the measured N and O isotope effect ratio is close to 1 for all studied organisms, with the exception of an unusual denitrifier (Rhodobacter sphaeroides) that possesses only periplasmic (non-respiratory) nitrate reductase. This observation and other findings are consistent with nitrate reductase being the predominant source of isotope fractionation and with most isotope effect amplitude variability arising from variable degrees to which nitrate imported into the cell is reduced versus effluxed back into the environment; the more efflux, the more complete the expression of the fractionation imparted by nitrate reduction. If this is the case, then isotope effect amplitudes in the field should be related to physiological conditions in the environment, a prediction that, we argue, is supported by recent studies of (1) nitrate assimilation in the polar ocean and (2) denitrification in sediment porewaters.

  14. Computational Replication of the Primary Isotope Dependence of Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects in Solution Hydride Transfer Reactions: Supporting the Isotopically Different Tunneling Ready State Conformations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported a study of the steric effect on the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs for several hydride transfer reactions in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6653). The unusual 2° KIEs decrease as the 1° isotope changes from H to D, and more in the sterically hindered systems. These were explained in terms of a more crowded tunneling ready state (TRS) conformation in D-tunneling, which has a shorter donor-acceptor distance (DAD), than in H-tunneling. In order to examine the isoto...

  15. Effects of short range correlations on Ca isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lalazissis, G A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Short Range Correlations (SRC) on Ca isotopes is studied using a simple phenomenological model. Theoretical expressions for the charge (proton) form factors, densities and moments of Ca nuclei are derived. The role of SRC in reproducing the empirical data for the charge density differences is examined. Their influence on the depletion of the nuclear Fermi surface is studied and the fractional occupation probabilities of the shell model orbits of Ca nuclei are calculated. The variation of SRC as function of the mass number is also discussed.

  16. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A. [Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ryabchenko, S. [Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., 163002 Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Vaeck, N. [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  17. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  18. The oxygen isotope effect on critical temperature in superconducting copper oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Mourachkine, A.

    2003-01-01

    The isotope effect provided a crucial key to the development of the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) microscopic theory of superconductivity for conventional superconductors. In superconducting cooper oxides (cuprates) showing an unconventional type of superconductivity, the oxygen isotope effect is very peculiar: the exponential coefficient strongly depends on doping level. No consensus has been reached so far on the origin of the isotope effect in the cuprates. Here we show that the oxygen i...

  19. Environmental effects on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Key words: Oxygen isotopes, carbon isotopes, Porites coral, density bands, skeletal .... isotopic ratio of CO2 gas derived from the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) ... water samples, a 2.0 ml of the sample was taken into a syringe and.

  20. [Bipolar affective disorders and role of intraneuronal calcium. Therapeutic effects of the treatment with lithium salts and/or calcium antagonist in patients with rapid polar inversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, V

    1991-11-01

    Treatment with lithium salts produces improvements in bipolar affective disorders. Up to date, the relationship between neurochemical and behavioural effects of lithium and its actions on intraneuronal free calcium ions is not well known. Some calcium antagonist drugs resulted active in the treatment of bipolar affective syndromes, with therapeutic effects similar to lithium salts. Some studies suggest that also lithium salts act as calcium antagonist at intraneuronal level. In this preliminary open study the activity of nimodipine, a selective neuronal calcium antagonist drug, was evaluated alone and in association with lithium salts in the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar manic-depressive illness. During three periods of 6 months 12 rapid cycling patients were treated with lithium salts, lithium salts plus nimodipine 30 mg x 3/day, nimodipine 30 mg x 3/day. The association of lithium with nimodipine resulted more effective than lithium alone or nimodipine alone in the reduction of episodes of affective disorder. These results suggest a probable sinergic activity of both treatments. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the mechanism of action, perhaps calcium antagonism, at the basis of therapeutic effects of both treatments. The results seem to confirm the hypothesis that a calcium-ionic disorders play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders.

  1. Isotope effect studies of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abell, L.M.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1988-08-09

    The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii shows a nitrogen isotope effect k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9770 +/- 0.0021, a carbon isotope effect k/sup 12//k/sup 13/ = 1.0308 +/- 0.0006, and a carbon isotope effect for L-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)histidine of 1.0333 +/- 0.0001 at pH 6.3, 37/sup 0/C. These results indicate that the overall decarboxylation rate is limited jointly by the rate of Schiff base interchange and by the rate of decarboxylation. Although the observed isotope effects are quite different from those for the analogous glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli, the intrinsic isotope effects for the two enzymes are essentially the same. The difference in observed isotope effects occurs because of a roughly twofold difference in the partitioning of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-substrate Schiff base between decarboxylation and Schiff base interchange. The observed nitrogen isotope effect requires that the imine nitrogen in this Schiff base is protonated. Comparison of carbon isotope effects for deuteriated and undeuteriated substrates reveals that the deuterium isotope effect on the decarboxylation step is about 1.20; thus, in the transition state for the decarboxylation step, the carbon-carbon bond is about two-thirds broken.

  2. A large solvent isotope effect on protein association thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eginton, Christopher; Beckett, Dorothy

    2013-09-24

    Solvent reorganization can contribute significantly to the energetics of protein-protein interactions. However, our knowledge of the magnitude of the energetic contribution is limited, in part, by a dearth of quantitative experimental measurements. The biotin repressor forms a homodimer as a prerequisite to DNA binding to repress transcription initiation. At 20 °C, the dimerization reaction, which is thermodynamically coupled to binding of a small ligand, bio-5'-AMP, is characterized by a Gibbs free energy of -7 kcal/mol. This modest net dimerization free energy reflects underlying, very large opposing enthalpic and entropic driving forces of 41 ± 3 and -48 ± 3 kcal/mol, respectively. The thermodynamics have been interpreted as indicating coupling of solvent release to dimerization. In this work, this interpretation has been investigated by measuring the effect of replacing H2O with D2O on the dimerization thermodynamics. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements performed at 20 °C reveal a solvent isotope effect of -1.5 kcal/mol on the Gibbs free energy of dimerization. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the reaction in D2O indicates enthalpic and entropic contributions of 28 and -37 kcal/mol, respectively, considerably smaller than the values measured in H2O. These large solvent isotope perturbations to the thermodynamics are consistent with a significant contribution of solvent release to the dimerization reaction.

  3. Isotope effects on particle transport in the Compact Helical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Ida, K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Osakabe, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Isobe, M.; Morita, S.; Matsuoka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogen isotope effects of particle transport were studied in the hydrogen and deuterium dominant plasmas of the Compact Helical System (CHS). Longer decay time of electron density after the turning-off of the gas puffing was observed in the deuterium dominant plasma suggesting that the recycling was higher and/or the particle confinement was better in the deuterium dominant plasma. Density modulation experiments showed the quantitative difference of the particle transport coefficients. Density was scanned from 0.8  ×  1019 m-3 to 4  ×  1019 m-3 under the same magnetic field and almost the same heating power. In the low density regime (line averaged density  2.5  ×  1019 m-3) no clear difference was observed. This result indicates that the isotope effects of particle transport exist only in the low density regime. Comparison with neoclassical transport coefficients showed that the difference of particle transport is likely to be due to the difference of turbulence driven anomalous transport. Linear character of the ion scale turbulence was studied. The smaller linear growth rate qualitatively agreed with the reduced particle transport in the deuterium dominant plasma of the low density regime.

  4. Beware of your mouse strain; differential effects of lithium on behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes in Harlan ICR mice bred in Israel or the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Yeala; Kara, Nirit Z; Toker, Lilach; Bersudsky, Yuly; Einat, Haim; Agam, Galila

    2014-09-01

    Animal models are crucial components in the search for better understanding of the biological basis of psychiatric disorders and for the development of novel drugs. Research, in general, and research with animal models, in particular, relies on the consistency of effects of investigated drugs or manipulations across experiments. In that context, it had been noted that behavioral responses to lithium in ICR (CD-1) mice from Harlan Israel have changed across the last years. To examine this change, the present study compared the effect of lithium treatment in ICR mice from Harlan Israel with the ICR mice from Harlan USA. The mice were treated with chronic oral lithium. Their lithium serum levels were measured and their behavior in the forced swim test (FST) was evaluated. The mice were also treated with [(3)H]-inositol ICV and lithium injection and their frontal cortex [(3)H]-phosphoinositols accumulation was measured. Results show that lithium serum levels in Israeli mice were significantly lower compared with the USA mice, that lithium had no behavioral effect in the Israeli mice but significantly reduced FST immobility time of the USA mice, and that phosphoinositols accumulation was much more strongly affected by lithium in the USA mice compared with the Israeli mice. These results suggest that the Israeli Harlan colony of ICR mice changed significantly from the original ICR colony in Harlan USA and that the differences might be related to absorption or secretion of lithium.

  5. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  6. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DURATION OF LITHIUM PRETREATMENT WITH AMIKACIN AND GENTAMICIN ONAPOMORPHINE-INDUCED LICKING IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD SHARIFZADEH

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hypothesis that aminoglycoside antibiotics and lithium may influence apomorphine-induced licking via their effects on phosphoinositide pathways and calcium stores were investigated in male rats. Subcutaneous administration of apomorphine (0.1,0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg to rats induced licking in a dose-dependent manner and the maximum response was obtained by the dose of 0.5 mg/kg of the drug. Intracerebroventricular injections of amikacin (5, 25 and 50 ug/rat and gentamicin (10, 20 and 40 ug/rat decreased the apomorphine-induced licking significantly. Pretreatment of animals with lithium (600 mg/1 for 7,14 and 21 days increased licking induced by apomorphine. The inhibitory effects of amikacin and high dose of gentamicin were not affected by lithium pretreatment for 14 and 28 days. These findings indicate the possible involvement of phosphoinositide cascade in alterations of apomorphine-induced licking by aminoglycoside antibiotics and lithium in the brain. Also it is suggested that type and dose of aminoglycoside antibiotics and duration of lithium administration probably have different effects on responses mediated by phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

  7. Temperature dependence of isotopic quantum effects in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R T; Benmore, C J; Neuefeind, J; Kohara, S; Tomberli, B; Egelstaff, P A

    2005-02-04

    The technique of high energy x-ray diffraction has been used to measure the temperature variation of hydrogen versus deuterium isotopic quantum effects on the structure of water. The magnitude of the effect is found to be inversely proportional to the temperature, varying by a factor of 2.5 over the range 6 to 45 degrees C. In addition, the H216O versus H218O effect has been measured at 26 degrees C and the structural difference shown to be restricted to the nearest neighbor molecular interactions. The results are compared to recent simulations and previously measured isochoric temperature differentials; additionally, implications for H/D substitution experiments are considered.

  8. Effects of impurity on the energy spectra of quantum-dot lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatansever, Z.D., E-mail: zeynep.demir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 İzmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylül University, Graduate School of Natural & Applied Sciences, 35390 İzmir (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S.; Akgungor, K.; Sokmen, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 İzmir (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the effects of an off-center attractive Gaussian impurity on the ground-state energy and spin properties of parabolic quantum-dot lithium are investigated with Configuration Interaction Method. Phase transition between spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 states of the system is obtained for various strengths of the impurity potential and the electron–electron interaction. Charge densities of the system are studied in different interaction regimes. Numerical results reveal that the gap between two spin states is increased by the impurity which consequently yields to the suppression of the polarization.

  9. Design of optical seven-segment decoder using Pockel's effect inside lithium niobate-based waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Seven-segment decoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs optically, having 11 Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) for their implementation. The layout of the circuit is implemented to fit the electrical method on an optical logic circuit based on the beam propagation method (BPM). Seven-segment decoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium niobate-based MZIs. MZI structures are able to switch an optical signal to a desired output port. It consists of a mathematical explanation about the proposed device. The BPM is also used to analyze the study.

  10. Silanated Surface Treatment: Effects on the Bond Strength to Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Baratto,Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina,Denis Roberto Falcão; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cunha,Leonardo Fernandes da; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Flares BARATTO FILHO; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization protocols on the bond strength of two resin cements to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Thirty-two ceramic discs were assigned to 2 groups (n=16): G1 - dual-cured resin cement and G2 - light-cured resin cement. Four subgroups were evaluated according to the used silanization protocol. The glass-ceramic was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and silane was applied for 1 min, as follows: CTL - according to the...

  11. The physical chemistry of mass-independent isotope effects and their observation in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemens, Mark H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Dominguez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the physical chemistry of isotope effects and precise measurements in samples from nature have provided information on processes that could not have been obtained otherwise. With the discovery of a mass-independent isotopic fractionation during the formation of ozone, a new physical chemical basis for isotope effects required development. Combined theoretical and experimental developments have broadened this understanding and extended the range of chemical systems where these unique effects occur. Simultaneously, the application of mass-independent isotopic measurements to an extensive range of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial systems has furthered the understanding of events such as solar system origin and evolution and planetary atmospheric chemistry, present and past.

  12. Utilization of stable isotopes in power reactor; Utilisation des isotopes stables dans les reacteurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmoulins, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    The stable isotopes, besides uranium, used in EDF power nuclear reactors are mainly the boron 10 and the lithium 7. Boron is used in reactors as a neutrophagous agent for core reactivity control, and lithium, and more especially lithium 7, is extensively used as a solution in PWR moderators for primary fluid pH control. Boron and lithium ore reserves and producers are presented; industrial isotopic separation techniques are described: for the boron 10, they include dissociative distillation (Sulzer process) and separation on anionic resins, and for lithium 7, ion exchange columns (Cogema). 1 tab.

  13. Peripheral mRNA expression of pluripotency markers in bipolar disorder and the effect of long-term lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Tarnowski, Maciej; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Michalak, Michal; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the peripheral mRNA expression of pluripotency master transcriptional factors such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) and homeobox protein Nanog, in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and the effect of long-term lithium treatment. Fifteen BD patients (aged 53±7years) not treated with lithium, with duration of illness>10years, 15 BD patients (aged 55±6years) treated with lithium for 8-40 years (mean 16years) and 15 control subjects (aged 50±5years) were included. Assessment of the mRNA levels of pluripotency markers (Oct-4, Sox 2 and Nanog) was performed, using the Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RQ-PCR) procedure, and the number of CD34+ very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) was measured by flow cytometric analysis. In those BD patients not treated with lithium the expression of all three pluripotency genes was significantly higher than that in the control subjects. Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog also positively correlated with the number of CD34+ VSELs/[ul] in this group. In the lithium-treated patients the mRNA levels of Nanog were significantly higher than in the control individuals and correlated with the number and % of CD34+ VSELs. The overexpression of the pluripotency master transcriptional factors in patients with a long duration of BD not treated with lithium, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the illness and make them potential biological markers of BD. Long-term lithium treatment may attenuate these excessive regenerative processes, especially in relation to the transcription factors Oct-4 and Sox2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  14. Effect of lithium or aluminum substitution on the characteristics of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huajun; LI Xinhai; WANG Zhixing; PENG Wenjie; GUO Yongxing

    2003-01-01

    Modification of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries is investigated. Results of X-ray diffraction shows lithium and aluminum exists as Li compound (CH3COOLi@2H2O) and Al compound (AlD3) in the graphite, respectiovely.The Bmnauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) surface area of the modified graphite increases. According to the electrochemical measurements of Li/C cell and prototype Li-ion batteries, the Li-doped graphite has large reversible capacity of 312.2mA@h/g, low irreversible capacity of 52.9 mA@h/g, and high initial coulombic efficiency of 85.51%. The 063448 size prototype battery with Li-doped graphite anode has large discharge capacity of 845 mA@h and good cycling performance. The initial charge/discharge characteristic of Al-doped graphite is close to those of undoped graphite, but the prototype battery with Al-doped anode shows the best cycling performance with capacity retention ratio of 94.06% at the 200th cycle.

  15. The effect of niobium- and tantalum oxide on nucleation and growth kinetics in lithium disilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.thieme@uni-jena.de; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-07-15

    Stoichiometric lithium disilicate glasses were doped with up to 2 mol% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The additives led to an increase in viscosities and to a change in the crystallization behavior. The steady-state nucleation rates, the induction times and the crystal growth velocities were studied as a function of the temperature using in situ optical hot stage microscopy. While the nucleation rates decrease by up to three orders of magnitude, the induction times significantly increase. The effect of nucleation inhibition is not solely based on higher viscosities. It is assumed that the glasses consists of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra and MO{sub 6} (M = Nb, Ta) octahedra and hence, with increasing additive concentration, the structural similarities between glass and lithium disilicate crystal decrease leading to smaller nucleation rates. Moreover, the crystal growth velocities decrease drastically. Optical micrographs indicate a lamellar growth proceeding from the crystal center. During growth, the lithium disilicate crystals get a constriction in their center leading to a dumbbell-like shape. - Highlights: • Li{sub 2}O·2SiO{sub 2} glasses were doped with up to 2 mol% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • The dopants decrease the nucleation rates and increase the induction times. • The crystal growth velocities are drastically decreased by the additives. • The crystals grow in form of several lamellae similar to spherulitic growth. • A possible explanation for the effect of the nucleation inhibitors is given.

  16. Strain-specific battery of tests for domains of mania: effects of valproate, lithium and imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD, especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment.

  17. The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (δ(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and δ(18)O in groundwater.

  18. Inositol-deficient food augments a behavioral effect of long-term lithium treatment mediated by inositol monophosphatase inhibition: an animal model with relevance for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Liza; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2015-04-01

    Lithium treatment in rodents markedly enhances cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine. This effect can be reversed in a stereospecific manner by administration of inositol, suggesting that the effect of lithium is caused by inositol monophosphatase inhibition and consequent inositol depletion. If so, inositol-deficient food would be expected to enhance lithium effects. Inositol-deficient food was prepared from inositol-free ingredients. Mice with a homozygote knockout of the inositol monophosphatase 1 gene unable to synthesize inositol endogenously and mimicking lithium-treated animals were fed this diet or a control diet. Lithium-treated wild-type animals were also treated with the inositol-deficient diet or control diet. Pilocarpine was administered after 1 week of treatment, and behavior including seizures was assessed using rating scale. Inositol-deficient food-treated animals, both lithium treated and with inositol monophosphatase 1 knockout, had significantly elevated cholinergic behavior rating and significantly increased or earlier seizures compared with the controls. The effect of inositol-deficient food supports the role of inositol depletion in the effects of lithium on pilocarpine-induced behavior. However, the relevance of this behavior to other more mood-related effects of lithium is not clear.

  19. Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat Lítio e metilfenidato: efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal and white (inguinal adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fat, and this effect was minimized by the administration of methylphenidate. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the effects of lithium on inguinal fat. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that different effects on white and brown tissue distribution may be involved in lithium-induced weight gain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a administração de lítio afeta o tecido adiposo marrom (perirrenal e branco (inguinal e se o metilfenidato modula os efeitos do lítio. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco ratos Wistar adultos machos foram alimentados com ração normal ou contendo lítio por 30 dias. Entre os dias 15 e 30 de tratamento, os animais receberam doses intraperitoneais diárias de metilfenidato ou solução salina. RESULTADOS: A administração de lítio reduziu significativamente a gordura perirrenal. Esse efeito foi reduzido com a administração de metilfenidato. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação à gordura inguinal. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que efeitos diferenciados sobre os tecidos adiposos marrom e branco podem estar envolvidos no ganho de peso induzido pelo tratamento com lítio.

  20. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach.

  1. The off-axis pyroelectric effect observed for lithium tetraborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketsman, I. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Wooten, D. [Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Xiao, Jie [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Losovyj, Ya.B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); J. Bennett Johnston Sr. Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Burak, Ya.V.; Adamiv, V.T. [Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, Lviv 79005 (Ukraine); Sokolov, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Petrosky, J.; McClory, J. [Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Dowben, P.A., E-mail: pdowben@unl.ed [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)

    2010-01-25

    We find a pyroelectric current along the <110> direction of stoichiometric Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} so that the pyroelectric coefficient is nonzero but roughly 10{sup -3} smaller than along the <001> direction of spontaneous polarization. Abrupt decreases in the pyroelectric coefficient along the <110> direction can be correlated with anomalies in the elastic stiffness C{sub 33}{sup D} contributing to concept that the pyroelectric coefficient is not simply a vector but has qualities of a tensor, as expected. The time dependent surface photovoltaic charging suggests that an inverse piezoelectric effect occurs at the (110) surface but not the (100) surface. Both effects along the <110> direction or at the (110) surface are distinct the conventional as a bulk pyroelectric effect.

  2. Ruthenium endemic isotope effects in chondrites and differentiated meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the abundances of Ru isotopes in (1) iron meteorites, (2) stony-iron meteorites (pallasites), (3) ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, and (4) in refractory inclusions from the carbonaceous meteorite Allende. We have developed improved Multiple-Collector, Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric (MC-NTIMS) techniques for Ru, with high ionization efficiency of 4% and with chemical separation techniques for Ru, which reduce mass interferences to the ppm level, so that no mass interference corrections needed to be applied. Our data were normalized to 99Ru/ 101Ru to correct for mass-dependent fractionation. We find no Ru isotopic effects in the ordinary chondrites and group IAB iron meteorites we have measured. There are significant effects (deficits) in the pure s-process nuclide 100Ru, in the Allende whole-rock and in refractory inclusions of up to 1.7 parts in 10,000 (ɛu). There are also endemic deficits in 100Ru in iron meteorites and in pallasites of up to 1.1 ɛu. The Ru data suggest a wide spread and large scale heterogeneity in p-, s-, and r-process components resulting in a deficit in s-process nuclides or enhancements in both p- and r-process nuclides, in refractory siderophiles condensing in the early solar nebula. In contrast, the data on bulk Murchison suggest an excess in 100Ru and in 104Ru, which are distinct from the rest of the measured patterns. Our results establish the presence of significant isotopic heterogeneity for Ru in the early solar nebula. The observation of endemic Ru effects in planetary differentiates, such as iron meteorites and pallasites, must reflect the siderophile nature of Ru and the preservation in condensing FeNi metal of refractory metal condensate grains formed in the early solar nebula. Once incorporated in the metal phase, the refractory siderophiles remained in the metal phase through the melting and differentiation of planetesimals to form FeNi cores and silicate mantles and crusts.

  3. Anomalous isotopic effect on electron-directed reactivity by a 3-{\\mu}m midinfrared pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Kunlong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2012-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the effect of nuclear mass on electron localization in dissociating H_2^+ and its isotopes subjected to a few-cycle 3-{\\mu}m laser pulse. Compared to the isotopic trend in the near-infrared regime, our results reveal an inverse isotopic effect in which the degree of electron-directed reactivity is even higher for heavier isotopes. With the semi-classical analysis, we find, for the first time, the pronounced electron localization is established by the interferences through different channels of one- and, more importantly, higher-order photon coupling. Interestingly, due to the enhanced high-order above-threshold dissociation of heavier isotopes, the interference maxima gradually become in phase with growing mass and ultimately lead to the anomalous isotopic behavior of the electron localization. This indicates that the multi-photon coupling channels will play an important role in controlling the dissociation of larger molecules with midinfrared pulses.

  4. Isotopic modeling of the sub-cloud evaporation effect in precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamalikis, V; Argiriou, A A; Dotsika, E

    2016-02-15

    In dry and warm environments sub-cloud evaporation influences the falling raindrops modifying their final stable isotopic content. During their descent from the cloud base towards the ground surface, through the unsaturated atmosphere, hydrometeors are subjected to evaporation whereas the kinetic fractionation results to less depleted or enriched isotopic signatures compared to the initial isotopic composition of the raindrops at cloud base. Nowadays the development of Generalized Climate Models (GCMs) that include isotopic content calculation modules are of great interest for the isotopic tracing of the global hydrological cycle. Therefore the accurate description of the underlying processes affecting stable isotopic content can improve the performance of iso-GCMs. The aim of this study is to model the sub-cloud evaporation effect using a) mixing and b) numerical isotope evaporation models. The isotope-mixing evaporation model simulates the isotopic enrichment (difference between the ground and the cloud base isotopic composition of raindrops) in terms of raindrop size, ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) at ground level. The isotopic enrichment (Δδ) varies linearly with the evaporated raindrops mass fraction of the raindrop resulting to higher values at drier atmospheres and for smaller raindrops. The relationship between Δδ and RH is described by a 'heat capacity' model providing high correlation coefficients for both isotopes (R(2)>80%) indicating that RH is an ideal indicator of the sub-cloud evaporation effect. Vertical distribution of stable isotopes in falling raindrops is also investigated using a numerical isotope-evaporation model. Temperature and humidity dependence of the vertical isotopic variation is clearly described by the numerical isotopic model showing an increase in the isotopic values with increasing temperature and decreasing RH. At an almost saturated atmosphere (RH=95%) sub-cloud evaporation is negligible and the isotopic

  5. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  6. Effect of Diffusion on Lithium Intercalation in Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudriachova, Marina V.; Harrison, Nicholas M.; de Leeuw, Simon W.

    2001-02-01

    A new model of Li intercalation into rutile and anatase structured titania has been developed from first principles calculations. The model includes both thermodynamic and kinetic effects and explains the observed differences in intercalation behavior and their temperature dependence. The important role of strong local deformations of the lattice and elastic screening of interlithium interactions is demonstrated. In addition, a new phase of LiTiO2 is reported.

  7. Confinement Effects for Lithium Borohydride: Comparing Silica and Carbon Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarno; Ngene, Peter; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M; Oschatz, Martin; Embs, Jan Peter; Remhof, Arndt; de Jongh, Petra E

    2017-03-02

    LiBH4 is a promising material for hydrogen storage and as a solid-state electrolyte for Li ion batteries. Confining LiBH4 in porous scaffolds improves its hydrogen desorption kinetics, reversibility, and Li(+) conductivity, but little is known about the influence of the chemical nature of the scaffold. Here, quasielastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements were used to study support effects for LiBH4 confined in nanoporous silica and carbon scaffolds. Pore radii were varied from 8 Å to 20 nm, with increasing confinement effects observed with decreasing pore size. For similar pore sizes, the confinement effects were more pronounced for silica than for carbon scaffolds. The shift in the solid-solid phase transition temperature is much larger in silica than in carbon scaffolds with similar pore sizes. A LiBH4 layer near the pore walls shows profoundly different phase behavior than crystalline LiBH4. This layer thickness was 1.94 ± 0.13 nm for the silica and 1.41 ± 0.16 nm for the carbon scaffolds. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering confirmed that the fraction of LiBH4 with high hydrogen mobility is larger for the silica than for the carbon nanoscaffold. These results clearly show that in addition to the pore size the chemical nature of the scaffold also plays a significant role in determining the hydrogen mobility and interfacial layer thickness in nanoconfined metal hydrides.

  8. Confinement Effects for Lithium Borohydride: Comparing Silica and Carbon Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    LiBH4 is a promising material for hydrogen storage and as a solid-state electrolyte for Li ion batteries. Confining LiBH4 in porous scaffolds improves its hydrogen desorption kinetics, reversibility, and Li+ conductivity, but little is known about the influence of the chemical nature of the scaffold. Here, quasielastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements were used to study support effects for LiBH4 confined in nanoporous silica and carbon scaffolds. Pore radii were varied from 8 Å to 20 nm, with increasing confinement effects observed with decreasing pore size. For similar pore sizes, the confinement effects were more pronounced for silica than for carbon scaffolds. The shift in the solid–solid phase transition temperature is much larger in silica than in carbon scaffolds with similar pore sizes. A LiBH4 layer near the pore walls shows profoundly different phase behavior than crystalline LiBH4. This layer thickness was 1.94 ± 0.13 nm for the silica and 1.41 ± 0.16 nm for the carbon scaffolds. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering confirmed that the fraction of LiBH4 with high hydrogen mobility is larger for the silica than for the carbon nanoscaffold. These results clearly show that in addition to the pore size the chemical nature of the scaffold also plays a significant role in determining the hydrogen mobility and interfacial layer thickness in nanoconfined metal hydrides. PMID:28286596

  9. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  10. Electrochemical H-D isotope effect at metal-perovskite proton conductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kek, D.; Bonanos, N.

    1999-01-01

    The H-D isotope effect on the electrode kinetics of a metal-proton conductor interface has been investigated. The current-voltage behaviour depends on the nature of the electrode (Ni, Ag), the atmosphere (H(2), D(2)), the partial pressures of the gases, and the temperature. The isotope effect...

  11. Enhancing effects of lithium on memory are not by-products of learning or attentional deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kyriazi, Theodora; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Maillis, Antonios

    2007-06-18

    We recently reported that chronic lithium (LiCl), at therapeutic plasma levels, enhanced spatial working memory and retention of an aversive contingency. Here we examine the possibility that these effects be secondary to LiCl effects on the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or on fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, rats subjected to >30 daily intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (2mmol/kg) or saline underwent conditioned emotional response training (CER: 2 CS pairings with 1-s, 1-mA shock) after 40 pre-exposures either to the CS (latent inhibition-LiCl/latent inhibition-saline, n=8) or to another stimulus (control-LiCl/control-saline, n=8). In Experiment 2, eight LiCl and eight saline animals were trained in on-the-baseline (VI-60s) CER (1-s, 0.15-mA shock in CS-signalled periods) in the Skinner box. In Experiment 1, LiCl animals showed normal latent inhibition. In both experiments, their fear conditioning was unimpaired. Therefore, the previously reported memory improvement under chronic lithium cannot be attributed to changes in the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or in fear conditioning.

  12. Effects of core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wol; Park, Jong-Kyoung; Kim, So-Ri; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-07-06

    The color of dental ceramics is important for achieving successful esthetic restorations. However, insufficient studies are available of the color of recently introduced computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) lithium disilicate ceramics as functions of the core and veneer thicknesses. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the thickness of different core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics. A total of 42 specimens from 2 groups of 7 ceramic cores at 3 thicknesses (0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mm) were fabricated. The veneer was fabricated at 3 thicknesses (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mm). The group name was based on the name of the ceramic core (IPS e.max CAD; lithium disilicate [LD], IPS Empress CAD; leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic [LR]), and the associated number was determined by the combined thicknesses of the core and the veneer: 1=0.8+0.7; 2=1.0+0.5; and 3=1.2+0.3. The color coordinates and the color differences were calculated using a spectrophotometer. The color difference was analyzed using the CIEDE2000 chrominance and the acceptability threshold. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify the color difference based on the core/veneer thicknesses, and the Tukey honest significant differences and Games-Howell tests were conducted to verify the ΔE00 differences of the group (α=.05). In addition, regression analysis was carried out to estimate the causal relationship between the independent variables and the chrominance. At a certain thickness, the color differences of LD1, LR1, and LR2 were not clinically acceptable based on the thicknesses of the core and the veneer. Results of 2-way ANOVA demonstrated that the different thicknesses of core/veneer combination significantly affected the color difference (Pcore decreased by 0.2 mm. The color is influenced by the thicknesses of the core and the veneer. With a certain thickness, the color differences increased as the thickness of the core

  13. Isotope effect in tunnelling ionization of neutral hydrogen molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Atia-Tul-Noor, A; Hu, B T; Kielpinski, D; Sang, R T; Litvinyuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently predicted theoretically that due to nuclear motion light and heavy hydrogen molecules exposed to strong electric field should exhibit substantially different tunneling ionization rates (O.I. Tolstikhin, H.J. Worner and T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. A 87, 041401(R) (2013) [1]). We studied that isotope effect experimentally by measuring relative ionization yields for each species in a mixed H2/D2 gas jet interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a reaction microscope apparatus we detected ionic fragments from all contributing channels (single ionization, dissociation, and sequential double ionization) and determined the ratio of total single ionization yields for H2 and D2. The measured ratio agrees quantitatively with the prediction of the generalized weak-field asymptotic theory in an apparent failure of the frozen-nuclei approximation.

  14. Isotope Effect in Tunneling Ionization of Neutral Hydrogen Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Xu, H.; Atia-Tul-Noor, A.; Hu, B. T.; Kielpinski, D.; Sang, R. T.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently predicted theoretically that due to nuclear motion light and heavy hydrogen molecules exposed to strong electric field should exhibit substantially different tunneling ionization rates [O. I. Tolstikhin, H. J. Worner, and T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. A 87, 041401(R) (2013)]. We studied that isotope effect experimentally by measuring relative ionization yields for each species in a mixed H2/D2 gas jet interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a reaction microscope apparatus, we detected ionic fragments from all contributing channels (single ionization, dissociation, and sequential double ionization) and determined the ratio of total single ionization yields for H2 and D2 . The measured ratio agrees quantitatively with the prediction of the generalized weak-field asymptotic theory in an apparent failure of the frozen-nuclei approximation.

  15. Variation of kinetic isotope effect in multiple proton transfer reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Saritha; M Durga Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we had suggested that the motion along the promoter mode in the first part of the IRC of proton transfer reaction enhances the delocalization of electrons on the acceptor atom into the * orbital of the donor-hydrogen covalent bond, and as a consequence weakens it. This leads to a reduction of the barrier to the proton transfer as well as the stretching frequency of donor-hydrogen bond. An extension of this to the concerted multiple proton transfer reactions implies that the kinetic isotope effect in such reaction depends exponentially on the number of protons that are being transferred. Computational evidence on three systems, (HF)3, formic acid dimer, and (H2O) clusters is provided to support this assertion.

  16. Structural isotope effects in metal hydrides and deuterides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Valeska P; Henry, Paul F; Kohlmann, Holger; Wilson, Chick C; Weller, Mark T

    2010-03-07

    Historically the extraction of high-quality crystallographic information from inorganic samples having high hydrogen contents, such as metal hydrides, has involved preparing deuterated samples prior to study using neutron powder diffraction. We demonstrate, through direct comparison of the crystal structure refinements of the binary hydrides SrH(2) and BaH(2) with their deuteride analogues at 2 K and as a function of temperature, that precise and accurate structural information can be obtained from rapid data collections from samples containing in excess of 60 at.% hydrogen using modern high-flux, medium resolution, continuous wavelength neutron powder diffraction instruments. Furthermore, observed isotope-effects in the extracted lattice parameters and atomic positions illustrate the importance of investigating compounds in their natural hydrogenous form whenever possible.

  17. Isotope quantum effects in water around the freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R T; Mei, Q; Benmore, C J; Neuefeind, J C; Turner, J F C; Dolgos, M; Tomberli, B; Egelstaff, P A

    2006-04-07

    We have measured the difference in electronic structure factors between liquid H(2)O and D(2)O at temperatures of 268 and 273 K with high energy x-ray diffraction. These are compared to our previously published data measured from 279 to 318 K. We find that the total structural isotope effect increases by a factor of 3.5 over the entire range, as the temperature is decreased. Structural isochoric temperature differential and isothermal density differential functions have been used to compare these data to a thermodynamic model based upon a simple offset in the state function. The model works well in describing the magnitude of the structural differences above approximately 310 K, but fails at lower temperatures. The experimental results are discussed in light of several quantum molecular dynamics simulations and are in good qualitative agreement with recent temperature dependent, rotationally quantized rigid molecule simulations.

  18. [The isotope effect in the glycine dehydrogenase reaction is the cause of the intramolecular isotope inhomogeneity of glucose carbon of starch synthesized during photorespiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A A

    2005-01-01

    The isotope distribution of glucose-6-phosphate in the main pathways of its biosynthesis (in the processes of CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in the Calvin cycle and during resynthesis from the degradation products of lipids and proteins) was analyzed. For reconstructing the isotope distribution of glucoso-6-phosphate synthesized in the Calvin cycle during photorespiration, the functioning of the cycle with regard to its coupling with the glycolate chain, which together constitute the photorespiration chain, was considered. In the glycine dehydrogenase reaction of the glycolate cycle, there arises an isotope effect, which determines the distribution of isotopes in the glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. The isotope effect of the glycine dehydrogenase reaction increases at the expense of the exhaustion of glucose resources feeding the photorespiration chain. As a result, atoms C-3 and C-4 of glucose become enriched with the heavy isotope, and subsequent mixing of atoms and the specificity of interactions in the photorespiration chain lead to an isotope weighting of the other atoms and an uneven distribution of carbon isotopes in glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. A comparison of the glucose-6-phosphate isotope patterns in different pathways of the synthesis with the experimental data on the distribution of carbon isotopes in starch glucose of storing plant organs led to the conclusion that the starch resources are predominantly formed at the expense of glucose-6-phosphate of photorespiration. This is consistent with the earlier observed enhancement of photorespiration at the stage of plant maturation.

  19. Effect of different additives on the properties of lithium alanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    LiAlH4 doped with Ni and Ce(SO4)2 additives and the effect of doping on temperature and hydrogen release were studied by pressure-content-temperature (PCT) experiment and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.It is indicated that doping with Ni induces a significant decrease in temperature in the first step and LiAlH4 doped with 1mol% Ni presents the most absorption of hydrogen.Doping with Ce(SO4)2 also causes a marked decrease,while the amount of hydrogen release changes only slightly.The results from X-ray diffraction analysis show that doping does not cause any structural change; Ni and Ce-containing phases are not observed at room temperature or even at 250℃.

  20. The effect of long-term lithium treatment on kidney function [Wpływ długotrwałego podawania litu na czynność nerek

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Drogowska, Joanna; Abramowicz, Maria; Chłopocka-Woźniak, Maria; Czekalski, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    In 1963 it was first demonstrated that long-term lithium administration exerts a “mood-stabilising” effect, preventing recurrences of mania and depression in bipolar affective disorder. Despite the introduction of many other drugs having mood-stabilising effect, lithium still remains the first choice drug for the prophylaxis of affective episodes in mood disorder. Lithium is eliminated nearly exclusively by the kidneys: lithium clearance is proportional to creatinine clearance and is influenc...

  1. Observation of Selective Isotope Effect in the Ultraviolet excitation of N2: A Computational Study

    CERN Document Server

    Muskatel, B H; Thiemens, Mark H; Levine, R D

    2011-01-01

    Isotope effects associated with gas phase N2 photolysis are used to interpret Martian atmospheric evolution, icy satellite atmospheric chemistry and meteorite isotopic anomalies from nebular N2 photochemistry. To interpret observations at the highest level, fundamental understanding of the precise wavelength dependency of the process must be known. In this paper VUV isotopic photodissociation effects are calculated as a function of wavelength at different wavelength slices in the 12.5-15 eV range. A very strong wavelength dependence is observed, which is significant for experiments. An observable effect is possible for the width of the beam profile at the advanced light source, ALS that may produce sufficient photolysis product for high precision isotopic analysis. A significantly more pronounced effect is predicted for a beam narrower by a factor of four providing a potential experimental test of the model. The spectrum is computed ab initio. It manifests two physical mechanisms for the isotope effect and th...

  2. Clumped Isotope Composition of Cold-Water Corals: A Role for Vital Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, P.; Guo, W.; Robinson, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements on a set of cold-water corals (mainly Desmophyllum dianthus) have suggested that their clumped isotope composition could serve as a promising proxy for reconstructing paleocean temperatures. Such measurements have also offered support for certain isotope models of coral calcification. However, there are differences in the clumped isotope compositions between warm-water and cold-water corals, suggesting that different kinds of corals could have differences in their biocalcification processes. In order to understand the systematics of clumped isotope variations in cold-water corals more fully, we present clumped isotope data from a range of cold-water coral species from the tropical Atlantic and the Southern Ocean.Our samples were either collected live or recently dead (14C ages biocalcification may not apply equally well to all corals. Clumped isotope vital effects may be present in certain cold-water corals as they are in warm-water corals, complicating the use of this paleoclimate proxy.

  3. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile: Solvent isotope effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuhin Pradhan; Piue Ghoshal; Ranjit Biswas

    2009-01-01

    Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several other properties such as quantum yield and radiative rates have been found to be insensitive to the solvent isotope substitution in all these solvents. The origin of the solvent isotope insensitivity of the reaction is discussed and correlated with the observed slowing down of the solvation dynamics upon isotope substitution.

  4. Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-09-14

    With its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO2, the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters <∼50 nm. Finite element modeling shows that the oxide layer can induce compressive hydrostatic stress that could act to limit the extent of lithiation. The understanding developed herein of how volume expansion and extent of lithiation can depend on nanomaterial structure is important for the improvement of Si-based anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Effect of Overdischarge on Swelling and Recharge Performance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Fang; GAO Jun-Kui; ZHANG Shao-Li

    2008-01-01

    Effects of overdischarge on characteristics of lithium ion cells were deeply studied,and experiments have been made to reveal its mechanisms.The results suggest that overdischarge may result in large swelling of cells and degradation of recharge capabilities.The mechanism can be explained as that:a copper foil used as an anode collector will be oxidized to copper ion when deep overdischarge occurs and reduce at the anode in recharging progress,which greatly deteriorates the cell efficiency;solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film is to decompose and reform because of excessive de-intercalation of lithium ions,and the released gas such as carbon dioxide makes the cell bulge.The experimental results prove that when 20% Li(Ni1/3CO1/3Mn1/3)O2 was added to LiCoO2 cathode materials,thecell swelling rate could be greatly reduced,and the recharge capability would be enhanced much.

  6. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects of stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejung; Feakins, Sarah J.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomata are key gateways mediating carbon uptake and water loss from plants. Varied stomatal densities in fossil leaves raise the possibility that isotope effects associated with the openness of exchange may have mediated plant wax biomarker isotopic proxies for paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the geological record. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model organism, to provide the first controlled tests of stomatal density on carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of cuticular waxes. Laboratory grown wildtype and mutants with suppressed and overexpressed stomatal densities allow us to directly test the isotope effects of stomatal densities independent of most other environmental or biological variables. Hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of both plant waters and plant wax n-alkanes allow us to directly constrain the isotopic effects of leaf water isotopic enrichment via transpiration and biosynthetic fractionations, which together determine the net fractionation between irrigation water and n-alkane hydrogen isotopic composition. We also measure carbon isotopic fractionations of n-alkanes and bulk leaf tissue associated with different stomatal densities. We find offsets of +15‰ for δD and -3‰ for δ13C for the overexpressed mutant compared to the suppressed mutant. Since the range of stomatal densities expressed is comparable to that found in extant plants and the Cenozoic fossil record, the results allow us to consider the magnitude of isotope effects that may be incurred by these plant adaptive responses. This study highlights the potential of genetic mutants to isolate individual isotope effects and add to our fundamental understanding of how genetics and physiology influence plant biochemicals including plant wax biomarkers.

  7. Final state interaction and temperature effects in Compton scattering from lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Sternemann, C

    2000-01-01

    of the valence electron Compton profile with increasing temperature. The Compton profile measured at 95 K is above the room temperature profile around the Fermi momentum and below at the Compton peak. No temperature dependence of the core electron contribution to the Compton profile is detected. The temperature effect is confronted with a temperature dependent jellium calculation and with computations utilizing an empirical local pseudopotential, where in the pseudopotential calculation the influence of temperature is considered via the Debye-Waller factor. With respect to the calculations the temperature effect is attributed to the lattice expansion and to the diminishing of the high momentum component contribution to the Compton profile with increasing temperature. This thesis presents measurements of lithium Compton profiles with an incident energy around 9 keV and a momentum space resolution of 0.02 a.u. to investigate the effect of final state interaction and thus to test the validity of the impulse appr...

  8. Lithium in halo stars - Constraining the effects of helium diffusion on globular cluster ages and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Stellar evolutionary models with diffusion are used to show that observations of lithium in extreme halo stars provide crucial constraints on the magnitude of the effects of helium diffusion. The flatness of the observed Li-T(eff) relation severely constrains diffusion Li isochrones, which tend to curve downward toward higher T(eff). It is argued that Li observations at the hot edge of the plateau are particularly important in constraining the effects of helium diffusion; yet, they are currently few in number. It is proposed that additional observations are required there, as well as below 5500 K, to define more securely the morphology of the halo Li abundances. Implications for the primordial Li abundance are considered. It is suggested that a conservative upper limit to the initial Li abundance, due to diffusive effects alone, is 2.35.

  9. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  10. Silver diffusion and isotope effect in silver rubidium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzigian, James Simon [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of silver in (RbAg 4I 5) was measured in both superionic phases using radiotracer Ag-110m and serial sectioning with a low temperature sectioning apparatus. The activation energies for diffusion in alpha-RbAg4I5 and beta-RbAg4I5, respectively, are 0.11 ± 0.01 eV and 0.20 ± 0.04 eV. An isotope effect for diffusion was also measured in both superionic phases. Ag-105 and Ag-110m radioisotopes were used with gamma spectroscopy and energy discrimination. The effect is small, with no significant temperature variation, with the value at 333 K being 0.12 ± 0.01. The second-order phase transition at 208 K has a small effect, if any, on the magnitude of the effect. The data suggest that a highly cooperative transport mechanism is responsible for the unusually high values of both the conductivity and diffusion coefficient. Although it is not possible to deduce the particular mechanism involved, theories involving ionic polarons, or cooperative motion, such as crowdions or solitons, seem consistent with the observed results.

  11. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  12. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...

  13. Isotope effect on gyro-fluid edge turbulence and zonal flows

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ole Hauke Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The role of ion polarisation and finite Larmor radius on the isotope effect on turbulent tokamak edge transport and flows is investigated by means of local electromagnetic multi-species gyro-fluid computations. Transport is found to be reduced with the effective plasma mass for protium, deuterium and tritium mixtures. This isotope effect is found for both cold and warm ion models, but significant influence of finite Larmor radius and polarisation effects are identified. Sheared flow reduction of transport through self generated turbulent zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes in the present model (not including neoclassical flows) is found to play only a minor role on regulating isotopically improved confinement.

  14. The effect of long-term lithium treatment on kidney function [Wpływ długotrwałego podawania litu na czynność nerek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakowski, Janusz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1963 it was first demonstrated that long-term lithium administration exerts a “mood-stabilising” effect, preventing recurrences of mania and depression in bipolar affective disorder. Despite the introduction of many other drugs having mood-stabilising effect, lithium still remains the first choice drug for the prophylaxis of affective episodes in mood disorder. Lithium is eliminated nearly exclusively by the kidneys: lithium clearance is proportional to creatinine clearance and is influenced by natriuretic and antinatriuretic factors. Nowadays, nearly 40-year experience with long-term lithium treatment point to a possibility of nephrotoxic effects of this ion. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, which, in a few patients can reach an intensity of diabetes insipidus, can occur after several weeks of lithium administration. Favourable results in the treatment of diabetes insipidus have been obtained with amiloride, the drug which block epithelial sodium channel. However, after 10-20 years of treatment, lithium-induced interstitial nephropathy may be demonstrated in some patients, which, in small proportion of the latter may lead to end-stage renal disease. Lithium-induced hipercalcemia and nephrotic syndrome are rare complications of lithium therapy. In patients on long-term lithium therapy periodic monitoring of kidney function by measuring serum creatinine concentration and glomerular filtration rate is necessary. In case of detecting nephropathy, a discontinuation of lithium should be considered. The patient in whom lithium was discontinued due to nephropathy should remain in nephrological treatment.

  15. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  16. Synergistic and additive effects of enriched environment and lithium on the generation of new cells in adult mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Cerulli, Fabiana G; Souza, Hélio O X; Catanozi, Sergio; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-07-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is reported in several neuropathological disorders. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a brain region where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. There are some reports suggesting the ability of endogenous neurogenesis to initiate neuronal repair in the hippocampus in response to neuropathological conditions, but its capacity to compensate for neuronal loss is limited. Among strategies to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis are enriched environment and lithium. This study aimed to assess whether both strategies could interact to potentiate the generation of new cells in the adult DG. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four treatment groups for 28 days: control, lithium, enriched environment, enriched environment plus lithium. The animals were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) shortly before the start of the treatments and killed 28 days later for analysis of newly generated cells. Two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed a significant synergistic interaction between enriched environment and lithium in the total number of BrdU(+) cells in the entire DG (p = 0.019), a trend towards significant synergistic interaction in the dorsal DG (p = 0.075), and a significant additive effect in the ventral DG (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the combination of enriched environment and lithium has both synergistic and additive effects on the generation of new cells in the healthy adult DG (these effects being possibly segregated along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus), and suggest that it might be worth investigating whether this combination would have a similar effect in neuropathological conditions.

  17. Bipolar CHOICE (Clinical Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness): a pragmatic 6-month trial of lithium versus quetiapine for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; McElroy, Susan L; Friedman, Edward S; Ketter, Terence A; Shelton, Richard C; Deckersbach, Thilo; McInnis, Melvin G; Bowden, Charles L; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James H; Calabrese, Joseph R; Kinrys, Gustavo; Bobo, William V; Singh, Vivek; Kamali, Masoud; Kemp, David; Brody, Benjamin; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Shesler, Leah W; Bernstein, Emily E; Schoenfeld, David; Rabideau, Dustin J; Leon, Andrew C; Faraone, Stephen; Thase, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is among the 10 most disabling medical conditions worldwide. While lithium has been used extensively for bipolar disorder since the 1970s, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have supplanted lithium since 1998. To date, no randomized comparative-effectiveness study has compared lithium and any SGA. Within the duration of the study (September 2010-September 2013), participants with bipolar I or II disorder (DSM-IV-TR) were randomized for 6 months to receive lithium (n = 240) or quetiapine (n = 242). Lithium and quetiapine were combined with other medications for bipolar disorder consistent with typical clinical practice (adjunctive personalized treatment [APT], excluding any SGA for the lithium + APT group and excluding lithium or any other SGA for the quetiapine + APT group). Coprimary outcome measures included Clinical Global Impressions-Efficacy Index (CGI-EI) and necessary clinical adjustments, which measured number of changes in adjunctive personalized treatment. Secondary measures included a full range of symptoms, cardiovascular risk, functioning, quality of life, suicidal ideation and behavior, and adverse events. Participants improved across all measures, and over 20% had a sustained response. Primary (CGI-EI, P = .59; necessary clinical adjustments, P = .15) and secondary outcome changes were not statistically significantly different between the 2 groups. For participants with greater manic/hypomanic symptoms, CGI-EI changes were significantly more favorable with quetiapine + APT (P = .02). Among those with anxiety, the lithium + APT group had fewer necessary clinical adjustments per month (P = .02). Lithium was better tolerated than quetiapine in terms of the burden of side effects frequency (P = .05), intensity (P = .01), and impairment (P = .01). Despite adequate power to detect clinically meaningful differences, we found outcomes with lithium + APT and quetiapine + APT were not significantly different across 6 months of treatment

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Nanotubes: Effects of Chirality and Isotope Impurity

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Zhang; Li, Baowen

    2005-01-01

    We study the dependence of thermal conductivity of single walled nanotubes (SWNT) on chirality and isotope impurity by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method with accurate potentials. It is found that, contrary to electronic conductivity, the thermal conductivity is insensitive to the chirality. The isotope impurity, however, can reduce the thermal conductivity up to 60% and change the temperature dependence behavior. We also study the dependence of thermal conductivity on tube length for t...

  19. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains non-steady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, F.M.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications often assume first-order or Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics under the quasi-steady-state assumption to simplify the system kinetics. However, isotopic e ects have the same order of magnitude as the potential error introduced by these simpli cations. Both formulations lead to a constant fractionation factor which may yield incorrect estimations of the isotopic effect and a misleading interpretation of the isotopic signature of a reaction. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitri cation in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate [2006], where high {sup 15}N{sub 2}O enrichment during N{sub 2}O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N{sub 2}O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics. When the quasi-steady-state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observations and aided in interpretation of experimental isotopic signatures. These results may imply a substantial revision in using the Rayleigh equation for interpretation of isotopic signatures and in modeling biological kinetic isotope fractionation with first-order kinetics or quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics.

  20. Favorable binding effect for improving the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wan Lin; Nguyen, Van Hiep; Gu, Hal-Bon, E-mail: kuku-linlin@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of CoO anode are highly dependent on the use of binders. Its electrochemical reversibility is drastically improved by using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a binder in comparison with the commonly used poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) binder. PAA can effectively buffer the volume expansion of the CoO electrode during the lithium insertion and extraction, resulting in improving electrochemical characteristics of the electrode. The cyclic stability of CoO electrode with PAA binder is remarkably improved. Impedance of CoO electrode with PAA binder is much smaller than that of PVdF binder. Moreover, the reversible capacity reaches 860 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1}.

  1. Dynamic isotope effects on relaxation of quadrupolar nuclei in 12 simple organic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛希安; andM.Holz

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic isotope effects on relaxation rate of quadrupolar nuclei are preliminarily reported. The relaxation rates of 17O and 14N in 12 simple organic molecules and their 18 corresponding deuterated species have been systematically measured. The principal components of the molecular inertia tensors have been calculated. The results show that there is an intrinsic correlation between the dynamic isotope effects of the relaxation rate and the static isotope effects of the molecular inertia. The concepts of molecular collision frequency and translation-rotation coupling have been introduced into the NMR relaxation theory. Therefore, a reasonable explanation of the experimental results has been given.

  2. The Mood Stabilizer Lithium Potentiates the Antidepressant-Like Effects and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Ketamine in a Mouse Model of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuing, Lisa; Liu, Guangping; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Linares, Gabriel R.; Lin, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that mammalian target of rapamycin activation mediates ketamine’s rapid but transient antidepressant effects and that glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibits this pathway. However, ketamine has associated psychotomimetic effects and a high risk of abuse. The mood stabilizer lithium is a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor with strong antisuicidal properties. Here, we used a mouse stress model to investigate whether adjunct lithium treatment would potentiate ketamine’s antidepressant-like effects. Methods: Mice received chronic restraint stress and long-term pre- or postketamine lithium treatment in drinking water. The effects of lithium on ketamine-induced antidepressant-like effects, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways, oxidative stress, and dendritic spine density in the brain of mice were investigated. Results: Subtherapeutic (600mg/L) lithium-pretreated mice exhibited an antidepressant-like response to an ineffective ketamine (2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally) challenge in the forced swim test. Both the antidepressant-like effects and restoration of dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex of stressed mice induced by a single ketamine (50mg/kg) injection were sustained by postketamine treatment with 1200mg/L of lithium for at least 2 weeks. These benefits of lithium treatments were associated with activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex. Acute ketamine (50mg/kg) injection also significantly increased lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, and oxidized glutathione levels in stressed mice. Notably, these oxidative stress markers were completely abolished by pretreatment with 1200mg/L of lithium. Conclusions: Our results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy and justify the use of lithium in patients who benefit from ketamine. PMID:25548109

  3. Impact of Solid Electrolyte Interphase lithium salts on cycling ability of Li-ion battery: Beneficial effect of glymes additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Fabien; Jones, Jennifer; Damas, Christine; Lemordant, Daniel; Willmann, Patrick; Anouti, Mérièm

    2014-02-01

    The Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), formed during the first cycles of life in lithium-ion batteries, contains a variety of lithium salts, with direct effect on the aging performance of the battery. In this work, we investigate the impact of addition of SEI lithium salts (LiF, Li2CO3, LiOH, Li2O, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5) in the electrolyte on the cycling ability of graphite and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes. Results show that NMC is more sensitive to salt addition than graphite material. Furthermore, results demonstrate that both LiOH and Li2O have a negative effect on the SEI formation. Conversely, Li2CO3, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5 are beneficial and promote the formation of a polymeric coating on the SEI. Finally, the impact of the presence of LiF on the SEI depends mainly on its concentration. The effect of the presence of additives capable of complexing lithium salts such as the glyme series, CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3 (Gn, with n = 2, 3 or 4), is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results show that the glymes chain length is a determining factor in their complexation mechanism, which depends on both the nature and the concentration of the lithium salt.

  4. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated......Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQ’s) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found...... with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized....

  5. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; G. Gettelfinger; T. Gray; D. Hoffman; S. Jardin; H. Kugel; P. Marfuta; T. Munsat; C. Neumeyer; S. Raftopoulos; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; L. Delgado-Aparicio; R.P. Seraydarian; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; M. Baldwin; R.W. Conn; R. Maingi; M. Menon; R. Causey; D. Buchenauer; M. Ulrickson; B. Jones; D. Rodgers

    2004-06-07

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  6. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R; Jajeski, R; Boaz, M; Efthimion, P; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Hoffman, D; Jardin, S; Kugel, H; Marfuta, P; Munsat, T; Neumeyer, C; Raftopoulos, S; Soukhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Taylor, G; Timberlake, J; Woolley, R; Zakharov, L; Finkenthal, M; Stutman, D; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Seraydarian, R; Antar, G; Doerner, R; Luckhardt, S; Baldwin, M; Conn, R; Maingi, R; Menon, M; Causey, R; Buchenauer, D; Ulrickson, M; Jones, B; Rodgers, D

    2004-06-03

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  7. Effects of large area liquid lithium limiters on spherical torus plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)]. E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Boaz, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Efthimion, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gettelfinger, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gray, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hoffman, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Jardin, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kugel, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Marfuta, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Munsat, T.; Neumeyer, C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Seraydarian, R.P.; Antar, G.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Baldwin, M.; Conn, R.W. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Maingi, R.; Menon, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Causey, R.; Buchenauer, D.; Ulrickson, M.; Jones, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, D. [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a limiter has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  8. Effects of carbonate leaching on foraminifer stable isotopes ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrochta, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sakai, S.; Ishimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on 125 individual epifaunal and infaunal benthic foraminifers from two discrete Holocene intervals in a shallow-water sediment core (~ 450 m) from the Timor Sea. Methane seeps are common in the area, resulting in significant precipitation of secondary calcite that is confirmed by SEM photomicrographs and has likely resulted in inconsistent downcore results. To assess the degree of removal of contaminants, individual Uvigerina peregrina were subjected to varying degrees of pretreatment prior to analysis. All foraminifers received standard cleaning with ethanol and brief sonication. A subset were further cleaned and sonicated in a dilute HCl solution (~ 0.003 M). Foraminifer tests were photographed using both reflected light and scanning electron microscopes during the course of treatment to monitor the changing degree of contaminant removal as increasingly aggressive cleaning methods were employed. Visible contamination remained on individuals not subjected to HCl treatment. The leached individuals exhibit a lower overall relative standard deviation and consistent results within morphotype groups. Based on these results, a 2% value is expected to be typical of the Holocene, though further downcore analyses are pending restoration of equipment adversely effected by the Eastern Japan 3/11 earthquake.

  9. Acute effects of various diuretics on lithium clearance. Studies in rats on medium and low sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, K; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the clearance of lithium (CLi) is a quantitative measure of the delivery of tubular fluid to Henle's loop in rats given food with an ordinary or high sodium content, but not in rats given food with a low sodium content, because under these latter circumstances lithium is also reabsorbed to some extent in the distal nephron. The present study examines the effect of acetazolamide, hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, and amiloride on the distal reabsorption of lithium in conscious rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus fed standard diets with medium (300 mmol Na/kg) and low (5 mmol Na/kg) sodium contents, respectively. Low sodium diet induced distal Li reabsorption, as apparent from the decrease in CLi and a fall in the urine/plasma lithium concentration ratio (U/P)Li, to below 1.0. Amiloride and furosemide abolished the distal Li reabsorption. Acetazolamide also abolished distal Li reabsorption and, in addition, it increased the fluid output from the proximal tubules. Hydrochlorothiazide was unable to abolish distal Li reabsorption.

  10. Combined treatment with subchronic lithium and acute intracerebral mirtazapine microinjection into the median raphe nucleus exerted an anxiolytic-like effect synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitaichi, Yuji; Chen, Chong; Nakagawa, Shin; Wang, Ce; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-07-15

    Although preclinical and clinical studies have established the efficacy of lithium augmentation of antidepressant drugs, the mechanism of action of lithium augmentation is not fully understood. Our previous study reported that subchronic lithium treatment enhanced the anxiolytic-like effect of systemic mirtazapine. In the present study, we examined the effect of subchronic lithium in combination with acute local intracerebral injection of mirtazapine on fear-related behaviors in a contextual fear conditioning test in rats to clarify the target brain region of lithium augmentation of mirtazapine. After conditioning by footshock, diet (food pellets) containing Li2CO3 at a concentration of 0.2% was administered for 7 days. Ten min before testing and 7 days after conditioning, mirtazapine (3μg/site) in a volume of 0.5µl was acutely injected into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), hippocampus or amygdala. The combination of subchronic lithium and acute mirtazapine microinjection into the MRN but not the hippocampus or the amygdala reduced fear expression synergistically. These results suggest that intra-MRN mirtazapine treatment with subchronic lithium exerts the anxiolytic-like effect through the facilitation of the MRN-5HT pathway.

  11. The Evaporation Effect on the Isotopes in the Yellow River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiaosi; LIN Xueyu; LIAO Zisheng; WANG Jinsheng

    2001-01-01

    Based on the isotope analysis result of water samples in the 18 sections of the Yellow River, the variation of δ18Oand δD have been analyzed. From near the source to the entrance to the sea, the Yellow River has a general trend that the ratios of the stable isotope increase progressively; The main factors affecting the isotopes in the river water are mixing of external water bodies, evaporation and others; In the river segment between Lanzhou and Baotou and in lower reaches, the extent of the evaporation effect on the isotope fractionation from the river water surface is limited but the evaporation from the irrigated river water and the return flow is one of the main factors affecting the isotopes in river water.

  12. Toxicity of lithium to three freshwater organisms and the antagonistic effect of sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kszos, Lynn Adams; Beauchamp, John J; Stewart, Arthur J

    2003-10-01

    Lithium (Li) is the lightest metal and occurs primarily in stable minerals and salts. Concentrations of Li in surface water are typically toxicity of Li to common toxicity test organisms, we evaluated the toxicity of Li to Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a freshwater snail (Elimia clavaeformis). In the laboratory, the concentration of Li that inhibited P. promelas growth or C. dubia reproduction by 25% (IC25) was dependant upon the dilution water. In laboratory control water containing little sodium (approximately 2.8 mg l(-1)), the IC25s were 0.38 and 0.32 mg Li l(-1) and in ambient stream water containing approximately 17 mg Na l(-1), the IC25s were 1.99 and 3.33, respectively. A Li concentration of 0.15 mg l(-1) inhibited the feeding of E. clavaeformis in laboratory tests. Toxicity tests conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the toxicity of Li were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia. The presence of sodium greatly affected the toxicity of Li. Fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia, for example, tolerated concentrations of Li as great as 6 mg l(-1) when sufficient Na was present. The interaction of Li and Na on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia was investigated in depth and can be described using an exponential model. The model predicts that C. dubia reproduction would not be affected when animals are exposed to combinations of lithium and sodium with a log ratio of mmol Na to mmol Li equal to at least 1.63. The results of this study indicate that for most natural waters, the presence of sodium is sufficient to prevent Li toxicity. However, in areas of historical disposal or heavy processing or use, an evaluation of Li from a water quality perspective would be warranted.

  13. Effect of methylene methanedisulfonate as an additive on the cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renheng; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Bao, E-mail: 123501032@csu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun

    2015-11-05

    In order to overcome the poor cyclability of lithium-ion batteries with spinel lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}), methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) is evaluated as electrolyte additive. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicate that MMDS participates in the formation process of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film above 1 V, which is due to the interfacial reaction between the electrode and electrolyte: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anodes are previously considered free from SEI films when cycled between 1 and 3 V. The stable SEI film around Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is seen most effective as a barrier layer in suppressing the interfacial reaction and resulting gassing from the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface. In addition, the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrate that a thin and good conductive film can be formed on the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface ascribed to MMDS additive, which resulting the improvement of conductivity and a good ability of Li{sup +} migration. - Highlights: • MMDS used as additive to improve cycling performance of the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Li cells. • A SEI film can be formed using MMDS in the electrolyte above 1 V. • Sulfur-containing species is the main component of the SEI formed by MMDS.

  14. Arrhenius curves of hydrogen transfers: tunnel effects, isotope effects and effects of pre-equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Miguel Lopez, Juan; Kohen, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Arrhenius curves of selected hydrogen-transfer reactions for which kinetic data are available in a large temperature range are reviewed. The curves are discussed in terms of the one-dimensional Bell–Limbach tunnelling model. The main parameters of this model are the barrier heights of the isotopic reactions, barrier width of the H-reaction, tunnelling masses, pre-exponential factor and minimum energy for tunnelling to occur. The model allows one to compare different reactions in a simple way and prepare the kinetic data for more-dimensional treatments. The first type of reactions is concerned with reactions where the geometries of the reacting molecules are well established and the kinetic data of the isotopic reactions are available in a large temperature range. Here, it is possible to study the relation between kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and chemical structure. Examples are the tautomerism of porphyrin, the porphyrin anion and related compounds exhibiting intramolecular hydrogen bonds of medium strength. We observe pre-exponential factors of the order of kT/h≅1013 s−1 corresponding to vanishing activation entropies in terms of transition state theory. This result is important for the second type of reactions discussed in this paper, referring mostly to liquid solutions. Here, the reacting molecular configurations may be involved in equilibria with non- or less-reactive forms. Several cases are discussed, where the less-reactive forms dominate at low or at high temperature, leading to unusual Arrhenius curves. These cases include examples from small molecule solution chemistry like the base-catalysed intramolecular H-transfer in diaryltriazene, 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-hydroxy-phenoxyl radicals, as well as in the case of an enzymatic system, thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase. In the latter case, temperature-dependent KIEs are interpreted in terms of a transition between two regimes with different temperature

  15. Isotope effects on chemical shifts in the study of intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of isotope effects on chemical shifts in characterizing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Both so-called resonance-assisted (RAHB) and non-RAHB systems are treated. The importance of RAHB will be discussed. Another very important issue is the borderline between “static......” and tautomeric systems. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are particularly useful in such studies. All kinds of intramolecular hydrogen bonded systems will be treated, typical hydrogen bond donors: OH, NH, SH and NH+, typical acceptors C=O, C=N, C=S C=N−. The paper will be deal with both secondary and primary...... isotope effects on chemical shifts. These two types of isotope effects monitor the same hydrogen bond, but from different angles...

  16. Kinetic and geometric isotope effects originating from different adsorption potential energy surfaces: cyclohexane on Rh(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitaya, Takanori; Shimizu, Sumera; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2012-06-07

    Novel isotope effects were observed in desorption kinetics and adsorption geometry of cyclohexane on Rh(111) by the use of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, photoelectron spectroscopy, and spot-profile-analysis low energy electron diffraction. The desorption energy of deuterated cyclohexane (C(6)D(12)) is lower than that of C(6)H(12). In addition, the work function change by adsorbed C(6)D(12) is smaller than that by adsorbed C(6)H(12). These results indicate that C(6)D(12) has a shallower adsorption potential than C(6)H(12) (vertical geometric isotope effect). The lateral geometric isotope effect was also observed in the two-dimensional cyclohexane superstructures as a result of the different repulsive interaction between interfacial dipoles. The observed isotope effects should be ascribed to the quantum nature of hydrogen involved in the C-H···metal interaction.

  17. Deformation effects on cluster decays of radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A., E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com; Evlice, S.

    2015-04-15

    We systematically investigate the influence of nuclear deformations of the cluster and daughter nuclei on the half-lives of {sup 4}He, {sup 8,10}Be, {sup 12,14,16}C and {sup 16,18,20,22}O cluster decays from {sup 210–226}Ra. The Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) method and Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization condition with the deformed squared Woods–Saxon and Cosh potentials are used phenomenologically in order to compute the half-lives. The calculations are performed for the spherical cluster and deformed daughter, deformed cluster and spherical daughter and deformed cluster and daughter cases. The half-lives for different orientation angles as well as over all angles are calculated, in order to show the deformation effects on the systems. In cases where the deformation of both cluster and daughter effect the result, it is found that the deformation of the cluster is more important than the deformation of the daughter. Furthermore, it is also found that taking into account the orientation angles of the daughter and cluster also improves the results when compared to experiment. However, the results for a Cosh potential with certain parameters without any deformation are found to be more compatible with both the results obtained by the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) and the universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV), as well as the experimental values for {sup 4}He and {sup 14}C decays. The results provide a useful method for estimating the unknown experimental half-lives of possible exotic decays from Ra isotopes.

  18. Deformation effects on cluster decays of radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, A.; Evlice, S.

    2015-04-01

    We systematically investigate the influence of nuclear deformations of the cluster and daughter nuclei on the half-lives of 4He, 8,10Be, 12,14,16C and 16,18,20,22O cluster decays from 210-226Ra. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method and Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition with the deformed squared Woods-Saxon and Cosh potentials are used phenomenologically in order to compute the half-lives. The calculations are performed for the spherical cluster and deformed daughter, deformed cluster and spherical daughter and deformed cluster and daughter cases. The half-lives for different orientation angles as well as over all angles are calculated, in order to show the deformation effects on the systems. In cases where the deformation of both cluster and daughter effect the result, it is found that the deformation of the cluster is more important than the deformation of the daughter. Furthermore, it is also found that taking into account the orientation angles of the daughter and cluster also improves the results when compared to experiment. However, the results for a Cosh potential with certain parameters without any deformation are found to be more compatible with both the results obtained by the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) and the universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV), as well as the experimental values for 4He and 14C decays. The results provide a useful method for estimating the unknown experimental half-lives of possible exotic decays from Ra isotopes.

  19. Effectively suppressing dissolution of manganese from spinel lithium manganate via a nanoscale surface-doping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Dept. of Chemistry; Zhan, Chun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Wu, Tianpin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-Ray Science Division; Wen, Jianguo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Electron Microscopy Center; Lei, Yu [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Kropf, A. Jeremy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Wu, Huiming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Miller, Dean J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Electron Microscopy Center; Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division; Sun, Yang-Kook [Hanyang Univ., Seoule (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Qiu, Xinping [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Dept. of Chemistry; Amine, Khalil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-12-16

    The capacity fade of lithium manganate-based cells is associated with the dissolution of Mn from cathode/electrolyte interface due to the disproportionation reaction of Mn(III), and the subsequent deposition of Mn(II) on the anode. Suppressing the dissolution of Mn from the cathode is critical to reducing capacity fade of LiMn2O4-based cells. Here we report a nanoscale surface-doping approach that minimizes Mn dissolution from lithium manganate. This approach exploits advantages of both bulk doping and surface-coating methods by stabilizing surface crystal structure of lithium manganate through cationic doping while maintaining bulk lithium manganate structure, and protecting bulk lithium manganate from electrolyte corrosion while maintaining ion and charge transport channels on the surface through the electrochemically active doping layer. Consequently, the surface-doped lithium manganate demonstrates enhanced electrochemical performance. This study provides encouraging evidence that surface doping could be a promising alternative to improve the cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Effects of cold work on stress corrosion cracking of type 316L stainless steel in hot lithium hydroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, J.H.; Bogaerts, W.F. (Univ. of Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) has ben chose as the lithium compound to be used in the Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket (ALSB) concept that has been proposed as a possible driver blanket for the Next European Torus (NET), the next generation of fusion testing devices in Europe, as well as for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program (ITER). The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cold-worked AISI type 316L stainless steel (SS) in a concentrated lithium salt solution at elevated temperature was investigated. Using the slow strain rate technique, SCC experiments were carried out on 20% and 40% cold-worked materials in a solution of 10g lithium hydroxide and 100 cm[sup 3]H[sub 2]O at 95C under conditions with controlled electrochemical potential. Observation of the fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscope indicated the SCC behavior of the cold-worked steel was essentially different from that of the solution-annealed steel. A ductile fracture of cold-worked samples occurred under open-circuit conditions ([approximately][minus]280 mV) and at 200 mV. Slight intergranular attack was found in the region near the surface of cold-worked specimens when the electrochemical potential was controlled at [minus]120 mV. SCC was observed when the experiments were conducted at +100mV. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of solution-annealed material changed into a mixed SCC mode, or a dominant transgranular SCC (TGSCC) with an increase of cold work to 20% and 40%. Compared to the SCC behavior of the solution-annealed 316L, the results showed cold work improved significantly the resistance of 316L SS to IGSCC in the hot LiOH environment. Susceptibility to TGSCC of cold-worked 316L SS increased with increasing extent of cold working. These effects were reviewed with respect to electrochemical and microstructural phenomena.

  1. Kinetic and solvent deuterium isotope effects in the oxidation of putrescine catalysed by enzyme diamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałka, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Jolanta; Kańska, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the kinetic isotope effects and solvent isotope effects in the reaction of the deamination of [(1R)-(2)H ] putrescine--catalysed by enzyme diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6)--were determined using a non-competitive spectroscopic method. Putrescine, stereospecifically labelled with deuterium, was obtained by enzymatic decarboxylation of l-ornithine that was carried out in a fully deuteriated incubation medium.

  2. Priming effects of biochar elucidated using stable isotope techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic residues are routinely used in tropical agricultural systems; as mulches to reduce water losses and for their fertiliser value. The addition of high N content organic residues to soils has been promoted in tropical countries as a means to achieve sustainable intensification of tropical farming systems and increasing soil organic matter status on infertile low income farms. Improving the nutrient release from these materials could have positive feedback effects in terms of improved food security and increased organic matter return to the soil through improved crop yields. Unfortunately the fertiliser value of most organic residues is such that only 10 -20% of the available nitrogen in the residue is mineralised to plant available nitrogen and taken up by the plant in the first cropping year, dropping to less than 2% in the subsequent years; thus having marginal overall impact on crop yields. Improving the fertiliser benefit of residues by combining them with the biochar addition could lead to significant increases in crop yields, an immediately tangible benefit for farmers. The addition of charcoal in boreal forest systems has been shown to increase the rate of soil organic matter decomposition, suggesting there is a priming effect of a biochar analogue on organic matter decomposition. The priming effect is the increase in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition rate after the addition of fresh organic matter or other compounds to soil. The implication is that is biochar if addition leads to the loss of native SOM it negates the carbon benefit of adding biochar to soil. However there could also be potential benefits of priming effects of biochar under specific circumstances, for example if biochar addition leads to the priming of freshly added organic matter breakdown it may in turn improve nutrient synchronisation and overall nutrient use efficiency. We conducted a series of experiments conducted in Kenya and Austria using stable isotope tools to look at

  3. The isotope effect in H3S superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęśniak, R.; Durajski, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental value of H3S a isotope coefficient decreases from 2.37 to 0.31 in the pressure range from 130 GPa to 200 GPa. We have shown that the value of 0.31 is correctly reproduced in the framework of the classical Eliashberg approach in the harmonic approximation. On the other hand, the anomalously large value of the isotope coefficient (2.37) may be associated with the strong renormalization of the normal state by the electron density of states.

  4. Carbonized cellulose paper as an effective interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Ren, Guofeng; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Dong, Zhihua; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-02-01

    One of the several challenging problems hampering lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery development is the so-called shuttling effect of the highly soluble intermediates (Li2S8-Li2S6). Using an interlayer inserted between the sulfur cathode and the separator to capture and trap these soluble intermediates has been found effective in diminishing this effect. Previously, most reported interlayer membranes were synthesized in a complex and expensive process, and might not be suitable for practical cheap batteries. Herein, a facile method is reported to pyrolyze the commonly used cellulose filter paper into highly flexible and conductive carbon fiber paper. When used as an interlayer, such a carbon paper can improve the cell capacity by several folds through trapping the soluble polysulfides. The enhanced electronic conductivity of the cathode, due to the interlayer, also significantly improves the cell rate performance. In addition, it was demonstrated that such an interlayer can also effectively mitigate the self-discharge problem of the Li-S batteries. This study indicates that the cost-effective pyrolyzed cellulose paper has potential as interlayer for practical Li-S batteries.

  5. Specimen type and size effects on lithium hydride tensile strength distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, Jr, R E

    1991-12-01

    Weibull's two-parameter statistical-distribution function is used to account for the effects of specimen size and loading differences on strength distributions of lithium hydride. Three distinctly differing uniaxial specimen types (i.e., an elliptical-transition pure tensile specimen, an internally pressurized ring tensile, and two sizes of four-point-flexure specimens) are shown to provide different strength distributions as expected, because of their differing sizes and modes of loading. After separation of strengths into volumetric- and surface-initiated failure distributions, the Weibull characteristic strength parameters for the higher-strength tests associated with internal fracture initiations are shown to vary as predicted by the effective specimen volume Weibull relationship. Lower-strength results correlate with the effective area to much lesser degree, probably because of the limited number of surface-related failures and the different machining methods used to prepare the specimen. The strength distribution from the fourth specimen type, the predominantly equibiaxially stressed disk-flexure specimen, is well below that predicted by the two-parameter Weibull-derived effective volume or surface area relations. The two-parameter Weibull model cannot account for the increased failure probability associated with multiaxial stress fields. Derivations of effective volume and area relationships for those specimens for which none were found in the literature, the elliptical-transition tensile, the ring tensile, and the disk flexure (including the outer region), are also included.

  6. Investigation of Stable C and Cl Isotope Effects of Trichloroethene and Tetrachloroethylene during Evaporation at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting Yu; Yiqun Gan; Aiguo Zhou; Kai Yu; Yunde Liu

    2014-01-01

    There are variations of reported isotope enrichment factors of chlorinated organic contaminants in evaporation processes. Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were chosen to study carbon and chlorine isotope effects during evaporation at different temperatures. Equilibrium vapor-liquid carbon and chlorine isotope effects experiments were also conducted. In the equilibrium liquid-vapor system, the 13C was enriched but 37Cl was depleted in the vapor phase, being consistent with previous results. For evaporation average carbon isotope enrichment factor εC were +0.28‰± 0.01‰ for TCE and +0.56‰±0.09‰ for PCE at temperature from 20 to 26 ºC. Meanwhile, average chlorine isotope enrichment factor εCl were -1.33‰±0.21‰ for TCE and -1.00‰±0.00‰ for PCE. The results indicate that during evaporation the equilibrium isotope effect attenuates the magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation whereas enhances the chlorine isotope effect. Isotope fractionation during evaporation is determined by both equilibrium and kinetic factors. Chlorine isotope fractionation is influenced by the evaporation rate which is linked to temperature. When using stable isotope to investigate the behavior of chlorinated organic contaminants in groundwater with slow biodegradation rate, the isotope fractionation resulted from evaporation should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the environment conditions such as temperature are also factors to be considered.

  7. Isotope effect in the formation of H2 from H2CO studied at the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Walter, S.; Bohn, B.; Wegener, R.; Spahn, H.; Brauers, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schlosser, E.; Koppmann, R.; Rohrer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde of known, near-natural isotopic composition was photolyzed in the SAPHIR atmosphere simulation chamber under ambient conditions. The isotopic composition of the product H2 was used to determine the isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis. The experiments are sensitive to the molecula

  8. Substrate and Transition State Binding in Alkaline Phosphatase Analyzed by Computation of Oxygen Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Daniel; Cui, Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Enzymes are powerful catalysts, and a thorough understanding of the sources of their catalytic power will facilitate many medical and industrial applications. Here we have studied the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phosphatase (AP), which is one of the most catalytically proficient enzymes known. We have used quantum mechanics calculations and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to model a variety of isotope effects relevant to the reaction of AP. We have calculated equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs), binding isotope effects (BIEs), and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for a range of phosphate mono- and diester substrates. The results agree well with experimental values, but the model for the reaction's transition state (TS) differs from the original interpretation of those experiments. Our model indicates that isotope effects on binding make important contributions to measured KIEs on V/K, which complicated interpretation of the measured values. Our results provide a detailed interpretation of the measured isotope effects and make predictions that can test the proposed model. The model indicates that the substrate is deformed in the ground state (GS) of the reaction and partially resembles the TS. The highly preorganized active site preferentially binds conformations that resemble the TS and not the GS, which induces the substrate to adapt to the enzyme, rather than the other way around-as with classic "induced fit" models. The preferential stabilization of the TS over the GS is what lowers the barrier to the chemical step.

  9. Mechanism of the flame ionization detector. II. Isotope effects and heteroatom effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1997-01-01

    The relative molar flame ionization detecton (FID) response (RMR) for a hydrocarbon does not change when deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. The exception is methane for which an inverse deuterium effect of 3..5% is observed for tetradeuteriomethane. [13C]Methane shows an inverse isotope effect...... of 2%. The reason for the small or non-existent isotope effects is that H/2H exchange takes place in the pre-combustion hydrogenolysis in the flame. This was shown by taking samples from the lower part of the flame by means of a fused silica capillary probe. By the same technique the hydrogenolytic...... reactions in the hydrogen flame of compounds added to the hydrogen gas in low concentrations were followed. Alcohols, ethers, ketones, and esters all produced methane and carbon monoxide, while amines produced methane and hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds methane and hydrogen halide, etc. The FID response...

  10. Stable isotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  11. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  12. Ionic liquids as novel stationary phases in gas liquid chromatography: inverse or normal isotope effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Slabizki, Petra; Müntnich, Sabrina; Metzger, Carmen; Gracia-Moreno, Elisa

    2012-12-28

    The separation of deuterated and non-deuterated compounds in gas liquid partitioning chromatography (GLC) on silicone type stationary phase usually results in the inverse isotope effect. With ionic liquids (ILs) as stationary phase, however, this may show a totally different nature. The inverse isotope effect, in which heavier (deuterated) isotopic compounds (isotopologues) elute earlier, is to be expected when van der Waals (London) dispersion forces play a dominant role in the solute-stationary phase interaction. Such (apolar) interactions seem to play only a minor role when ILs are the stationary phases, leading to only a marginal inverse isotope effect, e.g. for the separation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and its [(2)H(5)]-isotopologue on 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium) dodecane bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) amide (commercialized as SLB-IL59, Supelco). Indeed, with the most polar stationary phase available (commercialized as SLB-IL111; Supelco), this separation showed a normal isotope effect. Further examples are presented and the nature of the isotope effect observed is discussed.

  13. Copper isotope effect in serum of cancer patients. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Télouk, Philippe; Puisieux, Alain; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Clapisson, Gilles; Lamboux, Aline; Albarede, Francis

    2015-02-01

    The isotope effect describes mass-dependent variations of natural isotope abundances for a particular element. In this pilot study, we measured the (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratios in the serums of 20 breast and 8 colorectal cancer patients, which correspond to, respectively, 90 and 49 samples taken at different times with molecular biomarker documentation. Copper isotope compositions were determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). When compared with the literature data from a control group of 50 healthy blood donors, abundances of Cu isotopes predict mortality in the colorectal cancer group with a probability p = 0.018. For the breast cancer patients and the group of control women the probability goes down to p = 0.0006 and the AUC under the ROC curve is 0.75. Most patients considered in this preliminary study and with serum δ(65)Cu lower than the threshold value of -0.35‰ (per mil) did not survive. As a marker, a drop in δ(65)Cu precedes molecular biomarkers by several months. The observed decrease of δ(65)Cu in the serum of cancer patients is assigned to the extensive oxidative chelation of copper by cytosolic lactate. The potential of Cu isotope variability as a new diagnostic tool for breast and colorectal cancer seems strong. Shifts in Cu isotope compositions fingerprint cytosolic Cu chelation by lactate mono- and bidentates. This simple scheme provides a straightforward explanation for isotopically light Cu in the serum and isotopically heavy Cu in cancer cells: Cu(+) escaping chelation by lactate and excreted into the blood stream is isotopically light. Low δ(65)Cu values in serum therefore reveal the strength of lactate production by the Warburg effect.

  14. Quasi-harmonic calculations of the isotope effect in diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, J.H.

    1986-11-10

    It is shown how the kinetic energy factor for isotope diffusion may be calculated within the quasi-harmonic approximation using methods devised to calculate the vibrational contribution to defect entropies. The results are compared with experiment in the cases of CoO and NiO and good agreement found.

  15. Effectiveness of lithium chloride induced taste aversions in reducing waterfowl nest predation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of lithium chloride (LiCI) as an aversive conditioning agent on waterfowl nest predators were conducted at Sand Lake...

  16. Sedimentary nitrate reduction and its effect on the N-isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Sigman, D. M.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    A prerequisite for assessing denitrification fluxes in a specific environment using water column nitrate N isotope ratios is the knowledge of the expressed N isotope effects of water column and/or benthic denitrification in this environment. Here, we aim at assessing the effects of benthic nitrogen cycling on the N isotopic composition of the oceanic nitrate pool in deep-sea sediments, which are believed to harbour a large portion of the global benthic denitrification. We report 15N/14N ratios of pore water nitrate in pelagic sediments from the deep Bering Sea, where benthic nitrate reduction has previously been identified as a significant sink of fixed nitrogen. Porewater profiles from multicores indicate strong 15N enrichment in porewater nitrate at all stations, as one goes deeper in the sediments and nitrate concentrations decrease (δ15N generally reached 25-35‰). Our data are consistent with variable biological isotope effect (ɛ) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction ranging between 13 to 30 ‰. A one-dimensional diffusion-reaction model including organic matter degradation, nitrification, and denitrification indicates that, although denitrification leads to a pore water nitrate pool that is enriched in 15N, N isotope fractionation is poorly expressed at the scale of sediment-water nitrate exchange, independent of whether sediments are a net sink or a net source of nitrate. The apparent nitrate isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification on nitrate in overlying waters is generally below 2‰, as a result of diffusive transport limitation into, and within, the sediments and/or the production of light nitrate during nitrification. Thus, our data suggest that the low expressed isotope effect of benthic denitrification observed previously in reactive shelf sediments also applies to deep-sea sediments. However, where ammonium fluxes out of the sediments, it is enriched in 15-N, and may ultimately lead to an N-isotopic enrichment of the water-column nitrate

  17. Mass-independent isotope effects in planetary atmospheres and the early solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemens, M H

    1999-01-15

    A class of isotope effects that alters isotope ratios on a mass-independent basis provides a tool for studying a wide range of processes in atmospheres of Earth and other planets as well as early processes in the solar nebula. The mechanism for the effect remains uncertain. Mass-independent isotopic compositions have been observed in O3, CO2, N2O, and CO in Earth's atmosphere and in carbonate from a martian meteorite, which suggests a role for mass-independent processes in the atmosphere of Mars. Observed mass-independent meteoritic oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions may derive from chemical processes in the presolar nebula, and their distributions could provide insight into early solar system evolution.

  18. Sulfur isotope effects associated with protonation of HS- and volatilization of H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The isotope effects associated with: (1) formation of H2S from HS- by protonation in aqueous solution; and (2) volatilization of H2S have been experimentally determined. Both isotopic distributions in closed systems at equilibrium and differential rates of volatilization of isotopic species in open systems were measured at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. It was found that, at equilibrium aqueous H2S is enriched in 34S by 2.0 - 2.7% relative to HS- and that H2S volatilized from solution is depleted in 34S by 0.5% relative to dissolved H2S. A small kinetic isotope effect accompanying volatilization of H2S was observed in the open-system experiments.

  19. The effects of reduced dopamine transporter function and chronic lithium on motivation, probabilistic learning, and neurochemistry in mice: Modeling bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Kesby, James P; Graves, Mary; van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Semenova, Svetlana; Minassian, Arpi; Markou, Athina; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses. The effects of reducing dopamine transporter (DAT) functioning via genetic (knockdown vs. wild-type littermates), or pharmacological (GBR12909- vs. vehicle-treated C57BL/6J mice) means were assessed in the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT), and progressive ratio breakpoint (PRB) test, during either water or chronic lithium treatment. These tasks quantify reward learning and effortful motivation, respectively. Neurochemistry was performed on brain samples of DAT mutants ± chronic lithium using high performance liquid chromatography. Reduced DAT functioning increased reversals in the PRLT, an effect partially attenuated by chronic lithium. Chronic lithium alone slowed PRLT acquisition. Reduced DAT functioning increased motivation (PRB), an effect attenuated by lithium in GBR12909-treated mice. Neurochemical analyses revealed that DAT knockdown mice exhibited elevated homovanillic acid levels, but that lithium had no effect on these elevated levels. Reducing DAT functioning recreates many aspects of BD mania including hypermotivation and improved reversal learning (switching), as well as elevated homovanillic acid levels. Chronic lithium only exerted main effects, impairing learning and elevating norepinephrine and serotonin levels of mice, not specifically treating the underlying mechanisms identified in these models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unusual isotope effects of molybdenum in chemical exchange reaction using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kazushige [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Inagawa, Jun

    1999-06-01

    Molybdenum isotopes were fractionated in a liquid-liquid extraction system using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6). The enrichment factors showed a breakdown of the conventional mass-dependent rule. Some unusual and larger isotope effects were observed in the even atomic mass isotopes, {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. The unusual features in the present study were not responsible for the field shift effect, which was regarded as a primary factor of the anomalous isotope effect in the recent theory, but were due to an anomaly on the vibrational levels. The largest isotope effect was observed in the isotope pair of {sup 94}Mo-{sup 96}Mo, it was {epsilon}{sub 96,94} = 0.0086 {+-} 0.0007, its initial aqueous phase was 0.91 M molybdenum chloride, and its organic phase was 0.2 M DC18C6 in chloroform: this was 0.0043 {+-} 0.0004 in terms of the enrichment factor for unit mass different. (author)

  1. Lithium spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. The impact of convection and NLTE effects

    CERN Document Server

    Klevas, J; Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G

    2015-01-01

    Different simplified approaches are used to account for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In certain cases, chemical abundances are derived in 1D NLTE and corrected for the 3D effects by adding 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections (3D+NLTE approach). Alternatively, average model atmospheres are sometimes used to substitute for the full 3D hydrodynamical models. We tested whether the results obtained using these simplified schemes (i.e., 3D+NLTE, NLTE) may reproduce those derived using the full 3D NLTE computations. The tests were made using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of the main sequence (MS), main sequence turn-off (TO), subgiant (SGB), and red giant branch (RGB) stars, all at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Our goal was to investigate the role of 3D and NLTE effects on the formation of the 670.8 nm lithium line by assessing strengths of synthetic 670.8 nm line profiles, computed using 3D/1D NLTE/LTE approaches. Our results show that Li 670.8 n...

  2. Mechanistic investigations of the hydrolysis of amides, oxoesters and thioesters via kinetic isotope effects and positional isotope exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lori I; Fogle, Emily J; Marlier, John F

    2015-11-01

    The hydrolysis of amides, oxoesters and thioesters is an important reaction in both organic chemistry and biochemistry. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are one of the most important physical organic methods for determining the most likely transition state structure and rate-determining step of these reaction mechanisms. This method induces a very small change in reaction rates, which, in turn, results in a minimum disturbance of the natural mechanism. KIE studies were carried out on both the non-enzymatic and the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in an effort to compare both types of mechanisms. In these studies the amides and esters of formic acid were chosen because this molecular structure allowed development of methodology to determine heavy-atom solvent (nucleophile) KIEs. This type of isotope effect is difficult to measure, but is rich in mechanistic information. Results of these investigations point to transition states with varying degrees of tetrahedral character that fit a classical stepwise mechanism. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flammability limits of lithium-ion battery thermal runaway vent gas in air and the inerting effects of halon 1301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Matthew Eugene

    Lithium-ion (rechargeable) and lithium-metal (non-rechargeable) battery cells put aircraft at risk of igniting and fueling fires. Lithium batteries can be packed in bulk and shipped in the cargo holds of freighter aircraft; currently lithium batteries are banned from bulk shipment on passenger aircraft [1]. The federally regulated Class C cargo compartment extinguishing system's utilization of a 5 %vol Halon 1301 knockdown concentration and a sustained 3 %vol Halon 1301 may not be sufficient at inerting lithium-ion battery vent gas and air mixtures [2]. At 5 %vol Halon 1301 the flammability limits of lithium-ion premixed battery vent gas (Li-Ion pBVG) in air range from 13.80 %vol to 26.07 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Testing suggests that 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 is required to render all ratios of the Li-Ion pBVG in air inert. The lower flammability limit (LFL) and upper flammability limit (UFL) of hydrogen and air mixtures are 4.95 %vol and 76.52 %vol hydrogen, respectively. With the addition of 10 %vol and 20 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 9.02 %vol and 11.55 %vol hydrogen, respectively, and the UFL is 45.70 %vol and 28.39 %vol hydrogen, respectively. The minimum inerting concentration (MIC) of Halon 1301 in hydrogen and air mixtures is 26.72 %vol Halon 1301 at 16.2 %vol hydrogen. The LFL and UFL of Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures are 7.88 %vol and 37.14 %vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively. With the addition of 5 %vol, 7 %vol, and 8 %vol Halon 1301 the LFL is 13.80 %vol, 16.15 %vol, and 17.62 % vol Li-Ion pBVG, respectively, and the UFL is 26.07 %vol, 23.31 %vol, and 21.84 %vol Li- Ion pBVG, respectively. The MIC of Halon 1301 in Li-Ion pBVG and air mixtures is 8.59 %vol Halon 1301 at 19.52 %vol Li-Ion pBVG. Le Chatelier's mixing rule has been shown to be an effective measure for estimating the flammability limits of Li-Ion pBVGes. The LFL has a 1.79 % difference while the UFL has a 4.53 % difference. The state of charge (SOC) affects the flammability limits in an apparent parabolic

  4. Temperature effects on the fractionation of multiple sulfur isotopes by Thermodesulfobacterium and Desulfovibrio strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Sun, C.; Ono, S.; Lin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction is one of the major mechanisms driving anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in global ocean. While sulfate-reducing prokaryotes are well known to fractionate sulfur isotopes during dissimilatory sulfate reduction, unraveling the isotopic compositions of sulfur-bearing minerals preserved in sedimentary records could provide invaluable constraints on the evolution of seawater chemistry and metabolic pathways. Variations in the sulfur isotope fractionations are partly due to inherent differences among species and also affected by environmental conditions. The isotope fractionations caused by microbial sulfate reduction have been interpreted to be a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed isotope fractionation steps. Therefore, the fractionation factor depends on (1) the sulfate flux into and out of the cell, and (2) the flux of sulfur transformation between the internal pools. Whether the multiple sulfur isotope effect could be quantitatively predicted using such a metabolic flux model would provide insights into the cellular machinery catalyzing with sulfate reduction. This study examined the multiple sulfur isotope fractionation patterns associated with a thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium-related strain and a mesophilic Desulfovibrio gigas over a wide temperature range. The Thermodesulfobacterium-related strain grew between 34 and 79°C with an optimal temperature at 72°C and the highest cell-specific sulfate reduction rate at 77°C. The 34ɛ values ranged between 8.2 and 31.6‰ with a maximum at 68°C. The D. gigas grew between 10 and 45 °C with an optimal temperature at 30°C and the highest cell-specific sulfate reduction rate at 41°C. The 34ɛ values ranged between 10.3 and 29.7‰ with higher magnitude at both lower and higher temperatures. The results of multiple sulfur isotope measurements expand the previously reported range and cannot be described by a solution field of the metabolic flux model, which calculates

  5. Skeletal effects of central nervous system active drugs: anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants, lithium and neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Many central nervous system active drugs can alter postural balance, increasing the risk of fractures. Anxiolytics and sedatives include the benzodiazepines, and these have been associated with a limited increase in the risk of fractures, even at low doses, probably from an increased risk of falls. No systematic differences have been shown between benzodiazepines with long and short half-lives. Although the increase in risk of fractures was limited, care must still be taken when prescribing for older fall-prone subjects at risk of osteoporosis. Neuroleptics may be associated with a decrease in bone mineral density and a very limited increase in fracture risk. Antidepressants are associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of fractures. The increase in relative risk of fractures seems to be larger with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) than with tricyclic antidepressants. The reason for this is not known but may be linked to serotonin effects on bone cells and the risk of falls. With the wide use of SSRIs, more research is needed. Lithium is associated with a decrease in the risk of fractures. This may be linked to its effects on the Wnt glycoprotein family, which is a specialised signalling system for certain cell types.

  6. Effect of electrode compression on the wettability of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gun; Jeon, Dong Hyup

    2014-11-01

    Using the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), the electrolyte transport dynamics in the two-dimensional electrode structure of a lithium-ion battery are simulated. The effect of the compression ratio of a porous electrode on wettability is explored with respect to variations of porosity and particle shape. The electrolyte distribution in the electrode and the electrolyte saturation profile are examined in order to evaluate the wetting capability at various compression ratios. The results show that wettability in the electrode decreases as the compression ratio increases. In a highly compressed electrode, the through-plane permeation of liquid electrolyte is small. Thus, the electrolytes are mainly observed at the interface of the electrode and separator. The anode has lower wettability than the cathode due to the deformation of particle shape during the manufacturing process. Therefore, particle shape has a strong effect on wettability. The two-dimensional LBM approach used in this study characterizes the electrolyte transport phenomena inside the electrode and allows us to compare the wettability between the cathode and anode at various compression ratios.

  7. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul [KITECH, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehong [Nitta-Haas Inc., Kannanidai, Kyotannbe, Kyoto 610-0333 (Japan); Jeong, Haedo, E-mail: hdjeong@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO{sub 3}) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and complexing agent (citric acid; C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  8. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  9. Short-ranged potential effects on the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wen-Peng; Li Hong-Yun; Wang Shu-Bao; Lin Sheng-Lu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents recurrence spectra of highly excited lithium atoms with M = 1 state in parallel electric and magnetic fields at a fixed scaled energy ε = -0.03. Short-ranged potentials including ionic core potential and centrifugal barrier are taken into account. Their effects on the states and photo-absorption spectrum are analysed in detail. This demonstrates that the geometric features of classical orbits are of special importance for modulations of the spectral pattern. Thus the weak polarization as well as the reduction of correlation of electrons induced by short-ranged potentials give rise to the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms more compact than that of the M = 0 one, which is in good agreement with the experimental prediction.

  10. Effect of lithium on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sn-doped zinc oxide prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rherari, A.; Addou, M.; Sofiani, Z.; El jouad, M.; Jbilou, M.; Diani, M.

    2017-03-01

    Li and Sn codoped ZnO (LTZO) thin films have been successfully deposited on heated glass substrates at 450°C using the spray pyrolysis technique, the effect of lithium of Sn-doped zinc oxide on the structural, morphological, optical and nonlinear optical properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission, the RMS average surface roughness, and third harmonic generation (THG). The value of optical band gap Eg was found to be decreased from 3.24 eV to 3.16 eV when the concentration of Li from 0 to 7%, while the concentration of Sn is fixed at 2%.The doping of ZnO films improves the nonlinear response and the highest susceptibility value χ (3) =13.422 × 10-12 (esu) is found at concentration of lithium 7%.

  11. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of hard carbons as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Heon-Young; Oh, Seh-Min; Lee, Seo-Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Sung-Man

    Surface modification by a soft-carbon coating is used to improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbons as the negative-electrode (anode) material in lithium-ion batteries. The coating process involves simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal-tar pitch and hard carbon powders at 1000 °C. The carbon coating significantly reduces the reaction of lithium with surface functional groups or absorbed species caused by air exposure. This is attributed to the effective suppression of the diffusion of both air and water into the hard carbon by the soft-carbon coating, and the better resistance of soft carbon to air. As a result, the charge-discharge coulombic efficiency during cycling, as well as during the first cycle, is improved.

  12. Effects of sulfur doping on graphene-based nanosheets for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Le, Viet-Duc; Kim, Haegyeom; Chang, Sung-Jin; Baek, Seung Jae; Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kang, Kisuk; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanosheets (GNS) have been studied for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. A deeper understanding about the system is required for achieving enhanced power output and high energy storage. The effects of sulfur doping on the electrochemical properties of GNS are studied for their use as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Sulfur doping in GNS contributes to the high specific capacity by providing more lithium storage sites due to Faradaic reactions. In addition, superior rate performance of sulfur-doped GNS (S-GNS) is achieved through the improved electrical conductivity of S-GNS (1743 S m-1), which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of GNS (32 S m-1). In addition, good cyclic stability of S-GNS is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high current density of 1488 mA g-1 (4 C).

  13. Effect of graphene nanosheet addition on the electrochemical performance of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Peng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, SINOPEC, Beijing 100013 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Lulu [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston 77005 (United States); Wang Guohua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-03-04

    The structure and electronic properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) render it a promising conducting agent in a lithium-ion battery. A graphite electrode loaded with GNS exhibits superior electrochemical properties including higher rate performance, increased specific capacity and better cycle performance compared with that obtained by adding the traditional conducting agent-acetylene black. The high-quality sp{sup 2} carbon lattice, quasi-two-dimensional crystal structure and high aspect ratio of GNS provide the basis for a continuous conducting network to counter the decrease in electrode conductivity with increasing number of cycles, and guarantee efficient and fast electronic transport throughout the anode. Effects of GNS loading content on the electrochemical properties of graphite electrode are investigated and results indicate that the amount of conductive additives needed is decreased by using GNS. The kinetics and mechanism of lithium-storage for a GNS-loaded electrode are explored using a series of electrochemical testing techniques.

  14. Fractionated Mercury Isotopes in Fish: The Effects of Nuclear Mass, Spin, and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R.; Odom, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury is long known as a common environmental contaminant. In methylated form it is even more toxic and the methylation process is facilitated by microbial activities. Methyl mercury easily crosses cell membrane and accumulates in soft tissues of fishes and finally biomagnifies with increasing trophic levels. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of mercury have been reported and such variations have emphasized mass dependent fractionations, while theory and laboratory experiments indicate that mass-independent isotopic fractionation (MIF) effects are likely to be found as well. This study focuses on the MIF of mercury isotopes in the soft tissues of fishes. Samples include both fresh water and marine fish, from different continents and oceans. Approximately 1 gm of fish soft tissue was dissolved in 5 ml of conc. aqua regia for 24 hrs and filtered through a ¬¬¬100 μm filter paper and diluted with DI water. Hg is measured as a gaseous phase generated by reduction of the sample with SnCl2 in a continuous- flow cold-vapor generator connected to a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICPMS. To minimize instrumental fractionation isotope ratios were measured by sample standard bracketing and reported as δ‰ relative to NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard where δAHg = [(A Hg/202Hg)sample/(A Hg/202Hg)NIST313] -1 ×1000‰. In this study we have measured the isotope ratios 198Hg/202Hg, 199Hg/202Hg, 200Hg/202Hg, 201Hg/202Hg and 204Hg/202Hg. In all the fish samples δ198Hg, δ200Hg, δ202Hg, δ204Hg define a mass- dependent fractionation sequence, where as the δ199Hg and δ201Hg depart from the mass- dependent fractionation line and indicate an excess of the odd-N isotopes. The magnitude of the deviation (ΔAHg where A=199 or 201) as obtained by difference between the measured δ199Hg and δ201Hg of the samples and the value obtained by linear scaling defined by the even-N isotopes ranges from approximately 0.2 ‰ to 3‰. The ratios of Δ199Hg /Δ201Hg range from 0.8 to 1

  15. Equilibrium clumped-isotope effects in doubly substituted isotopologues of ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael A.; Wang, Yimin; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Bowman, Joel M.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    We combine path-integral Monte Carlo methods with a new intramolecular potential energy surface to quantify the equilibrium enrichment of doubly substituted ethane isotopologues due to clumped-isotope effects. Ethane represents the simplest molecule to simultaneously exhibit 13C-13C, 13C-D, and D-D clumped-isotope effects, and the analysis of corresponding signatures may provide useful geochemical and biogeochemical proxies of formation temperatures or reaction pathways. Utilizing path-integral statistical mechanics, we predict equilibrium fractionation factors that fully incorporate nuclear quantum effects, such as anharmonicity and rotational-vibrational coupling which are typically neglected by the widely used Urey model. The magnitude of the calculated fractionation factors for the doubly substituted ethane isotopologues indicates that isotopic clumping can be observed if rare-isotope substitutions are separated by up to three chemical bonds, but the diminishing strength of these effects suggests that enrichment at further separations will be negligible. The Urey model systematically underestimates enrichment due to 13C-D and D-D clumped-isotope effects in ethane, leading to small relative errors in the apparent equilibrium temperature, ranging from 5 K at 273.15 K to 30 K at 873.15 K. We additionally note that the rotameric dependence of isotopologue enrichment must be carefully considered when using the Urey model, whereas the path-integral calculations automatically account for such effects due to configurational sampling. These findings are of direct relevance to future clumped-isotope studies of ethane, as well as studies of 13C-13C, 13C-D, and D-D clumped-isotope effects in other hydrocarbons.

  16. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice—before and after crystallization—using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α=0.05. Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P<0.05. None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold.

  17. Coherent phonon decay and the boron isotope effect for MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarco, Jose A; Talbot, Peter C; Mackinnon, Ian D R

    2014-12-14

    Ab initio DFT calculations for the phonon dispersion (PD) and the phonon density of states (PDOS) of the two isotopic forms ((10)B and (11)B) of MgB2 demonstrate that use of a reduced symmetry super-lattice provides an improved approximation to the dynamical, phonon-distorted P6/mmm crystal structure. Construction of phonon frequency plots using calculated values for these isotopic forms gives linear trends with integer multiples of a base frequency that change in slope in a manner consistent with the isotope effect (IE). Spectral parameters inferred from this method are similar to that determined experimentally for the pure isotopic forms of MgB2. Comparison with AlB2 demonstrates that a coherent phonon decay down to acoustic modes is not possible for this metal. Coherent acoustic phonon decay may be an important contributor to superconductivity for MgB2.

  18. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Impact of deep convection on the isotopic amount effect in tropical precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharammal, Thejna; Bala, Govindasamy; Noone, David

    2017-02-01

    The empirical "amount effect" observed in the distribution of stable water isotope ratios in tropical precipitation is used in several studies to reconstruct past precipitation. Recent observations suggest the importance of large-scale organized convection systems on amount effect. With a series of experiments with Community Atmospheric Model version 3.0 with water isotope tracers, we quantify the sensitivity of amount effect to changes in modeled deep convection. The magnitude of the regression slope between long-term monthly precipitation amount and isotope ratios in precipitation over tropical ocean reduces by more than 20% with a reduction in mean deep convective precipitation by about 60%, indicating a decline in fractionation efficiency. Reduced condensation in deep convective updrafts results in enrichment of lower level vapor with heavier isotope that causes enrichment in total precipitation. However, consequent increases in stratiform and shallow convective precipitation partially offset the reduction in the slope of amount effect. The net result is a reduced slope of amount effect in tropical regions except the tropical western Pacific, where the effects of enhanced large-scale ascent and increased stratiform precipitation prevail over the influence of reduced deep convection. We also find that the isotope ratios in precipitation are improved over certain regions in the tropics with reduced deep convection, showing that analyses of isotope ratios in precipitation and water vapor are powerful tools to improve precipitation processes in convective parameterization schemes in climate models. Further, our study suggests that the precipitation types over a region can alter the fractionation efficiency of isotopes with implications for the reconstructions of past precipitation.

  20. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis.

  1. Isotope effects in the evaporation of water: a status report of the Craig-Gordon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Juske; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Cohen, Shabtai

    2008-03-01

    The Craig-Gordon model (C-G model) [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen 18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperatures, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] has been synonymous with the isotope effects associated with the evaporation of water from surface waters, soils, and vegetations, which in turn constitutes a critical component of the global water cycle. On the occasion of the four decades of its successful applications to isotope geochemistry and hydrology, an attempt is made to: (a) examine its physical background within the framework of modern evaporation models, (b) evaluate our current knowledge of the environmental parameters of the C-G model, and (c) comment on a general strategy for the use of these parameters in field applications. Despite its simplistic representation of evaporation processes at the water-air interface, the C-G model appears to be adequate to provide the isotopic composition of the evaporation flux. This is largely due to its nature for representing isotopic compositions (a ratio of two fluxes of different isotopic water molecules) under the same environmental conditions. Among many environmental parameters that are included in the C-G model, accurate description and calculations are still problematic of the kinetic isotope effects that occur in a diffusion-dominated thin layer of air next to the water-air interface. In field applications, it is of importance to accurately evaluate several environmental parameters, particularly the relative humidity and isotopic compositions of the 'free-atmosphere', for a system under investigation over a given time-scale of interest (e.g., hourly to daily to seasonally). With a growing interest in the studies of water cycles of different spatial and temporal scales, including paleoclimate and water resource studies, the importance and utility of the C-G model is also likely to

  2. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β dictates podocyte motility and focal adhesion turnover by modulating paxillin activity: implications for the protective effect of low-dose lithium in podocytopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Ge, Yan; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Rujun

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant focal adhesion turnover is centrally involved in podocyte actin cytoskeleton disorganization and foot process effacement. The structural and dynamic integrity of focal adhesions is orchestrated by multiple cell signaling molecules, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multitasking kinase lately identified as a mediator of kidney injury. However, the role of GSK3β in podocytopathy remains obscure. In doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-injured podocytes, lithium, a GSK3β inhibitor and neuroprotective mood stabilizer, obliterated the accelerated focal adhesion turnover, rectified podocyte hypermotility, and restored actin cytoskeleton integrity. Mechanistically, lithium counteracted the doxorubicin-elicited GSK3β overactivity and the hyperphosphorylation and overactivation of paxillin, a focal adhesion-associated adaptor protein. Moreover, forced expression of a dominant negative kinase dead mutant of GSK3β highly mimicked, whereas ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3β mutant abolished, the effect of lithium in doxorubicin-injured podocytes, suggesting that the effect of lithium is mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of GSK3β. Furthermore, paxillin interacted with GSK3β and served as its substrate. In mice with doxorubicin nephropathy, a single low dose of lithium ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Consistently, lithium therapy abrogated GSK3β overactivity, blunted paxillin hyperphosphorylation, and reinstated actin cytoskeleton integrity in glomeruli associated with an early attenuation of podocyte foot process effacement. Thus, GSK3β-modulated focal adhesion dynamics might serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy.

  4. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical reactions provide a compelling framework to study kinetic isotope effects because redox-related processes are important for a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. In the laboratory, electrochemical reaction rates can be electronically controlled and measured in the laboratory using a potentiostat. This enables variation of redox reactions rates independent of changes in chemistry and, and the resulting isotope compositions of reactants and products can be separated and analyzed. In the past years, a series of experimental studies have demonstrated a large, light, and tunable kinetic isotope effect during electrodeposition of metal Fe, Zn, Li, Cu, and Mo from a variety of solutions (e.g. Black et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). A theoretical framework based on Marcus kinetic theory predicts a voltage-dependent kinetic isotope effect (Kavner et al., 2005, 2008), however while this framework was able to predict the tunable nature of the effect, it was not able to simultaneously predict absolute reaction rates and relative isotope rates. Here we present a more complete development of a statistical mechanical framework for simple interfacial redox reactions, which includes isotopic behavior. The framework is able to predict a kinetic isotope effect as a function of temperature and reaction rate, starting with three input parameters: a single reorganization energy which describes the overall kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, and the equilibrium reduced partition function ratios for heavy and light isotopes in the product and reactant phases. We show the framework, elucidate some of the predictions, and show direct comparisons against isotope fractionation data obtained during laboratory and natural environment redox processes. A. Kavner, A. Shahar, F. Bonet, J. Simon and E. Young (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(12), 2971-2979. A. Kavner, S. G. John, S. Sass, and E. A. Boyle (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 72, pp. 1731

  5. Investigation of fluoroethylene carbonate effects on tin-based lithium-ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Gewirth, Andrew A; Trahey, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Electroless plating of tin on copper foil (2-D) and foams (3-D) was used to create carbon- and binder-free thin films for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) property investigation. When electrochemically cycled vs lithium metal in coin cells, the foam electrodes exhibited better cycling performance than the planar electrodes due to electrode curvature. The effect of the additive/cosolvent fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) was found to drastically improve the capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency of the cells. The additive amount of 2% FEC is enough to derive the benefits in the cells at a slow (C/9) cycling rate. The interfacial properties of Sn thin film electrodes in electrolyte with/without FEC additive were investigated using in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D). The processes of the decomposition of the electrolyte on the electrode surface and Li alloying/dealloying with Sn were characterized quantitatively by surface mass change at the molecular level. FEC-containing electrolytes deposited less than electrolyte without FEC on the initial reduction sweep, yet increased the overall thickness/mass of SEI after several cyclic voltammetry cycles. EQCM-D studies demonstrate that the mass accumulated per mole of electrons (mpe) was varied in different voltage ranges, which reveals that the reduction products of the electrolyte with/without FEC are different.

  6. Effect of lithium-potassium mixed alkali on spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped aluminophosphate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yong-Zheng; Liao Mei-Song; Hu Li-Li

    2007-01-01

    Er3+-doped lithium-potassium mixed alkali aluminophosphate glasses belonging to the oxide system xK2O-(15-x)Li2O-4B2O3-11Al2O3-5BaO-65P2O5 are obtained in a semi-continuous melting quenching process. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped glass matrix have been analysed by fitting the experimental data with the standard Judd- Ofelt theory. It is observed that Judd- Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4 and 6) of Er3+ change when the second alkali is introduced into glass matrix. The variation of line strength Sed[4I13/2,4I15/2] follows the same trend as that of the Ω6 parameter. The effect of mixed alkali on the spectroscopic properties of the aluminophosphate glasses, such as absorption cross-section, stimulated emission cross-section, spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio and the radiative lifetime, has also been investigated in this paper.

  7. Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

  8. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) and 1.0 M LiBF{sub 4}/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm{sup -2}. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, v/v/v) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge-discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes. (author)

  9. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) and 1.0 M LiBF4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm-2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, by volume) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO2 electrodes.

  10. Kinetic and metabolic isotope effects in coral skeletal carbon isotopes: A re-evaluation using experimental coral bleaching as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Levas, Stephen J.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.; McBride, Michael O.; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E.; Hughes, Adam D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2014-12-01

    Coral skeletal δ13C can be a paleo-climate proxy for light levels (i.e., cloud cover and seasonality) and for photosynthesis to respiration (P/R) ratios. The usefulness of coral δ13C as a proxy depends on metabolic isotope effects (related to changes in photosynthesis) being the dominant influence on skeletal δ13C. However, it is also influenced by kinetic isotope effects (related to calcification rate) which can overpower metabolic isotope effects and thus compromise the use of coral skeletal δ13C as a proxy. Heikoop et al. (2000) proposed a simple data correction to remove kinetic isotope effects from coral skeletal δ13C, as well as an equation to calculate P/R ratios from coral isotopes. However, despite having been used by other researchers, the data correction has never been directly tested, and isotope-based P/R ratios have never been compared to P/R ratios measured using respirometry. Experimental coral bleaching represents a unique environmental scenario to test this because bleaching produces large physiological responses that influence both metabolic and kinetic isotope effects in corals. Here, we tested the δ13C correction and the P/R calculation using three Pacific and three Caribbean coral species from controlled temperature-induced bleaching experiments where both the stable isotopes and the physiological variables that cause isotopic fractionation (i.e., photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification) were simultaneously measured. We show for the first time that the data correction proposed by Heikoop et al. (2000) does not effectively remove kinetic effects in the coral species studied here, and did not improve the metabolic signal of bleached and non-bleached corals. In addition, isotope-based P/R ratios were in poor agreement with measured P/R ratios, even when the data correction was applied. This suggests that additional factors influence δ13C and δ18O, which are not accounted for by the data correction. We therefore recommend that the

  11. The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schol, M.A.; Shanley, J.B.; Zegarra, J.P.; Coplen, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ??18O and ??2H. Precipitation enriched in , 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

  12. Variation in oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis: intramolecular and biosynthetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Leonel; Pinzon, Maria Camila; Anderson, William T; Jahren, A Hope

    2006-10-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of plant cellulose is commonly used for the interpretations of climate, ecophysiology and dendrochronology in both modern and palaeoenvironments. Further applications of this analytical tool depends on our in-depth knowledge of the isotopic fractionations associated with the biochemical pathways leading to cellulose. Here, we test two important assumptions regarding isotopic effects resulting from the location of oxygen in the carbohydrate moiety and the biosynthetic pathway towards cellulose synthesis. We show that the oxygen isotopic fractionation of the oxygen attached to carbon 2 of the glucose moieties differs from the average fractionation of the oxygens attached to carbons 3-6 from cellulose by at least 9%, for cellulose synthesized within seedlings of two different species (Triticum aestivum L. and Ricinus communis L.). The fractionation for a given oxygen in cellulose synthesized by the Triticum seedlings, which have starch as their primary carbon source, is different than the corresponding fractionation in Ricinus seedlings, within which lipids are the primary carbon source. This observation shows that the biosynthetic pathway towards cellulose affects oxygen isotope partitioning, a fact heretofore undemonstrated. Our findings may explain the species-dependent variability in the overall oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and may provide much-needed insight for palaeoclimate reconstruction using fossil cellulose.

  13. Evolutionary models of halo stars with rotation. II - Effects of metallicity on lithium depletion, and possible implications for the primordial lithium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, P.

    1992-01-01

    Models of metal-poor stars with rotation were computed and their lithium depletion was compared with observations of halo stars. The models that have turn-off ages compatible with the observations have a nearly flat Li-T(eff) relationship in the region of the Spite lithium 'plateau'. Depending on the initial angular momentum, the models have a depletion factor ranging between a factor of 5 and a factor of 10 at fixed T(eff), implying a maximum initial lithium abundance of 3.1. Both the dispersion and the overall depletion factor are much smaller for metal-poor models than for solar metallicity ones. The factors that determine lithium depletion in rotational models are discussed and the different depletion patterns in solar metallicity and metal-poor models are traced to differences in their structure and evolution. The dependence of the lithium depletion on age, mass, initial angular momentum, and metallicity is also discussed. The dispersion predicted from these models is not inconsistent with the observations.

  14. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking w

  15. Ab Initio Calculations of Deuterium Isotope Effects on Chemical Shifts of Salt-Bridged Lysines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Saif; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Williamson, Mike P.;

    2011-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects measure the change in chemical shift on substitution of a proton by deuterium. They have been calculated by direct treatment of the H/D nuclear quantum effect using a multicomponent ab initio molecular orbital method based on a non-Born−Oppenheimer approximation....... This method enables the determination of both the electronic and the protonic (deuteronic) wave functions simultaneously and can directly calculate the geometrical difference induced by H/D isotope effects. The calculations show that the one-bond deuterium isotope effects on 15N nuclear shielding, 1Δ15N......(D), in ammonium and amines decrease as a counterion or water molecule moves closer to the nitrogen. 1Δ15N(D) and 2Δ1H(D) of the NH3+ groups of lysine residues in the B1 domain of protein G have been calculated using truncated side chains and also determined experimentally by NMR. Comparisons show...

  16. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of negatively charged NH.N systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Grech, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are investigated in anions of 1,8-bis(4-toluenesulphonamido)naphthalenes together with N,N-(naphthalene-1,8-diyl)bis(2,2,2-trifluoracetamide) all with bis(1,8-dimethylamino)napthaleneH+ as counter ion. These compounds represent both “static......” and equilibrium cases. NMR assignments of the former have been revised. The NH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are rather unusual in these strongly hydrogen bonded systems between a NH and a negatively charged nitrogen atom. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative...

  17. Influence of Isotope on Shell Effects of Pre-scission Particle Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; CHEN Na

    2005-01-01

    The shell effects on the particle evaporation prior to fission for three Pb isotopes, 204pb, 20sPb, and 212pb,as well as three Sn isotopes, 128Sn, 132Sn, and 136Sn, are explored by a diffusion model. Calculations show that the magnitude of shell effects in the emission of particles changes with the neutron-to-proton ratio N/Z of these fissioning nuclei, and this change is affected significantly by the spin and excitation energy of the system. It is shown that high angular momentum enhances the dependence of shell effects on the N/Z while high excitation energy weakens such a dependence.

  18. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  19. Effects of lithium content on the electrochemical lithium intercalation reaction into LiNiO 2 and LiCoO 2 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Min; Pyun, Su-Il; Bae, Joon-Sung; Moon, Seong-In

    The electrochemical lithium intercalation reaction into LiNiO 2 and LiCoO 2 electrodes in 1 M LiClO 4—propylene carbonate solution is investigated as a function of lithium content in the oxide electrodes by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and a galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). Li 1-δNiO 2 shows a greater loss in capacity during the first intermittent discharge, as well as a higher resistance for the electrochemical intercalation reaction, in comparison with Li 1-δCoO 2. This is attributed to a partial cation mixing in Li 1-δNiO 2 which is substantiated by XRD studies. The electrochemical impedance spectra of the Li 1-δNiO 2 electrode reveals that the magnitude of the intermediate frequency arc that is associated with the absorption reaction decreases with increasing lithium content, (1 — δ), in the range from 0.5 to 0.7. By contrast, Li 1-δCoO 2 exhibits the reverse behaviour.—The component diffusivities of lithium ions display a nearly constant value, in the order of 10 -11 cm 2 s -1, for both electrodes at room temperature, irrespective of the value of (1 — δ) over the range 0.5-0.7. It is suggested that lithium-ion diffusion through both the layered oxides is affected by the number of empty sites within the lithium-ion layer, and not by the lattice parameter.

  20. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  1. Microindentation deformation of lithium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals: Microhardness measurement and indentation size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurchenko, Anton [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Borc, Jarosław, E-mail: j.borc@pollub.pl [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Sangwal, Keshra [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Voronov, Alexei [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    The Vickers microhardness H{sub V} of the (110) and (111) as-grown faces of lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LDP) crystals was investigated as a function of applied load P. The microhardness H{sub V} of the two faces increases with load P i.e. reverse indentation size effect (reverse ISE) and the hardness of the (110) face is somewhat lower than that of the (111) face but this difference is not easily recognized for these planes due to large scatter in the data. The origin of observed ISE was analyzed using different approaches. It was found that: (1) Hays–Kendall's and Begley–Hutchinson's relations do not explain the origin of reverse ISE but Meyer's law describes the reverse ISE satisfactorily and its constants provide a link between ISE and formation of radial cracks with applied indentation load P, (2) reverse ISE is associated with tensile surface stresses, (3) despite its failure to explain reverse ISE, Begley–Hutchinson's relation is reliable to obtain load-independent hardness H{sub 0}, is 2337 MPa for LDP, and (4) the value of fracture toughness K{sub C} of LDP crystals lies between 4.7 and 12 MPa m{sup 1/2}. The load-independent hardness H{sub 0} of LDP is higher by a factor of 1.5 than that reported for undoped KDP and ADP crystals whereas its fracture toughness K{sub C} is higher by factor of about 20 than that of undoped KDP crystals. - Highlights: • Vickers indentations on the (110) and (111) faces of LDP crystals were made. • The microhardness H{sub V} was investigated as a function of applied load P. • Reverse indentation size effect was observed. • Fracture toughness K{sub C} from the radial cracks was calculated.

  2. Effects of lithium on growth, maturation, reproduction and gene expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Ayako; Yamamoto, Ryoko; Morita, Fumiyo; Takumi, Shota; Matsusaki, Hiromi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Nobuaki; Arizono, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Lithium (Li) has been widely used to treat bipolar disorder, and industrial use of Li has been increasing; thus, environmental pollution and ecological impacts of Li have become a concern. This study was conducted to clarify the potential biological effects of LiCl and Li(2)CO(3) on a nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system for evaluating soil contaminated with Li. Exposure of C. elegans to LiCl and Li(2)CO(3) decreased growth/maturation and reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentrations for growth, maturation and reproduction were 1250, 313 and 10 000 µm, respectively, for LiCl and 750, 750 and 3000 µm, respectively, for Li(2)CO(3). We also investigated the physiological function of LiCl and LiCO(3) in C. elegans using DNA microarray analysis as an eco-toxicogenomic approach. Among approximately 300 unique genes, including metabolic genes, the exposure to 78 µm LiCl downregulated the expression of 36 cytochrome P450, 16 ABC transporter, 10 glutathione S-transferase, 16 lipid metabolism and two vitellogenin genes. On the other hand, exposure to 375 µm Li(2)CO(3) downregulated the expression of 11 cytochrome P450, 13 ABC transporter, 13 lipid metabolism and one vitellogenin genes. No gene was upregulated by LiCl or Li(2)CO(3). These results suggest that LiCl and Li(2)CO(3) potentially affect the biological and physiological function in C. elegans associated with alteration of the gene expression such as metabolic genes. Our data also provide experimental support for the utility of toxicogenomics by integrating gene expression profiling into a toxicological study of an environmentally important organism such as C. elegans.

  3. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that

  4. Comparisons of phosphorothioate with phosphate transfer reactions for a monoester, diester, and triester: isotope effect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrina, Irina E; Hengge, Alvan C

    2003-06-25

    Phosphorothioate esters are sometimes used as surrogates for phosphate ester substrates in studies of enzymatic phosphoryl transfer reactions. To gain better understanding of the comparative inherent chemistry of the two types of esters, we have measured equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects for several phosphorothioate esters of p-nitrophenol (pNPPT) and compared the results with data from phosphate esters. The primary (18)O isotope effect at the phenolic group ((18)k(bridge)), the secondary nitrogen-15 isotope effect ((15)k) in the nitro group, and (for the monoester and diester) the secondary oxygen-18 isotope effect ((18)k(nonbridge)) in the phosphoryl oxygens were measured. The equilibrium isotope effect (EIE) (18)k(nonbridge) for the deprotonation of the monoanion of pNPPT is 1.015 +/- 0.002, very similar to values previously reported for phosphate monoesters. The EIEs for complexation of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) with the dianion pNPPT(2-) were both unity. The mechanism of the aqueous hydrolysis of the monoanion and dianion of pNPPT, the diester ethyl pNPPT, and the triester dimethyl pNPPT was probed using heavy atom kinetic isotope effects. The results were compared with the data reported for analogous phosphate monoester, diester, and triester reactions. The results suggest that leaving group bond fission in the transition state of reactions of the monoester pNPPT is more advanced than for its phosphate counterpart pNPP, while alkaline hydrolysis of the phosphorothioate diester and triester exhibits somewhat less advanced bond fission than that of their phosphate ester counterparts.

  5. Isotope Effect on Electron-Phonon Coupling in Multiband Superconductor MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Daixiang; Taufour, Valentin; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Bud'Ko, Serguei; Canfield, Paul; Kaminski, Adam

    We systematically investigate the isotope effect of electron-phonon coupling in multi-band superconductor MgB2 by laser based Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy. The kink structure around 70 meV on two σ bands, which is caused by electron coupling to E2 g phonon mode, is shifted to higher binding energy in Mg10B2 than that in Mg11B2. The measured shifting energy of 3.5 meV is consistent with theoretical calculation based on harmonic phonon in MgB2. Our temperature dependent measurement also indicates the isotope effect of kink structure is not dependent on superconducting transition.

  6. Isotope effect on electron-phonon interaction in the multiband superconductor MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Daixiang; Manni, Soham; Taufour, Valentin; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of isotope substitution on the electron-phonon interaction in the multiband superconductor MgB2 using tunable laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The kink structure around 70 meV in the σ band, which is caused by electron coupling to the E2 g phonon mode, is shifted to higher binding energy by ˜3.5 meV in Mg 10B2 and the shift is not affected by superconducting transition. These results serve as the benchmark for investigations of isotope effects in known, unconventional superconductors and newly discovered superconductors where the origin of pairing is unknown.

  7. Oxygen isotope effect in cuprates results from polaron-induced superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Weyeneth, S.; Müller, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    The planar oxygen isotope effect coefficient measured as a function of hole doping in the Pr- and La-doped YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and the Ni-doped La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (LSCO) superconductors quantitatively and qualitatively follows the form originally proposed by Kresin and Wolf [Phys. Rev. B 49, 3652 (1994)], which was derived for polarons perpendicular to the superconducting planes. Interestingly, the inverse oxygen isotope effect coefficient at the pseudogap temperature also obeys the...

  8. The influence of anharmonic phonons on the isotope effect in high-{Tc} oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H.; Cohen, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Anharmonic phonons are examined to study the unusual isotope effect exponents for the high-{Tc} oxides. Within a simple model of anharmonicity, the mass dependences of the electron-phonon coupling constant {lambda} and the phonon frequency determine the isotope effect exponent {alpha} as a function of coupling strength. A model in which the outer wells of a multiple-well potential deepen as the orthorhombic/low temperature tetragonal phase transition in La{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} is approached is consistent with some experimentally observed variations in {Tc} and {alpha}. 10 refs.

  9. The influence of anharmonic phonons on the isotope effect in high- Tc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H.; Cohen, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Anharmonic phonons are examined to study the unusual isotope effect exponents for the high-{Tc} oxides. Within a simple model of anharmonicity, the mass dependences of the electron-phonon coupling constant {lambda} and the phonon frequency determine the isotope effect exponent {alpha} as a function of coupling strength. A model in which the outer wells of a multiple-well potential deepen as the orthorhombic/low temperature tetragonal phase transition in La{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} is approached is consistent with some experimentally observed variations in {Tc} and {alpha}. 10 refs.

  10. Investigation of electrolyte wetting in lithium ion batteries: Effects of electrode pore structures and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yangping

    Beside natural source energy carriers such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, the lithium ion battery is a promising man-made energy carrier for the future. This is a similar process evolved from horse-powered era to engine driven age. There are still a lot of challenges ahead like low energy density, low rate performance, aging problems, high cost and safety etc. In lithium ion batteries, investigation about manufacturing process is as important as the development of material. The manufacturing of lithium ion battery, including production process (slurry making, coating, drying etc.), and post-production (slitting, calendering etc.) is also complicated and critical to the overall performance of the battery. It includes matching the capacity of anode and cathode materials, trial-and-error investigation of thickness, porosity, active material and additive loading, detailed microscopic models to understand, optimize, and design these systems by changing one or a few parameters at a time. In the manufacturing, one of the most important principles is to ensure good wetting properties between porous solid electrodes and liquid electrolyte. Besides the material surface properties, it is the process of electrolyte transporting to fill the pores in the electrode after injection is less noticed in academic, where only 2-3 drops of electrolyte are needed for lab coin cell level. In industry, the importance of electrolyte transport is well known and it is considered as part of electrolyte wetting (or initial wetting in some situations). In consideration of practical usage term, electrolyte wetting is adopted to use in this dissertation for electrolyte transporting process, although the surface chemistry about wetting is not covered. An in-depth investigation about electrolyte wetting is still missing, although it has significant effects in manufacturing. The electrolyte wetting is determined by properties of electrolyte and electrode microstructure. Currently, only viscosity

  11. The effect of small scale variablity in isotopic composition of precipitation on hydrograph separation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benjamin; van Meerveld, Ilja; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding runoff processes is important for predictions of streamflow quantity and quality. The two-component isotope hydrograph separation (IHS) method is a valuable tool to study how catchments transform rainfall into runoff. IHS allows the stormflow hydrograph to be separated into rainfall (event water) and water that was stored in the catchment before the event (pre-event water). To be able to perform an IHS, water samples of baseflow (pre-event water) and stormflow are collected at the stream outlet. Rainfall is usually collected at one location by hand as an event total or sampled sequentially during the event. It is usually assumed that the spatial variability in rainfall and the isotopic composition of rainfall are negligible for small (area of 0.15, 0.23, and 0.7 km2). The isotopic composition of rainfall and streamflow were sampled for 10 different rain events (P: 5 mm intervals, Q: 12 to 51 samples per events). This dataset was used to perform a two-component isotope hydrograph separation. The results show that for some events the spatial variability in total rainfall, mean and maximum rainfall intensity and stable isotope composition of rainfall was high. There was no relation between the stable isotope composition of rainfall and the rainfall sum, rainfall intensity or altitude. The spatial variability of the isotopic composition of rainfall was for 4 out of the 10 events as large as the temporal variability in the isotopic composition. Different rainfall weighing methods resulted in different minimum pre-event water fractions in streamflow. For small events with a small mean temporal range in stable isotope composition of rainfall, the different rainfall weighing methods had little effect on the calculated minimum pre-event water fractions. However with increasing temporal variability in stable isotope composition of rainfall, the range in the minimum pre-event water fractions increased and therefore the choice of the rainfall weighing method

  12. Correlation of the vapor pressure isotope effect with molecular force fields in the liquid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollin, J.S.; Ishida, T.

    1976-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a new model for condensed phase interactions with which the vapor pressure isotope effect (vpie) may be related to molecular forces and structure. The model considers the condensed phase as being represented by a cluster of regularly arranged molecules consisting of a central molecule and a variable number of molecules in the first coordination shell. The methods of normal coordinate analysis are used to determine the modes of vibration of the condensed phase cluster from which, in turn, the isotopic reduced partition function can be calculated. Using the medium cluster model, the observed vpie for a series of methane isotopes has been successfully reproduced with better agreement with experiment than has been possible using the simple cell model. We conclude, however, that insofar as the medium cluster model provides a reasonable picture of the liquid state, the vpie is not sufficiently sensitive to molecular orientation to permit an experimental determination of intermolecular configuration in the condensed phase through measurement of isotopic pressure ratios. The virtual independence of vapor pressure isotope effects on molecular orientation at large cluster sizes is a demonstration of the general acceptability of the cell model assumptions for vpie calculations.

  13. Anharmonicity effects in impurity-vacancy centers in diamond revealed by isotopic shifts and optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Krivobok, V. S.; Lyapin, S. G.; Sherin, P. S.; Gavva, V. A.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    We studied isotopically enriched nano- and microdiamonds with optically active GeV- centers synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in nonmetallic growth systems. The influence of isotopic composition on optical properties has been thoroughly investigated by photoluminescence-excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to get insight into the nature and electronic structure of this color center. We have demonstrated that the large frequency defect (difference between oscillation frequencies in the ground and excited electronic states) does bring about large discrepancy between PLE and PL spectra and comparatively high isotopic shift of the zero phonon line. Both effects seem to be rather common to split-vacancy centers (for example SiV-), where the frequency defect reaches record high values. Isotopic substitution of carbon atoms in the diamond lattice results in even larger shifts, which are only partially accounted for by a redistribution of electron density caused by the volume change of the diamond lattice. It was shown that the vibronic frequency in this case does not depend on the mass of carbon atoms. The greatest part of this isotopic shift is due to anharmonicity effects, which constitute a substantial part of vibronic frequency observed in this center. The exact physical mechanism, which leads to significant enhancement of anharmonicity on substitution of 12C to 13C, is yet to be clarified.

  14. Effects of hyperventilation and hypocapnic/normocapnic hypoxemia on renal function and lithium clearance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H; Klausen, T; Fogh-Andersen, N;

    1998-01-01

    Using the renal clearance of lithium as an index of proximal tubular outflow, this study tested the hypothesis that acute hypocapnic hypoxemia decreases proximal tubular reabsorption to the same extent as hypocapnic normoxemia (hyperventilation) and that this response is blunted during normocapni...

  15. Effect of Lithium Ions on Copper Nanoparticle Size, Shape, and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Deok Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using lithium ions to increase the aqueous electrical conductivity of the solution and precisely control the size, shape, and size distribution of the particles. In this study, the conventional approach of increasing particle size by the concentration of copper ions and PGPPE in a copper chloride solution was compared to increasing the concentration of lithium chloride when the copper chloride concentration was held constant. Particle size and shape were characterized by TEM, and the size distribution of the particles at different concentrations was obtained by particle size analysis. Increasing the concentration of copper ion in the solution greatly increased the aqueous electric conductivity and the size of the particles but led to a wide size distribution ranging from 150 nm to 400 nm and rough particle morphology. The addition of lithium ions increased the size of the particles, but maintains them in a range of 250 nm. In addition the particles exhibited spherical shape as determined by TEM. The addition of lithium ions to the solution has the potential to synthesize nanoparticles with optimal characteristics for printing applications by maintaining a narrow size range and spherical shape.

  16. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2017-02-22

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode.

  17. Improved energy confinement with nonlinear isotope effects in magnetically confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J; Jenko, F

    2016-01-01

    The efficient production of electricity from nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas relies on a good confinement of the thermal energy. For more than thirty years, the observation that such confinement depends on the mass of the plasma isotope and its interaction with apparently unrelated plasma conditions has remained largely unexplained and it has become one of the main unsolved issues. By means of numerical studies based on the gyrokinetic theory, we quantitatively show how the plasma microturbulence depends on the isotope mass through nonlinear multiscale microturbulence effects involving the interplay between zonal flows, electromagnetic effects and the torque applied. This finding has crucial consequences for the design of future reactors since, in spite of the fact that they will be composed by multiple ion species, their extrapolation from present day experiments heavily relies on the knowledge obtained from a long experimental tradition based in single isotope plasmas.

  18. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  19. Silanated Surface Treatment: Effects on the Bond Strength to Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto Filho, Flares; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization protocols on the bond strength of two resin cements to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Thirty-two ceramic discs were assigned to 2 groups (n=16): G1 - dual-cured resin cement and G2 - light-cured resin cement. Four subgroups were evaluated according to the used silanization protocol. The glass-ceramic was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and silane was applied for 1 min, as follows: CTL - according to the manufacturer's instructions; HA - dried with hot air; NWA - washed and dried with water and air at room temperature; HWA - washed and dried with hot water and hot air. Thereafter, adhesive was applied and light-cured for 20 s. Silicon molds were used to prepare resin cement cylinders (1x1 mm) on the ceramic surface. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 48 h and subjected to a micro-shear test. The data were submitted to statistical analysis (?#61537;=0.05). Group G1 showed higher bond strengths than G2, except for the CTL and NWA subgroups. Differences as function of the silanization protocol were only observed in G1: HWA (25.13±6.83)≥HA (22.95±7.78)≥CTL(17.44±7.24) ≥NWA(14.63±8.76). For G2 there was no difference among the subgroups. In conclusion, the silanization protocol affected the resin cement/ceramic bond strengths, depending on the material. Washing/drying with hot water and/or hot air increased only the bond strength of the dual-cured resin cement.

  20. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  1. Brillouin scattering studies of isotopic effects in solid ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte, H.; Penney, R.; Breckon, S. W.; Clouter, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of high resolution Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to determine the adiabatic elastic constants and the elasto-optic coupling (Pockels) coefficient ratios of oriented single crystals of (solid I) ND3 at temperatures near the gas-liquid-solid triple point. The values of the elastic constants at 196.0 K are C11=83.3, C12=44.0, and C44=49.6 (in units of kbar) with an estimated absolute uncertainty of ±2%. The values of the elasto-optic coefficient ratios are P12/P11=0.90 and P44/P11=0.16 for ND3 and 0.89 and 0.16 for NH3, respectively. Other than that expected from the mass ratio, no significant isotopic differences are evident.

  2. Isotopic effects in the neon fixed point: uncertainty of the calibration data correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steur, Peter P. M.; Pavese, Franco; Fellmuth, Bernd; Hermier, Yves; Hill, Kenneth D.; Seog Kim, Jin; Lipinski, Leszek; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakano, Tohru; Peruzzi, Andrea; Sparasci, Fernando; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, Anna; Tamura, Osamu; Tew, Weston L.; Valkiers, Staf; van Geel, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The neon triple point is one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although recognizing that natural neon is a mixture of isotopes, the ITS-90 definition only states that the neon should be of ‘natural isotopic composition’, without any further requirements. A preliminary study in 2005 indicated that most of the observed variability in the realized neon triple point temperatures within a range of about 0.5 mK can be attributed to the variability in isotopic composition among different samples of ‘natural’ neon. Based on the results of an International Project (EUROMET Project No. 770), the Consultative Committee for Thermometry decided to improve the realization of the neon fixed point by assigning the ITS-90 temperature value 24.5561 K to neon with the isotopic composition recommended by IUPAC, accompanied by a quadratic equation to take the deviations from the reference composition into account. In this paper, the uncertainties of the equation are discussed and an uncertainty budget is presented. The resulting standard uncertainty due to the isotopic effect (k = 1) after correction of the calibration data is reduced to (4 to 40) μK when using neon of ‘natural’ isotopic composition or to 30 μK when using 20Ne. For comparison, an uncertainty component of 0.15 mK should be included in the uncertainty budget for the neon triple point if the isotopic composition is unknown, i.e. whenever the correction cannot be applied.

  3. Ab initio calculation of the Zn isotope effect in phosphates, citrates, and malates and applications to plants and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Albarède, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pHphosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils.

  4. Kinetic isotope effects in the OH and Cl reactions of the clumped methane species 13CH3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Magnus

    a heavy atom vibrates slower than a light atom, the substitution to heavier isotopes in a molecular bond leads to lower Zero-Point Energy (ZPE) and thus amore stable bond. Fromstatistical thermodynamics we know that the influence of ZPE is largest at low temperatures, therefore the clumping of isotopes....... In Papers I and II, isotopically-labeled methane was used and the reactions were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Paper III; natural abundance methane was used and only the reaction yield was measured with FTIR spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the isotopic compositions were measured...... the clumping effect by a reaction, the apparent clumpiness is defined as the deviation of the Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE) of the reaction with the clumped isotope (13CH3D) from the combination of KIEs of reactions with the single substituted isotopologues (13CH4 and 12CH3D). If the KIE of the reaction with 13...

  5. A Distinct Magnetic Isotope Effect Measured in Atmospheric Mercury in Epiphytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Odom, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Due to the importance of Mercury as an environmental contaminant, mercury cycling in the atmosphere has been extensively studied. However, there still remain uncertainties in the relative amounts of natural and anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric deposition rates as well as the spatial variation of atmospheric mercury. Part of a study to determine the isotopic composition of mercury deposited from the atmosphere has involved the use of epiphytes as monitors. The greatest advantage of such natural monitors is that a widespread, high-density network is possible at low cost. One of the disadvantages at present is that these monitors likely contain different mercury species (for example both gaseous, elemental mercury trapped by adsorption and Hg (II) by wet deposition). The project began with the understanding that biochemical reactions involving metallothioneins within the epiphytes might have produced an isotopic effect. One such regional network was composed of samples of Tillandsia usenoides (common name: Spanish moss) collected along the eastern Coastal Plain of the U.S. from northern Florida to North Carolina. The isotopic composition of a sample is expressed as permil deviations from a standard. The deviations are defined as δAHg = \\left(\\frac{Rsample}{Rstd}-1 \\right)1000 ‰ , where A represents the atomic mass number. R=\\frac{AHg}{202Hg} were measured for the isotopes 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg and 204Hg relative to the mercury standard SRM NIST 3133, by a standard-sample bracketing technique. For all samples, the delta values of the even-N plotted against atomic mass numbers define a linear curve. For the odd-N isotopes, δ199Hg and δ201Hg deviate from this mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) relationship and indicate a mass-independent fractionation (MIF) effect and a negative anomaly, i.e. a depletion in 199Hg and 201Hg relative to the even-N isotopes. These deviations are expressed as Δ199Hg = δ199Hgtotal - δ199HgMDF. A Δ201Hg/Δ199Hg

  6. The Effect of Aerosol Formation on Stable Isotopes Ratio in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua; Wold, Allison; Stern, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    The formation of large amounts of aerosol in Titan atmosphere induces a significant sink for carbon and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Due to the high complexity of the chemistry leading to aerosol formation, there may be isotopic fractionation along the formation pathways of the aerosol. So far several stable isotopes have been measured in Titan atmosphere including the 13C/12C, 15N/14N and D/H ratios for different gaseous species. However, the fractionation effect of the aerosol formation and its impact on atmospheric stable isotope ratios has yet to be fully understood. Two experimental studies were recently published on the stable carbon [1] and nitrogen [1,2] isotope fractionation during aerosol formation in N2-CH4 reactant mixture. To better constrain the fractionation effect of aerosol formation on the Titan atmosphere we have measured the isotopic fractionation induced in laboratory aerosol analogues produced exploring the space of parameters that are expected to have an effect on fractionation processes. Parameters studied include pressure and temperature of aerosol formation and the reactant gas phase composition, including the standard "Titan" mixture of CH4/N2 as well as other trace species such as benzene (C6H6).[1] Sebree, J.A., Stern, J.C., Mandt, K.E., Domagal-Goldman, S.D., and Trainer, M.G.: C and N Fractionation of CH /N Mixtures during Photochemical Aerosol Formation: Relevance to Titan, (2016) Icarus 270:421-428[2] Kuga, M., Carrasco, N., Marty, B., Marrochi, Y., Bernard, S., Rigaudier, T., Fleury, B., Tissandier, L.: Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles, (2014) EPSL 393:2-13

  7. Effect of Oxide Nanoparticles on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaccaria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the fabrication and characterization of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene (PVDF-CTFE nanofibrous separators for lithium-ion batteries loaded with different amounts of fumed-silica and tin oxide nanoparticles. Membrane morphological characterization (SEM, TEM showed the presence of good-quality nanofibres containing nanoparticles. Thermal degradation and membrane mechanical properties were also investigated, and a remarkable effect of nanoparticle addition on membrane mechanical properties was found. In particular, PEO membranes were strengthened by the addition of metal oxide, whereas PVDF-CTFE membranes acquired ductility.

  8. Determination of Kinetic Isotope Effects in Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase Using Transition Path Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    The experimental determination of kinetic isotope effects in enzymatic systems can be a difficult, time-consuming, and expensive process. In this study, we use the Chandler-Bolhius method for the determination of reaction rates within transition path sampling (rTPS) to determine the primary kinetic isotope effect in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). In this study, normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) was applied to the transferring hydride/deuteride in order to correctly incorporate quantum effects into the molecular simulations. Though previous studies have used rTPS to calculate reaction rate constants in various model and real systems, it has not been applied to a system as large as YADH. Due to the fact that particle transfer is not wholly indicative of the chemical step, this method cannot be used to determine reaction rate constants in YADH. However, it is possible to determine the transition rate constant of the particle transfer, and the kinetic isotope effect of that step. This method provides a set of tools to determine kinetic isotope effects with the atomistic detail of molecular simulations.

  9. Effect of Different Carbon Substrates on Nitrate Stable Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer; Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    .1 ± 0.8‰; ε18O, −23.7 ± 1.8‰ to −19.9 ± 0.8‰). The observed isotope effects did not depend on the growth kinetics which were similar for the three types of electron donors. We suggest that different carbon sources change the observed isotope enrichment factors by changing the relative kinetics...... of nitrate transport across the cell wall compared to the kinetics of the intracellular nitrate reduction step of microbial denitrification....

  10. Study on the Effect of the Separating Unit Optimization on the Economy of Stable Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic criterion called as yearly net profit of single separating unit (YNPSSU was presented to evaluate the influence of structure optimization on the economy. Using YNPSSU as a criterion, economic analysis was carried out for the structure optimization of separating unit in the case of separating SiF4 to obtain the 28Si and 29Si isotope. YNPSSU was calculated and compared with that before optimization. The results showed that YNPSSU was increased by 12.3% by the structure optimization. Therefore, the structure optimization could increase the economy of the stable isotope separation effectively.

  11. Rubidium isotope effect in superconducting Rb[sub 3]C[sub 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, B.; Crespi, V.H.; Zettl, A.; Cohen, M.L. (Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1994-06-06

    We have measured the resistive supercondeucting transition temperature in C[sub 60] single crystals intercalated with isotopically pure [sup 87]Rb and [sup 85]Rb and with natural abundance rubidium. We obtain a rubidium isotope effect exponent of [alpha][sub Rb]=[minus]0.028[plus minus]0.036, a result which implies that the Rb-C[sub 60] optic phonons play at most a minor role in the pairing mechanism of Rb[sub 3]C[sub 60].

  12. Increased Brain Lactate During Depressive Episodes and Reversal Effects by Lithium Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Bipolar Disorder: A 3-T 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zanetti, Marcus V; Otaduy, Maria C; De Sousa, Rafael T; Soeiro-de-Souza, Marcio G; Costa, Alana C; Carvalho, Andre F; Leite, Claudia C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment are key components in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and may involve a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Measurement of brain lactate in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) represents an important tool to evaluate mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction during mood episodes, as well as to monitor treatment response. To date, very few studies have quantified brain lactate in BD. In addition, no study has longitudinally evaluated lactate using H-MRS during depressive episodes or its association with mood stabilizer therapy. This study aimed to evaluate cingulate cortex (CC) lactate using 3-T H-MRS during acute depressive episodes in BD and the possible effects induced by lithium monotherapy. Twenty medication-free outpatients with short length of BD (80% drug-naive) in a current major depressive episode were matched with control subjects. Patients were treated for 6 weeks with lithium monotherapy at therapeutic doses in an open-label trial (blood level, 0.48 ± 0.19 mmol/L). Cingulate cortex lactate was measured before (week 0) and after lithium therapy (week 6) using H-MRS. Antidepressant efficacy was assessed with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as the primary outcome. Subjects with BD depression showed a significantly higher CC lactate in comparison to control subjects. Furthermore, a significant decrease in CC lactate was observed after 6 weeks of lithium treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.002). CC Lactate levels was associated with family history of mood disorders and plasma lithium levels. This is the first report of increased CC lactate in patients with bipolar depression and lower levels after lithium monotherapy for 6 weeks. These findings indicate a shift to anaerobic metabolism and a role for lactate as a state marker during mood episodes. Energy and redox dysfunction may represent key targets for lithium's therapeutic actions.

  13. Lithium an emerging contaminant: Bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.tkatcheva@gmail.com [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I.; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J. [Laboratory Service Branch (LaSB), Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC), Etobicoke, ON M9P 3V6 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada); Sherry, James P.; Simmons, Denina B.D. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Lithium is highly bioavailable and elevated in fish brain after 48 h of waterborne Li-exposure. • Elevated Li correlated with decreased Na and Ca, and resulted in down regulation of LDL and Ptgs2. • Increased expression of Atp7b and WDr38 was observed with increased Li-exposure. • We identify the need for data on the occurrence of Li in surface, waste and drinking waters. - Abstract: Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0 mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC–MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48 h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation.

  14. Isotope effect in the formation of H2 from H2CO studied at the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Koppmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde of known, near-natural isotopic composition was photolyzed in the SAPHIR atmosphere simulation chamber under ambient conditions. The isotopic composition of the product H2 was used to determine the isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis. The experiments are sensitive to the molecular photolysis channel, and the radical channel has only an indirect effect and cannot be effectively constrained. The molecular channel kinetic isotope effect KIEmol, the ratio of photolysis frequencies j(HCHO→CO+H2/j(HCDO→CO+HD at surface pressure, is determined to be KIEmol=1.63−0.046+0.038. This is similar to the kinetic isotope effect for the total removal of HCHO from a recent relative rate experiment (KIEtot=1.58±0.03, which indicates that the KIEs in the molecular and radical photolysis channels at surface pressure (≈100 kPa may not be as different as described previously in the literature.

  15. Isotopic Effect on the Kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Tiezzi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present results about the deuterium isotope effect on the globalkinetics of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in batch conditions. A nonlinear dependenceof the Induction Period upon the percentage of deuterated reactants was found. The isotopiceffect on the bromination reaction of malonic acid was evaluated.

  16. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O.; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin

    2001-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K-1 mol(-1...

  17. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  18. Lithium Toxicity in the Setting of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium toxicity is known to affect multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system. Lithium levels have been used in the diagnosis of toxicity and in assessing response to management. There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs can increase lithium levels and decrease renal lithium clearance. We present a case of lithium toxicity, which demonstrates this effect and also highlights the fact that lithium levels do not correlate with clinical improvement, especially the neurological deficit.

  19. Effect of Calcium Oxide Microstructure on the Diffusion of Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes Ramos, João Pedro; Stora, T

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) powder targets have been successfully used at CERN-ISOLDE to produce neutron deficient exotic argon and carbon isotopes under proton irradiation at high temperatures (>1000°C). These targets outperform the other related targets for the production of the same beams. However, they presented either slow release rates (yields) from the beginning or a rapid decrease over time. This problem was believed to come from the target microstructure degradation, justifying the material investigation. In order to do so, the synthesis, reactivity in ambient air and sintering kinetics of CaO were studied, through surface area determination by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction for crystalline phase identification and crystallite size determination, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure. The synthesis studies revealed that a nanometric material is obtained from the decarbonation of CaCO3 in vacuum at temperatures higher than 550°C, which is very reactive in air....

  20. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li4Ti5O12 electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Samin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li4Ti5O12 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced.

  1. Effects of Imipramine and Lithium on the Suppression of Cell Proliferation in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus in Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi,Maho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH treatment on the number of Ki-67-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rats. ACTH treatment for 14 days decreased the number of such cells. The administration of imipramine or lithium alone for 14 days had no effect in saline-treated rats. The effect of ACTH was blocked by the administration of imipramine. Furthermore, the coadministration of imipramine and lithium for 14 days significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells in both the saline and ACTH-treated rats. The coadministration of imipramine and lithium normalized the cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rats treated with ACTH.

  2. Effects of size and concentration on diffusion-induced stress in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zengsheng; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Lu, Chunsheng

    2016-07-01

    Capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries induced by chemo-mechanical degradation during charge-discharge cycles is the bottleneck in design of high-performance batteries, especially high-capacity electrode materials. Stress generated due to diffusion-mechanical coupling in lithium-ion intercalation and deintercalation is accompanied by swelling, shrinking, and even micro-cracking. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model for a cylindrical nanowire electrode by combining the bond-order-length-strength and diffusion theories. It is shown that size and concentration have a significant influence on the stress fields in radial, hoop, and axial directions. This can explain why a smaller electrode with a huge volume change survives in the lithiation/delithiation process.

  3. Effect of the environment on the corrosion of EUROFER97 by solid lithium breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.hernandez@ciemat.es; Fernández, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    EUROFER97 has been tested in contact with lithium silicates during 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks in a H{sub 2}/He atmosphere at 1 MPa. The results show a large interaction of the steel with the lithium ceramic breeder. The corroded samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance techniques and analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and microprobe. The results indicated that a corrosion layer formed on the EUROFER97 being of complex nature that is noticeable even a few hours of testing. The process begins with the Fe-dealloying of the EUROFER97 producing a layer enriched in Cr, which seems to retard the corrosion attack.

  4. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  5. Effect of sintering temperature on thermoelectric power of mixed lithium-zinc ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravinder, D. (Dept. of Physics, Coll. of Engineering, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric power of polycrystalline lithium-zinc ferrites having the compositional formula Li{sub 0.5-x/2}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2.5-x/2}O{sub 4} (where x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0), sintered at 1200, 1250 and, 1300degC has been investigated over the temperature range 300 to 450 K by the hot probe method. The Seebeck coefficient (Q) is found to decrease with increasing sintering temperature, whereas the carrier concentration (n) and the charge carrier mobility ({mu}) are found to increase with increasing sintering temperature. Among all the mixed lithium-zinc ferrites, the one having a zinc content of 0.6 mole has a minimum value of Seebeck coefficient and maximum value of charge carrier concentration. (orig.).

  6. Lithium Depletion in Solar-like Stars: Effect of Overshooting Based on Realistic Multi-dimensional Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Viallet, M.

    2017-08-01

    We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ∼50 Myr to ∼4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.

  7. Lithium in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  8. Isotope effects in the non enzymic glycation of hemoglobin catalyzed by DPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Herminia; Uzcategui, Jorge [Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela). Dept. de Quimica

    1993-12-31

    The paradigmatic reaction of glucose with hemoglobin (Hb A{sub o}) has been studied and is known to occur most rapidly at the N-terminal valine of the {beta}-subunit. An initial, rapid imine formation is succeeded by slower Amadori rearrangement. Non enzymic glycation of Hb A{sub o} was studied in vitro in buffer Tris 10 mM in H{sub 2} O and D{sub 2} O, pH 7.3, pD 7.8 at 37 deg C at a fixed concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG). The reaction exhibits identical rates in protium and deuterium oxides. When D-glucose-2-h is compared with D-glucose-2-d, the kinetic isotope effect for the DPG-dependent rate is 2.1 {+-} 0.3, while the DPG-independent rate constant shows no isotope effect (1.1 {+-} 0.1). The absence of a rate in isotopic water solvents shows that proton donation for solvent, lyons or DPG does not limit the rate. The substrate isotope effect of around 2 for the DPG kinetic term indicates that the proton abstraction step of the Amadori rearrangement by DPG is wholly or partially rate-limiting for this reaction. (author) 23 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Oxygen Isotope Effect and Structural Phase Transitions in La2CuO4-Based Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M K; Farneth, W E; McCarronn, E M; Harlow, R L; Moudden, A H

    1990-12-07

    The oxygen isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature (alpha(o)) varies as a function of x in La2-xSrxCuO(4) and La2-xBaxCuO(4), with the maximum alpha(o) values (alpha(o) >/= 0.5) found for x near 0.12. This unusual x dependence implies that the isotope effect is influenced by proximity to the Abma --> P4(2)/ncm structural phase transition in these systems. Synchrotron x-ray difaction measurements reveal little change in lattice parameters or orthorhombicity due to isotope exchange in strontium-doped materials where alpha(o) > 0.5, eliminating static structural distortion as a cause of the large isotope effects. The anomalous behavior of alpha(o) in both strontium- and barium-doped materials, in combination with the previously discovered Abma --> P4(2)/ncm structural phase-transition in La(1.88)B(0.12)CuO(4), suggests that an electronic contribution to the lattice instability is present and maximizes at approximately 1/8 hole per copper atom. These observations indicate a dose connection between hole doping of the Cu-O sheets, tilting instabilities of the CuO(6) octahedra, and superconductivity in La(2)CuO(4)-based superconductors.

  10. An unusual isotope effect in a high-transition-temperature superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, G-H; Sasagawa, T; Zhou, S Y; Graf, J; Takagi, H; Lee, D-H; Lanzara, A

    2004-07-08

    In conventional superconductors, the electron pairing that allows superconductivity is caused by exchange of virtual phonons, which are quanta of lattice vibration. For high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductors, it is far from clear that phonons are involved in the pairing at all. For example, the negligible change in T(c) of optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (Bi2212; ref. 1) upon oxygen isotope substitution (16O --> 18O leads to T(c) decreasing from 92 to 91 K) has often been taken to mean that phonons play an insignificant role in this material. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the electron dynamics of Bi2212 samples containing different oxygen isotopes, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our data show definite and strong isotope effects. Surprisingly, the effects mainly appear in broad high-energy humps, commonly referred to as 'incoherent peaks'. As a function of temperature and electron momentum, the magnitude of the isotope effect closely correlates with the superconducting gap--that is, the pair binding energy. We suggest that these results can be explained in a dynamic spin-Peierls picture, where the singlet pairing of electrons and the electron-lattice coupling mutually enhance each other.

  11. Effect of Transition Metal on the Electrochemical Performances of Some Intermetallic Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIE; Xinbing ZHAO; Gaoshao CAO; Mingjian ZHAO; Yaodong ZHONG

    2004-01-01

    Some transition metal antimonides were prepared by levitation melting and subsequent ball-milling. The electrochemical behaviors of these materials as new candidate negative electrode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were investigated. It was found that they exhibited significantly larger volumetric capacity than carbon-based materials. The formation and composition of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  12. The Effect of Pore Size of Nanoporous Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.J.Fu; G.J.Wang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results 3-dimensionally ordered mesoporous materials have been used as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries to improve their electrochemical performance by decreasing the polarization during cycling.Our synthesize nanoporous TiO2 particles without substrate present enhanced cycle performance compared with that of previous reports[1]. Here we report our results referring to that nanoporous TiO2 materials with different pore sizes exhibit different electrochemical performance.The detail procedu...

  13. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  14. Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li6) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, α nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li6 isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15-17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li6 isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li6 and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li2TiO3 pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper. Simulated lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles. The objective of the study is to develop a process which can be used to recover lithium value form the spent Li2TiO3 pebbles from future fusion reactor. The Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study were synthesized and fabricated by the solid state reaction process developed by Mandal et al. described in details somewhere else [1,2]. Spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 mm were used and the properties of the Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study are shown in Table 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), of 99.8% purity, purchased from Merck and Loba Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To leach lithium from Li2TiO3

  15. Effect of zwitterion on the lithium solid electrolyte interphase in ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N.; Howlett, P. C.; MacFarlane, D. R.; Smith, M. E.; Howes, A.; Hollenkamp, A. F.; Bastow, T.; Hale, P.; Forsyth, M.

    An understanding of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that forms on the lithium-metal surface is essential to the further development of rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. Currently, the formation of dendrites during cycling, which can lead to catastrophic failure of the cell, has mostly halted research on these power sources. The discovery of ionic liquids as electrolytes has rekindled the possibility of safe, rechargeable, lithium-metal batteries. The current limitation of ionic liquid electrolytes, however, is that when compared with conventional non-aqueous electrolytes the device rate capability is limited. Recently, we have shown that the addition of a zwitterion such as N-methyl- N-(butyl sulfonate) pyrrolidinium resulted in enhancement of the achievable current densities by 100%. It was also found that the resistance of the SEI layer in the presence of a zwitterion is 50% lower. In this study, a detailed chemical and electrochemical analysis of the SEI that forms in both the presence and absence of a zwitterion has been conducted. Clear differences in the chemical nature and also the thickness of the SEI are observed and these may account for the enhancement of operating current densities.

  16. The effect of polyaniline on TiO2 nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; Ncube, Ntombizodwa M; Raju, Kumar; Mphahlele, Nonhlanhla; Mathe, Mkhulu

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) additives have been shown to have a significant effect on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as lithium ion battery anode materials. TiO2/PANI composites were prepared using a solid coating method with different ratios of PANI and then characterized using XRD and SEM. These composites have shown increased reversible capacity compared with pure TiO2. At the current rate of 20 and 200 mAg(-1), maximum capacities were also found on 15 % PANI incorporated TiO2 composite with 281 mAh g(-1) and 168.2 mAh g(-1), respectively, and 230 and 99.6 mAh g(-1) were obtained in the case of pure TiO2. Among all the composite materials, 10 % PANI incorporated TiO2 composite exhibited the highest reversible capacity with cycle stability after 100 cycles at the current rate of 200 mAg(-1), suggestive that the optimal ratio is 10 % PANI of TiO2/polyaniline. The cycle stability showed swift fade when the ratio of PANI in the composites exceeded 10 % though the highest initial capacity was achieved on 15 % PANI in the composites. These results suggest that PANI has effectively enhanced the reversible capacity of commercial TiO2, and may be a promising polymer matrix materials for lithium ion batteries.

  17. Modeling the Effects of the Cathode Composition of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery on the Discharge Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Cho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based on a finite element method is presented to calculate the cell voltage change of a LFP battery cell during galvanostatic discharge. To test the validity of the modeling approach, the modeling results for the variations of the cell voltage of the LFP battery as a function of time are compared with the experimental measurements during galvanostatic discharge at various discharge rates of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1.0C, and 2.0C for three different compositions of the LFP cathode. The discharge curves obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. On the basis of the validated modeling approach, the effects of the cathode composition on the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell are estimated. The modeling results exhibit highly nonlinear dependencies of the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell on the discharge C-rate and cathode composition.

  18. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Seunghan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice-before and after crystallization-using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α = 0.05). Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold.

  19. Lithium an emerging contaminant: bioavailability, effects on protein expression, and homeostasis disruption in short-term exposure of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria; Poirier, David; Chong-Kit, Richard; Furdui, Vasile I; Burr, Christopher; Leger, Ray; Parmar, Jaspal; Switzer, Teresa; Maedler, Stefanie; Reiner, Eric J; Sherry, James P; Simmons, Denina B D

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide production of lithium (Li) has increased dramatically during the past decade, driven by the demand for high charge density batteries. Information about Li in the aquatic environment is limited. The present study was designed to explore the effects of Li in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed to a nominal concentration of 1.0mg Li/L in three separate exposures. Major ion concentrations were measured in brain and plasma by ion chromatography. Plasma proteins and fatty acids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Lithium accumulated in the brain and plasma. Arachidonic acid was elevated in plasma after 48h. Elevated concentrations of Li in brain were associated with depressed concentrations of sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium relative to the control. In plasma, sodium and calcium were also depressed. Several changes occurred to plasma proteins corresponding to Li exposure: inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2), increased expression of copper transporting ATP synthases, and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate elevated Li concentrations in fish brain, with associated effects on ion regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Lithium on Antiapoptotic Bcl-xL Protein Expression in Cortex and Hippocampus of Rats after Acute Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, N N; Bannova, A V; Sukhareva, E V; Shishkina, G T; Ayriyants, K A; Kalinina, T S

    2017-03-01

    The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL is involved in development of neurobiological resilience to stress; hence, the possibility of use of psychotropic drugs to increase its expression in brain in response to stress is of considerable interest. Lithium is a neurotropic drug widely used in psychiatry. In work, we studied effects of lithium administration (for 2 or 7 days) on the expression of Bcl-xL mRNA and protein in the hippocampi and cortices of rats subjected to stress that induced depression-like behavior in the animals. In contrast to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose expression decreased in the hippocampus in response to acute stress, stress increased the level of Bcl-xL mRNA in the hippocampus, but decreased it in the frontal cortex. Treatment of stressed animals with lithium for 2 or 7 days increased Bcl-xL protein levels 1.5-fold in the hippocampus, but it decreased them in the cortex. Therefore, Bcl-xL expression in the brain can be modulated by both stress and psychotropic drugs, and the effects of these factors are brain region-specific: both stress exposure and lithium administration activated Bcl-xL expression in the hippocampus and suppressed it in the frontal cortex. The activation of Bcl-xL expression in the hippocampus by lithium, demonstrated for the first time in this study, suggests an important role of this protein in the therapeutic effects of lithium in the treatment of stress-induced psychoemotional disorders.

  1. Is there a stable isotope evidence for the CO2 fertiliser effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Krishnamurthy; M Machavaram

    2000-03-01

    It has been suggested that part of the so-called ``missing sink" of carbon dioxide introduced into the atmosphere by anthropogenic activities, that is the imbalance between estimated anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and oceanic uptake, may be stored in the vegetation in midlatitudes. Precise mecha- nisms of abstraction of additional carbon dioxide by vegetation, also known as the ``fertilization effect", are poorly understood. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose extracted from annual growth rings (covering the time period 1980-1993) in an oak tree from Kalamazoo, SW Michigan provide a basis to investigate at a physiological level how the fertilization effect may operate. The carbon isotope ratios show that the intercellular concentration of carbon dioxide increased due to an increase in stomatal opening. Although increased intercellular concentration of carbon dioxide translated to increased Water Use Efficiency and assimilation rates, it also resulted in increased transpiration rate as shown by higher D/H of the fixed carbon. The two-fold significance of the isotope data are: first, they provide the first field evidence based on isotope studies for excess CO2 induced biomass production and second, they suggest that this mechanism is likely to operate only in limited environments. Vegetation in regions where mois- ture availability is not restricted so that there can be a gain in water use efficiency despite increased leaf evaporation are best suited to sequester excess carbon from the atmosphere.

  2. Quantum-instanton evaluation of the isotopic effects on the rate constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.

    2004-03-01

    We present a general quantum-mechanical method suitable for numerical evaluation of the isotopic effects on the rate constants of chemical reactions. Our method is based on the quantum instanton approximation [1-3] and on the path-integral Metropolis Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Boltzmann operator matrix elements. The method is more accurate than existing transition-state theory or semiclassical instanton method since we do not assume a single reaction path and do not use a semiclassical approximation of the Boltzmann operator. In order to calculate the isotopic effect we use a "charging algoritm," whereby the mass of the isotope is continuously changed from the initial to the final value. Direct calculation of the isotopic ratio turns out to be much more efficient than finding the absolute rate constants first and then calculating their ratio. While the Monte-Carlo implementation should make the method accessible to systems with a larger number of atoms, we present numerical results for the Eckart barrier and for the reactions H + H2 arrow H2 + H and H + DH arrow HD + H. [1] W.H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and Sandy Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003). [2] T. Yamamoto and W.H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. (in press). [3] Y. Zhao, T. Yamamoto, and W.H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. (in press).

  3. Soil Drying Effects on the Carbon Isotope Composition of Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. L.; Nickerson, N.; Risk, D.; Kayler, Z. E.; Rugh, W.; Mix, A. C.; Bond, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    -steady-state effects are necessary to avoid spurious correlations between measured δ13CO2 and soil moisture. A third experiment, using closed-system soil incubations to avoid non-steady state mixing with atmospheric CO2, indicates that the isotopic composition of microbial soil respiration appears to be unchanging under a large range of soil moisture contents.

  4. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph; Jost, Rémy; Bhattacharya, S K; Johnson, Matthew S; Savarino, Joël

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. ["Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ((15)N, (17)O, and (18)O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ(15)N, δ(18)O, and Δ(17)O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of (15)ɛ = (-15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of (15)ɛ = (-47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from -40 to -74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of (14)NO3 (-) and (15)NO3 (-) in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the

  5. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Meusinger, Carl; Erbland, Joseph; Jost, Rémy; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Savarino, Joël

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. ["Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate (15N, 17O, and 18O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of 15ɛ = (-15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of 15ɛ = (-47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from -40 to -74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of 14NO3- and 15NO3- in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well

  6. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rémy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from −40 to −74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying

  7. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  8. Effect of renal nerve activity on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in dog kidneys as determined by the lithium clearance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the lithium clearance method in studies of the effect of renal nerve activity upon tubular sodium and water handling in the dog kidney was investigated. Following unilateral acute surgical denervation of the kidney a significant increase in urinary flow rate (40 +/- 7%), sodium...... reabsorption of sodium and water increased significantly by 9 +/- 2% and 8 +/- 2%. Low-frequency electrical stimulation of the distal nerve bundle of the denervated kidney caused a significant decrease in urine flow rate (37 +/- 6%), sodium clearance (31 +/- 4%), lithium clearance (17 +/- 5%) and in fractional...... lithium clearance (18 +/- 5%). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate increased significantly by 17 +/- 3%, while calculated absolute rates of distal sodium and water reabsorption decreased significantly by 16 +/- 5% and 16 +/- 5%. These changes in tubular sodium and water reabsorption during...

  9. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  10. Occurrence, exposure, effects, recommended intake and possible dietary use of selected trace compounds (aluminium, bismuth, cobalt, gold, lithium, nickel, silver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolara, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Minerals, metals, clays and rocks were widely used by physicians in the past. However, it was and it is well known that some inorganic elements at high dosage may have curative effects but also serious toxicity. The effects at low or ultra-low concentrations, on the contrary, are less documented, but the idea that low dosage supplementation might be beneficial to human health is widespread even in the present period. The main information about aluminium, bismuth, cobalt, gold, lithium, nickel and silver was selected and evaluated from a vast body of medical literature. In modern times, most elements are proposed for human use at levels comparable with normal dietary intake, probably for precautionary considerations. Some inorganic trace compounds might have unexpected effects at extremely low dosages, but scientific demonstrations of beneficial effects of supplementation are mostly not available in the medical literature.

  11. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  12. Femtometer accuracy EXAFS measurements: Isotopic effect in the first, second and third coordination shells of germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purans, J; Timoshenko, J; Kuzmin, A [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Dalba, G; Fornasini, P; Grisenti, R; Afify, N D [Dip. di Fisica dell' Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Rocca, F [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR, Sezione ' FBK-CeFSA' di Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); De Panfilis, S [Research Center Soft INFM-CNR, c/o Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Ozhogin, I [Institute of Molecular Physics, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tiutiunnikov, S I, E-mail: purans@cfi.lu.l [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15

    The analysis of the EXAFS signals from {sup 70}Ge and {sup 76}Ge has evidenced the low-temperature effect of isotopic mass difference on the amplitude of relative atomic vibrations. This effect is reflected in the difference of the Debye-Waller factors of the first three coordination shells, and on the difference of nearest-neighbour average interatomic distances, evaluated with femtometer accuracy. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical expectations.

  13. The effect of lithium administration in a diet on the chosen parameters of the antioxidant barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena; Wrońiska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in metabolic processes can cause severe lesions. The organisms' defense constitutes the antioxidant barrier. Antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) belong to its main constituents. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause negative side-effects. Therefore, we investigated Li oral intoxication influence on SOD and GPx activity in serum and tissues of rats in the dependence on time (three-weeks and six-weeks). In serum SOD activity vs. control increased after three weeks and decreased after six, GPx activity vs. control was changed in reverse way--diminished after three weeks and enhanced after six. In tissues the changes were diverse. The most interesting results are: the decrease of both enzymes in the spleen, no changes of SOD in the brain, the enhanced GPx and diminished SOD in the kidney, the increased SOD in the liver vs. control during the whole experiment. In serum, femoral muscle and kidney during all the exposure the increment of one of enzymes was accompanied with the depletion of the other. The obtained outcomes allow to suggest that the lithium exposure resulted in antioxidant barrier disturbances in rats.

  14. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Digital Game and Animation Design, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li{sub x}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}NbO{sub 3} (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 14.3 μC/cm{sup 2}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  15. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  16. Effects of lithium on water intake and renal concentrating ability in rats with vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S

    1983-02-01

    Male and female Long Evan rats and Brattleboro rats with ADH-deficient diabetes insipidus were treated with lithium administered in the diet for 12 weeks. The plasma lithium level was about 1 mmol/l in all groups. Lithium caused polydipsia and polyuria and lowering of renal concentrating ability in normal rats. In rats with ADH deficiency lithium tended to increase water intake, but did not influence spontaneous urine osmolality or maximal urine osmolality during water deprivation. The results indicate that the renal concentrating defect caused by lithium in rats can be explained by ADH-blockade as the only mechanism. However, there is circumstantial evidence that lithium in addition may stimulate thirst mechanisms by an ADH-independent action.

  17. Cooper pair breaking and isotope effect coefficient variation in high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Pandey, R.K.; Singh, P. [G.B. Pant Univ. Pantanagar, Nainital (India)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of pair breaking on the isotope effect coefficient a = {minus}d ln T{sub c}/d ln M in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and Pr-, Ca-, and Zn-doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} is studied using the generalized Abrikosov-Gorkov theory recently employed by Singh and Kishore for superconductivity. It is argued that the isotope effect coefficient a can be further enhanced, in agreement with experimental observation, by considering the dependence of the characteristic scattering time {tau}{sub s} for Cooper pairs on the concentration n of impurities (both magnetic and nonmagnetic) and the disorder ignored by them.

  18. Effect of Li3PO4 coating of layered lithium-rich oxide on electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongrui; Zheng, Feng; Li, Liu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xiaoxin; Li, Weishan; Lu, Li

    2017-02-01

    A novel composite of layered lithium-rich oxide, Li-Rich@Li3PO4, coated with Li3PO4 is synthesized through polydopamine template method. Physical characterizations reveal that Li-Rich@Li3PO4 is composed of nanoparticles of 100-200 nm that are coated with a uniform Li3PO4 layer of about 5 nm in thickness. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests demonstrate enhanced cycling stability and largely increased rate capability of the material after Li3PO4 coating.

  19. Effects of graphite on Zn-Sb alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of multiphases Zn4Sb3C7 and ZnSbC2 as new lithium-ion anode materials wereinvestigated. The composition and microstructures of these multiphase materials were analyzed by XRD and TEM. It wasfound that the addition of graphite modifies the microstructures of pure alloys. The capacities and the cycle stability of theanodes are greatly improved. The reversible capacity of Zn4Sb3C7 reaches as high as 510 mAh/g at the first cycle, andkeeps higher than 300 mAh/g after 10 charge/discharge cycles

  20. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  1. Electrochemical Effects of Atomic Layer Deposition on Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Isaac David

    One of the greatest challenges of modern society is to stabilize a consistent energy supply that will meet our growing energy demand while decreasing the use of fossil fuels and the harmful green house gases which they produce. Developing reliable and safe solutions has driven research into exploring alternative energy sources for transportation including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For the foreseeable future, though, rechargeable batteries appear to be the most practically viable power source. To deploy LIBs in next-generation vehicles, it is essential to develop electrodes with durability, high energy density, and high power. Unfortunately, the power capability of LIBs is generally hindered by Li+-ion diffusion in micrometer-sized materials and the formation of an insulating solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the active material. In addition, degradation of the battery material due to chemical and electrochemical reactions with the electrolyte lead to both capacity fade and safety concerns both at room and higher temperatures. The current study focuses on mitigating these issues for high voltage cathode materials by both using nanoscale particles to improve Li+-ion diffusion and using ultrathin nanoscale coatings to protect the battery materials from undesirable side reactions. The electrode material is coated with Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a method to grow conformal thin films with atomic thickness (angstrom level control) using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. First, nano-LiCoO 2 is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ALD coatings and demonstrates a profound increase in rate performance (>250% improvement) over generally employed micrometer-sized particles. Second, the cathode materials LiNi 0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiNi0.33Mn 0.33Co0.33O2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were used to demonstrate the benefits ALD coatings have on thermal runaway. The results show a

  2. The effect of bonding environment on iron isotope fractionation between minerals at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.

    2017-01-01

    Central to understanding the processes that drive stable isotope fractionation in nature is their quantification under controlled experimental conditions. The polyvalent element iron, given its abundance in terrestrial rocks, exerts controls on the structural and chemical properties of minerals and melts. The iron isotope compositions of typical high temperature minerals are, however, poorly constrained and their dependence on intensive (e.g. fO2) and extensive (e.g. compositional) variables is unknown. In this work, experiments involving a reference phase, 2 M FeCl2·4H2O(l), together with an oxide mix corresponding to the bulk composition of the chosen mineral were performed in a piston cylinder in Ag capsules. The oxide mix crystallised in situ at 1073 K and 1 GPa, in equilibrium with the iron chloride, and was held for 72 h. In order to characterise the effect of co-ordination and oxidation state on the isotope composition independently, exclusively Fe2+ minerals were substituted in: VIII-fold almandine, VI-fold ilmenite, fayalite and IV-fold chromite and hercynite. Δ57FeMin-FeCl2 increases in the order VIII ion. The composition of the VIFe2+-bearing minerals is similar to that of the aqueous FeCl2 fluid. To the degree that this represents the speciation of iron in fluids exsolving from magmas, the fractionation between them should be small, unless the iron is hosted in magnetite. By contrast, predominantly Fe2+-bearing mantle garnets should preserve a much lighter δ57Fe than their lower pressure spinel counterparts, a signature that may be reflected in partial melts from these lithologies. As the Fe-O bond lengths in fayalite and ilmenite are comparable, their isotope compositions overlap, suggesting that high Ti mare basalts acquired their heavy isotopic signature from ilmenite that crystallised late during lunar magma ocean solidification.

  3. Temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect in β-pinene ozonolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, Iulia; Laumer, Werner; Stein, Olaf; Kammer, Beatrix; Hohaus, Thorsten; Saathoff, Harald; Wegener, Robert; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2011-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of β-pinene ozonolysis was investigated experimentally at 258, 273 and 303 K in the AIDA atmospheric simulation chamber. Compound specific carbon isotopic analysis of gas phase samples was performed off-line with a Thermo Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-IRMS) system. From the temporal behavior of the δ13C of β-pinene a KIE of 1.00358 ± 0.00013 was derived at 303 K, in agreement with literature data. Furthermore, KIE values of 1.00380 ± 0.00014 at 273 K and 1.00539 ± 0.00012 at 258 K were determined, showing an increasing KIE with decreasing temperature. A parameterization of the observed KIE temperature dependence was deduced and used in a sensitivity study carried out with the global chemistry transport model MOZART-3. Two scenarios were compared, the first neglecting, the second implementing the KIE temperature dependence in the simulations. β-Pinene stable carbon isotope ratio and concentration were computed, with emphasis on boreal zones. For early spring it is shown that when neglecting the temperature dependence of KIE, the calculated average age of β-pinene in the atmosphere can be up to two times over- or underestimated. The evolution of the isotopic composition of the major β-pinene oxidation product, nopinone, was examined using Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) simulations. The tested hypothesis that formation of nopinone and its associated KIE are the determining factors for the observed δ13C values of nopinone is supported at high β-pinene conversion levels.

  4. The effect of paleoecology and paleobiogeography on stable isotopes of Quaternary mammals from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Prado, José Luis; Alberdi, María Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The modern South American mammalian assemblage was determined by the closure of the Panama isthmus (˜2.7-3.1 Ma) and later on, by profound climatic and environmental fluctuations occurred during the Quaternary as well as by the appearance of humans in the continent. In the present study, stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δO and δO) have been carried out on Pleistocene-Holocene northern inmigrant and endemic taxa from a broad latitudinal and altitudinal distribution in South America with the purpose of characterizing their paleoecology and the effects of the paleobiogeographic distribution on stable isotope results. Equids and gomphotheres show a wide range of δ13C values going from woodlands to pure C4 grasslands. In the case of equids, Hippidion shows lower δ13C values than Equus in the Late Pleistocene, whereas, in the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon differ in their δ18O values on account on differences in their paleobiogeography with the former found in the Andean corridor and the latter dispersing through an eastern route. Isotope data of the rest of taxa (immigrant and endemic) are in general in good agreement with other previous isotopic and non-isotopic studies. The latitude threshold between mixed C3-C4 and pure C3 conditions have been pinpointed at ˜33°S in the Middle and the Late Pleistocene. Mammalian δ18O values are intimately related to latitudinal and altitudinal distribution, with the latter exerting an overriding influence independently of latitude. Calculated altitudinal gradients (between -0.23‰/100 m and -0.40‰/100 m) are within the range of modern gradients.

  5. Enzymatic Kinetic Isotope Effects from Path-Integral Free Energy Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J

    2016-01-01

    Path-integral free energy perturbation (PI-FEP) theory is presented to directly determine the ratio of quantum mechanical partition functions of different isotopologs in a single simulation. Furthermore, a double averaging strategy is used to carry out the practical simulation, separating the quantum mechanical path integral exactly into two separate calculations, one corresponding to a classical molecular dynamics simulation of the centroid coordinates, and another involving free-particle path-integral sampling over the classical, centroid positions. An integrated centroid path-integral free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling (PI-FEP/UM, or simply, PI-FEP) method along with bisection sampling was summarized, which provides an accurate and fast convergent method for computing kinetic isotope effects for chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. The PI-FEP method is illustrated by a number of applications, to highlight the computational precision and accuracy, the rule of geometrical mean in kinetic isotope effects, enhanced nuclear quantum effects in enzyme catalysis, and protein dynamics on temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects.

  6. Effects of preservatives on stable isotope analyses of four marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabel, Sirka; Verísimo, Patricia; Freire, Juan

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of formalin-ethanol preservation on the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of four taxonomical groups of marine species ( Himanthalia elongata, Anemonia sulcata, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Patella vulgata). To examine temporal changes in the effects of preservation and to determine if preservation induced predictable shifts in δ13C and δ15N signatures, repeated analyses were carried out after 6, 12 and 24 months of preservation. Data from our study showed highly variable effects of the formalin-ethanol preservation on carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures between species. The use of a general correction factor was not possible, or else it should be species-specific. Differences in nitrogen isotopic values between preserved and unpreserved samples were minor compared to the assumed enrichment between trophic levels. The combined use of data from preserved and unpreserved samples could lead to biases in the estimation of the trophic level of organisms. Changes that preservatives caused in carbon values were variable between species and not always small enough to be ignored. So the use of data from preserved samples could change the interpretation of the mixing models used to determine the importance of multiple sources of carbon. In order to elucidate the effects that preservatives have in other species, further studies will be necessary.

  7. Kinetic isotope effects in the OH and Cl reactions of the clumped methane species 13CH3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Magnus

    Methane is an potent greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases in its influence on Earth’s radiative budget. Although less abundant in the atmosphere, methane’s global warming potential is about twentyeight times that of carbon dioxide. Sources of methane...... at significantly different temperatures, therefore, the clumped isotope signatures of methane can be used to identify the process by which the gas was formed. Clumped isotopes can thus be a helpful tool in refining the budget of atmospheric methane. However, the isotopic composition of the atmospheric methane pool....... As is proven in the current research project, the clumped isotopes are removed by oxidation mechanisms at a slower rate. The residual methane pool is therefore enriched in clumped isotopes compared to the methane from the sources. In order to construct a top-down budget of methane, the clumped kinetic effect...

  8. Lithium in Stellar Atmospheres: Observations and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.

    2016-09-01

    Of all the light elements, lithium is the most sensitive indicator of stellar evolution. This review discusses current data on the abundance of lithium in the atmospheres of A-, F-, G-, and K-stars of different types, as well as the consistency of these data with theoretical predictions. The variety of observed Li abundances is illustrated by the following objects in different stages of evolution: (1) Old stars in the galactic halo, which have a lithium abundance logɛ(Li)=2.2 (the "lithium plateau") that appears to be 0.5 dex lower than the primordial abundance predicted by cosmological models. (2) Young stars in the galactic disk, which have been used to estimate the contemporary initial lithium abundance logɛ(Li)=3.2±0.1 for stars in the Main sequence. Possible sources of lithium enrichment in the interstellar medium during evolution of the galaxy are discussed. (3) Evolving FGK dwarfs in the galactic disk, which have lower logɛ(Li) for lower effective temperature T eff and mass M. The "lithium dip" near T eff ~6600 K in the distribution of logɛ(Li) with respect to T eff in old clusters is discussed. (4) FGK giants and supergiants, of which most have no lithium at all. This phenomenon is consistent with rotating star model calculations. (5) Lithium rich cold giants with logɛ(Li) ≥ 2.0, which form a small, enigmatic group. Theoretical models with rotation can explain the existence of these stars only in the case of low initial rotation velocities V 0 synthesis of lithium (capture of a giant planet is an alternative). (6) Magnetic Ap-stars, where lithium is concentrated in spots located at the magnetic poles. There the lithium abundance reaches logɛ(Li)=6. Discrepancies between observations and theory are noted for almost all the stars discussed in this review.

  9. Hydrogen isotope effect on storage behavior of U2Ti and UZr2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Sawant, S. G.; Rajan, M. B.; Dhanuskar, J. R.; Kaity, Santu; Parida, S. C.

    2013-11-01

    U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys were prepared by arc melting method, vacuum annealed and characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX methods. Hydrogen isotope effect on the storage behavior of these alloys were studied by measuring the hydrogen/deuterium desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) profiles in the temperature range of 573-678 K using a Sievert's type volumetric apparatus. It was observed that, in the temperature and pressure range of investigation, all the isotherms show a single desorption plateau. The PCT data reveals that both U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys had normal isotope effects on hydrogen/deuterium desorption at all experimental temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters for dehydrogenation and dedeuteration reactions of the corresponding hydrides and deuterides of the above alloys were deduced from the PCT data.

  10. Neutron skin effect of some Mo isotopes in pre-equilibrium reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Bölükdemir; E Tel; S Okuducu; N N Akti

    2011-03-01

    The neutron skin effect has been investigated for even isotopes of molybdenum at 25.6 MeV 94−100Mo(, ) reaction using the geometry-dependent hybrid model of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. Here the initial neutron/proton exciton numbers were calculated from the neutron/proton densities obtained from an effective nucleon–nucleon interaction of the Skyrme type. Initial exciton numbers from different radii of even Mo isotopes were used to obtain the corresponding neutron emission spectra. In this investigation the calculated results are compared with the experimental data as also with each other. The results using central densities in the geometry-dependent hybrid model are in better agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Tritium isotope effect in high-performance liquid chromatography of eicosanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, U.H.; Lo, S.-L.; Iles, J.; Rosenberger, T.; Tam, P.; Hong, Y.; Ahern, D. [DuPont, NEN Products, Boston (United States). Lipids Group

    1994-07-01

    A significant difference in retention time between unlabeled and the corresponding multi-tritium-labeled eicosanoid has been observed in the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of 11 eicosanoids. Variations in retention time range from 3-7%, depending on the separation conditions as well as the number and position of the tritium substitution. Multi-tritium-labeled eicosanoids were eluted earlier than the corresponding unlabeled eicosanoid in reversed phase HPLC, whereas no isotope effect was seen with {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H{sub 2}-eicosanoids. Considerations must be given to this tritium isotope effect whenever both multi-tritium-labeled and unlabeled eicosanoids are used for HPLC cochromatography or recovery studies. (author).

  12. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Zhang, J; Chi, Q;

    2001-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K(-1) mol(-1...... dependence of E(0') is also different, yielding entropy changes of -57 J K(-1) mol(-1) in water and -84 J K(-1) mol(-1) in deuterium oxide. The driving force difference of 10 mV is in keeping with the kinetic isotope effect, but the contribution to DeltaS from the temperature dependence of E(0') is positive...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and effect of crystallinity for silicon monoxide negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kouji; Kashitani, Yusuke; Kizaki, Shingo; Takeshita, Kohki; Fujita, Takehisa; Shimosaki, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The electrochemical behavior of SiO negative electrodes for lithium ion batteries is thermodynamically and experimentally investigated. The analysis of the reaction pathway and the calculation of the reaction potentials during the Li insertion/extraction reactions are carried out by the construction of the ternary phase diagram for the Li-Si-O system. In the initial reaction of Li insertion, metallic Si and lithium silicates are formed above 0.37 V vs. Li/Li+ as a conversion reaction of the SiO negative electrode. Further Li insertion produces Li-Si alloys as reversible reaction phases. The decomposition of the Li4SiO4 phase begins before the formation of the Li-Si alloy is completed. The measured electrode behavior of the SiO negative electrode basically agrees with the thermodynamic calculations, especially at a low reaction rate; deviations can be ascribed to kinetic factors and electrode resistance. The values of over 1898 mA h g-1 and 71.0% were obtained for the discharge capacity and the coulombic efficiency, respectively. Furthermore, the overvoltage for an amorphous SiO electrode was smaller than that for a disproportionated SiO electrode into Si and SiO2 phases.

  14. Effect of Different Luting Agents on the Retention of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mobilio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No studies are available that evaluate the retention of disilicate crowns according to different cementation procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the retention of lithium disilicate crowns cemented using two different cementation systems. Twenty extracted mandibular premolars were prepared. Anatomic crowns were waxed and hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. Teeth were divided into two groups (n = 10: (1 self-curing luting composite and (2 glass-ionomer cement (GIC. After cementation, the crowns were embedded in acrylic resin block with a screw base. Each specimen was pulled along the path of insertion in Universal Testing Machine. Failure load in Newtons (N and failure mode were recorded for each specimen. Failure mode was classified as decementation or fracture. Failure load data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Failure modes were compared using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Mean failure load was 306.6(±193.8 N for composite group and 94.7(±48.2 N for GIC group (p = 0.004. Disilicate crown cemented with luting composite most often failed by fracture; otherwise, crown cemented with glass-ionomer cement most often failed by decementation (p = 0.02. Disilicate full crown cemented with luting composite showed higher failure load compared with conventional cementation with glass-ionomer cement.

  15. Effect of copper oxide on structure and physical properties of lithium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, I.; Ratep, A.

    2015-09-01

    Copper-doped Lead lithium borate glass samples with the composition of (35- x) Pb3O4- xCuO-65Li2B4O7, where x = 5, 10, 15 or 20 mol%, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Glass-forming ability, density, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and structural properties of lead lithium borate glasses have been investigated. IR spectroscopic data show that the copper ions play the role of glass modifier. Addition of CuO influences BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. Density is expressed in terms of the structural modifications that take place in glass matrix. The increase in Tg reflects an increase in bond strength, and samples obtain more rigid glass structure. Electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility χ data show a variable behavior with the increase in the copper content in two valance states Cu+ and Cu+2. In addition, optical properties depend on the change of the role of copper ions in the samples' structure. Optical energy band gap E opt and Urbach energy E tail are determined. The increase in E opt and UV cutoff with an increase in CuO content is due to the decrease in non-bridging oxygen concentration. The decrease in E tail at higher concentrations is attributed to the copper ion accumulation in the interstitial positions and to the formation of orthoborate groups. These samples are suitable for the green light longpass filters.

  16. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2011-05-19

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Phase diagram and isotopic effect in high-Tc pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianhui

    2010-03-01

    We will talk about the discovery of superconductivity with Tc higher than 40 K in Fe-based superconductors SmFeAsO1-xF. Tc higher than McMillan limit of 39 K definitely proves pnictide superconductors high-Tc superconductivity^1,2. In this talk, we present the transport properties: resistivity, Hall coefficient and transport properties under high magnetic field. These results suggest a quantum phase transition around x=0.14 in SmFeAsO1-xFx system. A electronic phase diagram is proposed, and coexistence of superconductivity and spin-density-wave is observed in Sm-1111 and Ba-122 system. We discuss the effect of isotopic effect on TC and TSDW in SmFeAsO1-xFx and Ba1-xKxFe2As2 systems. Our results show that oxygen isotope effect on TC and TSDW is very little, while the iron isotope exponent is about 0.35. Surprisingly, the iron isotope exchange shows the same effect on SDW transition as on superconductivity. Our results indicate that electron-phonon interaction plays some role in the superconducting mechanism, but simple electron-phonon coupling mechanism seems to be rather unlikely because a strong magnon-phonon coupling is included^3. 1. Chen, X. H. et al. Nature 453, 761-762 (2008). 2. Liu, R. H. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087001 (2008). 3. R. H. Liu et al., Nature 459, 64-67(2009).

  18. Kinetic Isotope Effects (KIE) and Density Functional Theory (DFT): A Match Made in Heaven?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Johan; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Determination of experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIE) is one of the most useful tools for the exploration of reaction mechanisms in organometallic chemistry. The approach has been further strengthened during the last decade with advances in modern computational chemistry. This allows for th...... reaction). The approach is highlighted by using recent examples from both stoichiometric and catalytic reactions, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, and enzyme catalysis to illustrate the expected accuracy and utility of this approach....

  19. Isotope effects in dense solid hydrogen - Phase transition in deuterium at 190 + or - 20 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Raman measurements of solid normal deuterium compressed in a diamond-anvil cell indicate that the material undergoes a structural phase transformation at 190 + or - 20 GPa and 77 K. Spectroscopically, the transition appears analogous to that observed in hydrogen at 145 + or - 5 GPa. The large isotope effect on the transition pressure suggests there is a significant vibrational contribution to the relative stability of the solid phases of hydrogen at very high densities.

  20. The power of integrating kinetic isotope effects into the formalism of the Michaelis-Menten equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinman, Judith P

    2014-01-01

    The final arbiter of enzyme mechanism is the ability to establish and test a kinetic mechanism. Isotope effects play a major role in expanding the scope and insight derived from the Michaelis-Menten equation. The integration of isotope effects into the formalism of the Michaelis-Menten equation began in the 1970s and has continued until the present. This review discusses a family of eukaryotic copper proteins, including dopamine β-monooxygenase, tyramine β-monooxygenase and peptidylglycine α-amidating enzyme, which are responsible for the synthesis of neuroactive compounds, norepinephrine, octopamine and C-terminally carboxamidated peptides, respectively. The review highlights the results of studies showing how combining kinetic isotope effects with initial rate parameters permits the evaluation of: (a) the order of substrate binding to multisubstrate enzymes; (b) the magnitude of individual rate constants in complex, multistep reactions; (c) the identification of chemical intermediates; and (d) the role of nonclassical (tunnelling) behaviour in C-H activation. © 2013 FEBS.

  1. Isotopic Effects on Stereodynamics of the C+ + H2 → CH+ + H Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Yang, Yun-Fan; Fan, Xiao-Xing; Ma, Feng-Cai; Li, Yong-Qing

    2017-05-01

    The effects of isotope substitution on stereodynamic properties for the reactions {C}++{H}2/{H D}/{H T}\\to {{C H}}++H/D/T have been studied applying a quasi classical trajectory method occurring on the new ground state {{C H}}2+ potential energy surface [J. Chem. Phys. 142 (2015) 124302]. In the center of mass coordinates applying the quasi classical trajectory method to investigate the orientation and the alignment of the product molecule. Differential cross section and three angle distribution functions P(θr), P(ϕr), P( {θ }r,{φ }r ) on the potential energy surface that fixed the collision energy with a value is 40 kcal/mol have been studied. The isotope effect becomes more and more important with the reagent molecules H 2 changing into HD and HT. P({θ }r,{φ }r) as the joint probability density function of both polar angles θ r and ϕ r , which can illustrate more detailed dynamics information. The isotope effect is obvious influence on the properties of stereodynamics in the reactions of {C}++{H}2/{H D}/{H T}\\to {{C H}}++H/D/T. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11474141, 11274149, 11544015, the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University under Grant No. LJQ2015040, and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry (2014-1685)

  2. Isotopic quantum effects on the structure of low density amorphous ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, J [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Benmore, C J [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Neuefeind, J [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tomberli, B [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Tulk, C A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Guthrie, M [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Egelstaff, P A [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Klug, D D [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, K0A 0R6 (Canada)

    2003-06-11

    Careful neutron diffraction measurements on deuterated low density amorphous (LDA) ice confirm that at 120 K it can be considered a fully 'annealed' structure, as no significant changes are observed in the amorphous spectra until crystallization occurred over time at 130 K. On this basis, the measurement of structural differences between the hydrogenated and deuterated forms of LDA ice at 120 K, have been carried out using 98 keV electromagnetic radiation diffraction techniques. The maximum observed isotope effect in LDA ice is {approx} 3.4% at 40 K when compared to the magnitude of the first peak in the electronic structure factor at Q = 1.70 A{sup -1}. This compares to a maximum effect of {approx} 1.6% previously measured in liquid water at room temperature (Tomberli et al 2000 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 12 2597). The isotope effect is shown to be similar to a temperature shift in the structure of light LDA ice. However, the existence of a first sharp diffraction peak at Q = 1.0 A{sup -1} in the isotopic difference function is not reproduced in the temperature difference and suggests that additional longer-range correlations are present in the more ordered deuterated form.

  3. Isotopic quantum effects on the structure of low density amorphous ice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, J.; Benmore, C. J.; Neuefeind, J.; Tomberli, B.; Tulk, C. A.; Egelstaff, P. A.; Klug, D.D.; CHM; IPNS; APS-USR

    2003-06-11

    Careful neutron diffraction measurements on deuterated low density amorphous (LDA) ice confirm that at 120 K it can be considered a fully ''annealed'' structure, as no significant changes are observed in the amorphous spectra until crystallization occurred over time at 130 K. On this basis, the measurement of structural differences between the hydrogenated and deuterated forms of LDA ice at 120 K, have been carried out using 98 keV electromagnetic radiation diffraction techniques. The maximum observed isotope effect in LDA ice is {approx} 3.4% at 40 K when compared to the magnitude of the first peak in the electronic structure factor at Q = 1.70 {angstrom}{sup -1}. This compares to a maximum effect of {approx} 1.6% previously measured in liquid water at room temperature (Tomberli et al 2000 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 12 2597). The isotope effect is shown to be similar to a temperature shift in the structure of light LDA ice. However, the existence of a first sharp diffraction peak at Q = 1.0 {angstrom}{sup -1} in the isotopic difference function is not reproduced in the temperature difference and suggests that additional longer-range correlations are present in the more ordered deuterated form.

  4. Effect of concentration of lithium ions on the voltammetric responses of nitro-substituted aromatic sulfides in dimethylformamide on glassy carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellammal, S.; Noel, M.; Anantharaman, P. N.

    Lithium salts are used as supporting electrolytes and ion-pair forming reagents during voltammetric investigations in aprotic solvents. In the present work, these ions are found to have a significant influence on the voltammetric responses of aromatic sulfides in dimethylformamide given their concentration and the cathodic potential limits applied. At very low concentrations (reduction of nitro groups on the electrode surface. This is the conventional lithium ion-pair formation effect reported in the literature. With increasing lithium ion concentration and increasing cathodic limit, the ion-pairs tend to form an insoluble salt film on the electrode surface. This leads to inhibition of further electron transfer. The inhibiting effect does not seem to correlate with the size of the reactant organic molecule involved. At cathodic potential limits exceeding - 2 V, lithium ions appear to undergo direct reduction and subsequent reaction with trace levels of water in the solvent to produce a passive LiOH layer. This inhibits all further electron transfer.

  5. Mg isotopes in biocarbonates: new insight into vital effects associated to echinoderms and bivalves calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, F.; Hermans, J.; Borremans, C.; Dubois, P.; Poulain, C.; Paulet, Y.; Andre, L.

    2007-12-01

    Mg isotopes can be helpful tracers to reveal the fundamental pathways of Mg incorporation during biomineralisation. We report in this study a detailed characterisation of the Mg isotopic signatures of different biominerals: high magnesium calcitic skeletons of selected echinoderms (sea urchins and starfish) and low magnesium aragonitic shells of a bivalve species (clam). State of the art analytical procedures were applied including sample purification step followed by high precision measurements using MC-ICP-MS (Nu instrument) in dry plasma conditions. 26Mg/24Mg and 25Mg/24Mg are expressed as per mil deviations from the DSM3 (Dead Sea Metal 3) reference standard in delta notation (d26Mg and d25Mg). For echinoderms, we considered: (a) adult specimens of six starfish species (Asteria r., Marthasterias g., Anseropoda p., Asterina g., Echinaster s. and Henricia o.), sampled in Brittany (France); (b) a sea urchin species (Paracentrotus lividus) with field samples (Mediterranean Sea, Marseille, France) and culture specimen under T and S controlled conditions. In vivo endoskeletons display negative, but different d26Mg values of -3.06 for starfish (with uniform interspecies signatures) and -2.65 for sea urchin. Relative to seawater signature (-0.82), all echinoderms favour the incorporation of light isotopes during biocalcification. The d26Mg depletion is lower than theoretically expected from a inorganic calcite precipitation from seawater (at -3.5). These differences suggest that on its route from seawater to the shell, Mg isotopes are partly biologically fractionationated through "vital effects" leaving heavier Mg isotopic signatures. Taken into account that calcification in echinoderms is an intra- cellular process involving transient amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase, the observed bio-fractionation factors can be related to: (1) changes in the isotopic composition of the precipitating intracellular fluids due to active pumping in and out of the cell; (2) a

  6. Isotopic Variations Within the Carbo Iron Meteorite: A Case Study of the Effects from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. L.; Hunt, A. C.; Ek, M. E.; Leya, I.; Schönbächler, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four aliquots of the Carbo (IID) iron meteorite were sampled representing different depths within the original meteoroid. These samples were used to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on the isotopes of Pt, Pd, Fe, and Ni.

  7. 47. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF LITHIUM CARBONATE ON GENETIC AND OXDATIVE DAMAGE IN CANCER PATIENTS WITH RADIOTHERAPY AND CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the inhibitory effect of Lithium carbonate (Li2co3) on genetic and oxidative damage in cancer patients. Methods: The single cell gel electrophoresis assay(SCGE)、Micronucleus frequencies tests were used to measure DNA、chromosomal damage. At the same time, the activity of SOD、GSH-Px and the content of-SH、MDA were detected with biochemical tests. Results: For cancer patients, with the increase of taking Li2co3 course, the genetic damage degree of peripheral blood cell relieved gradually, the activity and content of anti-oxidation material and WBC increased significantly. Conclusion: Li2co3 can inhibit genetic da-mage, increase the ability of anti-oxidation and make the myellogenic inhibition relieve.

  8. Effect of heat-treatment and additives on the particles and carbon fibers as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Gabrielle; Song, Xiang Yun; Massé, Monique; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Brisard, Gessie; Kinoshita, Kimio; Zaghib, Karim

    Carbon fiber (CF) and mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) precursors were heat-treated at 700-2800 °C, and the electrochemical and physical properties of the carbons were investigated. These carbons are quite different from natural graphite, which has a well-ordered layer planes where intercalation occur and two distinct surface sites, i.e. basal and edge plane sites. In the case of the fibers, intercalation occur by a single plane (circular area) or by two planes, the circular area and the cylindrical edge. For MCMBs, because of its sphere-like structure, this type of carbon is able to intercalate lithium ions more uniformly (i.e. 360°). The effect of additives (B, Ag and Sn) in the two carbon samples (CF and MCMB) on the electrochemical performance was also investigated.

  9. Effect of nanosized silica in poly(methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S.; Lu, Soon-Chien [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-12-01

    The effect of nanosized silica when incorporated in polymer electrolytes is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, conductivity and thermal properties. Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are synthesized by the dispersion of nanosized silica (SiO{sub 2}), up to 10 wt.% maximum, into a matrix formed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest conductivity is 2.44 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature, with 4 wt.% of silica added. The FTIR spectra show evidence of complexation between PMMA, LiTFSI and SiO{sub 2}. The addition of silica to the polymer electrolytes also improves the thermal stability and the ability to retain conductivity over time. (author)

  10. Study on the Effect of the Three-Dimensional Electrode in Degradation of Methylene Blue by Lithium Modified Rectorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue (MB wastewater in a synthetic solution using three-dimensional particle electrodes. The novel particle electrodes were fabricated in this work using the lithium modified rectorite (Li-REC. The adsorption property of the fabricated particle electrodes was studied in a series of experiments. The optimum electrochemical operating conditions of plate distance, cell voltage, and concentration of electrolyte were 2 cm, 9 V, and 0.06 mol L−1, respectively. It was also found that microwave irradiation can effectively improve the adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM of the fabricated electrodes was investigated. The experimental results revealed the order of adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. So, fabricated electrodes are not only of low cost and mass produced, but also efficient to achieve decolorization of MB solution.

  11. Study on the Effect of the Three-Dimensional Electrode in Degradation of Methylene Blue by Lithium Modified Rectorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ming, Yin'an; Du, Ying; Wang, Yingru; Wang, Ci'en

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue (MB) wastewater in a synthetic solution using three-dimensional particle electrodes. The novel particle electrodes were fabricated in this work using the lithium modified rectorite (Li-REC). The adsorption property of the fabricated particle electrodes was studied in a series of experiments. The optimum electrochemical operating conditions of plate distance, cell voltage, and concentration of electrolyte were 2 cm, 9 V, and 0.06 mol L(-1), respectively. It was also found that microwave irradiation can effectively improve the adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the fabricated electrodes was investigated. The experimental results revealed the order of adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. So, fabricated electrodes are not only of low cost and mass produced, but also efficient to achieve decolorization of MB solution.

  12. Purity of silicon: with great effect on its performance in graphite-silicon anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenxin; Xu, Guojun; Liu, Liekai; Yue, Zhihao; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Fugen; Tang, Hao; Huang, Haibin; Zhou, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Ferrosilicon, industrial grade silicon, solar grade silicon, and electronic grade silicon were ball-milled to form four types of silicon powders, which were mixed with graphite powders at weight ratio of 5:95, respectively, for being used as graphite-silicon anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The effect of the purity of silicon on its electrochemical performance in graphite-silicon anode materials for LIBs was investigated by the cycle and rate tests. Results show that silicon with higher purity shows higher capacity, better cycle, and rate performance. In addition, the significant difference in capacity of the four graphite-silicon anodes with different purities of silicon is not completely resulted from the content of silicon materials, and the influence of the impurity inside the silicon cannot be ignored as well. The sample prepared from electronic grade silicon presents the highest first discharge capacity, which is 440.5 mAh g-1.

  13. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Tsai, Cheng-Che

    2015-02-01

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-xNbO3 (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (Pr = 14.3 μC/cm2), piezoelectric coefficient (d33 = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  14. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  15. Determination of ionization potential of atomic gadolinium and its isotope effect. Analysis of unperturbed Rydberg series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Masabumi; Ohba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    Autoionizing Rydberg series converging to six states (0, 261.841, 633.273, 3082.011, 3427.274, 3444.235 cm{sup -1}) of Gd ion have been observed by using three-color three-step photoionization via ten different 2nd-step levels of J=0 or 1. While the perturbations with interlopers become significant in the region of n=30-35 for most of the observed series, long and well-defined series structures appeared in higher energy region. From an analysis of such unperturbed structures, the first ionization potential of Gd atom was estimated to be 49601.45 (30) cm{sup -1}. This is in good agreement with the previous value, but the accuracy is improved by about one order of magnitude. In addition, isotope effect on the ionization potential was also determined by isotope shifts of some Rydberg series. (author)

  16. Effect of Two Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness, Topography, and Flexural Strength of a Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadibassir, Mahshid; Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Golzari, Hossein; Moravej Salehi, Elham; Fahimi, Mohammad Amin; Kharazi Fard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-03-08

    To evaluate the effect of overglazing and two polishing procedures on flexural strength and quality and quantity of surface roughness of a monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic computer-aided design (CAD) after grinding. This in vitro study was conducted on 52 partially crystalized bar-shaped specimens (16 × 4 × 1.6 mm) of monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic. The specimens were wet polished with 600-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicon carbide papers for 15 seconds using a grinding/polishing machine at a speed of 300 rpm. Then, the specimens were crystalized and glaze-fired in one step simultaneously and randomly divided into four groups of 13: (I) Glazing group (control); (II) Grinding-glazing group, subjected to grinding with red band finishing diamond bur (46 μm) followed by glazing; (III) Grinding-D+Z group, subjected to grinding and then polishing by coarse, medium, and fine diamond rubber points (D+Z); and (IV) Grinding-OptraFine group, subjected to grinding and then polishing with a two-step diamond rubber polishing system followed by a final polishing step with an OptraFine HP brush and diamond polishing paste. The surface roughness (Ra and Rz) values (μm) were measured by a profilometer, and the mean values were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (post hoc comparison). One specimen of each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for surface topography. The three-point flexural strength values of the bars were measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed and recorded. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (α = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were noted among the experimental groups for Ra, Rz (p quality of roughness compared to glazing. The flexural strength of lithium disilicate ceramic after polishing with the OptraFine system was similar to that after glazing (p = 0.86). Despite similar surface roughness after polishing with the two systems, the D

  17. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Kinetic Isotope Effect During Snow Crystal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D. J.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2007-12-01

    and allows us to scale the numerical calculations to atmospheric conditions. Our calculations confirm that the crystal/vapor isotopic fractionation approaches the equilibrium value, and the crystals are compact (circular in 2D) as the saturation factor approaches unity (S= 1.0). However, few natural crystals form under such conditions. At higher oversaturation (e.g. S = 1.2), dendritic crystals of millimeter size develop on timescales appropriate to cloud processes, and kinetic effects control isotopic fractionation. Fractionation factors for dendritic crystals are similar to those predicted by the spherical diffusion model, but the model also gives estimates of crystal heterogeneity. Dendritic crystals are constrained to be relatively large, with dimension much greater than about 20D/k. The most difficult aspect of the modeling is to account for the large density difference between air and ice, which requires us to use a fictitious higher density for the vapor-oversaturated air and scale the crystal growth time accordingly. An approach using a larger scale simulation and the domain decomposition method can provide a vapor flux for a nested smaller scale calculation. The results clarify the controls on crystal growth, and the relationships between saturation state, growth rate, crystal morphology and isotopic fractionation.

  18. Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bruce S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Lollar, Barbara Sherwood [Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Passeport, Elodie [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5 (Canada); Sleep, Brent E., E-mail: sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C{sub 0}), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D{sub mech}/D{sub eff}). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C{sub 0}/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C{sub 0}/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D{sub mech}/D{sub eff} is

  19. Communication: Isotopic effects on tunneling motions in the water trimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videla, Pablo E. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica Analítica y Química-Física e INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rossky, Peter J. [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Laria, D., E-mail: dhlaria@cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica Analítica y Química-Física e INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-14

    We present results of ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations that shed light on the effects of nuclear quantum fluctuations on tunneling motions in cyclic [H{sub 2}O]{sub 3} and [D{sub 2}O]{sub 3}, at the representative temperature of T = 75 K. In particular, we focus attention on free energies associated with two key isomerization processes: The first one corresponds to flipping transitions of dangling OH bonds, between up and down positions with respect to the O–O–O plane of the cluster; the second involves the interchange between connecting and dangling hydrogen bond character of the H-atoms in a tagged water molecule. Zero point energy and tunneling effects lead to sensible reductions of the free energy barriers. Due to the lighter nature of the H nuclei, these modifications are more marked in [H{sub 2}O]{sub 3} than in [D{sub 2}O]{sub 3}. Estimates of the characteristic time scales describing the flipping transitions are consistent with those predicted based on standard transition-state-approximation arguments.

  20. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-04-01

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108Ru + 4He + 132Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus 132Te ( N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of 246Cf and 248Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus 134Te ( N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 256Cf, 258Cf and 260Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn ( N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 252Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Ab initio calculation of the Zn isotope effect in phosphates, citrates, and malates and applications to plants and soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fujii

    Full Text Available Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pH<5, the Zn isotopic compositions of the various parts of the plants are expected to be similar to those of groundwater. In the neutral to alkaline region, the calculations correctly predict that (66Zn is enriched over (64Zn in roots, which concentrate phosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils.

  2. Magnetic isotope effect and theory of atomic orbital hybridization to predict a mechanism of chemical exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epov, Vladimir N

    2011-08-07

    A novel approach is suggested to investigate the mechanisms of chemical complexation reactions based on the results of Fujii with co-workers; they have experimentally observed that several metals and metalloids demonstrate mass-independent isotope fractionation during the reactions with the DC18C6 crown ether using solvent-solvent extraction. In this manuscript, the isotope fractionation caused by the magnetic isotope effect is used to understand the mechanisms of chemical exchange reactions. Due to the rule that reactions are allowed for certain electron spin states, and forbidden for others, magnetic isotopes show chemical anomalies during these reactions. Mass-independent fractionation is suggested to take place due to the hyperfine interaction of the nuclear spin with the electron spin of the intermediate product. Moreover, the sign of the mass-independent fractionation is found to be dependent on the element and its species, which is also explained by the magnetic isotope effect. For example, highly negative mass-independent isotope fractionation of magnetic isotopes was observed for reactions of DC18C6 with SnCl(2) species and with several Ru(III) chloro-species, and highly positive for reactions of this ether with TeCl(6)(2-), and with several Cd(II) and Pd(II) species. The atomic radius of an element is also a critical parameter for the reaction with crown ether, particularly the element ions with [Kr]4d(n)5s(m) electron shell fits the best with the DC18C6 crown ring. It is demonstrated that the magnetic isotope effect in combination with the theory of orbital hybridization can help to understand the mechanism of complexation reactions. The suggested approach is also applied to explain previously published mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes in other types of chemical exchange reactions.

  3. The complex nature of superconductivity in MgB2 as revealed by the reduced total isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinks, D G; Claus, H; Jorgensen, J D

    2001-05-24

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2, was recently observed to become superconducting at 39 K, which is the highest known transition temperature for a non-copper-oxide bulk material. Isotope-effect measurements, in which atoms are substituted by isotopes of different mass to systematically change the phonon frequencies, are one of the fundamental tests of the nature of the superconducting mechanism in a material. In a conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor, where the mechanism is mediated by electron-phonon coupling, the total isotope-effect coefficient (in this case, the sum of both the Mg and B coefficients) should be about 0.5. The boron isotope effect was previously shown to be large and that was sufficient to establish that MgB2 is a conventional superconductor, but the Mg effect has not hitherto been measured. Here we report the determination of the Mg isotope effect, which is small but measurable. The total reduced isotope-effect coefficient is 0.32, which is much lower than the value expected for a typical BCS superconductor. The low value could be due to complex materials properties, and would seem to require both a large electron-phonon coupling constant and a value of mu* (the repulsive electron-electron interaction) larger than found for most simple metals.

  4. The Role of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium Citrate in Regulating Urinary Citrate Level and Preventing Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Aggarwal, Piyush; Li, Xiaoming; Oakman, Crystale; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We...

  5. Lithium as a blanket coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent re-assessment of tokamak reactors which move towards smaller size and lower required field strength (higher beta)/sup 2/ change the picture as regards the magnitude of MHD effects on flow resistance for lithium coolant. Perhaps the most important consequence of this as regards use of this coolant is that of clear acceptability of such effects when the flow is predominantly transverse to the magnetic field. This permits defining a blanket that consists entirely of round tubes containing the circulated lithium with voids between the tubes. Required thermal-hydraulic calculations are then on bases which are well established, especially in view of recent results dealing with perturbations of ducts and magnetic fields. Mitigation of MHD effects is feasible through tapering of tube wall thickness or use of insulated layers, but their use was not mandatory for the assumed conditions. Blanket configurations utilizing flowing lithium in round tubes immersed in static lithium may be suitable, but calculational methods do not now exist for this situation. Use of boiling potassium or cesium appears to be prohibitive in terms of vapor flow area when temperature levels are consistent with stainless steel. Liquid sodium, in addition to not being a breeding material, requires higher velocity than lithium for the same heat removal.

  6. Effect of Aluminum Source on Adsorption Performance of Lithium Orthosilicate Based Adsorbents from Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Hongyan; DING; Tong; LI; Yulong; MA; Zhi; CHEN; Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel lithium orthosilicate based adsorbent doping with halloysite nanotubes(HNTs) was synthesized with Kaolin clay and SiO2 by an impregnation-precipitation method.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy,nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and thermo-gravimetry,respectively.The results indicate that the reactivity of Li4SiO4 for CO2 absorption can be enhanced by doping alumina.Different aluminum sources result in different degrees of the CO2 adsorption performance.It is also found that the CO2 capture amount of the adsorbent doping with Halloysite nanotubes is 15.25 wt.%at 560 ℃,which is better than that of the adsorbent doping with γ-Al2O3(i.e.,10.88 wt.%).

  7. Effect of Aluminum Source on Adsorption Performance of Lithium Orthosilicate Based Adsorbents from Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hongyan; DING Tong; LI Yulong; MA Zhi; CHEN Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel lithium orthosilicate based adsorbent doping with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized with Kaolin clay and SiO2 by an impregnation-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and thermo-gravimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the reactivity of Li4SiO4 for CO2 absorption can be enhanced by doping alumina. Different alu-minum sources result in different degrees of the CO2 adsorption performance. It is also found that the CO2 capture amount of the adsorbent doping with Halloysite nanotubes is 15.25wt.% at 560℃, which is better than that of the ad-sorbent doping withγ-Al2O3(i.e., 10.88wt.%).

  8. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  9. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, Gurinder Pal [Department of Physics, Khalsa College, Amritsar 143002 (India); Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, D.P., E-mail: dpsinghdr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV‐Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λ{sub exc}.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO{sub 4} units thus supporting the density results. The UV‐ Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  10. Effect of Electrochemical Treatment in a Lithium Chloride Solution on Field Emission from Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; LI Chun; YUAN Guang; GU Chang-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are electrochemically treated in a lithium chloride solution at a concentration 0.1 mol/L.The field emission properties of the CNTs are investigated at different temperatures before and after the electrochemical treatment.After treatment,the turn-on voltage to produce field emission current of 10 μA decreases from 4.2kV to 2.7kV and the field emission current increases distinctly,but the stability falls off.Based on the Fowler-Nordheim plot,the values of the work function for the CNTs are calculated,which reveals that work function decreases after the electrochemical treatment.These results are attributed to the decrease of the work function of the carbon nanotubes.

  11. Modeling of lithium-sulfur batteries incorporating the effect of Li2S precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y. X.; Zhao, T. S.; Liu, M.; Tan, P.; Zeng, Y. K.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we present a one-dimensional model for the discharge behavior of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In addition to the consideration of multiple-step polysulfide dissolution and reductions, the surface nucleation and growth kinetics coupled with electrochemical reactions is particularly exploited for describing the Li2S precipitation. Unlike previous models that overlook the rate-dependent precipitation phenomenon, our model reveals that discrete Li2S particle growth becomes suppressed at higher rates, resulting in smaller Li2S precipitates with a more uniform particle size distribution and a limited discharge capacity. Experimental discharge curves and discharge product observation adequately confirm our numerical results. It is further predicted that promoting the growth of Li2S particles, including lowering the initial nucleation rate and providing a suitable amount of initial nucleation sites, can efficiently prolong the Li-S battery's discharge capacity.

  12. Effect of Al substitution on the microstructure and lithium storage performance of nickel hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Pan, Guanlin; Xu, Wenqiang; Yao, Jinhuan; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2016-03-01

    Al-substituted Ni(OH)2 samples with Al3+/Ni2+ mole ratio of 0%, 10% and 20% have been prepared by a very facile chemical co-precipitation method. The microstructure of the prepared samples are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results reveal that the pure Ni(OH)2 sample is β-Ni(OH)2 with nanosheets hierarchical structure; the sample with 10% Al is mixed phase α/β-Ni(OH)2 with hybrid nanosheets/nanoparticles hierarchical structure; the sample with 20% Al is α-Ni(OH)2 with irregular nanoparticles hierarchical structure. The lithium storage performances of the prepared samples are characterized by cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge-discharge tests. The results demonstrate that Al substitution could improve the lithium storage performances of nickel hydroxide. In particular, the mixed phase α/β-Ni(OH)2 with 10% Al exhibited the highest electrochemical activity, the best rate performance, and superior cycling stability. For example, after 30 charge/discharge cycles under a current density of 200 mA g-1, the mixed phase α/β-Ni(OH)2 with 10% Al can still deliver a specific discharge capacity of 964 mAh g-1, much higher than of for the α-Ni(OH)2 with 20% Al (681 mAh g-1) and the pure Ni(OH)2 (419 mAh g-1).

  13. Rotational dynamics in ammonia borane: Evidence of strong isotope effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelli, Rosario; Paolone, Annalisa; Palumbo, Oriele; Leardini, F.; Autrey, Thomas; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Luedtke, Avery T.

    2013-12-15

    This work reports anelastic spectroscopy measurements on the partially deuterated (ND3BH3 and NH3BD3) and perdeuterated (ND3BD3) ammonia borane (NH3BH3) compounds. The relaxations previously reported in NH3BH3 are observed in all the samples, and are ascribed to the rotational and torsional dynamics of NH(D)3BH(D)3 complexes. A new thermally activated peak appears at 70 K (for a vibration frequency of 1 kHz) in the spectrum of NH3BD3 and ND3BD3. The peak is practically a single-time Debye process, indicating absence of interaction between the relaxing units, and has a strikingly high intensity. A secondary relaxation process is also detected around 55 K. The anelastic spectrum of the ND3BH3 only displays this less intense process at 55 K. The analysis of the peaks supplies information about the dynamics of the relaxing species, and the obtained results provide indications on the effect of partial and selective deuteration on the hydrogen (deuterium) dynamics.

  14. Effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the roughness and flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogheib, Lucas Villaça; Bona, Alvaro Della; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; McCabe, John F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different acid etching times on the surface roughness and flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic. Ceramic bar-shaped specimens (16 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm) were produced from ceramic blocks. All specimens were polished and sonically cleaned in distilled water. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=15). Group A (control) no treatment. Groups B-E were etched with 4.9% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 4 different etching periods: 20 s, 60 s, 90 s and 180 s, respectively. Etched surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscopy. Surface profilometry was used to examine the roughness of the etched ceramic surfaces, and the specimens were loaded to failure using a 3-point bending test to determine the flexural strength. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). All etching periods produced significantly rougher surfaces than the control group (p<0.05). Roughness values increased with the increase of the etching time. The mean flexural strength values were (MPa): A=417 ± 55; B=367 ± 68; C=363 ± 84; D=329 ± 70; and E=314 ± 62. HF etching significantly reduced the mean flexural strength as the etching time increased (p=0.003). In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that the increase of HF etching time affected the surface roughness and the flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic, confirming the study hypothesis.

  15. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  16. Effect of ion structure on conductivity in lithium-doped ionic liquid electrolytes: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the role cation and anion structure have on the performance of ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes for lithium conduction over the temperature range of 320-450 K. Two model ionic liquids were studied: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium pyrrolide ([bmpyr][pyl]) doped with Li[Tf2N] and Li[pyl], respectively. The results have demonstrated that the Li+ doped IL containing the planar [bmpyr] cation paired with the planar [pyl] anion significantly outperformed the [bmim][Tf2N] IL. The different coordination of Li+ with the [Tf2N]- or [pyl]- anions produces a remarkable change in IL structure with a concomitant effect on the transport of all ions. For the doped [bmim][Tf2N], each Li+ is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from [Tf2N]- anions. Formation of a rigid structure between Li+ and [Tf2N]- induces a decrease in the mobility of all ions. In contrast, for the doped [bmpyr][pyl], each Li+ is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms from [pyl]- anions. The original alternating structure cation|anion|cation in the neat [bmpyr][pyl] is replaced by another alternating structure cation|anion|Li+|anion|cation in the doped [bmpyr][pyl]. Increases of Li+ mole fraction in doped [bmpyr][pyl] affects the dynamics to a much lesser extent compared with [bmim][Tf2N] and leads to reduced diffusivities of cations and anions, but little change in the dynamics of Li+. More importantly, the calculations predict that the Li+ ion conductivity of doped [bmpyr][pyl] is comparable to that observed in organic liquid electrolytes and is about an order of magnitude higher than that of doped [bmim][Tf2N]. Such Li+ conductivity improvement suggests that this and related ILs may be promising candidates for use as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries and capacitors.

  17. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, H. A.; Pearson, D. G.; Griselin, M.

    2001-02-01

    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from the same dissolution. Results are comparable to published analyses comprising tens to hundreds of elements. To study the effects of thermal metamorphism on REE and strontium mobility in conodonts, samples were selected from a single bed adjacent to a basaltic dyke and from the internationally used colour alteration index (CAI) "standard set." Our analyses span the range of CAI 1 to 8. Homogeneous REE patterns, "bell-shaped" shale-normalised REE patterns are observed across the range of CAI 1 to 6 in both sample sets. This pattern is interpreted as the result of adsorption during early diagenesis and could reflect original seawater chemistry. Above CAI 6 REE patterns become less predictable and perturbations from the typical REE pattern are likely to be due to the onset of apatite recrystallisation. Samples outside the contact aureole of the dyke have a mean 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.708165, within the broad range of published mid-Carboniferous seawater values. Our analysis indicates conodonts up to CAI 6 record primary geochemical signals that may be a proxy for ancient seawater.

  18. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition in plant water: Species effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1989-12-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species-specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and {sup 18}O have not been studied for different plants growing together. To learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and {sup 18}O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions the authors tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show high sloped (m in the leaf water equation {delta}D = m {delta}{sup 18}O + b) than in C{sub 3} plants. They determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen ({delta}D) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes.

  19. Garnet effect on Nd-Hf isotope decoupling: Evidence from the Jinfosi batholith, Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Niu, Yaoling; Mo, Xuanxue

    2017-03-01

    The initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios of a 420 Ma post-collisional dioritic-granitic batholith from the Northern Tibetan plateau define a negative trend above and orthogonal to the ԐHf(t)-ԐNd(t) terrestrial array. This uncommon trend offers an insight into the origin of the puzzling Nd-Hf isotope decoupling in the crustal rocks. On this trend, samples depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≫ 1) deviate most from the terrestrial array whereas samples with flat HREEs (i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≥ 1) deviate less or plot within the terrestrial array, pointing to the controlling effect of garnet in the magma source. Ancient garnet-bearing residues after melt extraction will have elevated Lu/Hf ratios and can evolve with time to produce high ԐHf(t) at a low ԐNd(t) value. Mixing of melts derived from such source lithologies (high Lu/Hf) with melts possessing a within-terrestrial array Nd-Hf isotopic composition (low Lu/Hf) best explains the observed trend orthogonal to the terrestrial array. The samples from the Jinfosi batholith with the most decoupled Nd-Hf isotope compositions require a larger degree (> 40%) and ancient (i.e., ≥ 1.8 Gyr) previous melt extraction from their source. It follows that the ancient melts with depleted HREEs complementary to those garnet-bearing residues should have low ԐHf values and plot below the terrestrial array, which is indeed shown by some Archean/Paleoproterozic TTGs.

  20. Effects of permeability fields on fluid, heat, and oxygen isotope transport in extensional detachment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, RaphaëL.; Kao, Po-Hao; Saar, Martin O.; Teyssier, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Field studies of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes indicate that meteoric fluids permeated the upper crust down to the detachment shear zone and interacted with highly deformed and recrystallized (mylonitic) rocks. The presence of fluids in the brittle/ductile transition zone is recorded in the oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope compositions of the mylonites and may play an important role in the thermomechanical evolution of the detachment shear zone. Geochemical data show that fluid flow in the brittle upper crust is primarily controlled by the large-scale fault-zone architecture. We conduct continuum-scale (i.e., large-scale, partial bounce-back) lattice-Boltzman fluid, heat, and oxygen isotope transport simulations of an idealized cross section of a metamorphic core complex. The simulations investigate the effects of crust and fault permeability fields as well as buoyancy-driven flow on two-way coupled fluid and heat transfer and resultant exchange of oxygen isotopes between meteoric fluid and rock. Results show that fluid migration to middle to lower crustal levels is fault controlled and depends primarily on the permeability contrast between the fault zone and the crustal rocks. High fault/crust permeability ratios lead to channelized flow in the fault and shear zones, while lower ratios allow leakage of the fluids from the fault into the crust. Buoyancy affects mainly flow patterns (more upward directed) and, to a lesser extent, temperature distributions (disturbance of the geothermal field by ~25°C). Channelized fluid flow in the shear zone leads to strong vertical and horizontal thermal gradients, comparable to field observations. The oxygen isotope results show δ18O depletion concentrated along the fault and shear zones, similar to field data.

  1. Geometric isotope effects on small chloride ion water clusters with path integral molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [Department of Chemistry, Tsukuba University, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, Kimichi [Research Institute for Nanosystem, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Chuo-2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nagashima, Umpei, E-mail: u.nagashima@aist.go.jp [Department of Chemistry, Tsukuba University, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Research Institute for Nanosystem, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Chuo-2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Tachikawa, Masanori [Quantum Chemistry Division, Graduate School of Science, Yokohama-City University, Seto 22-2, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Yan, Shiwei [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: • PIMD simulations with PM6-DH+ potential are carried out for Cl{sup −}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters. • The geometric isotope effects on the rearrangement of single and multi shell structures are presented. • The competition of intramolecular and intermolecular nuclear quantum effects on the cluster structures is shown. • The correlations between r(Cl…O) and other vibration motions are discussed. - Abstract: The geometric isotope effects on the structures of hydrated chloride ionic hydrogen bonded clusters are explored by carrying out path integral molecular dynamics simulations. First, an outer shell coordinate is selected to display the rearrangement of single and multi hydration shell cluster structures. Next, to show the competition of intramolecular and intermolecular nuclear quantum effects, the intramolecular OH{sup ∗} stretching and intermolecular ion–water wagging motions are studied for single and multi shell structures, respectively. The results indicate that the intermolecular nuclear quantum effects stabilize the ionic hydrogen bonds in single shell structures, while they are destabilized through the competition with intramolecular nuclear quantum effects in multi shell structures. In addition, the correlations between ion–water stretching motion and other cluster vibrational coordinates are discussed. The results indicate that the intermolecular nuclear quantum effects on the cluster structures are strongly related to the cooperation of the water–water hydrogen bond interactions.

  2. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measure