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Sample records for lithium ion hohlraum

  1. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  2. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  4. Lithium ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  5. Lithium ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K., E-mail: pkroy@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Grote, Dave P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLC, CA-94550 (United States); Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ∼100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40–50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10{sup −7}, at an operating temperature of 1250–1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10–15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  6. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  7. Creation of a homogeneous plasma column by means of hohlraum radiation for ion-stopping measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Faik, Steffen; Basko, Mikhail M; Maruhn, Joachim A; Rosmej, Olga; Rienecker, Tim; Novikov, Vladimir G; Grushin, Alexander S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of a hohlraum target whose outgoing radiation is used to produce a homogeneously ionized carbon plasma for ion-beam stopping measurements. The cylindrical hohlraum with gold walls is heated by a frequency-doubled (\\lambda_l = 526.5 \\mu m) 1.4 ns long laser pulse with the total energy of E_l = 180 J. At the laser spot, the peak matter and radiation temperatures of, respectively, T ~ 380 eV and T_r ~ 120 eV are observed. X-rays from the hohlraum heat the attached carbon foam with a mean density of \\rho_C = 2 mg/cm^3 to a temperature of T ~ 25 eV. The simulation shows that the carbon ionization degree (Z ~ 3.75) and its column density stay relatively stable (within variations of about +-7%) long enough to conduct the ion-stopping measurements. Also, it is found that a special attention should be paid to the shock wave, emerging from the x-ray heated copper support plate, which at later times may significantly distort the ...

  8. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  9. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  10. 2D simulations of hohlraum targets for laser-plasma experiments and ion stopping measurement in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basko, M.M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, Anna [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Novikov, V.G.; Grushin, A.S. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    An attractive way to create uniform plasma states at high temperatures and densities is by using hohlraums - cavities with heavy-metal walls that are either directly or indirectly heated by intense laser pulses to x-ray temperatures of tens and hundreds electron volts. A sample material, whose plasma state is to be studied, can be placed inside such a hohlraum (usually in the form of a low-density foam) and uniformly heated to a high temperature. In this case a high-Z hohlraum enclosure serves a double purpose: it prevents the hot plasma from rapid disassembly due to hydrodynamic expansion and, at the same time, suppresses its rapid radiative cooling by providing high diffusive resistivity for X-rays. Of course, both the inertial and the thermal confinement of high-temperature plasmas can be achieved only for a limited period of time - on the order of nanoseconds for millimeter-scale hohlraums. Some time ago such hohlraum targets were proposed for measurements of the stopping power of hot dense plasmas for fast ions at GSI (Darmstadt). Theoretical modeling of hohlraum targets has always been a challenging task for computational physics because it should combine multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations with the solution of the spectral transfer equation for thermal radiation. In this work we report on our latest progress in this direction, namely, we present the results of 2D (two-dimensional) simulations with a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics code RALEF-2D of two types of the hohlraum targets proposed for experiments on the PHELIX laser at GSI. The first configuration is a simple spherical hohlraum with gold walls and empty interior, which has two holes - one for laser beam entrance, and the other for diagnostics. The hohlraums of this type have already been used in several experimental sessions with the NHELIX and PHELIX lasers at GSI. The second type is a two-chamber cylindrical hohlraum with a characteristic {omega}-shaped cross-section of the enclosure

  11. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  12. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  13. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  14. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  15. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  16. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  17. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  18. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...TR-7584 ● JAN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion- Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium... Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  19. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  20. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  1. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  2. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  3. Improving Ionic Conductivity and Lithium-Ion Transference Number in Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Lagadec, Marie Francine; Hess, Michael; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-12-07

    The microstructure of lithium-ion battery separators plays an important role in separator performance; however, here we show that a geometrical analysis falls short in predicting the lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte-filled pore space. By systematically modifying the surface chemistry of a commercial polyethylene separator while keeping its microstructure unchanged, we demonstrate that surface chemistry, which alters separator-electrolyte interactions, influences ionic conductivity and lithium-ion transference number. Changes in separator surface chemistry, particularly those that increase lithium-ion transference numbers can reduce voltage drops across the separator and improve C-rate capability.

  4. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  5. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  6. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  7. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  9. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  10. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO

    2008-01-01

    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  11. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  12. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, George E.

    A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are also considered. Also, additives that have resulted in better structure of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are presented as well as proposed methods of operation of these additives. Other additives that have lessened the flammability of the electrolyte when exposed to air and also caused lowering of the heat of reaction with the oxidized positive electrode are discussed. Finally, additives that act to open current-interrupter devices by releasing a gas under overcharge conditions and those that act to cycle between electrodes to alleviate overcharging are presented. As a class, these new electrolytes are often called "functional electrolytes". Possibilities for further progress in this most important area are presented. Another area of active work in the recent past has been the reemergence of ambient-temperature molten salt electrolytes applied to alkali metal and lithium-ion batteries. This revival of an older field is due to the discovery of new salt types that have a higher voltage window (particularly to positive potentials) and also have greatly increased hydrolytic stability compared to previous ionic liquids. While practical batteries have not yet emerged from these studies, the increase in the number of active researchers and publications in the area demonstrates the interest and potentialities of the field. Progress in the field is briefly reviewed. Finally, recent results on the mechanisms for capacity loss on shelf and cycling in lithium-ion cells are reviewed. Progress towards further market penetration by lithium-ion cells hinges on improved

  14. Electrochemical stiffness in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Jones, Elizabeth M. C.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Although lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in portable electronics, increased charge rate and discharge power are required for more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The high-rate exchange of lithium ions required for more power and faster charging generates significant stresses and strains in the electrodes that ultimately lead to performance degradation. To date, electrochemically induced stresses and strains in battery electrodes have been studied only individually. Here, a new technique is developed to probe the chemomechanical response of electrodes by calculating the electrochemical stiffness via coordinated in situ stress and strain measurements. We show that dramatic changes in electrochemical stiffness occur due to the formation of different graphite-lithium intercalation compounds during cycling. Our analysis reveals that stress scales proportionally with the lithiation/delithiation rate and strain scales proportionally with capacity (and inversely with rate). Electrochemical stiffness measurements provide new insights into the origin of rate-dependent chemomechanical degradation and the evaluation of advanced battery electrodes.

  15. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  16. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently one of the leading energy storage device technologies...phase) were submerged in concentrated LiCl solution. The LiCl solution was made by dissolving lithium carbonate (LiCO3) into hydrogen chloride until...Direct correlations between fracture toughness and grain boundary segregation behavior in ytterbium- doped magnesium aluminate spinel. Scripta

  17. Synthesis and characterization of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Zhang, K.; Mundle, R.; Arslan, M.; Amponsah, O.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    Layered lithiated transition metal oxides have been extensively developed and investigated as a cathode materials for lithium ion batteries due to the following advantages, such as high output voltage of 3.6 V, high energy density larger than 450Wh/dm3, low self-discharge rate less than 10%, no memory effect resulting in long cycle lives for more than 1000 times charging and discharging, free maintenance and no environmental pollution. The cathode materials in lithium ion battery are generally in the form of LiMO2 (M= Co, Ni, Mn, etc). Currently, lithium vanadium oxides also were studied. It is well known that the synthetic condition and methods are closely related to the electrochemical properties of lithium ion batteries. In this work, the wet chemical sol gel techniques have been used to synthesize LiNiO2 and LiV3O8. In this study, the LiNiO2 particles and LiV3O8 nanorods were successfully synthesized by sol-gel wet chemical methods. Annealing heat treatment influence the crystallinity of the final product, which may be consequently affected their electrochemical performance.

  18. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  19. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  20. Degradation diagnostics for lithium ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkl, Christoph R.; Roberts, Matthew R.; McTurk, Euan; Bruce, Peter G.; Howey, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery cells is the result of a complex interplay of a host of different physical and chemical mechanisms. The measurable, physical effects of these degradation mechanisms on the cell can be summarised in terms of three degradation modes, namely loss of lithium inventory, loss of active positive electrode material and loss of active negative electrode material. The different degradation modes are assumed to have unique and measurable effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV) of Li-ion cells and electrodes. The presumptive nature and extent of these effects has so far been based on logical arguments rather than experimental proof. This work presents, for the first time, experimental evidence supporting the widely reported degradation modes by means of tests conducted on coin cells, engineered to include different, known amounts of lithium inventory and active electrode material. Moreover, the general theory behind the effects of degradation modes on the OCV of cells and electrodes is refined and a diagnostic algorithm is devised, which allows the identification and quantification of the nature and extent of each degradation mode in Li-ion cells at any point in their service lives, by fitting the cells' OCV.

  1. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  2. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  3. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  4. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  5. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  6. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described...

  7. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  8. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  9. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  11. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  12. The Impact of Nanocomposite Materials on Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.P.Guo; S.H.Ng; Z.W.Zhao; K.Konstantinov; H.K.Liu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Lithiumion batteries have become the power source of choice for consumer electronic devices such as cell phones and laptop computers due to their high energy density and long cycle life. In addition,lithium-ion batteries are expected to be a major breakthrough in the hybrid vehicle field.Despite their successful commercial application,further performance improvement of the lithium ion battery is still required.Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can lead to a new generation of lithium secondary...

  13. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  14. Spinal Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferg, E

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available .S. Pat. 5,030,523 (1991). 12. R. Koksbang, I. I. Olsen, P. E. Tonder, N. Knudsen, and D. Fauteux, J. AppL Electrochem., 21,301 (1991). Spinel Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries E. Ferg, R. J. Gummow, and A. de Kock CSIR... of this article. REFERENCES 1. M. M. Thackeray and J. B. Goodenough, U.S. Pat. 4,507,371 (1985). 2. M. M. Thackeray, P. J. Johnson, L. A. de Picciotto, P. G. Bruce, and J. B. Goodenough, Mater. Res. bull., 19, 179 (1984). 3...

  15. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both days and is open to all. Attendance...

  16. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  17. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  18. Lithium ion transport in a model of amorphous polyethylene oxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boinske, P. T.; Curtiss, L.; Halley, J. W.; Lin, B.; Sutjianto, A.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Minnesota

    1996-01-01

    We have made a molecular dynamics study of transport of a single lithium ion in a previously reported model of amorphous polyethylene oxide. New ab initio calculations of the interaction of the lithium ion with 1,2-dimethoxyethane and with dimethyl ether are reported which are used to determine force fields for the simulation. We report preliminary calculations of solvation energies and hopping barriers and a calculation of the ionic conductivity which is independent of any assumptions about the mechanism of ion transport. We also report some details of a study of transport of the trapped lithium ion on intermediate time and length scales.

  19. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  20. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  1. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  2. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  3. Nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used to power portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptops etc., and are considered to be a promising choice of power system for the next generation of electric vehicles, which are central to the reduction of CO2 emissions arising from transport. In order to increase energy and power density to meet the future challenges of energy storage, many efforts have been made to develop nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Herein we review the advantages of nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, some disadvantages of nano active materials and their solutions are also discussed.

  4. Recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    One of the challenges for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries to meet increasingly demanding requirements for energy storage is the development of suitable cathode materials. Cathode materials must be able to accept and release lithium ions repeatedly (for recharging) and quickly (for high current). Transition metal oxides based on the {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2}, spinel and olivine structures have shown promise, but improvements are needed to reduce cost and extend effective lifetime. In this paper, recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. This includes comparison of the performance characteristics of the promising cathode materials and approaches for improving their performances. (author)

  5. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  6. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries materials, technology, and new applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are both an established commercial market as well as a field of constant research and crucial for technological leadership. For example, battery duration is an extremely important selling point with almost any portable or handheld electronic device. Notebook computers, digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs, mp3-players all rely on lithium ion batteries. Ultimately, powerful batteries are needed in vehicles to supplement or even entirely replace combustion engines. Starting out with an introduction to the fundamentals of lithium ion batteries, this book begins by descri

  7. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  8. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  9. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  10. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  11. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  13. Observation of elastic collisions between lithium atoms and calcium ions

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Shinsuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We observed elastic collisions between laser-cooled fermionic lithium atoms and calcium ions at the energy range from 100 mK to 3 K. Lithium atoms in an optical-dipole trap were transported to the center of the ion trap using an optical tweezer technique, and a spatial overlap of the atoms and ions was realized in order to observe the atom-ion interactions. The elastic scattering rate was determined from the decay of atoms due to elastic collisions with ions. The collision-energy dependence of the elastic scattering cross-section was consistent with semi-classical collision theory.

  14. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R.; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-12-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered.

  15. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered.

  16. Thermal runaway caused fire and explosion of lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Ping, Ping; Zhao, Xuejuan; Chu, Guanquan; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Chunhua

    2012-06-01

    Lithium ion battery and its safety are taken more consideration with fossil energy consuming and the reduction requirement of CO2 emission. The safety problem of lithium ion battery is mainly contributed by thermal runaway caused fire and explosion. This paper reviews the lithium ion battery hazards, thermal runaway theory, basic reactions, thermal models, simulations and experimental works firstly. The general theory is proposed and detailed reactions are summarized, which include solid electrolyte interface decomposition, negative active material and electrolyte reaction, positive active material and electrolyte reaction, electrolyte decomposition, negative active material and binder reaction, and so on. The thermal models or electrochemical-thermal models include one, two and three dimensional models, which can be simulated by finite element method and finite volume method. And then the related prevention techniques are simply summarized and discussed on the inherent safety methods and safety device methods. Some perspectives and outlooks on safety enhancement for lithium ion battery are proposed for the future development.

  17. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  18. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  19. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries investigated by voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lüders, Christian; Zinth, Veronika; Erhard, Simon V.; Osswald, Patrick J.; Hofmann, Michael; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, lithium plating is investigated by means of voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction in commercial lithium-ion batteries. We can directly correlate the voltage curve after the lithium plating with the ongoing phase transformation from LiC12 to LiC6 according to the neutron diffraction data during the relaxation. Above a threshold current of C/2 at a temperature of -2 °C, lithium plating increases dramatically. The results indicate that the intercalation rate of deposited lithium seems to be constant, independent of the deposited amount. It can be observed that the amount of plating correlates with the charging rate, whereas a charging current of C/2 leads to a deposited amount of lithium of 5.5% of the charge capacity and a current of 1C to 9.0%.

  20. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-03-02

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present integration strategy to rationally design materials and processes to report flexible inorganic lithium-ion microbattery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery shows an enhanced normalized capacity of 147 μAh/cm2 when bent.

  1. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  2. Nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    ""The book has good technical depth, yet is still very readable. It contains many photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs of data that provide the reader with the insight needed to understand the phenomena being described and the processes occurring in lithium battery chemistry. Researchers as well as students studying lithium-ion batteries will find this book well worth reading. It provides insight into many different avenues for potentially improving lithium-ion battery performance. The reader will learn about these new ideas and gain a better understanding of what currently limits batt

  3. Preparation of lithium ion-sieve and utilizing in recovery of lithium from seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu WANG; Changgong MENG; Wei MA

    2009-01-01

    Lithium is one of the most important light metals, which is widely used as raw materials for large-capacity rechargeable batteries, light aircraft alloys and nuclear fusion fuel. Seawater, which contains 250 billion tons of lithium in total, has thus recently been noticed as a possible resource of lithium. While, since the aver-age concentration of lithium in seawater is quite low (0.17mg.L-1), enriching it to an adequate high density becomes the primary step for industrial applications. The adsorption method is the most prospective technology for increasing the concentration of lithium in liquid. Among the adsorbents for lithium, the ion-sieve is a kind of special absorbent which has high selectivity for Li+, especially the spinel manganese oxides (SMO), which among the series of ion-sieves, has become the most promising adsorption material for lithium. In this study, the SMO ion-sieve was prepared by a coprecipitation method. The preparation conditions were discussed and the sample characters were analyzed. Recovery of Li+ from seawater were studied in batch experiments using prepared ion-sieve, and the effect of solution pH and the uptake rates were also investigated in different Li+ solutions.

  4. Terahertz generation from Cu ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuhua, E-mail: wyh61@163.com [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Ruwu; Yuan, Jie [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yumei [Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this letter, the authors present first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Metal nanoparticles synthesized by Cu ion implantation were implanted into lithium niobate single crystal using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. 1 kHz, 35 fs laser pulse centred at 800 nm was focused onto the samples. The supercontinuum spectra of the sample are obtained. Terahertz was generated via this kind of sample and investigated using the electro-optical sampling technique. The findings suggest that under the investigated implantation parameter, a strong spectral component in excess of 0.46 THz emission was found from Cu ion implantation of lithium niobate. -- Highlights: • We first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. • Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Cu nanoparticles in lithium niobate have been formed by using MEVVA ion source. • The THz bandwidth and center from this kind of sample were determined.

  5. Meso-scale characterization of lithium distribution in lithium-ion batteries using ion beam analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Fujita, K.; Mima, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Kamiya, T.; Orikasa, Y.; Uchimoto, Y.; Sawada, H.; Okuda, C.; Kato, Y.; Perlado, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a Li-ion battery (LIB) is mainly governed by the diffusion capabilities of lithium in the electrodes. Thus, for LIB improvement it is essential to characterize the lithium distribution. Most of the traditionally used techniques for lithium characterization give information about the local scale or in the macroscopic scale. However, the lithium behavior at the local scale is not mirrored at the macroscopic scale. Therefore, the lithium characterization in the mesoscopic scale would be of help to understand and to connect the mechanisms taking place in the two spatial scales. In this paper, we show a general description of the capabilities and limitations of ion beam analysis techniques to study the distributions of lithium and other elements present in the electrodes in the mesoscopic scale. The potential of the 7Li(p,α0)4He nuclear reaction to non-invasively examine the lithium distribution as a function of depth is illustrated. The lithium spatial distribution is characterized using particle induced γ-ray (μ-PIGE) spectroscopy. This technique allows estimating the density of the active particles in the electrode effectively contributing to the Li intercalation and/or de-intercalation. The advantages of the use of ion beam analysis techniques in comparison to more traditional techniques for electrode characterization are discussed.

  6. Microporous PVdF gel for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, F.; Andrieu, X.; Jehoulet, C.; Olsen, I. I.

    A novel ionic conductor for lithium-ion batteries was developed. This electrolyte is based on a porous polymer matrix filled and swollen by a liquid. The polymer matrix obtained by phase inversion was characterized in terms of porosity and average pore size. The microporous PVdF gel formed by impregnation of this polymer matrix with liquid electrolyte exhibited a high equivalent conductivity and a good temperature stability. Complete lithium-ion batteries using this polymer-based electrolyte were manufactured with a new process. Preliminary cycling results show a good rate capability and a capacity evolution similar to that of regular lithium-ion cells. The interest of this technology, as many other lithium-polymer ones, also lies in the possibility of designing and manufacturing new battery shapes at lower cost.

  7. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  8. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  9. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  10. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  11. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  12. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  13. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  14. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  15. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  16. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    of the purpurin molecules from cyclic voltammogrammeasure- ments, another test cell was constructed and tested for their electrochemical performance... test cells were assembled in an argon-filled glove box using the active material (purpurin and CLP) as working electrode, lithium metal foil as the...Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0

  17. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  18. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-01-14

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic transport within nanoscale materials. Here, we demonstrate the effects of TBs on the Li-ion transport properties in single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. It is shown that the TB-assisted lithiation pathways are remarkably different from the previously reported lithiation behavior in SnO2 nanowires without TBs. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy study combined with direct atomic-scale imaging of the initial lithiation stage of the TB-SnO2 nanowires prove that the lithium ions prefer to intercalate in the vicinity of the (101¯) TB, which acts as conduit for lithium-ion diffusion inside the nanowires. The density functional theory modeling shows that it is energetically preferred for lithium ions to accumulate near the TB compared to perfect neighboring lattice area. These findings may lead to the design of new electrode materials that incorporate TBs as efficient lithium pathways, and eventually, the development of next generation rechargeable batteries that surpass the rate performance of the current commercial Li-ion batteries.

  19. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  20. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  1. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  2. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  3. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries.......The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...

  4. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  5. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  6. Anisotropic lithium ion migration in LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. B.; Park, C. K.; Hwang, J. T.; Cho, W. I.; Jang, H.

    2011-12-01

    An anisotropic behavior of lithium ion migration in LiFePO4 is investigated using the cathode particles after chemical delithiation. A phase contrast of a LiFePO4 particle validating the directional property is also found. It suggests that the lithium ion migration path is limited to the [010] direction and the phase boundary between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is perpendicular [010]. The symmetric phase boundary inside the LiFePO4 particle is contrary to the non-directional core-shell model reported by others. The molecular dynamics simulation confirms the crystallographic direction with the lowest energy for lithium ion migration.

  7. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    37] Z. Yang, H. Wu, Mater. Chem. Phys. 71 (2001) 7. [38] D. Linden , T.B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries , 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., New York, 2005. ...Lithium-ion Energy storage Battery a b s t r a c t As portable electronics becomemore advanced and alternative energy demands becomemore prevalent, the...aligned carbon nanotube electrodes for lithium-ion batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT

  8. Silane as Electrolyte Additives for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q.Xia; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In order to overcome the inherent incompatibility of PC with graphite in the lithium ion battery system, improve their electrochemical performance at low temperature,phenyl tris-2-methoxydiethoxy silane (PTMS) has been studied as an additive to the PC-based electrolyte of lithium ion batteries with graphite anode. From the cyclic voltammogram for the graphite anode in the PC-based electrolyte,we find that in the case of the electrolyte without the additive,there is a large irreversible peak ne...

  9. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  10. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.

  11. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4x10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} at 30{sup o}C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2V. (author)

  12. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87 wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 30 °C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2 V.

  13. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes.

  14. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  15. A Self-Healing Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Hao; Dong, Xiaoli; Cao, Jingyu; Wang, Lie; Xu, Yifan; Ren, Jing; Hwang, Yunil; Son, In Hyuk; Huang, Xianliang; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-11-07

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries are critical for the next-generation electronics. However, during the practical application, they may break under deformations such as twisting and cutting, causing their failure to work or even serious safety problems. A new family of all-solid-state and flexible aqueous lithium ion batteries that can self-heal after breaking has been created by designing aligned carbon nanotube sheets loaded with LiMn2 O4 and LiTi2 (PO4 )3 nanoparticles on a self-healing polymer substrate as electrodes, and a new kind of lithium sulfate/sodium carboxymethylcellulose serves as both gel electrolyte and separator. The specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance can be well maintained after repeated cutting and self-healing. These self-healing batteries are demonstrated to be promising for wearable devices. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. RTE of hydrogen-like and lithium-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R. (Manne Siegbahn Institute of Physics, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden)); Justiniano, E. (Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (USA)); Schulz, M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Mokler, P.H.; Reusch, S. (GSI, D-6100 Darmstasdt 11, (Federal Republic of Germany)); Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Giese, J.; Miller, P.D.; Schoene, H. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Kambara, T. (RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Mueller, A. (Strahlenzentrum d. Universitat, D-6300 Gieen (Federal Republic of Germany)); Stacahura, Z. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)); Vane, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Warzcak, A. (Inst. of Physics, University, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)); Wintermeyer, G. (Physikalisches Institut d. Universitaet, D-6900 Heidelberg, (Federal Republic of Germany))

    1990-06-01

    Recent results on electron capture with simultaneous excitation of a projectile electron (RTE) are reviewed. These processes are identified by measuring coincidences between two K-x-rays and ion with its charge decreased by one unit, for hydrogen-like or lithium-like ions, respectively. In the dependence of the cross section on the beam energy it was seen, that this process is resonant and behaves very much like dielectronic recombination. In this work we present and discuss results from measurements of resonant transfer and excitation in collisions of lithium-like F, hydrogen-like S, lithium-, and hydrogen-like Ge with H{sub 2}. Emphasis is given to investigating the population of very high n states.

  17. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  18. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reese, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraum and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.

  19. Nanostructured lithium titanates (Li4Ti5O12) for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured lithium titanates (Li(sub4)Ti(sub5)O(sub12)) have been intensively investigated as anode materials of Li-ion batteries due to their many advantages, such as excellent performance, outstanding safety, and excellent cycle life...

  20. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  1. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...

  2. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  3. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  4. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as ...

  5. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-07-02

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at different lithium compositions and during several cycles of charge and discharge in a half cell vs. metallic lithium. The impedance analysis shows the contribution of both surface resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominated by a solid electrolyte layer (SEI) consisting of an inner, inorganic insoluble part and several organic compounds at the outer interface, as seen by XPS analysis. The surface resistivity, which seems to be correlated with the Coulombic efficiency of the electrode, grows at very high lithium contents due to an increase in the inorganic SEI thickness. We estimate the diffusion coefficient of about 2 × 10 -10 cm 2/s for lithium diffusion in silicon. A large increase in the electrode impedance was observed at very low lithium compositions, probably due to a different mechanism for lithium diffusion inside the wires. Restricting the discharge voltage to 0.7 V prevents this large impedance and improves the electrode lifetime. Cells cycled between 0.07 and 0.70 V vs. metallic lithium at a current density of 0.84 A/g (C/5) showed good Coulombic efficiency (about 99%) and maintained a capacity of about 2000 mAh/g after 80 cycles. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g{sup −1}. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g{sup −1} and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g{sup −1} at 4 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability.

  9. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  10. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugmann, Sandra; Moosbauer, Dominik; Amereller, Marius; Schreiner, Christian; Wudy, Franz; Gores, Heiner Jakob [Workgroup ' ' Electrochemistry and Electrolytes' ' , Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universtaetsstr. 31, D-93040 Regensburg, Bavaria (Germany); Schmitz, Rene; Schmitz, Raphael; Isken, Philipp; Dippel, Christian; Mueller, Romek; Kunze, Miriam; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Winter, Martin [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    The salt lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) showed some promising results for lithium-ion-cells. It was synthesized via a new synthetic route that avoids chloride impurities. Here we report the properties of its solutions solvent blend ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3:7, mass ratio), including its conductivity, cationic transference number, hydrolysis, Al-current collector corrosion-protection ability and its cycling performance with some electrode materials. Some Al-corrosion studies were also performed with the help of our recently developed computer controlled impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) that proofed to be a useful tool for battery material investigations. (author)

  12. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugmann, Sandra; Moosbauer, Dominik; Amereller, Marius; Schreiner, Christian; Wudy, Franz; Schmitz, René; Schmitz, Raphael; Isken, Philipp; Dippel, Christian; Müller, Romek; Kunze, Miriam; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Winter, Martin; Gores, Heiner Jakob

    The salt lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) showed some promising results for lithium-ion-cells. It was synthesized via a new synthetic route that avoids chloride impurities. Here we report the properties of its solutions (solvent blend ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3:7, mass ratio), including its conductivity, cationic transference number, hydrolysis, Al-current collector corrosion-protection ability and its cycling performance with some electrode materials. Some Al-corrosion studies were also performed with the help of our recently developed computer controlled impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) that proofed to be a useful tool for battery material investigations.

  13. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  14. Mg-ion indiffusion of lithium niobate single crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙文修; 姚熹; 霍玉晶

    1995-01-01

    A core-cladding waveguide structure of lithium niobate single crystal fiber with different refractive index profiles has been obtained by using an Mg-ion indiffusion process. The propagation loss of the dadded crystal fiber is measured to be 14 times as low as that of the undadded crystal fibers. Mechanisms of Mg-ion indiffusion and reasons of lattice distortion are analyzed and discussed. It is found by X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy that MgO-rich layer in the magnesium diffused surface exhibits the crystal structure of a new compound from the Li-Mg-Nb-O ternary system. It is proposed, for the first time, that this new compound in MgO-rich layer is the real source of Mg-ion indiffusion lithium niobate.

  15. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, P. A.; Greenway, W. W.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lidia, S. M.; Roy, P. K.; Takakuwa, J.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the development and testing of an intense lithium ion source and injector for an ion induction accelerator designed for warm, dense matter target heating experiments. The source is a 10.9-cm diameter aluminosilicate emitter on a porous tungsten substrate. For an injector voltage pulse of 120 kV, pulse duration of 1.0-μs FWHM, and an operating temperature of 1250°C, the source emits 35 mA of Li+ ions. The results follow experimental studies with much smaller sources. The key challenges included beam quality, source lifetime, and heat management.

  17. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  18. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  19. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  20. Reactive sintering of ceramic lithium ion electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badding, Michael Edward; Dutta, Indrajit; Iyer, Sriram Rangarajan; Kent, Brian Alan; Lonnroth, Nadja Teresia

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed herein are methods for making a solid lithium ion electrolyte membrane, the methods comprising combining a first reactant chosen from amorphous, glassy, or low melting temperature solid reactants with a second reactant chosen from refractory oxides to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature to form a homogenized composite, wherein the first temperature is between a glass transition temperature of the first reactant and a crystallization onset temperature of the mixture; milling the homogenized composite to form homogenized particles; casting the homogenized particles to form a green body; and sintering the green body at a second temperature to form a solid membrane. Solid lithium ion electrolyte membranes manufactured according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  1. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  2. Characteristics and Behavior of Cycled Aged Lithium Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    service cycle and provide the cornerstone for safety analysis. 18650 Cells with representative chemistry of cells contained in current Army procured...their relevance to this effort warrants inclusion. 1-3 EXPERIMENTAL Representative 18650 cells were cycled at different rates and environmental...conditions. The 18650 chemistry used in this effort is a LiCoO2 lithium ion electrochemical cell. The bulk of this effort was conducted with 1.5 Amp-hr

  3. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  4. Nanostructured Ion Storage Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.R.S.Prabaharan

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Performance of lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and other electric-energy storage devices is not only determined simply by macroscopic chemical composition of their electrode, but also strongly affected by shape and size of the active materials. Nanostructured materials are distinguished from conventional polycrystalline materials by the nanometer size of the structural units that compose them, and they often exhibit properties that are drastically different from the conventi...

  5. Cost and Price Metrics for Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-02-01

    Values of current energy technology costs and prices, available from a variety of sources, can sometimes vary. While some of this variation can be due to differences in the specific materials or configurations assumed, it can also reflect differences in the definition and context of the terms "cost" and "price." This fact sheet illustrates and explains this latter source of variation in a case study of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  7. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries, cathode... key consideration for batteries used in vehicle applications, the rate capability, cyclability, and safety of LIBs have been identified as critical...diffraction planes ( Figure 1). With the intercalation of the Al13 Keggin pillars, the position of the 001 plane shifts to 6.7 degrees two-theta, along with

  8. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  9. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  10. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li2CO3 and pure Li3PO4, respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na2CO3 and Li3PO4vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li2CO3 containing the impurity of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g(-1). The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  12. Materials and processing for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claus

    2008-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery technology is projected to be the leapfrog technology for the electrification of the drivetrain and to provide stationary storage solutions to enable the effective use of renewable energy sources. The technology is already in use for low-power applications such as consumer electronics and power tools. Extensive research and development has enhanced the technology to a stage where it seems very likely that safe and reliable lithium-ion batteries will soon be on board hybrid electric and electric vehicles and connected to solar cells and windmills. However, the safety of the technology is still a concern, service life is not yet sufficient, and costs are too high. This paper summarizes the state of the art of lithium-ion battery technology for nonexperts. It lists materials and processing for batteries and summarizes the costs associated with them. This paper should foster an overall understanding of materials and processing and the need to overcome the remaining barriers for a successful market introduction.

  13. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  14. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  15. Prediction study on the degeneration of lithium-ion battery based on fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian Ping

    2017-07-01

    The degradation degree prediction of lithium-ion battery has been studied through experimental data. Characterization parameters on the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery were deduced under consideration of the internal and external factors. The analysis of discrete degree was proposed to depict the degradation degree for lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, based on fuzzy inference system (FIS), the predicted model of the degradation degree for lithium-ion battery was built and its output was defined as the degenerate coefficient β, β ∈ [0, 1]. Finally, by learning, training and simulating, the FIS model has been validated to be reliable and applicable in prediction on the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery. The simulation results show that the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery is more serious when β is closer to 1, and the degradation degree is lighter when β is closer to 0.

  16. Innovation and its Management as Observed in the Lithium Ion Secondary Battery Business

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三

    2008-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei, where the present author formerly worked. In this paper, the author describes how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor, how the technology originated in Japan and...

  17. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Libao Chen; Ming Zhang; Weifeng Wei

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    OpenAIRE

    Chaolong Zhang; Yigang He; Lifeng Yuan; Sheng Xiang; Jinping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery’s remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds ...

  19. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Innovation and its Management as Observed in the Lithium Ion Secondary Battery Business

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三

    2008-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei, where the present author formerly worked. In this paper, the author describes how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor, how the technology originated in Japan and...

  1. From lithium-ion to sodium-ion batteries: A materials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2017-06-19

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are being reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Enhanced Imaging of Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Biton, M; Yufit, V; Tariq, F; Kishimoto, M; Brandon, NP

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a novel method of lithium ion battery electrode sample preparation with a new type of epoxy impregnation, brominated (Br) epoxy, which is introduced here for the first time for this purpose and found suitable for focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography. The Br epoxy improves image contrast, which enables higher FIB-SEM resolution (3D imaging), which is amongst the highest ever reported for composite LFP cathodes using FIB-SEM. In turn it mea...

  3. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  4. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun

    2013-01-10

    The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  5. Germanium anode with excellent lithium storage performance in a germanium/lithium-cobalt oxide lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuwan; Yang, Zhibo; Fu, Yujun; Qiao, Li; Li, Dan; Yue, Hongwei; He, Deyan

    2015-02-24

    Germanium is a highly promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries as a consequence of its large theoretical specific capacity, good electrical conductivity, and fast lithium ion diffusivity. In this work, Co3O4 nanowire array fabricated on nickel foam was designed as a nanostructured current collector for Ge anode. By limiting the voltage cutoff window in an appropriate range, the obtained Ge anode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance in half- and full-cells, which can be mainly attributed to the designed nanostructured current collector with good conductivity, enough buffering space for the volume change, and shortened ionic transport length. More importantly, the assembled Ge/LiCoO2 full-cell shows a high energy density of 475 Wh/kg and a high power density of 6587 W/kg. A high capacity of 1184 mA h g(-1) for Ge anode was maintained at a current density of 5000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles.

  6. Electrochemical characteristics of ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitrides as anode material for lithium ion batteries: the influence of precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; TIAN Feng; SUN Juncai; JI Shijun; XIE Jingying

    2008-01-01

    Ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitride anode materials for lithium ion batteries with different precursors were prepared by the simple process of high-energy ball milling.High capacity and excellent cyclability were obtained.The influence of precursor introduction on the electrochemical performance of products was investigated.This research reveals that the electrochemical performance of lithium silicon hiaide can be enhanced significantly by doping O.The cyclability of quadruple lithium silicon nitride can be optimized remarkably by controlling the introduction quantity of the precursors.It is possible for the composite to be used as a capacity compensator within a wide voltage cut-off window.

  7. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs) were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests), ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model), state of charge (SoC) estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering) and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT) and world harmonized light v...

  8. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  9. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lithium ion beam impact on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-03-01

    This study is structured on Li3+ ion irradiation effect on the different properties of selenium (Se) nanowires (NW's) (80 nm). Template technique was employed for the synthesis of Se nanowires. Exploration of the effect of 10 MeV Li3+ ions on Se NW's was done for structural and electrical analysis with the help of characterization tools. X-ray diffraction revealed the variation in peak intensity only, with no peak shifting. The grain size and texture coefficients of various planes were also found to vary. Current-Voltage characteristics (IVC) show an increment in the conductivity up to a fluence of 1×1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease at the next two fluences. The effects of irradiation are presented in this paper and possible reasons for the variation in properties are also discussed in this study.

  11. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  12. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  13. High Cycle Life, Low Temperature Lithium Ion Battery for Earth Orbiting and Planetary Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires development of advanced rechargeable electrochemical battery systems for lithium ion batteries to support orbiting spacecraft and planetary missions....

  14. Lithium Ion Batteries Used for Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Chen, X. Jie; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Christian, James F.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear forensics includes the study of materials used for the attribution a nuclear event. Analysis of the nuclear reaction products resulting both from the weapon and the material in the vicinity of the event provides data needed to identify the source of the nuclear material and the weapon design. The spectral information of the neutrons produced by the event provides information on the weapon configuration. The lithium battery provides a unique platform for nuclear forensics, as the Li-6 content is highly sensitive to neutrons, while the battery construction consists of various layers of materials. Each of these materials represents an element for a threshold detector scheme, where isotopes are produced in the battery components through various nuclear reactions that require a neutron energy above a fundamental threshold energy. This study looks into means for extracting neutron spectral information by understanding the isotopic concentration prior to and after exposure. The radioisotopes decay through gamma and beta emission, and radiation spectrometers have been used to measure the radiation spectra from the neutron exposed batteries. The batteries were exposed to various known neutron fields, and analysis was conducted to reconstruct the incident neutron spectra. This project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, grant number HDTRA1-11-1-0028.

  15. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  16. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  17. Use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B.; Patterson, D.; Camilleri, S.

    An account is given of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack used in the Northern Territory University's solar car, Fuji Xerox Desert Rose, which competed in the 1999 World Solar Challenge (WSC). The reasons for the choice of Li-ion batteries over silver-zinc batteries are outlined, and the construction techniques used, the management of the batteries, and the battery protection boards are described. Data from both pre-race trialling and race telemetry, and an analysis of both the coulombic and the energy efficiencies of the battery are presented. It is concluded that Li-ion batteries show a real advantage over other commercially available batteries for traction applications of this kind.

  18. A new method for quantitative marking of deposited lithium by chemical treatment on graphite anodes in lithium-ion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Yvonne; Birkenmaier, Claudia; Feinauer, Julian; Hintennach, Andreas; Bender, Conrad L; Meiler, Markus; Schmidt, Volker; Dinnebier, Robert E; Schleid, Thomas

    2015-04-13

    A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from large automotive lithium-ion cells (≥6 Ah) is presented. Graphite anode samples were extracted from two different formats (cylindrical and pouch cells) of pristine and differently aged lithium-ion cells. The samples present a variety of anodes with various states of lithium deposition (also known as plating). A chemical modification was performed to metallic lithium deposited on the anode surface due to previous plating with isopropanol (IPA). After this procedure an oxygenated species was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which later was confirmed as Li2 CO3 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). A valuation of the covered area by Li2 CO3 was carried out with an image analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and quantitative Rietveld refinement.

  19. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  20. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  1. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  2. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2013-11-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level.

  3. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  4. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  5. Ultrafast fluxional exchange dynamics in electrolyte solvation sheath of lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Hochan; Noh, Yohan; Kossowska, Dorota; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-01-01

    Lithium cation is the charge carrier in lithium-ion battery. Electrolyte solution in lithium-ion battery is usually based on mixed solvents consisting of polar carbonates with different aliphatic chains. Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods. Here we investigate the ultrafast carbonate solvent exchange dynamics around lithium ions in electrolyte solutions with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and find that the time constants of the formation and dissociation of lithium-ion···carbonate complex in solvation sheaths are on a picosecond timescale. We anticipate that such ultrafast microscopic fluxional processes in lithium-solvent complexes could provide an important clue to understanding macroscopic mobility of lithium cation in lithium-ion battery on a molecular level. PMID:28272396

  6. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  8. Lifetime of lithium-ion batteries for PV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Martin; Keil, Peter; Jossen, Andreas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Inst. for Electrical Energy Storage Technology (EES); Spaeth, Volker [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two different types of lithium-ion batteries are investigated for use in photovoltaic stand alone systems. To minimize the spread of the cells, small, mass produced cells and no large cells were used for our investigations. As technologies Lithium-Iron-Phosphate (LFP) and a cell with blended LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiNi{sub X}Co{sub Y}Al{sub Z}O{sub 2} (NMC blend) were used. With each cell technology different storage and cycling tests were started 2 years ago. Here the depth of discharge, the average state of charge and the temperature were varied. The results show that both battery technologies have different ageing characteristics. Most difference is in the influence of the average state of charge. The other important result is that in case of PV-stand alone operation, calendar ageing is more significant than cycle life ageing. (orig.)

  9. Simulation of Hohlraum Wall Texture for Improved Performance in Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Isaac Chartrand [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, John Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The performance of hohlraums for use in NIF (National Ignition Facility) is explored using Cassio: a LANL produced radiation hydrodynamics code that implements implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport. We examine the effect on blowoff of adding texture to the inside of the hohlraum wall. These new designs are compared in simulation against current designs and the data are analyzed for the possible use of such hohlraums in future high energy density physics experiments.

  10. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Investigation of the lithium ion mobility in cyclic model compounds and their ion conduction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, Joerg

    2011-07-27

    In view of both, energy density and energy drain, rechargeable lithium ion batteries outperform other present accumulator systems. However, despite great efforts over the last decades, the ideal electrolyte in terms of key characteristics such as capacity, cycle life, and most important reliable safety, has not yet been identified. Steps ahead in lithium ion battery technology require a fundamental understanding of lithium ion transport, salt association, and ion solvation within the electrolyte. Indeed, well defined model compounds allow for systematic studies of molecular ion transport. Thus, in the present work, based on the concept of immobilizing ion solvents, three main series with a cyclotriphosphazene (CTP), hexaphenylbenzene (HBP), and tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMS) scaffold were prepared. Lithium ion solvents, among others ethylene carbonate (EC), which has proven to fulfill together with propylene carbonate safety and market concerns in commercial lithium ion batteries, were attached to the different cores via alkyl spacers of variable length. All model compounds were fully characterized, pure and thermally stable up to at least 235 C, covering the requested broad range of glass transition temperatures from -78.1 C up to +6.2 C. While the CTP models tend to rearrange at elevated temperatures over time, which questions the general stability of alkoxide related (poly)phosphazenes, both, the HPB and CTP based models show no evidence of core stacking. In particular the CTP derivatives represent good solvents for various lithium salts, exhibiting no significant differences in the ionic conductivity {sigma}{sub dc} and thus indicating comparable salt dissociation and rather independent motion of cations and ions. In general, temperature-dependent bulk ionic conductivities investigated via impedance spectroscopy follow a William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) type behavior. Modifications of the alkyl spacer length were shown to influence ionic conductivities only in

  12. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  13. Complex Ion Dynamics in Carbonate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Mitchell T.; Bhatia, Harsh; Gyulassy, Attila G.; Draeger, Erik W.; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Lordi, Vincenzo; Pask, John E.

    2017-03-16

    Li-ion battery performance is strongly influenced by ionic conductivity, which depends on the mobility of the Li ions in solution, and is related to their solvation structure. In this work, we have performed first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations of a LiPF6 salt solvated in different Li-ion battery organic electrolytes. We employ an analytical method using relative angles from successive time intervals to characterize complex ionic motion in multiple dimensions from our FPMD simulations. We find different characteristics of ionic motion on different time scales. We find that the Li ion exhibits a strong caging effect due to its strong solvation structure, while the counterion, PF6– undergoes more Brownian-like motion. Our results show that ionic motion can be far from purely diffusive and provide a quantitative characterization of the microscopic motion of ions over different time scales.

  14. A disordered carbon as a novel anode material in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, F.; Brutti, S.; Reale, P.; Scrosati, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Gherghel, L.; Wu, J.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2005-03-22

    The electrochemical behavior of a disordered carbon used as the anode in a lithium battery has been tested. The characteristics of this carbon, especially its specific capacity and cycle life, are such that it is a potentially unique, high-performance anode material for new types of lithium-ion batteries. The Figure shows the specific capacity versus cycle number of the disordered carbon electrode in a lithium-ion cell. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. A Phase I Program to Improve Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy ( up to 200 Wh/kg)...

  16. Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Holland, Charles E.; White, Ralph E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Two parameter estimation methods are presented for online determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery. Loss of capacity and resistance increase are both included in the model. The first method is a hybrid combination of batch data reconciliation and moving-horizon parameter estimation. A discussion on the selection of tuning parameters for this method based on confidence intervals is included. The second method uses batch data reconciliation followed by application of discrete filtering of the resulting parameters. These methods are demonstrated using cycling data from an experimental cell with over 1600 charge-discharge cycles.

  17. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  18. Dynamically compacted all-ceramic lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Michiel J. G.; Ooms, Frans G. B.; Kelder, Erik M.; Legerstee, Waiter J.; Schoonman, Joop; Weisenburger, Alfons

    This paper deals with a cell design and a unique manufacturing process for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Detailed analyses of the manufacturing of the components for such a battery and the compaction of the green battery are presented. The electrodes were made of coatings of LiMn 2O 4 on metal foils. The electrolyte was a free-standing foil of the ceramic electrolyte Li-doped BPO 4 in a polymer matrix. The different layers were wound and compacted by using magnetic pulse compaction. Several characteristics of the compacted batteries are presented.

  19. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  20. Designing New Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Using Superhalogen Anions

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The electrolytes used in Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) such as LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. are Li-salts of some complex anions, BF4-, PF6- etc. The investigation shows that the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of these anions exceeds to that of halogen, and therefore they behave as superhalogen anions. Consequently, it might be possible to design new electrolytic salts using other superhalogen anions. We have explored this possibility using Li-salts of various superhalogen anions such as BO2-, AlH4-, Ti...

  1. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Chang; Chunyang Li; Yanfang Wang; Bingwei Chen; Lijun Fu; Yusong Zhu; Lixin Zhang; Yuping Wu; Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge vo...

  2. Lithium-ion batteries modeling involving fractional differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Jocelyn; Merveillaut, Mathieu; Francisco, Junior Mbala; Guillemard, Franck; Porcelatto, Denis

    2014-09-01

    With hybrid and electric vehicles development, automobile battery monitoring systems (BMS) have to meet the new requirements. These systems have to give information on state of health, state of charge, available power. To get this information, BMS often implement battery models. Accuracy of the information manipulated by the BMS thus depends on the model accuracy. This paper is within this framework and addresses lithium-ion battery modeling. The proposed fractional model is based on simplifications of an electrochemical model and on resolution of some partial differential equations used in its description. Such an approach permits to get a simple model in which electrochemical variables and parameters still appear.

  3. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  4. Silicene: A Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincheng; Xu, Xun; Peleckis, Germanas; Hao, Weichang; Dou, Shi Xue; Du, Yi

    2017-03-22

    Silicene, a single-layer-thick silicon nanosheet with a honeycomb structure, is successfully fabricated by the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) deposition method on metallic substrates and by the solid-state reaction method. Here, recent progress on the features of silicene that make it a prospective anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are discussed, including its charge-carrier mobility, chemical stability, and metal-silicene interactions. The electrochemical performance of silicene is reviewed in terms of both theoretical predictions and experimental measurements, and finally, its challenges and outlook are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Advances on Microsized On-Chip Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Weng, Qunhong; Lu, Xueyi; Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lin; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-09-27

    Development of microsized on-chip batteries plays an important role in the design of modern micro-electromechanical systems, miniaturized biomedical sensors, and many other small-scale electronic devices. This emerging field intimately correlates with the topics of rechargeable batteries, nanomaterials, on-chip microfabrication, etc. In recent years, a number of novel designs are proposed to increase the energy and power densities per footprint area, as well as other electrochemical performances of microsized lithium-ion batteries. These advances may guide the pathway for the future development of microbatteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  7. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  8. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...

  9. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  10. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-04

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  11. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  12. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  14. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate... lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14, Code of...

  15. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work focused on testing the Li-ion supercapacitors to confirm their performance and safety.  The li-ion supercaps were found to be safe under several...

  16. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  17. Proposal of simple and novel method of capacity fading analysis using pseudo-reference electrode in lithium ion cells: Application to solvent-free lithium ion polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Kumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Masato; Ohno, Yasutaka; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yo

    2014-02-01

    We propose a simple procedure for introducing a pseudo-reference electrode (PRE) to lithium ion batteries using isometric lithium metal placed between the cathode and anode, and we successfully obtained the cathode and anode voltage profiles, individual interfacial impedances, and the misalignment of the operation range between the cathode and anode after cycle operation. The proposed procedure is applicable to lithium ion battery systems using a solid electrolyte to prepare two cells with a lithium counter electrode. We determined the capacity decrease of a solvent-free lithium ion polymer battery consisting of a LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC), a polyether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), and a graphite (Gr) with the proposed PRE over 1000 cycles. The capacity retention of the [Gr|SPE|NMC] cell reached 50% at the 1000th cycle upon the optimization of cell preparation, and we found that the main factor of the capacity decrease was the continuous irreversible loss of active lithium at the graphite anode, not the oxidation of the SPE. Our findings suggest that we should reconsider combining a polyether-based SPE with a conventionally used 4 V class cathode and a graphite anode to develop an innovative, safe, and low-cost battery for the expected large lithium ion battery systems for stationary use.

  18. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  19. Measurement of interfacial thermal conductance in Lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Aalok; Nimmagadda, Amulya; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the charge/discharge cycle must dissipate to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work develops a technique to measure the thermal resistance across the case-separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. Commercial 18650 batteries are discharged and opened using a battery disassembly tool, and the 25 μm thick separator and the 200 μm thick metallic case are harvested to make samples. A miniaturized version of the conventional reference bar method

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100-1000 m2 g-1) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m2 g-1), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs.

  1. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  2. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  4. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welna, Daniel T.; Taylor, Barney E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RX, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); UTC, Inc., Beavercreek, OH 45431 (United States); Qu, Liangti [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China); Dai, Liming [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH (United States); Durstock, Michael F. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RX, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    As portable electronics become more advanced and alternative energy demands become more prevalent, the development of advanced energy storage technologies is becoming ever more critical in today's society. In order to develop higher power and energy density batteries, innovative electrode materials that provide increased storage capacity, greater rate capabilities, and good cyclability must be developed. Nanostructured materials are gaining increased attention because of their potential to mitigate current electrode limitations. Here we report on the use of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWNTs) as the active electrode material in lithium-ion batteries. At low specific currents, these VA-MWNTs have shown high reversible specific capacities (up to 782 mAh g{sup -1} at 57 mA g{sup -1}). This value is twice that of the theoretical maximum for graphite and ten times more than their non-aligned equivalent. Interestingly, at very high discharge rates, the VA-MWNT electrodes retain a moderate specific capacity due to their aligned nature (166 mAh g{sup -1} at 26 A g{sup -1}). These results suggest that VA-MWNTs are good candidates for lithium-ion battery electrodes which require high rate capability and capacity. (author)

  6. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  7. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  8. Solar photovoltaic charging of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) charging of batteries was tested by using high efficiency crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules to recharge lithium-ion battery modules. This testing was performed as a proof of concept for solar PV charging of batteries for electrically powered vehicles. The iron phosphate type lithium-ion batteries were safely charged to their maximum capacity and the thermal hazards associated with overcharging were avoided by the self-regulating design of the solar charging system. The solar energy to battery charge conversion efficiency reached 14.5%, including a PV system efficiency of nearly 15%, and a battery charging efficiency of approximately 100%. This high system efficiency was achieved by directly charging the battery from the PV system with no intervening electronics, and matching the PV maximum power point voltage to the battery charging voltage at the desired maximum state of charge for the battery. It is envisioned that individual homeowners could charge electric and extended-range electric vehicles from residential, roof-mounted solar arrays, and thus power their daily commuting with clean, renewable solar energy.

  9. In situ formed lithium sulfide/microporous carbon cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyou; Chen, Yvonne; Xu, Yunhua; Yi, Feng; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Yihang; Yang, Junhe; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-12-23

    Highly stable sulfur/microporous carbon (S/MC) composites are prepared by vacuum infusion of sulfur vapor into microporous carbon at 600 °C, and lithium sulfide/microporous carbon (Li2S/MC) cathodes are fabricated via a novel and facile in situ lithiation strategy, i.e., spraying commercial stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) onto a prepared S/MC film cathode prior to the routine compressing process in cell assembly. The in situ formed Li2S/MC film cathode shows high Coulombic efficiency and long cycling stability in a conventional commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC (1:1 v/v)). The reversible capacities of Li2S/MC cathodes remain about 650 mAh/g even after 900 charge/discharge cycles, and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100% at a current density of 0.1C, which demonstrates the best electrochemical performance of Li2S/MC cathodes reported to date. Furthermore, this Li2S/MC film cathode fabricated via our in situ lithiation strategy can be coupled with a Li-free anode, such as graphite, carbon/tin alloys, or Si nanowires to form a rechargeable Li-ion cell. As the Li2S/MC cathode is paired with a commercial graphite anode, the full cell of Li2S/MC-graphite (Li2S-G) shows a stable capacity of around 600 mAh/g in 150 cycles. The Li2S/MC cathodes prepared by high-temperate sulfur infusion and SLMP prelithiation before cell assembly are ready to fit into current Li-ion batteries manufacturing processes and will pave the way to commercialize low-cost Li2S-G Li-ion batteries.

  10. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  11. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  12. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  13. Olivine-type nanosheets for lithium ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Lu, Ziyang; Tan, Huiteng; Sim, Daohao; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yazami, Rachid; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-25

    Olivine-type LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) has become of great interest as cathodes for next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, this family of compounds suffers from poor electronic conductivities and sluggish lithium diffusion in the [010] direction. Here, we develop a liquid-phase exfoliation approach combined with a solvothermal lithiation process in high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) supercritical fluids for the fabrication of ultrathin LiMPO4 nanosheets (thickness: 3.7-4.6 nm) with exposed (010) surface facets. Importantly, the HPHT solvothermal lithiation could produce monodisperse nanosheets while the traditional high-temperature calcination, which is necessary for cathode materials based on high-quality crystals, leads the formation of large grains and aggregation of the nanosheets. The as-synthesized nanosheets have features of high contact area with the electrolyte and fast lithium transport (time diffusion constant in at the microsecond level). The estimated diffusion time for Li(+) to diffuse over a [010]-thickness of <5 nm (L) was calculated to be less than 25, 2.5, and 250 μs for LiFePO4, LiMnPO4, and LiCoPO4 nanosheets, respectively, via the equation of t = L(2)/D. These values are about 5 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials. This results in high energy densities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 18 kW kg(-1) and 90 Wh kg(-1) at a 80 C rate for LiFePO4 nanosheets).

  14. Amorphous boron nanorod as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changjian; Lau, Miu Lun; Barkholtz, Heather M; Xu, Haiping; Parrish, Riley; Xu, Meiyue Olivia; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yuzi; Wang, Hao; Connell, Justin G; Smith, Kassiopeia A; Xiong, Hui

    2017-08-03

    We report an amorphous boron nanorod anode material for lithium-ion batteries prepared through smelting non-toxic boron oxide in liquid lithium. Boron in theory can provide capacity as high as 3099 mA h g(-1) by alloying with Li to form B4Li5. However, experimental studies of the boron anode have been rarely reported for room temperature lithium-ion batteries. Among the reported studies the electrochemical activity and cycling performance of the bulk crystalline boron anode material are poor at room temperature. In this work, we utilized an amorphous nanostructured one-dimensional (1D) boron material aiming at improving the electrochemical reactivity between boron and lithium ions at room temperature. The amorphous boron nanorod anode exhibited, at room temperature, a reversible capacity of 170 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of 10 mA g(-1) between 0.01 and 2 V. The anode also demonstrated good rate capability and cycling stability. The lithium storage mechanism was investigated by both sweep voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (GITTs). The sweep voltammetric analysis suggested that the contributions from lithium ion diffusion into boron and the capacitive process to the overall lithium charge storage are 57% and 43%, respectively. The results from GITT indicated that the discharge capacity at higher potentials (>∼0.2 V vs. Li/Li(+)) could be ascribed to a capacitive process and at lower potentials (lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Fundamentals of ICF Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M D

    2005-09-30

    On the Nova Laser at LLNL, we demonstrated many of the key elements required for assuring that the next laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will drive an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target to ignition. The indirect drive (sometimes referred to as ''radiation drive'') approach converts laser light to x-rays inside a gold cylinder, which then acts as an x-ray ''oven'' (called a hohlraum) to drive the fusion capsule in its center. On Nova we've demonstrated good understanding of the temperatures reached in hohlraums and of the ways to control the uniformity with which the x-rays drive the spherical fusion capsules. In these lectures we will be reviewing the physics of these laser heated hohlraums, recent attempts at optimizing their performance, and then return to the ICF problem in particular to discuss scaling of ICF gain with scale size, and to compare indirect vs. direct drive gains. In ICF, spherical capsules containing Deuterium and Tritium (DT)--the heavy isotopes of hydrogen--are imploded, creating conditions of high temperature and density similar to those in the cores of stars required for initiating the fusion reaction. When DT fuses an alpha particle (the nucleus of a helium atom) and a neutron are created releasing large amount amounts of energy. If the surrounding fuel is sufficiently dense, the alpha particles are stopped and can heat it, allowing a self-sustaining fusion burn to propagate radially outward and a high gain fusion micro-explosion ensues. To create those conditions the outer surface of the capsule is heated (either directly by a laser or indirectly by laser produced x-rays) to cause rapid ablation and outward expansion of the capsule material. A rocket-like reaction to that outward flowing heated material leads to an inward implosion of the remaining part of the capsule shell. The pressure generated on the outside of the capsule can reach nearly 100 megabar (100 million times

  16. N-phenylmaleimide as a New Ploymerizable Additive for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Wang; Q.Xia; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In persuit of better safety controls of lithium batteries,much efforts has been focused on the development of the internal and self-actuating overcharge protection additives.We report a novel electropolymerizable electrolyte additive for overcharge protection of lithium batteries. Electrochemical properties and overcharge behavior of NPM as a new polymerizable electrolyte additive for overcharge protection of lithium ion batteries are studied by cyclic voltammetry,charge-discharge measurements...

  17. Modeling of lithium plating induced aging of lithium-ion batteries: Transition from linear to nonlinear aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-08-01

    A physics-based Li-ion battery (LIB) aging model accounting for both lithium plating and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth is presented, and is applied to study the aging behavior of a cell undergoing prolonged cycling at moderate operating conditions. Cell aging is found to be linear in the early stage of cycling but highly nonlinear in the end with rapid capacity drop and resistance rise. The linear aging stage is found to be dominated by SEI growth, while the transition from linear to nonlinear aging is attributed to the sharp rise of lithium plating rate. Lithium plating starts to occur in a narrow portion of the anode near the separator after a certain number of cycles. The onset of lithium plating is attributed to the drop of anode porosity associated with SEI growth, which aggravates the local electrolyte potential gradient in the anode. The presence of lithium metal accelerates the porosity reduction, further promoting lithium plating. This positive feedback leads to exponential increase of lithium plating rate in the late stage of cycling, as well as local pore clogging near the anode/separator interface which in turn leads to a sharp resistance rise.

  18. Polyimide encapsulated lithium-rich cathode material for high voltage lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Qingwen; Fang, Jianhua; Wang, Jiulin; Yang, Jun; NuLi, Yanna

    2014-10-22

    Lithium-rich materials represented by xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) are attractive cathode materials for lithium-ion battery due to their high specific energy and low cost. However, some drawbacks of these materials such as poor cycle and rate capability remain to be addressed before applications. In this study, a thin polyimide (PI) layer is coated on the surface of Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 (LNMCO) by a polyamic acid (PAA) precursor with subsequently thermal imidization process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results confirm the successful formation of a PI layer (∼3 nm) on the surface of LNMCO without destruction of its main structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra show a slight shift of the Mn valence state from Mn(IV) to Mn(III) in the PI-LNMCO treated at 450 °C, elucidating that charge transfer takes place between the PI layer and LNMCO surface. Electrochemical performances of LNMCO including cyclic stability and rate capability are evidently improved by coating a PI nanolayer, which effectively separates the cathode material from the electrolyte and stabilizes their interface at high voltage.

  19. Few Atomic Layered Lithium Cathode Materials to Achieve Ultrahigh Rate Capability in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhixin; Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M; Chou, Shu-Lei; Chen, Lingna; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-09-01

    The most promising cathode materials, including LiCoO2 (layered), LiMn2 O4 (spinel), and LiFePO4 (olivine), have been the focus of intense research to develop rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronic devices. Sluggish lithium diffusion, however, and unsatisfactory long-term cycling performance still limit the development of present LIBs for several applications, such as plug-in/hybrid electric vehicles. Motivated by the success of graphene and novel 2D materials with unique physical and chemical properties, herein, a simple shear-assisted mechanical exfoliation method to synthesize few-layered nanosheets of LiCoO2 , LiMn2 O4 , and LiFePO4 is used. Importantly, these as-prepared nanosheets with preferred orientations and optimized stable structures exhibit excellent C-rate capability and long-term cycling performance with much reduced volume expansion during cycling. In particular, the zero-strain insertion phenomenon could be achieved in 2-3 such layers of LiCoO2 electrode materials, which could open up a new way to the further development of next-generation long-life and high-rate batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  1. Site Selective Spectroscopy on Erbium Ions in Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, K; Toulouse, A; Woodward, N; Capek, P; Dierolf, V, E-mail: vod2@lehigh.ed [Physics Department Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and the isostructural lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) play an important role in integrated optics since they allow the possibility to combine their favourable electro-optical, acousto-optical, and nonlinear properties with the ability to add additional functional groups by doping. Examples are rare earth ions that act as active centres for laser and optical amplifier applications. We present our sites-selective spectroscopic studies on Er{sup 3+} doped nearly stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} that include results about the assignment of excitation and emission peaks to different sites, symmetry properties of these sites, energy transfer among major sites, and up-conversion efficiencies. We compare the results in LiTiO{sub 3} with the corresponding ones in the much better studied LiNbO{sub 3} host and find that the type of centres and their spectral feature are very similar.

  2. Silicon nanowires as negative electrode for lithium-ion microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laik, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris Est, ICMPE/GESMAT, UMR 7182 CNRS-Universite Paris XII, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Eude, Laurent; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Pribat, Didier [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces, LPICM, UMR 7647 Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rouviere, Emmanuelle [Laboratoire des Composants Hybrides, LCH, CEA-DRT/LITEN/DTNM, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The increasingly demand on secondary batteries with higher specific energy densities requires the replacement of the actual electrode materials. With a very high theoretical capacity (4200 mAh g{sup -1}) at low voltage, silicon is presented as a very interesting potential candidate as negative electrode for lithium-ion microbatteries. For the first time, the electrochemical lithium alloying/de-alloying process is proven to occur, respectively, at 0.15 V/0.45 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li with Si nanowires (SiNWs, 200-300 nm in diameter) synthesized by chemical vapour deposition. This new three-dimensional architecture material is well suited to accommodate the expected large volume expansion due to the reversible formation of Li-Si alloys. At present, stable capacity over ten to twenty cycles is demonstrated. The storage capacity is shown to increase with the growth temperature by a factor 3 as the temperature varies from 525 to 575 C. These results, showing an attractive working potential and large storage capacities, open up a new promising field of research. (author)

  3. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  4. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour......Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  6. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series f...

  7. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  8. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  9. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  10. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  11. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Superior lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); National Key Laboratory of Power Sources, Tianjin Institute of Power Sources, Tianjin 300381 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Minsi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Dong, Lei; Xiong, Dongbin [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers showed much enhanced lithium storage performance. • Kinetics process of electrospinning V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers was studied by means of EIS for the first time. • Strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode were concluded. - Abstract: The hierarchical V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers cathode materials with diameter of 200–400 nm are successfully synthesized via an electrospinning followed by annealing. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of phase-pure product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obviously display the hierarchical porous nanofibers constructed by attached tiny vanadium oxide nanoplates. Electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared product is systematically studied using galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It turns out that in comparison to the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other unique nanostructured materials in the literature, our V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers show much enhanced lithium storage capacity, improved cyclic stability, and higher rate capability. After 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1}, the specific capacity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers retain 133.9 mAh g{sup −1}, corresponding to high capacity retention of 96.05%. More importantly, the EIS at various discharge depths clearly reveal the kinetics process of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode reaction with lithium. Based on our results, the possible approach to improve the specific capacity and rate capability of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode material is proposed. It is expected that this study could accelerate the development of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  13. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  14. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The 18650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 m Omega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39 percent. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55 percent state-of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cc. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  15. Interfacial Fracture of Nanowire Electrodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, G. R.; Zhang, Y.; Fincher, C. D.; Pharr, M.

    2017-06-01

    Nanowires (NW) have emerged as a promising design for high power-density lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes. However, volume changes during cycling can lead to fracture of the NWs. In this paper, we investigate a particularly detrimental form of fracture: interfacial detachment of the NW from the current collector (CC). We perform finite element simulations to calculate the energy release rates of NWs during lithiation as a function of geometric parameters and mechanical properties. The simulations show that the energy release rate of a surface crack decreases as it propagates along the NW/CC interface toward the center of the NW. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that plastic deformation in the NWs drastically reduces stresses and thus crack-driving forces, thereby mitigating interfacial fracture. Overall, the results in this paper provide design guidelines for averting NW/CC interfacial fractures during operation of LIBs.

  16. Model-based condition monitoring for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesic; Wang, Yebin; Fang, Huazhen; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Wada, Toshihiro; Hara, Satoshi; Qiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Condition monitoring for batteries involves tracking changes in physical parameters and operational states such as state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC), and is fundamentally important for building high-performance and safety-critical battery systems. A model-based condition monitoring strategy is developed in this paper for Lithium-ion batteries on the basis of an electrical circuit model incorporating hysteresis effect. It systematically integrates 1) a fast upper-triangular and diagonal recursive least squares algorithm for parameter identification of the battery model, 2) a smooth variable structure filter for the SOC estimation, and 3) a recursive total least squares algorithm for estimating the maximum capacity, which indicates the SOH. The proposed solution enjoys advantages including high accuracy, low computational cost, and simple implementation, and therefore is suitable for deployment and use in real-time embedded battery management systems (BMSs). Simulations and experiments validate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  17. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg‑1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  18. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  19. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  20. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  1. Lithium Ion Storage Characteristics of Mechanically Fractured Titanate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical milling on the formation of short titanate nanotube and structural change induced is investigated. Mechanical milling produces the short nanotubes with the length of 30–160 nm. The lithium ion intercalation characteristics of the obtained short titanate nanotube were studied to verify the effect of the newly formed cross-sections of nanotubes. It was found that the protonated titanate nanotubes maintained long shapes until 30 min of mechanical milling and were transformed into agglomerated nanosheets and finally anatase granules depending on the treatment duration. Through galvanostatic investigation, the nanotubes with milling of 15 min exhibited the highest discharge capacity of 336 mAh·g−1 in first cycle, 12.4% larger than pristine.

  2. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  3. Interfacial Fracture of Nanowire Electrodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, G. R.; Zhang, Y.; Fincher, C. D.; Pharr, M.

    2017-09-01

    Nanowires (NW) have emerged as a promising design for high power-density lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes. However, volume changes during cycling can lead to fracture of the NWs. In this paper, we investigate a particularly detrimental form of fracture: interfacial detachment of the NW from the current collector (CC). We perform finite element simulations to calculate the energy release rates of NWs during lithiation as a function of geometric parameters and mechanical properties. The simulations show that the energy release rate of a surface crack decreases as it propagates along the NW/CC interface toward the center of the NW. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that plastic deformation in the NWs drastically reduces stresses and thus crack-driving forces, thereby mitigating interfacial fracture. Overall, the results in this paper provide design guidelines for averting NW/CC interfacial fractures during operation of LIBs.

  4. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanyi; Liu Dawei; Zhang Qifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yu Danmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Cao Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  5. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  6. Measurement of lithium ion transference numbers of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. A comparative study with five various methods.; Messung von Lithium-Ionen Ueberfuehrungszahlen an Elektrolyten fuer Lithium-Ionen Batterien. Eine vergleichende Studie mit fuenf verschiedenen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugmann, Sandra

    2011-03-30

    Transference numbers are decisive transport properties to characterize electrolytes. They state the fraction of a certain species at charge transport and are defined by the ratio of current Ii that is transported by the ionic species i to the total current I. They are very important for lithium-ion batteries, because they give information about the real lithium transport and the efficiency of the battery. If the transference number has a too small value, for example, the lithium cannot be ''delivered'' fast enough in the discharge process. This can lead to precipitation of the salt at the anode and to depletion of the electrolyte at the cathode. Currently only a few adequate measurement methods for non-aqueous lithium electrolytes exist. The aim of this work was the installation of measurement devices and the comparison of different methods of transference numbers for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The advantages and disadvantages for every method should be analyzed and transference numbers of new electrolyte be measured. In this work a detailed comparison of different methods with electrochemical and spectroscopic factors was presented for the first time. The galvanostatic polarization, the potentiostatic polarization, the emf method, the determination by NMR and the determination by conductivity measurements were tested for their practical application and used for different lithium salts in several solvents. The results show clearly that the assumptions made for every method affect the measured transference number a lot. They can have different values depending on the used method and the concentration dependence can even have contrary tendencies for methods with electrochemical or spectroscopic aspects. The influence of ion pairs is the determining factor at the measurements. For a full characterization of electrolytes a complete set of transport parameters is necessary, including diffusion coefficients, conductivity, transference

  7. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  8. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  9. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  10. Recent trends in research activity on lithium-ion batteries in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    With the aim to give a view of the present research activity in Italy on lithium-ion batteries, the contribution of six Academic groups involved in a National Project "Electrode and Electrolyte Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Lithium Batteries", which is exploratory in nature for the search of novel or improved materials, also by optimizing materials processing techniques, is here presented and discussed.

  11. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  12. Application of Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP®) in graphite anode - A high efficient prelithiation method for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Fu, Yanbao; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil; Battaglia, Vincent; Liu, Gao

    2014-08-01

    Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP®) was applied in graphite anode and the effects of this prelithiation method to cell performance were investigated. Performance of prelithiated cells was compared with that of regular graphite based cells. The first cycle capacity loss of SLMP prelithiated cell was largely reduced and the corresponding first cycle Coulombic efficiency was significantly improved. The graphite/NMC cell with SLMP prelithiation but without any standard cell formation process showed better cycle performance than that of none SLMP containing cell with standard formation process. Prelithiation of graphite electrode with SLMP promote stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of graphite anode. Application of SLMP in lithium-ion battery thus provides an effective method to enhance capacity, and promises a low cost SEI formation process. This also implies the potential use of other promising anode materials, such as Si and Sn that have large first cycle capacity loss, in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2......O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g-1. The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve....

  14. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  15. New type of imidazole based salts designed specifically for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzicki, L., E-mail: asalm@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, G.Z.; Bukowska, M.; Szczecinski, P. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Grugeon, S.; Laruelle, S.; Armand, M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides University de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue de Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marcinek, M.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-01-25

    In this manuscript we announce new type of 'tailored' imidazole-derived salts designed, synthesized and tested for application in lithium conductive electrolytes. Basic characterization of the structure of described materials has been made by Raman, IR and NMR ({sup 13}C NMR, {sup 19}F NMR) techniques. DSC and CV studies showed thermal stability of all salts over 200 deg. C and electrochemical stability in liquid and solid polymer solvents up to +4.6 V vs. metallic lithium anode and Al collectors. Such properties proved applicability of these salts as lithium electrolytes for modern types of lithium ion batteries.

  16. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  17. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  18. Non-Flammable, High Voltage Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrolyte will be demonstrated for lithium ion batteries with increased range of charge and discharge voltages and with improved fire safety. Experimental...

  19. Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the...

  20. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  1. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  2. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  3. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  4. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  5. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  6. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-01-01

    ...)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction...

  7. Flexible graphene-based lithium ion batteries with ultrafast charge and discharge rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Na Li; Zongping Chen; Wencai Ren; Feng Li; Hui-Ming Cheng

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we report a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery made from graphene foam, a three-dimensional, flexible, and conductive interconnected network, as a current collector, loaded with Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ and LiFePO₄...

  8. A Comprehensive Study on the Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as the key energy storage technology for both e-mobility and stationary renewable energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the Lithium-ion batteries are complex energy storage devices, which are characterized by a complex degradation behavior, which affects both...... their capacity and internal resistance. This paper investigates, based on extended laboratory calendar ageing tests, the degradation of the internal resistance of a Lithium-ion battery. The dependence of the internal resistance increase on the temperature and state-of-charge level have been extensive studied...... and quantified. Based on the obtained laboratory results, an accurate semi-empirical lifetime model, which is able to predict with high accuracy the internal resistance increase of the Lithium-ion battery over a wide temperature range and for all state-of-charge levels was proposed and validated....

  9. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  10. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef;

    2015-01-01

    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re......Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...

  11. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Cajzl, J.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Oswald, J.; Kolistsch, A.; Spirkova, J.

    2012-02-01

    Single crystals like lithium niobate are frequently doped with optically active rare-earth or transition-metal ions for a variety of applications in optical devices such as solid-state lasers, amplifiers or sensors. To exploit the potential of the Er:LiNbO 3, one must ensure high intensity of the 1.5 μm luminescence as an inevitable prerequisite. One of the important factors influencing the luminescence properties of a lasing ion is the crystal field of the surrounding, which is inevitably determined by the crystal structure of the pertinent material. From that point it is clear that it cannot be easy to affect the resulting luminescence properties - intensity or position of the luminescence band - without changing the structure of the substrate. However, there is a possibility to utilise a potential of the ion implantation of the lasing ions, optionally accompanied with a sensitising one, that can, besides the doping, also modify the structure of the treated area od the crystal. This effect can be eventually enhanced by a post-implantation annealing that may help to recover the damaged structure and hence to improve the desired luminescence. In this paper we are going to report on our experiments with ion-implantation technique followed with subsequent annealing could be a useful way to influence the crystal field of LN. Optically active Er:LiNbO 3 layers were fabricated by medium energy implantation under various experimental conditions. The Er + ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10 15 to 1.0 × 10 16 ion cm -2 into LiNbO 3 single-crystal cuts of both common and special orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air and oxygen at two different temperatures (350 and 600 °C) for 5 h. The depth concentration profiles of the implanted erbium were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He + ions. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine the

  12. Reproducibility of NIF hohlraum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Turnbull, D. P.; Casey, D. T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B. L.; Doeppner, T.; Divol, L.; Grim, G. P.; Hoover, M.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Michel, P. A.; Moore, A. S.; Pino, J. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Widmann, K.; Hohenberger, M.

    2015-11-01

    The strategy of experimentally ``tuning'' the implosion in a NIF hohlraum ignition target towards increasing hot-spot pressure, areal density of compressed fuel, and neutron yield relies on a level of experimental reproducibility. We examine the reproducibility of experimental measurements for a collection of 15 identical NIF hohlraum experiments. The measurements include incident laser power, backscattered optical power, x-ray measurements, hot-electron fraction and energy, and target characteristics. We use exact statistics to set 1-sigma confidence levels on the variations in each of the measurements. Of particular interest is the backscatter and laser-induced hot-spot locations on the hohlraum wall. Hohlraum implosion designs typically include variability specifications [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. We describe our findings and compare with the specifications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Autonomic shutdown of lithium-ion batteries using thermoresponsive microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baginska, Marta; White, Scott R. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Sottos, Nancy R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Building, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Merriman, Ryan J. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Moore, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Autonomic, thermally-induced shutdown of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is demonstrated by incorporating thermoresponsive polymer microspheres (ca. 4 {mu}m) onto battery anodes or separators. When the internal battery environment reaches a critical temperature, the microspheres melt and coat the anode/separator with a nonconductive barrier, halting Li-ion transport and shutting down the cell permanently. Three functionalization schemes are shown to perform cell shutdown: 1) poly(ethylene) (PE) microspheres coated on the anode, 2) paraffin wax microspheres coated on the anode, and 3) PE microspheres coated on the separator. Charge and discharge capacity is measured for Li-ion coin cells containing microsphere-coated anodes or separators as a function of capsule coverage. For PE coated on the anode, the initial capacity of the battery is unaffected by the presence of the PE microspheres up to a coverage of 12 mg cm{sup -2} (when cycled at 1C), and full shutdown (>98% loss of initial capacity) is achieved in cells containing greater than 3.5 mg cm{sup -2}. For paraffin microspheres coated on the anode and PE microspheres coated on the separator, shutdown is achieved in cells containing coverages greater than 2.9 and 13.7 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images of electrode surfaces from cells that have undergone autonomic shutdown provides evidence of melting, wetting, and resolidification of PE into the anode and polymer film formation at the anode/separator interface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Liao; Wei Xie; Yu Peng; Datong Liu; Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a...

  15. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  16. Tremella-like Molybdenum Dioxide as an Anode Material for Lithium ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.C.Yang; Q.S.Gao; Y.H.Zhang; Y.Tang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Molybdenum dioxide, with excellent chemical and physical properties, has been widely used in various fields[1]. As an anode material for lithium ion battery, it exhibits higher capacity than commercial carbonaceous materials, and proper morphology, structure and particle size are necessary for MoO2 to be employed as an anode material for lithium ion battery[2].We have successfully obtained tremella-like structure self-assembled with hexagonal MoO2 nanosheets via hydrothermal method using ethyl...

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9689 Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing ...PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration Neil S. Spinner,* Katherine M. Hinnant...geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available

  18. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Young Kim; Dae Young Lim

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests ...

  19. Self-wound composite nanomembranes as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Heng-Xing; Krien, Cornelia; Fiering, Irina [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Dresden D-01069 (Germany); Wu, Xing-Long; Guo, Yu-Guo [Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology and Beijing National, Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100190 (China); Fan, Li-Zhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mei, Yongfeng [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Dresden D-01069 (Germany); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Handan Road 220, 200433 Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Dresden D-01069 (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany)

    2010-11-02

    Self-wound nanomembranes out of functional multilayered structures were designed to improve lithium storage performance. The intrinsic strain is relaxed by rolling; the composite components are uniformly dispersed; the micro/nanohierarchical structure assumes a mixed ion/electron conduction network; and conventional nanomembrane deposition techniques allow for various materials combinations, suitable to meet different demands of lithium ion batteries. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Lithium rich cathode/graphite anode combination for lithium ion cells with high tolerance to near zero volt storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, K. R.; Staub, J. W.; Hladky, M. P.; Landi, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Management of reversible lithium is an advantageous approach to design lithium ion cells that are tolerant to near zero volt (NZV) storage under fixed resistive load towards highly controllable, enhanced user-inactive safety. Presently, the first cycle loss from a high energy density Li-rich HE5050 cathode is used to provide excess reversible lithium when paired with an appropriately capacity matched mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode. Cells utilizing 1.2 M LiPF6 3:7 v/v ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte and a lithium reference were used for 3-electrode testing. After conditioning, a fixed resistive load was applied to 3-electrode cells for 72 or 168-h during which the anode potential and electrode asymptotic potential (EAP) remained less than the copper dissolution potential. After multiple storage cycles (room temperature or 40 °C), the NZV coulombic efficiency (cell reversibility) exceeded 97% and the discharge capacity retention was >98%. Conventional 2-electrode HE5050/MCMB pouch cells stored at NZV or open circuit for 3 days had nearly identical rate capability (up to 5C) and discharge performance stability (for 500 cycles under a 30% depth of discharge low-earth-orbit regime). Thus, lithium ion cells with appropriately capacity matched HE5050/MCMB electrodes have excellent tolerance to prolonged NZV storage, which can lead to enhanced user-inactive safety.

  1. Insertion/removal kinetics of lithium ion in spinel LiCuxMn2-xO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The insertion/removal processes of lithium ion in spinel lithium manganese oxide(LiMn2O4) and copper doped spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiCuxMn2-xO4) on a powder microelectrode were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS), cyclic voltammetry(CV) and X-ray diffractometry(XRD). The insertion/removal process of lithium ion in the spinel oxides consists of three steps: charge transfer of lithium ion on the surface of the spinel oxides, diffusion and occupation of lithium ion in the lattice of the spinel oxide. Similar to chromium, the doping of copper in spinel lithium manganese oxide results in the increase of the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance for lithium insertion or removal, and the decrease of the diffusion coefficient of lithium ion in the lattice of spinel oxide. However, the insertion capacitance, a parameter reflecting the occupation of lithium ion in the lattice of the spinel oxide, is hardly influenced by the doping of copper. The influence of the doped copper on the kinetic process of lithium insertion/removal in spinel lithium manganese oxide is related to the contraction of spinel lattice.

  2. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Dhatarwal, Priyanka; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF4) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10-6 S cm-1 which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  3. Lithium ion irradiation of standard and oxygenated silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Candelori, A; Bisello, D; Giubilato, P; Kaminski, A; Litovchenko, A P; Lozano, A; Petrie, J R; Rando, R; Ullán, M; Wyss, J

    2004-01-01

    The next generation silicon detectors for future very high luminosity colliders or a possible LHC upgrade scenario will require radiation- hard detectors for fluences up to 10/sup 16/ 1-MeV equivalent neutrons/cm/sup 2/. These high fluences present strong constraints because long irradiation times are required at the currently available proton irradiation facilities. Energetic (58 MeV) lithium ions present a non-ionizing energy loss approximately=27.3 times higher than 27 MeV protons, and could consequently be a new promising radiation source for investigating the radiation hardness of silicon detectors up to very high particle fluences. Starting from this premise, we have investigated the degradation, as measured by the leakage current density increase and depletion voltage variations in the short and long-term characteristics, induced by 58 MeV Li ions in state-of-the-art silicon diodes processed by two different manufacturers on standard and oxygenated silicon substrates. Finally, the correlation between t...

  4. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  5. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  6. Synthesis, strctural and electrochemical characterizations of lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng

    The electrification trend for transportation systems requires alternative cathode materials to LiCoO2 with improved safety, lowered cost and extended cycle life. Lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials, which can be presented in a two component notation as xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO 2, (M= Ni, Co or Mn) have superior cost and energy density advantages. These cathode materials have shown success in laboratory scale experiments, but are still facing challenges such as voltage fade, moderate rate capacity and tap density for commercialization. The synthesis of precursors with high packing density and suitable physical properties is critical to achieve high energy density as well as the other acceptable electrochemical performance for the next generation lithium ion batteries. The aim of this study is to correlate the electrochemical properties of materials to their structural, morphological, and physical properties by coordinating the science of synthesis with the science of function, in order to enable the use of these compounds in vehicle technologies. Three different precursors including carbonate, hydroxide and oxalate were synthesized by co-precipitation reactions using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under various conditions. Research focused on areas such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, synthesis optimizations, and intrinsic limitations of each co-precipitation method. A combination of techniques such as PSA, BET, SEM, EDX FIB, TEM, Raman, FTIR, TGA-DSC, XRD, and ICP-MS, as well as electrochemical test methods such as cycling, CV, EIS and HPPC tests were used in correlation with each other in order to deepen our understanding to these materials. Related topics such as the composite structure formation process during the solid state reaction, lithium and nickel content effects on the cathode properties were also discussed. Additionally, the side reactions between the active materials and electrolyte as a result of the high charge potential were

  7. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-05-26

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  8. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Latz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  9. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latz, Arnulf; Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  10. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  11. An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangyang; Lu, Song; Li, Kaiyuan; Liu, Changchen; Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of lithium ion battery fires and explosions enhance the need of precise risk assessments on batteries. In the current study, 18650 lithium ion batteries at different states of charge are tested using a cone calorimeter to study the burning behaviors under an incident heat flux of 50 kW m-2. Several parameters are measured, including mass loss rate, time to ignition, time to explosion, heat release rate (HRR), the surface temperature and concentration of toxic gases. Although small quantities of oxygen are released from the lithium ion battery during burning, it is estimated that the energy, consuming oxygen released from the lithium ion battery, accounts for less than 13% of total energy released by a fully charged lithium ion battery. The experimental results show that the peak HRR and concentration of toxic gases rise with the increasing the states of charge, whereas the time to ignition and time to explosion decrease. The test results of the fully charged lithium ion batteries at three different incident heat fluxes show that the peak HRR increases from 6.2 to 9.1 kW and the maximum surface temperature increases from 662 to 934 °C as the incident heat flux increases from 30 to 60 kW m-2.

  12. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  13. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  14. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    OpenAIRE

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under c...

  15. Facial-shape controlled precursors for lithium cobalt oxides and the electrochemical performances in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Sang-Woo; Missiul, Aleksandr; Jung, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Two types of lithium cobalt oxides (LiCoO2) as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are synthesized from two cobalt sources of different facial-shapes (octahedral and truncated-octahedral Co3O4) and Li2CO3 using solid state synthesis. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements, the reaction mechanism of the formation of LiCoO2 is investigated. It is revealed that LiCoO2 from octahedral Co3O4 with only {111} surfaces grows in one direction whereas the crystal orientation of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 with {111} and {100} surfaces is not unique and the spinel intermediates of LixCo2O4 are formed during synthesis. They show largely unequal rate and cycling performances for lithium ion battery, even though their outer appearances are nearly identical. Almost single-crystalline LiCoO2 from octahedral precursors shows much better electrochemical performances than LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral precursors as a lithium ion battery cathode. By studying crystal orientation, it is shown that the poor electrochemical performances of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 are originated by crystal-mismatch between crystallites.

  16. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO.

  17. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  18. Temperature Field Analysis and Thermal Dissipation Structure Optimization of Lithium-ion Battery Pack in PEVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to achieve good thermal stability of lithium batteries in electric vehicles under the conditions of high-power. This study established a three-dimensional, transient heat dissipation model for Lithium-ion battery package in the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system based on theoretical knowledge of thermodynamics and heat transfer. With the help of the numerical simulation theoretical of CFD, the flow and temperature field of force air cooling Lithium-ion battery pack was simulated with the heat source obtained from dynamic performance simulations of Pure Electric Vehicles (PEVs under 15% climbing conditions. For the issues of high temperature rise and large temperature difference, optimal programs to improve the cooling effect of Lithium-ion battery pack were proposed. Simulation results indicate that the optimal measures make heat dissipation well and temperature distribution uniform, which satisfies the application requirement in PEVs.

  19. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  20. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  1. Exploring Lithium Deficiency in Layered Oxide Cathode for Li-Ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung-Jin [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Uddin, Md-Jamal [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Alaboina, Pankaj K. [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Han, Sang Sub [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Imaging and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59718 USA; Choi, Yong Seok [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Hu, Enyuan [Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Nam, Kyung-Wan [Department of Energy Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620 Republic of Korea; Schwarz, Ashleigh M. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environmental Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Cho, Jong Soo [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Choi, Daiwon [Energy and Environmental Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2017-06-23

    Abstract or short description: The ever-growing demand for high capacity cathode materials is on the rise since the futuristic applications are knocking on the door. Conventional approach to developing such cathode relies on the lithium-excess materials to operate the cathode at high voltage and extract more lithium-ion. Yet, they fail to satiate the needs because of their unresolved issues upon cycling such as, for lithium manganese-rich layered oxides – their voltage fading, and for as nickel-based layered oxides – the structural transition. Here, in contrast, lithium-deficient ratio is demonstrated as a new approach to attain high capacity at high voltage for layered oxide cathodes. Rapid and cost effective lithiation of a porous hydroxide precursor with lithium deficient ratio acted as a driving force to partially convert the layered material to spinel phase yielding in a multiphase structure (MPS) cathode material. Upon cycling, MPS revealed structural stability at high voltage and high temperature and resulted in fast lithium-ion diffusion by providing a distinctive SEI chemistry – MPS displayed minimum lithium loss in SEI and formed a thinner SEI. MPS thus offer high energy and high power applications and provides a new perspective compared to the conventional layered cathode materials denying the focus for lithium excess material.

  2. Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Oh, Pilgun; Liu, Xien; Lee, Min-Joon; Cho, Woongrae; Chae, Sujong; Kim, Youngsik; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-04-07

    High energy-density lithium-ion batteries are in demand for portable electronic devices and electrical vehicles. Since the energy density of the batteries relies heavily on the cathode material used, major research efforts have been made to develop alternative cathode materials with a higher degree of lithium utilization and specific energy density. In particular, layered, Ni-rich, lithium transition-metal oxides can deliver higher capacity at lower cost than the conventional LiCoO2 . However, for these Ni-rich compounds there are still several problems associated with their cycle life, thermal stability, and safety. Herein the performance enhancement of Ni-rich cathode materials through structure tuning or interface engineering is summarized. The underlying mechanisms and remaining challenges will also be discussed.

  3. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion solvation behavior of sulfone-ester mixed electrolytes for high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuu; Kinoshita, Shin-ichi; Wada, Satoshi; Hoshino, Keiji; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Sulfone-ester mixed solvent electrolytes were examined for 5 V-class high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells. As the base-electrolyte, sulfolane (SL)-ethyl acetate (EA) (1:1 mixing volume ratio) containing 1 M LiBF4 solute was investigated. Electrolyte conductivity, electrochemical stability, Li+ ion solvation behavior and cycleability of lithium electrode were evaluated. 13C NMR measurement results suggest that Li+ ions are solvated with both SL and EA. Charge-discharge cycling efficiency of lithium anode in SL-EA electrolytes was poor, being due to its poor tolerance for reduction. To improve lithium charge-discharge cycling efficiency in SL-EA electrolytes, following three trials were carried out: (i) improvement of the cathodic stability of electrolyte solutions by change in polarization through modification of solvent structure; isopropyl methyl sulfone and methyl isobutyrate were investigated as alternative SL and EA, respectively, (ii) suppression of the reaction between lithium and electrolyte solutions by addition of low reactivity surfactants of cycloalkanes (decalin and adamantane) or triethylene glycol derivatives (triglyme, 1,8-bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane and triethylene glycol di(methanesulfonate)) into SL-EA electrolytes, and (iii) change in surface film by addition of surface film formation agent of vinylene carbonate (VC) into SL-EA electrolytes. These trials made lithium cycling behavior better. Lithium cycling efficiency tended to increase with a decrease in overpotential. VC addition was most effective for improvement of lithium cycling efficiency among these additives. Stable surface film is formed on lithium anode by adding VC and the resistance between anode/electrolyte interfaces showed a constant value with an increase in cycle number. When the electrolyte solutions without VC, the interfacial resistance increased with an increase in cycle number. VC addition to SL-EA was effective not only for Li/LiCoO2 cell with charge

  4. Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Lifetime Models and Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina;

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is...

  5. Surface modifications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L. J.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Wu, Y. P.; Rahm, E.; Holze, R.; Wu, H. Q.

    2006-02-01

    Since the birth of the lithium ion battery in the early 1990s, its development has been very rapid and it has been widely applied as power source for a lot of light and high value electronics due to its significant advantages over traditional rechargeable battery systems. Recent research demonstrates the importance of surface structural features of electrode materials for their electrochemical performance, and in this paper the latest progress on this aspect is reviewed. Electrode materials are either anodic or cathodic ones. The former mainly include graphitic carbons, whose surfaces can be modified by mild oxidation, deposition of metals and metal oxides, coating with polymers and other kinds of carbons. Through these modifications, the surface structures of the graphitic carbon anodes are improved, and these improvements include: (1) smoothing the active edge surfaces by removing some reactive sites and/or defects on the graphite surface, (2) forming a dense oxide layer on the graphite surface, and (3) covering active edge structures on the graphite surface. Meanwhile, other accompanying changes occur: (1) production of nanochannels/micropores, (2) an increase in the electronic conductivity, (3) an inhibition of structural changes during cycling, (4) a reduction of the thickness of the SEI (solid-electrolyte-interface) layer, and (5) an increase in the number of host sites for lithium storage. As a result, the direct contact of graphite with the electrolyte solution is prevented, its surface reactivity with electrolytes, the decomposition of electrolytes, the co-intercalation of the solvated lithium ions and the charge-transfer resistance are decreased, and the movement of graphene sheets is inhibited. When the surfaces of cathode materials, mainly including LiCoO 2, LiNiO 2 and LiMn 2O 4, are coated with oxides such as MgO, Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, ZrO 2, Li 2Oṡ2B 2O 3 glass and other electroactive oxides, the coating can prevent their direct contact with the

  6. Lithium Carbonate Recovery from Cathode Scrap of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery: A Closed-Loop Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-07

    A closed-loop process to recover lithium carbonate from cathode scrap of lithium-ion battery (LIB) is developed. Lithium could be selectively leached into solution using formic acid while aluminum remained as the metallic form, and most of the other metals from the cathode scrap could be precipitated out. This phenomenon clearly demonstrates that formic acid can be used for lithium recovery from cathode scrap, as both leaching and separation reagent. By investigating the effects of different parameters including temperature, formic acid concentration, H2O2 amount, and solid to liquid ratio, the leaching rate of Li can reach 99.93% with minor Al loss into the solution. Subsequently, the leaching kinetics was evaluated and the controlling step as well as the apparent activation energy could be determined. After further separation of the remaining Ni, Co, and Mn from the leachate, Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.90% could be obtained. The final solution after lithium carbonate extraction can be further processed for sodium formate preparation, and Ni, Co, and Mn precipitates are ready for precursor preparation for cathode materials. As a result, the global recovery rates of Al, Li, Ni, Co, and Mn in this process were found to be 95.46%, 98.22%, 99.96%, 99.96%, and 99.95% respectively, achieving effective resources recycling from cathode scrap of spent LIB.

  7. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  8. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  9. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  10. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  11. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  12. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  13. Designing New Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Using Superhalogen Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The electrolytes used in Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) such as LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. are Li-salts of some complex anions, BF4-, PF6- etc. The investigation shows that the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of these anions exceeds to that of halogen, and therefore they behave as superhalogen anions. Consequently, it might be possible to design new electrolytic salts using other superhalogen anions. We have explored this possibility using Li-salts of various superhalogen anions such as BO2-, AlH4-, TiH5- and VH6- as well as hyperhalogen anions, BH4-y(BH4)y-(y = 1 to 4). Our density functional calculations show that Li-salts of these complex anions possess similar characteristics as those of electrolytic salts in LIBs. Note that they all are halogen free and hence, non-toxic and safer than LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. In particular, LiB4H13 and LiB5H16 are two potential candidates for electrolytic salt due to their smaller Li-dissociation energy ({\\Delta}E) than those of LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. We have also noticed that {\\Delta}E of Li...

  14. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  16. Optimization of Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Julien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the literature on recent progress in lithium-ion batteries, with the active sub-micron-sized particles of the positive electrode chosen in the family of lamellar compounds LiMO2, where M stands for a mixture of Ni, Mn, Co elements, and in the family of yLi2MnO3•(1 − yLiNi½Mn½O2 layered-layered integrated materials. The structural, physical, and chemical properties of these cathode elements are reported and discussed as a function of all the synthesis parameters, which include the choice of the precursors and of the chelating agent, and as a function of the relative concentrations of the M cations and composition y. Their electrochemical properties are also reported and discussed to determine the optimum compositions in order to obtain the best electrochemical performance while maintaining the structural integrity of the electrode lattice during cycling.

  17. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sinusoidal current and stress evolutions in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Bauer, Christoph; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical breakdown of graphite materials due to diffusion-induced stress (DIS) is a key aging mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, electrochemical-thermal coupled model along with a DIS model is developed to study the DIS distribution across the anode thickness. Special attention is paid to the evolution behavior of surface tangential stress (STS) in the discharge process for graphite at different locations of the anode. For the first time, we report that the evolution of STS, as well as local current, at all locations of the anode, evolve like sinusoidal waves in the discharge process with several crests and troughs. The staging behavior of graphite active material, in particular the sharp change of open-circuit potential (OCP) of graphite in the region between two plateaus, is found to be the root cause for the sinusoidal patterns of current and stress evolution. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as starting state of charge, discharge C-rate and electrode thickness on the current and stress evolutions are investigated.

  19. On Uncertainty Quantification of Lithium-ion Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Hadigol, Mohammad; Doostan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a stochastic, physics-based model for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is presented in order to study the effects of model uncertainties on the cell capacity, voltage, and concentrations. To this end, the proposed uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach, based on sparse polynomial chaos expansions, relies on a small number of battery simulations. Within this UQ framework, the identification of most important uncertainty sources is achieved by performing a global sensitivity analysis via computing the so-called Sobol' indices. Such information aids in designing more efficient and targeted quality control procedures, which consequently may result in reducing the LIB production cost. An LiC$_6$/LiCoO$_2$ cell with 19 uncertain parameters discharged at 0.25C, 1C and 4C rates is considered to study the performance and accuracy of the proposed UQ approach. The results suggest that, for the considered cell, the battery discharge rate is a key factor affecting not only the performance variability of the ce...

  20. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  1. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  2. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikolian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests, ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model, state of charge (SoC estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT and world harmonized light vehicle profiles have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL and aged (95%, 90% state of health ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro, polarization resistance (Rp, activation resistance (Rp2 and time constants (τ is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C. The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed.

  3. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  4. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trulove, Paul C. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Foley, Matthew P. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  5. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  6. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, A.; Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K.

    2016-03-01

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO4 composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO4 composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO4 electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  7. A Type of Lithium-ion Battery Based on Aqueous electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.J.Wang; N.H.Zhao; L.J.Fu; B.Wang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction A new type of rechargeable lithium ion battery with an aqueous electrolyte was announced by W. Li et al. in 1994[1].This type of battery uses the lithium intercalation compounds LiMn2O4 and VO2 as electrode materials and an alkaline aqueous electrolytic solution. By this combination, the disadvantages of the non-aqueous Li-ion battery type, i.e. high cost and safety problems could be faded away[2]. So this type of aqueous Li-ion battery was regarded as the promising power for electric veh...

  8. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  9. Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries for balancing wind power forecast error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    is considered. In this paper, the economic feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for balancing the wind power forecast error is analysed. In order to perform a reliable assessment, an ageing model of lithium-ion battery was developed considering both cycling and calendar life. The economic analysis considers two......, it was found that for total elimination of the wind power forecast error, it is required to have a 25-MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system for the considered 2 MW WT....

  10. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-ofcharge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  11. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  12. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-04-28

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  13. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Dylan; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and applications-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion-transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of the metal Indium on lithium. By means of Joint-Density Functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including enabling exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that utilize both alloying and plating chemistries for charge storage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  15. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, S.; Rensberg, J.; Johannes, A.; Thomae, R.; Smit, F.; Neveling, R.; Moodley, M.; Bierschenk, T.; Rodriquez, M.; Afra, B.; Hasan, S.B.; Rockstuhl, C.; Ridgway, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Ronning, C.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm−1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to th

  16. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance.

  17. SINGLE-ION CONDUCTIVITY IN POLY(LITHIUM PROPIONATE METHYL SILOXANE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shibi; MA Yanguang; GUO Defan; LI Yongjun; JIANG Yingyan; HUANG Xuejie; CHEN Liquan

    1993-01-01

    Poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane)as a single-ion carrier source was synthesized.The crosslinked film showed lower lithium ionic conductivity at room temperature (about 10-10S/cm).However,the lithium ionic conductivity was obviously increased by blending with high polar polymers such as polyethylene oxide,poly (methylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide) and poly (methylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide).In the blend system a high conductivity of 10-7-10-5Scm-1 at room temperature was obtained and the single-ion conductivity was deeply influenced by the content of the poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane).The dc ionic conductivity of the flexible crosslinked films is more stable over time.

  18. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g‑1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  19. Nano-sized LiCoO_2 Cathode for Use in Lithium-ion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Yamaki; T.Doi; S.Okada

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Lithium ion batteries are widely used in many portable devices.However,their power density is not sufficient for use in electric vehicles.One of the most effective methods to improve the power density is the use of very fine cathode particles.We investigated new method,excess lithium method,of preparing nano-sized LiCoO2 powders.To begin with,lithium acetate and cobalt acetate are mixed by the molar ratio 9,13 or 21 to 1,uniformly.And the mixture is calcined at 600 ℃ for 6 hours.Finally,obtain...

  20. Recent trends in research activity on lithium-ion batteries in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina [University of Bologna, Unita Complessa di Istituti di Scienze Chimiche, Radiochimiche e Metallurgiche, via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2005-08-26

    With the aim to give a view of the present research activity in Italy on lithium-ion batteries, the contribution of six Academic groups involved in a National Project 'Electrode and Electrolyte Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Lithium Batteries', which is exploratory in nature for the search of novel or improved materials, also by optimizing materials processing techniques, is here presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hannah Elise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  2. Measurement of time dilation by laser spectroscopy on fast stored Lithium ions

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, S.

    2005-01-01

    In der hier vorgelegten Arbeit werden Frequenzmessungen an schnellen Lithium Ionen als Test der Zeitdilatation vorgestellt. Die Messungen sind am Speicherring TSR am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik durchgeführt worden. Die Übergangsfrequenz eines Zwei-Niveau-Systems im Lithium Ion wird bestimmt, indem eine dopplerfreie Fluoreszens-Sättigungsspektroskopie verwendet wird. Die Spektroskopie wird durch zwei gegenläufige Laser verwirklicht, die kollinear zum Ionenstrahl sind. Zwei Messungen bei...

  3. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yubao Sun; Gai Li; Yuanchu Lai; Danli Zeng; Hansong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp 3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batterie...

  4. Lithium ion conductive behavior of TiO2 nanotube/ionic liquid matrices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A series of TiO_2 nanotube (TNT)/ionic liquid matrices were prepared, and their lithium ion conductive properties were studied. SEM images implied that ionic liquid was dispersed on the whole surface of TNT. Addition of TNT to ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMImTFSA)) resulted in significant increase of ionic conductivity. Furthermore, lithium transference number was also largely enhanced due to the interaction of anion with TNT. Vogel-Fulcher-Tam...

  5. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  6. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  7. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  8. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  9. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  11. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g-1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support

  13. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  14. Lithium-Excess Research of Cathode Material Li2MnTiO4 for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-excess and nano-sized Li2+xMn1−x/2TiO4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 cathode materials were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments indicate that the obtained main phases of Li2.0MnTiO4 and the lithium-excess materials are monoclinic and cubic, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that the as-prepared particles are well distributed and the primary particles have an average size of about 20–30 nm. The further electrochemical tests reveal that the charge-discharge performance of the material improves remarkably with the lithium content increasing. Particularly, the first discharging capacity at the current of 30 mA g−1 increases from 112.2 mAh g−1 of Li2.0MnTiO4 to 187.5 mAh g−1 of Li2.4Mn0.8TiO4. In addition, the ex situ XRD experiments indicate that the monoclinic Li2MnTiO4 tends to transform to an amorphous state with the extraction of lithium ions, while the cubic Li2MnTiO4 phase shows better structural reversibility and stability.

  15. Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermal Behaviour Investigation of Unbalanced Modules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Odile Capron; Ahmadou Samba; Noshin Omar; Thierry Coosemans; Peter Vanden Bossche; Joeri VanMierlo

    2015-01-01

      In this paper, the thermal behaviour of an unbalanced battery module made of large lithium iron phosphate cylindrical cells of 18 Ah nominal capacity is investigated during its discharge with 18...

  16. Quantitatively measured photorefractive sensitivity of proton-exchanged lithium niobate, proton-exchanged magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate, and ion-exchanged potassium titanyl phosphate waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y; Miyaguchi, S; Onoe, A; Fujii, Y

    1994-06-01

    The photorefractive sensitivities of proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides and Rb-ion-exchanged potassium titanyl phosphate waveguides are quantitatively measured, and their influence on waveguide applications is estimated.

  17. High catalytic activity of anatase titanium dioxide for decomposition of electrolyte solution in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Du, Hongda; Li, Baohua; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-12-01

    It has been indicated that anatase TiO2 is a promising anode material for lithium ion power battery from many previous researches. Whereas, in this work, we find that the anatase TiO2, when used as an anode for lithium ion battery, has high catalytic activity to initiate the decarboxylation reaction of electrolyte solution, resulting in the large generation of sole gaseous component, CO2. The ROLi species and the new phase of flake-like Li2TiF6 material are the main reaction products between anatase TiO2 and LiPF6 based electrolyte solution. This work provides important and urgent information that the surface chemistry of anatase TiO2 used as the anode material of lithium ion battery must be modified to suppress its catalytic activity for the decomposition of solvents.

  18. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...... is a considerable technical problem and has become an important factor which might postpones subsequent extension of lithium-ion batteries. This paper reviews different methods for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. Various methods such as using Phase change materials and using air cooling, straight...... liquid cooling, ancillary liquid cooling, fin cooling have been considered to assess their usefulness from the viewpoint of coolant energy utilization, highest temperature growth, temperature alteration, and extra mass required for the cooling scheme....

  19. Electrochemical Performance and EIS Analysis of Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; CHEN Ren-jie; WU Feng; CHEN Shi

    2008-01-01

    Degradation behavior is the main technical problem in the field of commercial application of lithium-ion batteries. According to the characteristics of voltage, discharge capacity and inner resistance during the charge/discharge process of commercial lithium-ion batteries of mobile telephone, degradation analysis and related mechanisms are put forward and discussed in the paper. The impedance spectra of prismatic commercial lithium-ion batteries are measured at various state of charge after different charge/discharge cycles. The measured impedance spectra are discussed with a proposed equivalent circuit. Results indicated that the structure change of electrode materials or swell and shrink of crystal lattice, decompose of electrolyte, dissolution of active materials and solid electrolyte interphase film formation are the main reasons leading to the capacity degradation.

  20. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene butadiene rubber and acrylic acid copolymer as binder to figure out lithium-ion battery with 2.5Ah, which is testified to present better performance on cold temperature & cycle life plus having a little bit swelling compared with the lithium-ion battery using only styrene butadiene rubber as binder.

  1. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Hang; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current collector instead of a rigid and heavy metal foil enables us to demonstrate a very thin Lithium-Ion Battery into ultra-thin (total thickness including encapsulation layers of less than 250 {\\mu}m) that is also light weight and highly flexible.

  2. Poly(o-methoxyaniline modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(o-methoxyaniline for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(o-methoxyaniline was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-4 mol L-1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry.

  3. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Litty Sebastian; A K Shukla; J Gopalakrishnan

    2001-10-01

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides of the formulas, LiCa1.65 0.35Ti1.3B1.7O9 (B=Nb, Ta) (I, II), LiSr2Ti2.5 W0.5O9 (III) and LiSr1.65 0.35Ti2.15W0.85O9 (IV). Oxides I and II crystallize in orthorhombic (GdFeO3-type) structure, while oxides III and IV possess cubic symmetry. All of them exhibit significant lithium-ion conduction at high temperatures, the highest conductivity of ∼ 10-2S/cm at 800°C among the oxides is exhibited by the composition IV. The results are discussed in the light of previous work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing 0 cations.

  4. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately.

  5. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery’s remaining useful life (RUL, yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM improved by differential evolution (DE algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately.

  6. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  7. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-04

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  9. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  10. Molecular Layer Deposition for Surface Modification of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Chunmei [Center of Chemistry and Nanoscience, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; George, Steven M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder CO 80309 USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder CO 80309 USA

    2016-10-21

    Inspired by recent successes in applying molecular layer deposition (MLD) to stabilize lithium-ion (Li-ion) electrodes, this review presents the MLD process and its outstanding attributes for electrochemical applications. The review discusses various MLD materials and their implementation in Li-ion electrodes. The rationale behind these emerging uses of MLD is examined to motivate future efforts on the fundamental understanding of interphase chemistry and the development of new materials for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  11. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

  12. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan-Sheng; Xu, Rui; Luu, Norman S; Secor, Ethan B; Hamamoto, Koichi; Li, Qianqian; Kim, Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Balla, Itamar; Guiney, Linda M; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Yu, Xiankai; Liu, Weiwei; Wu, Jinsong; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P; Barnett, Scott A; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-04-12

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 °C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  13. Electron Temperature and Plasma Flow Measurements of NIF Hohlraum Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brow, G. V.; Regan, S. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Eder, D.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, S. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D.; LLNL Collaboration; LLE Collaboration; GA Collaboration; SNL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing the plasma conditions inside NIF hohlraums, in particular mapping the plasma Te, is critical to gaining insight into mechanisms that affect energy coupling and transport in the hohlraum. The dot spectroscopy platform provides a temporal history of the localized Te and plasma flow inside a NIF hohlraum, by introducing a Mn-Co tracer dot, at strategic locations inside the hohlraum, that comes to equilibrium with the local plasma. K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of the tracer dot is recorded onto an absolutely calibrated X-ray streak spectrometer. Isoelectronic and interstage line ratios are used to infer localized Te through comparison with atomic physics calculations using SCRAM. Time resolved X-ray images are simultaneously taken of the expanding dot, providing plasma (ion) flow information. We present recent results provided by this platform and compare with simulations using HYDRA. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Lithium ion energy storage systems for hybrid drives by MAGNA STEYR; Energiespeichersysteme in Lithium-Ionen Technologie fuer Hybridantriebe von MAGNA STEYR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenbauer, O.; Homann, J.; Lind, R.; Maier, G.; Pichler, P.; Sentobe, F.; Steinwender, J.; Thaler, A. [MAGNA STEYR, Graz (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Lithium ion battery systems will dominate the hybrid vehicles market in the near future. The main challenges are industrial-scale production, cost reduction, safety, and integration in the vehicle. The contribution discusses the development and integration of a MAGNA STEYR lithium ion battery system. Magna Steyr developed the components as well as the overall system. Integration aspects like geometric packaging, software development, thermal management and safety were considered. The system was validated in the MAGNA STEYR Full Hybrid demonstration car. (orig.)

  16. NMR study of electrode materials for lithium ion-batteries; Etude par RMN de materiaux d'electrode pour batteries lithium-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazel, C.

    2006-01-15

    This work is devoted to the study of LiMO{sub 2} et LiM{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M: transition metal) intercalation compounds used as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Solid state NMR allows one to characterise the local environment of the lithium ions present in these phases by the use of the hyperfine interactions due to the presence of some electron spin density coming from localised electrons (Fermi-contact shift) or itinerant electrons (Knight shift) on the lithium nucleus. By following the transformation of the LiNiO{sub 2} layered phase into the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel material using lithium NMR, we studied the nature of the asymmetric signal observed for LiNiO{sub 2}, and the influence of the departure from the ideal stoichiometry; we showed a coupled ion/electron hopping in Li{sub X}NiO{sub 2} phases linked to Li/vacancy and Ni{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 4+} ordering, and finally showed the existence of structural defects within the LiNi{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase obtained by thermal treatment of Li{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 2}. Lithium NMR of the intercalated materials obtained from the LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinels showed a metallic behaviour for Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a Knight shift of the NMR signal similar to that of LiTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and signals intermediate in nature between Knight and Fermi-contact shifts for Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. (author)

  17. Syntheses and Application of All-lithium Salts of Heteropolyacid as Electrolyte of Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-guang; WANG Cun-guo; ZHANG Xi-yan; XIE De-min; WANG Rong-shun

    2004-01-01

    The all-lithium salts of heteropoly acid LixXM12O40(HPA-Li)(X=P, Si; M=Mo, W) were obtained via ion exchange and characterized by means of IR and UV spectroscopies, TG and elemental analyses. The conductivity of the electrolytic solution consisting of Li3PW12O40 and PC/DME mixing solvent(1/2.5, volume ratio) is up to 7.2×10-2 S/cm, being higher than that of LiClO4 as the electrolyte. The all-lithium salts were used as electrolytes in secondary lithium-ion batteries. The discharge capacity of the PAS/Li batteries with Li3PW12O40 electrolyte solutions reaches to 148 (mA*h)/g and the cyclic life is up to 380 times, much better than those of commercialized products with LiClO4 and LiAsF6 as electrolytes.

  18. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Ni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the disadvantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g−1 at 20 C. The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be related to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon- coating layers with conductivity enhancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  19. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  20. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... spectroscopy method can be still improved in terms of e.g. accuracy and measurement time and it has a potential to be extended to new applications. Performed review indicates that the electrothermal impedance spectroscopy is a very promising, non-destructive, simple and especially cost-efficient method...

  1. Microwave Synthesis of Cathode Material LixMn2O4 for Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hua; LIU Han-xing; OUYANG Shi-xi

    2002-01-01

    LiMn2O4 was synthesized rapidly by microwa e heating. The product phases of the microwave synthesis and conventional solid-state synthesis were comparatively invesitigated. The capacity of microwave synthesis product decreases relatively slow. The lithium ion can be inserted into and extracted from the spinel framework structure fluently after cycling. But the capacity of the conventional solid-state synthesis product is more remarkably lowered. The spinel framework structure was destroyed which hindered the lithium ion from inserting and extracting. The influential factors of the process parameters are discussed such as heat preservation time, pre-heating at 400℃ for 24h and coupled agent.

  2. Xylene as a New Polymerizable Additive for Overcharge Protection of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianyu; QIU Chenchen; FU Yanbao; MA Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical properties and overcharge protection mechanism of xylene as a new polymerizable electrolyte additive for overcharge protection of lithium ion batteries were studied by cyclic voltammetry tests,chargedischarge performance and battery power capacity measurements.It was found that when the battery was overcharged,xylene could electrochemically polymerize at the overcharge potential of 4.3-4.7 V (vs.Li/Li+) to form a thin polymer film on the surface of the cathode,thus preventing voltage runaway.On the other hand,the use of xylene as an overcharge protection electrolyte additive did not influence the normal performance of lithium ion batteries.

  3. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  4. Nano-sized carboxylates as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Wu; Jie Ma; Yong-Sheng Hu; Hong Li; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized carboxylates Na2C7H3NO4 and Na2C6H2N2O4 were prepared and investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both carboxylates exhibit high reversible capacities around 190 mAh/g above a cut-off voltage of 0.8 V vs. Li+/Li, potentially improving the safety of the batteries. In addition, good rate performance and long cycle life of these carboxylates make them promising candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  6. Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

  7. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2012-08-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO(2) and CoO directly as CoC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO(2) can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Structurally tailored graphene nanosheets as lithium ion battery anodes: an insight to yield exceptionally high lithium storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifei; Hu, Yuhai; Liu, Jian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-12-21

    How to tune graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with various morphologies has been a significant challenge for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, three types of GNSs with varying size, edge sites, defects and layer numbers have been successfully achieved. It was demonstrated that controlling GNS morphology and microstructure has important effects on its cyclic performance and rate capability in LIBs. Diminished GNS layer number, decreased size, increased edge sites and increased defects in the GNS anode can be highly beneficial to lithium storage and result in increased electrochemical performance. Interestingly, GNSs treated with a hydrothermal approach delivered a high reversible discharge capacity of 1348 mA h g(-1). This study demonstrates that the controlled design of high performance GNS anodes is an important concept in LIB applications.

  9. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications.

  10. Vibrational Spectroscopic Study on Ion Solvation and Ion Association of Lithium Tetrafluoroborate in 4-Ethoxymethyl-ethylene Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hong-Wei; LUAN He-Lin; ZHOU Zhi-Ming; FANG Xiang-Peng; YAO Wen; WANG Xin; LI Ji-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Solvation and association interactions in solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate/4-ethoxymethyl-ethylene carbonate (EEC) have been studied as a function of concentration of lithium tetrafluoroborate by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Strong interactions between Li+ and solvent molecules or BF4- anions were observed. Splitting of the ring symmetric angle deformation band, the carbonyl stretching band and the skeletal ring vibrational band suggests that the interaction between Li+ ions and EEC molecules take place via the oxygen atom on the carbonyl group. The apparent solvation numbers of Li+, varying from 4.32 to 1.26 with increasing the solution concentrations,were deduced. Band-fitting to the B-F stretching band of BF4- anion permits detailed assess of ion pairing. The spectroscopically free BF4- anion, contact ion pair and contact ion dimmers coexist in concentrated solutions.

  11. Defect silicene and graphene as applied to the anode of lithium-ion batteries: Numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashev, A. E.; Rakhmanova, O. R.; Zaikov, Yu. P.

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties and stability of two layers of defect silicene supported by graphene sheets, between which the lithium ion passes under an electrostatic field, are studied by the molecular dynamics method. Defects are mono-, di-, tri-, and hexavacansies. Graphene and silicene edges are rigidly fixed. Graphene sheets contacting with silicene take a convex shape, deflecting outward. Mono- and divacancies in silicene tend to a size decrease; larger vacancies exhibit better stability. The ion motion control using an electric field becomes possible only using perfect silicene or silicene with mono- and divacancies. The ion penetrated through larger defects, and its motion in the silicene channel becomes uncontrolled. When the ion moves in the channel, the most strong stress spikes appear in silicene containing monovacancies. In the case of fixed edges, perfect silicene intercalated with a lithium ion is inclined to accumulate larger stresses than silicene containing defects.

  12. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  13. Lithium ion solvation by ethylene carbonates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes, revisited by density functional theory with the hybrid solvation model and free energy correction in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-09-14

    Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model.

  14. Photonic crystals in lithium niobate by combining focussed ion beam writing and ion-beam enhanced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiss, Reinhard; Diziain, Severine; Steinert, Michael; Schrempel, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, Andreas [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Albert-Einstein-Str. 7, 07745, Jena (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    The realization of photonic crystals in self-suspended lithium niobate membranes by means of focussed ion beam writing and ion-beam enhanced etching is presented. The influence of gallium contamination is discussed and considered in the realization of a L3 photonic crystal resonator that is showing the designed linear optical response in a cross-polarization resonant scattering experiment. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  16. Effect of Lithium Ions on Copper Nanoparticle Size, Shape, and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Deok Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using lithium ions to increase the aqueous electrical conductivity of the solution and precisely control the size, shape, and size distribution of the particles. In this study, the conventional approach of increasing particle size by the concentration of copper ions and PGPPE in a copper chloride solution was compared to increasing the concentration of lithium chloride when the copper chloride concentration was held constant. Particle size and shape were characterized by TEM, and the size distribution of the particles at different concentrations was obtained by particle size analysis. Increasing the concentration of copper ion in the solution greatly increased the aqueous electric conductivity and the size of the particles but led to a wide size distribution ranging from 150 nm to 400 nm and rough particle morphology. The addition of lithium ions increased the size of the particles, but maintains them in a range of 250 nm. In addition the particles exhibited spherical shape as determined by TEM. The addition of lithium ions to the solution has the potential to synthesize nanoparticles with optimal characteristics for printing applications by maintaining a narrow size range and spherical shape.

  17. Manufacturing of advanced Li(NiMnCo)O2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrek, P.; Pröll, J.; Rakebrandt, J.-H.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require an increase in cell life-time as well as an improvement in cycle stability in order to be used as energy storage systems, e.g. for stationary devices or electric vehicles. Nowadays, several cathode materials such as Li(NiMnCo)O2 (NMC) are under intense investigation to enhanced cell cycling behavior by simultaneously providing reasonable costs. Previous studies have shown that processing of three-dimensional (3D) micro-features in electrodes using nanosecond laser radiation further increases the active surface area and therefore, the lithium-ion diffusion cell kinetics. Within this study, NMC cathodes were prepared by tape-casting and laser-structured using nanosecond laser radiation. Furthermore, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in a first experimental attempt to analyze the lithium distribution in unstructured NMC cathodes at different state-of-charges (SOC). LIBS will be applied to laser-structured cathodes in order to investigate the lithium distribution at different SOC. The results will be compared to those obtained for unstructured electrodes to examine advantages of 3D micro-structures with respect to lithium-ion diffusion kinetics.

  18. Zinc naphthalenedicarboxylate coordination complex: A promising anode material for lithium and sodium-ion batteries with good cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Feng, Wenjing; Xu, Tan

    2017-02-15

    It is important to discover new, cheap and environmental friendly electrode materials with high capacity and good cycling stability for lithium and sodium-ion batteries. Zinc 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate was firstly found to be stable anode materials for lithium and sodium-ion batteries. The discharge capacity can be up to 468.9mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 100mAg(-1) for lithium-ion batteries, while the second discharge capacity of 320.7mAhg(-1) was achieved as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. A possible electrochemical reaction mechanism was discussed.

  19. Where is the lithium? Quantitative determination of the lithium distribution in lithium ion battery cells: Investigations on the influence of the temperature, the C-rate and the cell type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-04-01

    With lithium being the capacity determining species in lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells, the local quantification is of enormous importance for understanding of the cell performance. The investigation of the lithium distribution in LIB full cells is performed with two different cell types, T-cells of the Swagelok® type and pouch bag cells with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide and mesocarbon microbead graphite as the active materials as well as a lithium hexafluorophosphate based organic carbonate solvent electrolyte. The lithium content of/at the individual components of the cells is analyzed for different states of charge (SOCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and the lithium distribution as well as the loss of active lithium within the cells is calculated after cycling. With increasing the SOC, the lithium contents decrease in the cathodes and simultaneously increase in the anodes. The temperature increase shows a clear shift of the lithium content in the direction of the anode for the T-cells. The comparison of the C-rate influence shows that the lower the C-rate, the more the lithium content on the electrodes is shifted into the direction of the anode.

  20. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); DInESto, Drive the Innovation in Energy Storage, Via Provincie, 04012 Cisterna di Latina (Italy); Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Frascati Research Centre, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  1. Stress evolution and capacity fade in constrained lithium-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John; Arnold, Craig B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of mechanical stress on lithium-ion battery life are investigated by monitoring the stack pressure and capacity of constrained commercial lithium-ion pouch cells during cycling. Stack stress is found to be a dynamic quantity, fluctuating with charge/discharge and gradually increasing irreversibly over long times with cycling. Variations in initial stack pressure, an important controllable manufacturing parameter, are shown to produce different stress evolution characteristics over the lifetime of the cells. Cells manufactured with higher levels of stack pressure are found to exhibit shorter cycle lives, although small amounts of stack pressure lead to increased capacity retention over unconstrained cells. Postmortem analysis of these cells suggests a coupling between mechanics and electrochemistry in which higher levels of mechanical stress lead to higher rates of chemical degradation, while layer delamination is responsible for the capacity fade in unconstrained cells. Localized separator deformation resulting in nonuniform lithium transport is also observed in all cells.

  2. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  3. The Improvement of Discharge Capacity of Zr-doped Lithium Titanate for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Li4Ti5−xZrxO12 (0 ≪ x ≪ 0.05 materials are synthesized via one-step liquid method in this work. The morphology, elemental distribution and lithium storage performance of Zr-doped lithium titanate are systematic analyzed by field emitting scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi S-4800, energy dispersive X-ray (EDS and Land battery test system (LAND CT2001A together with the pristine lithium titanate for comparison. The FE-SEM images show the uniform morphology and narrow particle size distribution of Zr-doped samples. The cycle performance measurements demonstrate that the Li4Ti4.97Zr0.03O12 electrode displays the best discharge capacities among the composites. It delivers the initial discharge capacities of 165.4 mAh/g and 152.9 mAh/g at 5C and 10C, and remains the values of 142.9 mAh/g and 127.4 mAh/g after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the charge and discharge curves exhibit that the Zr-doped composite presents smaller polarization than the pristine lithium titanate.

  4. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  5. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  6. Interfacial behaviours between lithium ion conductors and electrode materials in various battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bingbin; Wang, Shanyu; Evans IV, Willie J.; Deng, Daniel Z.; Yang, Jihui; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years room temperature Li+ ion conductors have been intensively revisited in order to develop safe lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and beyond that can be deployed in the electrical vehicles. Through careful modification on materials synthesis, promising solid Li+ conductors with high ionic conductivity, competitve with liquid electrolytes, have been demonstrated. However, the integration of those highly conductive solid electrolytes into the whole system is still very challenging mainly due to the high impedance existing in the different interfaces throughout the entire battery structure. Herein , this review paper focuses on the overview of the interfacial behaviors between Li+ conductors and cathode/anode materials. The origin, evolution and potential solutions to reuce these interfacial impedances are reviewed for various battery systems spanning from Li-ion, lithium sulfur (Li-S), lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries to lithium metal protection. The predicted gravimetric and volumetric energy densities at different scenarios are also discussed along with the prospectives for further development of solid state batteries.

  7. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  8. PVDF-HFP-based porous polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Ruiying; Liu, Bowen; Zhu, Zhongzheng

    2008-01-01

    As a potential electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries, a porous polymer electrolyte membrane based on poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a phase inversion method. The casting solution, effects of the solvent and non-solvent and addition of micron scale TiO2 par...

  9. Chemical synthesis of germanium nanoparticles with uniform size as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangbiao; Bao, Keyan; Lou, Zhengsong; Liang, Guobing; Zhou, Quanfa

    2016-02-21

    A simple Mg-thermal reduction reaction is reported to synthesize germanium (Ge) nanoparticles with a uniform size at a low temperature of 400 °C in an autoclave. The as-prepared Ge nanoparticles exhibit promising anode applications in lithium ion batteries with high capacity and excellent cycling stability.

  10. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339461845; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959498; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  11. Space Technology-5 Lithium-Ion Battery Design, Qualification and Integration and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakishna M.; Stewart, Karen; Ameen, Syed; Banfield, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that reviews the Lithium Ion Battery for the Space Technology-5 (ST-5) mission. Included in the document is a review of the ST-5 Mission, a review of the battery requirements, a description of the battery and the battery materials. The testing and the integration and qualification data is reviewed.

  12. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28212405

  13. In operando phase transitions and Lithium ion transport in LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy storage in Li-ion batteries is a key technology for the future renewable society. Their energy and power density is largely determined by electrode materials that are able to host lithium in their crystal structure. Aiming at faster and more efficient energy storage, one of the key o

  14. A silicon-containing nanocomposite for a thin-film lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikov, A. E.; Gerashchenko, V. N.; Gusev, V. N.; Kulova, T. L.; Metlitskaya, A. V.; Mironenko, A. A.; Rudyi, A. S.; Skundin, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    A technological basis for manufacturing of a thin-film anode based on a silicon-containing nano-composite for lithium-ion batteries is developed. The results of experimental studies of charge-discharge characteristics, morphology and phase composition for the silicon-containing nanocomposite are presented, confirming the promising character of its application as an anodic material.

  15. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  16. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  17. In operando phase transitions and Lithium ion transport in LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy storage in Li-ion batteries is a key technology for the future renewable society. Their energy and power density is largely determined by electrode materials that are able to host lithium in their crystal structure. Aiming at faster and more efficient energy storage, one of the key o

  18. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    SYSTEM DESIGN USING LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES AND ONE CHARGER PER BATTERY by Frank E. Filler December 2009 Thesis Advisor: Alexander L. Julian...Author: Frank E. Filler Approved by: Alexander L. Julian Thesis Advisor Roberto Crisiti Second Reader Jeffrey B. Knorr Chairman...Battery Management System BNC Bayonet Neill -Concelman CC Constant Current CCCV Constant Current Constant Voltage CV Constant Voltage D

  19. Lithium-Ion-Battery Anode Materials with Improved Capacity from a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Niu, Ji-Liang; Lin, Jia; Wei, Lei-Ming; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Yue-Peng

    2016-09-06

    We present a porous metal-organic framework (MOF) with remarkable thermal stability that exhibits a discharge capacity of 300 mAh g(-1) as an anode material for a lithium-ion battery. Pyrolysis of the obtained MOF gives an anode material with improved capacity (741 mAh g(-1)) and superior cyclic stability.

  20. Bacterial nanometric amorphous Fe-based oxide: a potential lithium-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Genki; Sakuma, Ryo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kanno, Ryoji; Takano, Mikio; Takada, Jun

    2014-04-23

    Amorphous Fe(3+)-based oxide nanoparticles produced by Leptothrix ochracea, aquatic bacteria living worldwide, show a potential as an Fe(3+)/Fe(0) conversion anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The presence of minor components, Si and P, in the original nanoparticles leads to a specific electrode architecture with Fe-based electrochemical centers embedded in a Si, P-based amorphous matrix.

  1. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries.

  2. An overview of online implementable SOC estimation methods for Lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Ricco, Mattia; Guangzhao, Luo

    2017-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is also developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safety usage and reduce the average lifecycle cost, accurate State Of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required in different applications...

  3. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  4. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...

  5. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  6. Structure characterization and electrochemical properties of new lithium salt LiODFB for electrolyte of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lithium difluoro(axalato)borate (LiODFB) was synthesized in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvent and purified by the method of solventing-out crystallization.The structure characterization of the purified LiODFB was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.The electrochemical properties of the cells using I mol/L LiPF6 and 1 mol/L LiODFB in ethylene carbonate (EC)/DMC were investigated,respectively.The results indicate that LiODFB can be reduced at about 1.5 V and form a robust protective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on the graphite surface in the first cycle.The graphite/LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cells with LiODFB-based electrolyte have very good capacity retention at 55 ℃,and show very good rate capability at 0.5C and 1C charge/discharge rate.Therefore,as a new salt,LiODFB is a most promising alternative lithium salt to replace LiPF6 for lithium ion battery electrolytes in the future.

  7. An environmental benign process for cobalt and lithium recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries by mechanochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, an environmental benign process namely mechanochemical approach was developed for cobalt and lithium recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The main merit of the process was that neither corrosive acid nor strong oxidant was applied. In the proposed process, lithium cobalt oxide (obtained from spent LIBs) was firstly co-grinded with various additives in a hermetic ball milling system, then Co and Li could be easily recovered by a water leaching procedure. It was found that EDTA was the most suitable co-grinding reagent, and 98% of Co and 99% of Li were respectively recovered under optimum conditions: LiCoO2 to EDTA mass ratio 1:4, milling time 4h, rotary speed 600r/min and ball-to-powder mass ratio 80:1, respectively. Mechanisms study implied that lone pair electrons provided by two nitrogen atoms and four hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EDTA could enter the empty orbit of Co and Li by solid-solid reaction, thus forming stable and water-soluble metal chelates Li-EDTA and Co-EDTA. Moreover, the separation of Co and Li could be achieved through a chemical precipitation approach. This study provides a high efficiency and environmentally friendly process for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs.

  8. A dense transparent polymeric single ion conductor for lithium ion batteries with remarkable long-term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiyun; Chen, Yazhou; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zeng, Danli; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-12-01

    We report an outstanding electrochemical performance of a gel type lithium ion battery with long cycle life enabled by a dense transparent polymeric single ion conductor. The polymer electrolyte was synthesized by a side chain grafting method with 4-amino-4'-trifluoromethyl bis(benzene sulfonyl)imide grafted on side chains of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with a grafting ratio of 50%. Blending lithiated iononmers with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) via a solution cast method results in a dense transparent film. The fabricated blend polymer electrolyte film has an ionic conductivity of 0.104 mS cm-1 at room temperature, a tensile strength of 15.5 MPa and percent elongation at break of 5%. A gel type single ion conductive polymeric lithium ion battery was assembled using the blend film as the separator as well as the electrolyte, LiFePO4/C mixed with ionomers as the cathode and a lithium foil as the anode. The battery delivers a reversible discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 1 C under room temperature for 1000 cycles without obvious decay. The stable cyclic imide and comb-like structure of the polymer is largely responsible for the excellent battery performance. The side chain grafted single ion conducting polymer electrolyte is well suited for large-scale production.

  9. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ferdowsi; Landers, Robert G.; Samuel Novosad; Jack Savage; Poria Fajri; Nima Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commerc...

  10. ION CONDUCTION IN COMPLEX OF ACRYLONITRILE-COPOLYMERIZED COMB POLYETHER WITH LITHIUM PERCHLORATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kang; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Poly ( oligoether methacrylate- co- acrylonitrile ) s, P ( MEOn- AN ), with oligoether pendants of different lengths were synthesized and the ion conduction property of their Li-salt complexes was studied as the function of polymer structure. At proper copolymer composition, lithium concentration and pendant length, the ion conductivity reaches 7.0×10-5S/cm at ambient temperature, together with improved mechanical strength. The ion transport in the polymer media is assisted by segmental relaxation ,which is confirmed both by the consistency between ion conductivity and Tg and by the study of TSC.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  12. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  13. Novel lithium titanate-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiyi, Li; Tengyuan, Chen; Beibei, Sun [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zaijun, Li [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhiquo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We developed a new Novel lithium titanate-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. The unique architecture creates fast electron transfer and rapid mass transport of electrolyte. The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performances for lithium-ion batteries, including high specific capacity, outstanding rate capability and intriguing cycling stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new LTO-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. • One graphene framework greatly improves the electrical conductivity of LTO crystal. • Another graphene framework enhances electrical conductivity of between LTO crystals and electrolyte transport. • The unique architecture creates big tap density, ultrafast electron transfer and rapid mass transport. • The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries. - ABSTRACT: The paper reported the synthesis of lithium titanate(LTO)-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks (G@LTO@G). Tetrabutyl titanate and graphene were dispersed in tertbutanol and heated to reflux state by microwave irradiation. Followed by adding lithium acetate to produce LTO precursor/graphene (p-LTO/G). The resulting p-LTO/G offers homogeneous morphology and ultra small size. All graphene sheets were buried in the spherical agglomerates composed of primitive particles through the second agglomeration. The p-LTO/G was calcined to LTO@graphene (LTO@G). To obtain G@LTO@G, the LTO@G was further hybridized with graphene. The as-prepared G@LTO@G shows well-defined three-dimensional structure and hierarchical porous distribution. Its unique architecture creates big tap density, fast electron transfer and rapid electrolyte transport. As a result, the G@LTO@G provides high specific capacity (175.2 mA h g{sup −1} and 293.5 mA cm{sup −3}), outstanding rate capability (155.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 10C) and intriguing cycling

  14. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  15. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki (Dow Corning Toray Silicone Co. Ltd., Ichihara (Japan))

    1993-01-19

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO[sub 4]) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2]) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2] cell had 1.4 mA h g[sup -1] (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 [mu]A cm[sup -2]), and the Li/PMS-LiClO[sub 4]/Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2] cell had 1.6 mA h g[sup -1] (current density: 75.3 [mu]A cm[sup -2]). (orig.).

  16. Hydrogen absorption and lithium ion conductivity in Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, M.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Clemens, O. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Technical University of Darmstadt, Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Slater, P.R. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Anderson, P.A., E-mail: p.a.anderson@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3} was synthesized via solid state methods and hydrogenation attempted. • Hydrogenation of a lithium nitride halide was demonstrated for the first time. • Powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed that hydrogenation had gone to completion. • The ionic conductivities of Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3} and Li{sub 3}N were compared through A.C. impedance spectroscopy. • The lower conductivity of Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3} is consistent with its higher hydrogenation temperature. - Abstract: The reaction of lithium amide and imide with lithium halides to form new amide halide or imide halide phases has led to improved hydrogen desorption and absorption properties and, for the amides, lithium ion conductivities. Here we investigate the effect of bromide incorporation on the ionic conductivity and hydrogen absorption properties of lithium nitride. For the first time we show that it is possible for a lithium halide nitride, the cubic bromide nitride Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3}, to take up hydrogen—a necessary condition for potential use as a reversible solid-state hydrogen storage material. Powder X-ray diffraction showed the formation of Li{sub 2}Br(NH{sub 2}) and LiBr, and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that only amide anions were present and that the hydrogen uptake reaction had gone to completion. The lithium ion conductivity of Li{sub 6}NBr{sub 3} at the hydrogenation temperature was found to be less than that of Li{sub 3}N, which may be a significant factor in the kinetics of the hydrogenation process.

  17. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal ...

  18. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  19. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani; Srinivas Kumar, A.; P.S.V. Subba Rao

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in d...

  20. Influence of chemical microstructure of single-ion polymeric electrolyte membranes on performance of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Rohan, Rupesh; Cai, Weiwei; Xu, Guodong; Sun, Yubao; Lin, An; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-10-22

    A novel protocol to generate and control porosity in polymeric structures is presented for fabrication of single ion polymer electrolyte (SIPE) membranes for lithium ion batteries. A series of SIPEs with varying ratios of aliphatic and aromatic segments was successfully synthesized and subsequently blended with PVDF-HFP to fabricate membranes of various sizes of pores. The membranes were characterized using techniques including SEM, solvent uptake capacity measurement and ionic conductivity. We demonstrate that appropriate membrane porosity enhances ionic conductivity, reduces interfacial resistance between electrodes and electrolyte and ultimately boosts performance of Li-ion batteries. The implication of the structure-performance relationship for battery design is discussed.

  1. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g(-1), which is about three times of 372 mA h g(-1), the value expected for the LiC6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  2. Review of the Remaining Useful Life Prognostics of Vehicle Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Data-Driven Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are the primary power source in electric vehicles, and the prognosis of their remaining useful life is vital for ensuring the safety, stability, and long lifetime of electric vehicles. Accurately establishing a mechanism model of a vehicle lithium-ion battery involves a complex electrochemical process. Remaining useful life (RUL prognostics based on data-driven methods has become a focus of research. Current research on data-driven methodologies is summarized in this paper. By analyzing the problems of vehicle lithium-ion batteries in practical applications, the problems that need to be solved in the future are identified.

  3. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina;

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  4. Gassing behavior of lithium titanate based lithium ion batteries with different types of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiali; Bian, Peiwen; Li, Jia; Ji, Wenjiao; Hao, Hao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-07-01

    Gassing behavior of LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12 full cell with different electrolytes that stored at elevated temperature of 70 °C is investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed in battery formation and storage processes. The results suggest that the SEI film is formed as a consequence of intrinsic reaction between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solvents. A smooth SEI layer is formed on Li4Ti5O12 electrode with full coverage in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte during lithium intercalation process while gradually dissolved with lithium extraction. Moreover, the gas specificities generated in the different electrolyte solvents are also determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis and the reaction mechanisms of LTO electrode with electrolyte solvents are proposed.

  5. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  6. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  7. Lithium Fast-Ion Conductors: Polymer Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-30

    sealed and transferred to a dry box where 13.5 mm diameter pellets were pressed and the conductivities screened using a primitive pellet technique, i.e...basically pressing a pellet between two flat copper plates and measuring the resistance with a voltmeter, cf. Ref. 9. This screening approach was...slowly decomposed with formation of an unidentified yellow product. Attempts were made to stabilize the lithium dithiocarbamate derivative by reacting it

  8. Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

    2009-06-15

    Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

  9. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  10. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  11. Imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolytes for versatile-shaped lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Eun-Hye; Choi, Keun-Ho; Ha, Hyo-Jeong; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A; Kim, Mi Ri; Lee, Young-Gi; Kim, Kwang Man; Cho, Kuk Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2013-03-13

    A class of imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolyte with excellent electrochemical performance in a lithium battery system is reported. The material consists of a UV-cured polymer matrix, high-boiling point liquid electrolyte, and Al2 O3 nanoparticles, formulated for use in lithium-ion batteries with 3D-structured electrodes or flexible characteristics. The unique structural design and well-tuned rheological characteristics of the UV-curable electrolyte mixture, in combination with direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography, allow the successful fabrication of polymer electrolytes in geometries not accessible with conventional materials.

  12. Phosphides with zinc blende structure as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Kishore, M. V. V. M.; Varadaraju, U. V.

    The phosphides InP and GaP with a zinc blende structure are examined as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. During discharge, X-ray diffraction phase analysis reveals the formation of Li-In/Li-Ga alloy and amorphous Li 3P. On charge, lithium is extracted from both Li xM (M = In, Ga) alloy and Li 3P. InP shows a reversible capacity of ∼475 mAh g -1 in the voltage range between 0.2 and 1.5 V, whereas GaP exhibits poor capacity retention compared with that of InP.

  13. Reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Hirobayashi, Yuki; Takayanagi, Yuki; Ohzawa, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) study has been made on the reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery. Ethylene carbonate (EC) more easily reacts with metallic Li and LiC6 than propylene carbonate (PC). This may be because formation of lithium alkyl carbonate is more difficult for PC than EC. On the other hand, diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) react with Li in the same manner. Reactions of Li and LiC6 with organic solvents have been discussed based on the results of quantum calculation.

  14. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  15. The materialographic preparation and microstructure characterization of lithium ion accumulators; Materialographische Praeparation und Gefuegecharakterisierung von Lithium-Ionen-Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Carmen; Bernthaler, Timo; Knoblauch, Volker; Schneider, Gerhard [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Aalen (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2012-07-01

    Lithium ion accumulators are widely used already in numerous electronic devices. However, a great deal of research will still be required as to their use as a reliable and efficient energy storage unit in the automotive industry. Their characterization using physical and electrochemical methods has made great progress and was published already. In contrast, the classical materialographic characterization of their microstructure by means of microscopy is applied only to a small extent nowadays. Access by the public to relevant results is scarcely possible. Properties like capacity and power as well as safety und stability also depend very much on the cell design (e. g. geometry, layer thicknesses) and microstructure (e. g. volume fraction, grain size) of the materials employed. A microstructure analysis by microscopy is intended to provide for a more profound comprehension of the connection between the basic parameters and function here. A challenge is posed by the preparation of a microsection to reveal a representative image of the microstructure without artefacts. The process of materialographic preparation and the potential of various microscopy techniques for visualizing and quantifying the cell components and ageing effects are presented here. The opportunities of characterizing the basic parameters specific to the cells furnishes new knowledge on the properties of battery materials and, hence, will be of great utility for future examinations and further developments of the lithium ion technology. (orig.)

  16. Effect of lithium or aluminum substitution on the characteristics of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huajun; LI Xinhai; WANG Zhixing; PENG Wenjie; GUO Yongxing

    2003-01-01

    Modification of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries is investigated. Results of X-ray diffraction shows lithium and aluminum exists as Li compound (CH3COOLi@2H2O) and Al compound (AlD3) in the graphite, respectiovely.The Bmnauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) surface area of the modified graphite increases. According to the electrochemical measurements of Li/C cell and prototype Li-ion batteries, the Li-doped graphite has large reversible capacity of 312.2mA@h/g, low irreversible capacity of 52.9 mA@h/g, and high initial coulombic efficiency of 85.51%. The 063448 size prototype battery with Li-doped graphite anode has large discharge capacity of 845 mA@h and good cycling performance. The initial charge/discharge characteristic of Al-doped graphite is close to those of undoped graphite, but the prototype battery with Al-doped anode shows the best cycling performance with capacity retention ratio of 94.06% at the 200th cycle.

  17. Excellent cycle life of lithium-metal anodes in lithium-ion batteries with mussel-inspired polydopamine-coated separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Park, Jung-Ki [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Graduated School of EEWS (WCU), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Je-Nam [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Min [Department of Applied Chemistry, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jang Wook [Graduated School of EEWS (WCU), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    An excellent cycle life (150 cycles with 80% retention) for lithium-metal anodes in lithium-ion batteries is achieved by employing mussel-inspired polydopamine-treated-polyethylene separators. This originates from the polydopamine coating, which enables a uniform ionic flux, as well as mussel-inspired catecholic adhesion of the separators onto the lithium surfaces. Additionally, the polydopamine coating improves the thermal-shrinkage properties of polyethylene separators. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Electrochemical performance and interfacial investigation on Si composite anode for lithium ion batteries in full cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Alvarado, Judith; Yang, Yangyuchen; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) containing silicon (Si) as a negative electrode have gained much attention recently because they deliver high energy density. However, the commercialization of LIBs with Si anode is limited due to the unstable electrochemical performance associated with expansion and contraction during electrochemical cycling. This study investigates the electrochemical performance and degradation mechanism of a full cell containing Si composite anode and LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate (LFP)) cathode. Enhanced electrochemical cycling performance is observed when the full cell is cycled with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive compared to the standard electrolyte. To understand the improvement in the electrochemical performance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Based on the electrochemical behavior, FEC improves the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si composite anode. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrates that the SEI composition generated from the addition of FEC consists of a large amount of LiF and less carbonate species, which leads to better capacity retention over 40 cycles. The effective SEI successively yields more stable capacity retention and enhances the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion through the interphase of the Si anode, even at higher discharge rate. This study contributes to a basic comprehension of electrochemical performance and SEI formation of LIB full cells with a high loading Si composite anode.

  19. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g{sup −1}. After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g{sup −1}, respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g{sup −1} after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl{sub 2}. These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  20. Erbium ions in congruent and stoichiometric lithium niobate. Searching for a clue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrable, Ian; Grachev, Valentin; Meyer, Martin; Kokanyan, Edward; Malovichko, Galina

    2011-10-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) doped with Er^3+ ions is of great interest for both fundamental science and advanced applications: lasers with frequency conversion, elements of all-optical telecommunication network and quantum cryptography. According to the EXAFS and RBS data, trivalent ions substitute for Li^+ and should create similar centers with charge compensation by lithium vacancies. The EPR studies confirmed this conclusion for Cr, Fe, Nd, and Yb Their most intense lines belong to axial centers with C3 symmetry. Distant lithium vacancies cause a line broadening, but do not change the C3 symmetry of observed spectra. Our EPR study of Er^3+ in stoichiometric LN has unexpectedly shown that all observed Er^3+ centers have C1 symmetry. Therefore, models with cation vacancies cannot describe our experimental data for LN:Er, and we have to consider complexes which excludes the existence of axial centers: erbium substituted for lithium or incorporated in octahedral or tetrahedral structural vacancy plus interstitial oxygen ion as a charge compensator, erbium substituted for niobium and oxygen vacancy as compensator of excessive negative charges. Re-investigating congruent samples of LN:Er, we did not find undisputable evidences of the existence of axial Er^3+ centers.

  1. Accelerated discovery of cathode materials with prolonged cycle life for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Motoaki; Ootani, Takuya; Kamimura, Yuichi; Sueki, Toshitsugu; Esaki, Shogo; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Ohira, Koji; Koyama, Yukinori; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale battery systems are essential for efficiently utilizing renewable energy power sources from solar and wind, which can generate electricity only intermittently. The use of lithium-ion batteries to store the generated energy is one solution. A long cycle life is critical for lithium-ion battery when used in these applications; this is different from portable devices which require 1,000 cycles at most. Here we demonstrate a novel co-substituted lithium iron phosphate cathode with estimated 70%-capacity retention of 25,000 cycles. This is found by exploring a wide chemical compositional space using density functional theory calculations. Relative volume change of a compound between fully lithiated and delithiated conditions is used as the descriptor for the cycle life. On the basis of the results of the screening, synthesis of selected materials is targeted. Single-phase samples with the required chemical composition are successfully made by an epoxide-mediated sol-gel method. The optimized materials show excellent cycle-life performance as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

  2. An electrochemical-thermal coupled overcharge-to-thermal-runaway model for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongsheng; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Zheng, Siqi; Li, Jianqiu; He, Xiangming

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical-thermal coupled overcharge-to-thermal-runaway (TR) model to predict the highly interactive electrochemical and thermal behaviors of lithium ion battery under the overcharge conditions. In this model, the battery voltage equals the difference between the cathode potential and the anode potential, whereas the temperature is predicted by modeling the combined heat generations, including joule heat, thermal runaway reactions and internal short circuit. The model can fit well with the adiabatic overcharge tests results at 0.33C, 0.5C and 1C, indicating a good capture of the overcharge-to-TR mechanism. The modeling analysis based on the validated model helps to quantify the heat generation rates of each heat sources during the overcharge-to-TR process. And the two thermal runaway reactions including the electrolyte oxidation reaction and the reaction between deposited lithium and electrolyte are found to contribute most to the heat generations during the overcharge process. Further modeling analysis on the critical parameters is performed to find possible solutions for the overcharge problem of lithium ion battery. The result shows that increasing the oxidation potential of the electrolyte, and increasing the onset temperature of thermal runaway are the two effective ways to improve the overcharge performance of lithium ion battery.

  3. Mechanism of Silicon Electrode Aging upon Cycling in Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpuech, Nathalie; Dupre, Nicolas; Moreau, Philippe; Bridel, Jean-Sebastian; Gaubicher, Joel; Lestriez, Bernard; Guyomard, Dominique

    2016-04-21

    Understanding the aging mechanism of silicon-based negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries upon cycling is essential to solve the problem of low coulombic efficiency and capacity fading and further to implement this new high-capacity material in commercial cells. Nevertheless, such studies have so far focused on half cells in which silicon is cycled versus an infinite reservoir of lithium. In the present work, the aging mechanism of silicon-based electrodes is studied upon cycling in a full Li-ion cell configuration with LiCoO2 as the positive electrode. Postmortem analyses of both electrodes clearly indicate that neither one of them contains lithium and that no discernible degradation results from the cycling. The aging mechanism can be explained by the reduction of solvent molecules. Electrons extracted from the positive electrode are responsible for an internal imbalance in the cell, which results in progressive slippage of the electrodes and reduces the compositional range of cyclable lithium ions for both electrodes.

  4. To immobilize polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) for synthesizing new polymer electrolyte membrane of lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y.F.; Zhang, M. Q.; M. Z. Rong; W. H. Ruan

    2017-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are potentially applicable in lithium-ion batteries with high safety, low cost and good performance. Here, to take advantages of ionic conductivity and selectivity of borate ester-functionalized small molecules as well as structural properties of polymer nanocomposite, a strategy of immobilizing as-synthesized polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride (B-PEG/LiF) in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (GO/PVA) to prepare a PEM is put forward. Chemic...

  5. Li-rich Li-Si alloy as a lithium-containing negative electrode material towards high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.

  6. Vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-10-30

    Spent lithium-ion batteries contain lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium together with other hazardous materials, which are considered as an attractive secondary resource and environmental contaminant. In this work, a novel process involving vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical technique was developed for the combined recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. The results of vacuum pyrolysis of cathode material showed that the cathode powder composing of LiCoO(2) and CoO peeled completely from aluminum foils under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 600°C, vacuum evaporation time of 30 min, and residual gas pressure of 1.0 kPa. Over 99% of cobalt and lithium could be recovered from peeled cobalt lithium oxides with 2M sulfuric acid leaching solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 60 min. This technology offers an efficient way to recycle valuable materials from spent lithium-ion batteries, and it is feasible to scale up and help to reduce the environmental pollution of spent lithium-ion batteries.

  7. PVDF-HFP-based porous polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Ruiying; Liu, Bowen; Zhu, Zhongzheng; Liu, Yun; Li, Jianling; Wang, Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Qingfeng [Department of Chemistry, Technology University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-10-01

    As a potential electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries, a porous polymer electrolyte membrane based on poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a phase inversion method. The casting solution, effects of the solvent and non-solvent and addition of micron scale TiO{sub 2} particles were investigated. The membranes were characterized by SEM, XRD, AC impedance, and charge/discharge tests. By using acetone as the solvent and water as the non-solvent, the prepared membranes showed good ability to absorb and retain the lithium ion containing electrolyte. Addition of micron TiO{sub 2} particles to the polymer electrolyte was found to enhance the tensile strength, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity and the electrolyte/electrode interfacial stability of the membrane. (author)

  8. Si/Ge double-layered nanotube array as a lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taeseup; Cheng, Huanyu; Choi, Heechae; Lee, Jin-Hyon; Han, Hyungkyu; Lee, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Dong Su; Kwon, Moon-Seok; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok Gwang; Chang, Hyuk; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Park, Won Il; Chung, Yong-Chae; Kim, Hansu; Rogers, John A; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-01-24

    Problems related to tremendous volume changes associated with cycling and the low electron conductivity and ion diffusivity of Si represent major obstacles to its use in high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries. We have developed a group IVA based nanotube heterostructure array, consisting of a high-capacity Si inner layer and a highly conductive Ge outer layer, to yield both favorable mechanics and kinetics in battery applications. This type of Si/Ge double-layered nanotube array electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances over the analogous homogeneous Si system, including stable capacity retention (85% after 50 cycles) and doubled capacity at a 3C rate. These results stem from reduced maximum hoop strain in the nanotubes, supported by theoretical mechanics modeling, and lowered activation energy barrier for Li diffusion. This electrode technology creates opportunities in the development of group IVA nanotube heterostructures for next generation lithium ion batteries.

  9. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Shimoi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si particles and copper monoxide (CuO particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles.

  10. Thermally stable hyperbranched polyether-based polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Feng, Ting; Wu, Chuan; Bai, Ying; Ye, Lin; Chen, Junzheng

    2010-01-01

    A thermally stable polymer matrix, comprising hyperbranched polyether PHEMO (poly(3-{2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethoxy] ethoxy}methyl-3'-methyloxetane)) and PVDF-HFP (poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)), has been successfully prepared for applications in lithium-ion batteries. This type of polymer electrolyte has been made by adding different amounts of lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) to the polymer matrix. Its thermal and structural properties were measured using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. Experimental results show that the polymer electrolyte system possesses good thermal stability, with a decomposition temperature above 420 °C. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte system is dependent on the lithium salt content, reaching a maximum of 1.1 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 2.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C when doped with 10 wt% LiBOB.

  11. An innovative approach to recover the metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, S P; Prabaharan, G; Kumar, B

    2016-05-01

    A new approach to recover metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries with a simple and environmentally friendly method is investigated. Two stages of water washing of the mixed black powder resulted in satisfactory separation of cobalt and lithium. Lithium in the wash liquor is precipitated using saturated sodium carbonate solution. Cobalt oxide in the residue is purified by removing organic matrix through roasting followed by dilute acid washing. The purities of the products obtained during the processes are analyzed by Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer and confirmed from X-ray diffraction analysis. The overall process is safe, economic and can be scaled up for commercial production. Based on the process steps involved, a flow sheet is proposed for industrial application.

  12. Compliant glass-polymer hybrid single ion-conducting electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaluenga, Irune; Wujcik, Kevin H; Tong, Wei; Devaux, Didier; Wong, Dominica H C; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2016-01-05

    Despite high ionic conductivities, current inorganic solid electrolytes cannot be used in lithium batteries because of a lack of compliance and adhesion to active particles in battery electrodes as they are discharged and charged. We have successfully developed a compliant, nonflammable, hybrid single ion-conducting electrolyte comprising inorganic sulfide glass particles covalently bonded to a perfluoropolyether polymer. The hybrid with 23 wt% perfluoropolyether exhibits low shear modulus relative to neat glass electrolytes, ionic conductivity of 10(-4) S/cm at room temperature, a cation transference number close to unity, and an electrochemical stability window up to 5 V relative to Li(+)/Li. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the hybrid electrolyte limits lithium polysulfide dissolution and is, thus, ideally suited for Li-S cells. Our work opens a previously unidentified route for developing compliant solid electrolytes that will address the challenges of lithium batteries.

  13. Hierarchical surface atomic structure of a manganese-based spinel cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yoon, Gabin; Jeong, Minseul; Lee, Min-Joon; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-01-19

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in high-power applications requires improvement of their high-temperature electrochemical performance, including their cyclability and rate capability. Spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a promising cathode material because of its high stability and abundance. However, it exhibits poor cycling performance at high temperatures owing to Mn dissolution. Herein we show that when stoichiometric lithium manganese oxide is coated with highly doped spinels, the resulting epitaxial coating has a hierarchical atomic structure consisting of cubic-spinel, tetragonal-spinel, and layered structures, and no interfacial phase is formed. In a practical application of the coating to doped spinel, the material retained 90% of its capacity after 800 cycles at 60 °C. Thus, the formation of an epitaxial coating with a hierarchical atomic structure could enhance the electrochemical performance of LIB cathode materials while preventing large losses in capacity.

  14. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  15. High performance Si/C@CNF composite anode for solid-polymer lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Q.; Hanai, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Hirano, A.; Imanishi, N.; Yamamoto, O.; Takeda, Y.

    The electrochemical performance of a composite of nano-Si powder and a pyrolytic carbon of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with carbon nanofiber (CNF) was examined as an anode for solid-polymer lithium-ion batteries. Nano-Si powder was firstly coated with carbon by pyrolysis of PVC and then mixed with CNF (referred to as Si/C@CNF) using a rotation mixer. The composite exhibited good cycling performance, but suffered from a large irreversible capacity loss of which the retention was less than 60%. In order to reduce the loss, a thin lithium sheet was attached to the Si/C@CNF electrode surface as a reducing agent. The irreversible capacity of the first cycle was lowered to as much as 0 mAh g -1 and after the third cycle, the lithium insertion and extraction efficiency was almost 100%. A reversible capacity of more than 1000 mAh g -1 was still maintained after 40 cycles.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ping Liang; Hong Zhu MA; Bo WANG

    2004-01-01

    A novel polymer electrolyte with the formula of Li2B4O7-PVA for lithium-ion battery was synthesized and its ion conductivity and mechanical properties were also tested. It is found that the conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolytes is higher than that of LiClO4/PEO or LiClO4/EC-DMC by two or three orders in magnitude and a large delocalized bond formed in Li2B4O7-PVA lead to transportation of Li ion easier, this electrolyte possesses high thermo-stability and can be used under 200°C.

  17. Flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane with 3D garnet nanofiber networks for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Kelvin; Gong, Yunhui; Dai, Jiaqi; Gong, Amy; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Yibo; Chen, Yanan; Yan, Chaoyi; Li, Yiju; Wachsman, Eric D.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-06-01

    Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium's highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (˜3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion-conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li+ transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite. This composite structure further provides structural reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. The flexible solid-state electrolyte composite membrane exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10-4 S/cm at room temperature. The membrane can effectively block dendrites in a symmetric Li | electrolyte | Li cell during repeated lithium stripping/plating at room temperature, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2 for around 500 h and a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 for over 300 h. These results provide an all solid ion-conducting membrane that can be applied to flexible LIBs and other electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-sulfur batteries.

  18. High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhonghua; Eberman, Kevin W

    2017-03-21

    A lithium transition metal oxide composition. The composition has the formula Li.sub.a[Li.sub.bNi.sub.cMn.sub.dCo.sub.e]O.sub.2, where a.gtoreq.0.9, b.gtoreq.0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05.ltoreq.c/d.ltoreq.1.4, 0.05.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.0.30, 0.9.ltoreq.(a+b)/M.ltoreq.1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.

  19. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  20. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.