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Sample records for lithium battery cathode

  1. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  2. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  3. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  4. Recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    One of the challenges for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries to meet increasingly demanding requirements for energy storage is the development of suitable cathode materials. Cathode materials must be able to accept and release lithium ions repeatedly (for recharging) and quickly (for high current). Transition metal oxides based on the {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2}, spinel and olivine structures have shown promise, but improvements are needed to reduce cost and extend effective lifetime. In this paper, recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. This includes comparison of the performance characteristics of the promising cathode materials and approaches for improving their performances. (author)

  5. Modeling lithium/hybrid-cathode batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomadam, Parthasarathy M.; Merritt, Don R.; Scott, Erik R.; Schmidt, Craig L.; Skarstad, Paul M. [Medtronic Energy and Component Center, 6700 Shingle Creek Pkwy, Brooklyn Center, MN 55430 (United States); Weidner, John W. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    This document describes a first-principles-based mathematical model developed to predict the voltage-capacity behavior of batteries having hybrid cathodes comprising a mixture of carbon monofluoride (CF{sub x}) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO). These batteries typically operate at moderate rates of discharge, lasting several years. The model presented here is an accurate tool for design optimization and performance prediction of batteries under current drains that encompass both the application rate and accelerated testing. (author)

  6. Hybrid cathode lithium batteries for implantable medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kaimin; Merritt, Donald R.; Howard, William G.; Schmidt, Craig L.; Skarstad, Paul M. [Medtronic Energy and Components Center, 6700 Shingle Creek Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55430 (United States)

    2006-11-22

    Lithium batteries with hybrid cathodes of Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11} and CF{sub x} have been developed that combine the best features of both cathode components. They can offer power density and energy density that are competitive with or superior to other developed battery chemistries, along with the stability and reliability needed for implantable medical applications. More than 100,000 have been used in human implants since introduction in 1999. (author)

  7. Development of novel cathodes for high energy density lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Amruth

    Lithium based batteries have become ubiquitous with our everyday life. They have propelled a generation of smart personal electronics and electric transport. Their use is now percolating to various fields as a source of energy to facilitate the operation of devices from nanoscale to mega scale. This need for a portable energy source has led to tremendous scientific interest in this field to develop electrochemical devices like batteries with higher capacities, longer cycle life and increased safety at a low cost. To this end, the research presented in this thesis focuses on two emerging and promising technologies called lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) and lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. These batteries can offer an order of magnitude higher capacities through cheap, environmentally safe and abundant elements namely oxygen and sulfur. The first work introduces the concept of closed system lithium-oxygen batteries wherein the cell contains the discharge product of Li-O2 batteries namely, lithium peroxide (Li2O2) as the starting active material. The reversibility of this system is analyzed along with its rate performance. The possible use of such a cathode in a full cell is explored. Also, this concept is used to verify if all the lithium can be extracted from the cathode in the first charge. In the following work, lithium peroxide is chemically synthesized and deposited in a carbon nanofiber matrix. This forms a free standing cathode that shows high reversibility. It can be cycled up to 20 times and while using capacity control protocol, a cycle life of 50 is obtained. The cause of cell degradation and failure is also analyzed. In the work on full cell lithium-sulfur system, a novel electrolyte is developed that can support reversible lithium insertion and extraction from a graphite anode. A method to deposit solid lithium polysulfide is developed for the cathode. Coupling a lithiated graphite anode with the cathode using the new electrolyte yields a full cell whose

  8. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  9. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries, cathode... key consideration for batteries used in vehicle applications, the rate capability, cyclability, and safety of LIBs have been identified as critical...diffraction planes ( Figure 1). With the intercalation of the Al13 Keggin pillars, the position of the 001 plane shifts to 6.7 degrees two-theta, along with

  10. PVC DISULFIDE AS CATHODE MATERIALS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-xiang Xu; Lu Qi; Bi-tao Yu; Lei Wen

    2006-01-01

    PVC disulfide (2SPVC) was synthesized by solution crosslink and its molecular structure was confirmed by the particle size of d0.5 = 11.3 μm. With SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) experiment the surface morphology and obvious S-S redox reaction in charge-discharge process. When 2SPVC was used as cathode material for secondary lithium mixture of o-xylene (oxy), diglyme (DG) and dimethoxymethane (DME) at 30℃, the first discharge capacity of 2SPVC is very promising cathode candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. Polymer/Transitonal Metal Oxides Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium/Lithium lon Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Kang Wu

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of polymer/transition metal oxides nanocomposite material were reviewed.The new nanocomposite material(PPY)0.5/MoO3 prepared by a new method is described.The application of the nanocomposite materials as cathode material in rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries was explored.

  12. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Libao Chen; Ming Zhang; Weifeng Wei

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  14. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  15. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  16. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  17. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  18. Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon-Glass Ceramic Cathode for High Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Hardwick, and J.- M. Tarascon, Nature Materials, vol. 11, pp 19-29, 2012. 2. Linden , D. (Ed), Handbook of Batteries , 2nd Edition, Mc-Graw-Hill, New...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0053 MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT...DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODE FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  19. Nanocomposite Materials for Cathodes and Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Croce; C.R. Martin; B. Scrosati; L. Settimi; C. Sides

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are today the power sources of choice far portable electronics, a multi-billion dollar market[1]. This outstanding success has spawned great international interest in applying this technology to more demanding systems, such as electric of hybrid vehicles[2]. However, to achieve full success in this area,new electrode materials, less expensive, more energetic and more compatible with the environment than the present ones, have to be identified. Accordingly, intense R&D are in progress to reach this goal and few variable alternatives to the original lithium-ion battery design, have been proposed. Particularly interesting is the olivine-structured LiFePO4 cathode developed by Goodenough and co-workers[3], which offers several appealing features, such as high, flat voltage profile and relatively high specific capacity, combined with low cost and low toxicity. However, LiFePO4 has one crucial disadvantage, i.e. its inherently low electric conductivity which reflects in the inability to deliver high capacity at high discharge rates. Such as poor rate capability has been the object of investigation by various groups who have proposed different approaches to overcome it, including carbon coating[4], nano-fibril textures[5], optimized synthesis procedures[6] and foreign metal doping[7].

  20. Olivine-type nanosheets for lithium ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Lu, Ziyang; Tan, Huiteng; Sim, Daohao; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yazami, Rachid; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-25

    Olivine-type LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) has become of great interest as cathodes for next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, this family of compounds suffers from poor electronic conductivities and sluggish lithium diffusion in the [010] direction. Here, we develop a liquid-phase exfoliation approach combined with a solvothermal lithiation process in high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) supercritical fluids for the fabrication of ultrathin LiMPO4 nanosheets (thickness: 3.7-4.6 nm) with exposed (010) surface facets. Importantly, the HPHT solvothermal lithiation could produce monodisperse nanosheets while the traditional high-temperature calcination, which is necessary for cathode materials based on high-quality crystals, leads the formation of large grains and aggregation of the nanosheets. The as-synthesized nanosheets have features of high contact area with the electrolyte and fast lithium transport (time diffusion constant in at the microsecond level). The estimated diffusion time for Li(+) to diffuse over a [010]-thickness of <5 nm (L) was calculated to be less than 25, 2.5, and 250 μs for LiFePO4, LiMnPO4, and LiCoPO4 nanosheets, respectively, via the equation of t = L(2)/D. These values are about 5 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials. This results in high energy densities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 18 kW kg(-1) and 90 Wh kg(-1) at a 80 C rate for LiFePO4 nanosheets).

  1. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-01-01

    ...)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction...

  2. Electrochemical Performance of Highly Mesoporous Nitrogen Doped Carbon Cathode in Lithium-Oxygen Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2193–2203. [3] F.T. Wagner, B. Lakshmanan, M.F. Mathias, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1 (2010) 2204–2219. [4] D. Linden (Ed.), Handbook ...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0052 ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES ...01 March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF HIGHLY MESOPOROUS NITROGEN DOPED CARBON CATHODE IN LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES

  3. Sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juchen; Xu, Yunhua; Wang, Chunsheng

    2011-10-12

    The commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries is hindered by low cycle stability and low efficiency, which are induced by sulfur active material loss and polysulfide shuttle reaction through dissolution into electrolyte. In this study, sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes are synthesized as cathode material for the lithium-sulfur battery. The obtained sulfur-carbon tube cathodes demonstrate superior cyclability and Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, the electrochemical characterization indicates a new stabilization mechanism of sulfur in carbon induced by heat treatment.

  4. In situ formed lithium sulfide/microporous carbon cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyou; Chen, Yvonne; Xu, Yunhua; Yi, Feng; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Yihang; Yang, Junhe; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-12-23

    Highly stable sulfur/microporous carbon (S/MC) composites are prepared by vacuum infusion of sulfur vapor into microporous carbon at 600 °C, and lithium sulfide/microporous carbon (Li2S/MC) cathodes are fabricated via a novel and facile in situ lithiation strategy, i.e., spraying commercial stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) onto a prepared S/MC film cathode prior to the routine compressing process in cell assembly. The in situ formed Li2S/MC film cathode shows high Coulombic efficiency and long cycling stability in a conventional commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC (1:1 v/v)). The reversible capacities of Li2S/MC cathodes remain about 650 mAh/g even after 900 charge/discharge cycles, and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100% at a current density of 0.1C, which demonstrates the best electrochemical performance of Li2S/MC cathodes reported to date. Furthermore, this Li2S/MC film cathode fabricated via our in situ lithiation strategy can be coupled with a Li-free anode, such as graphite, carbon/tin alloys, or Si nanowires to form a rechargeable Li-ion cell. As the Li2S/MC cathode is paired with a commercial graphite anode, the full cell of Li2S/MC-graphite (Li2S-G) shows a stable capacity of around 600 mAh/g in 150 cycles. The Li2S/MC cathodes prepared by high-temperate sulfur infusion and SLMP prelithiation before cell assembly are ready to fit into current Li-ion batteries manufacturing processes and will pave the way to commercialize low-cost Li2S-G Li-ion batteries.

  5. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  6. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  7. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon as a Cathode Material for Lithium-air Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, D. Linden , Editor, Chapter 38, Mc-Graw-Hil, New York (1984). [3] J. Read, J. Electrochem. Soc., 153, (2006) A96...MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-AIR BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR( S ...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0050 NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON AS A CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-AIR BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) Padmakar Kichambare and Stanley

  8. Optimization of Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Julien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the literature on recent progress in lithium-ion batteries, with the active sub-micron-sized particles of the positive electrode chosen in the family of lamellar compounds LiMO2, where M stands for a mixture of Ni, Mn, Co elements, and in the family of yLi2MnO3•(1 − yLiNi½Mn½O2 layered-layered integrated materials. The structural, physical, and chemical properties of these cathode elements are reported and discussed as a function of all the synthesis parameters, which include the choice of the precursors and of the chelating agent, and as a function of the relative concentrations of the M cations and composition y. Their electrochemical properties are also reported and discussed to determine the optimum compositions in order to obtain the best electrochemical performance while maintaining the structural integrity of the electrode lattice during cycling.

  9. A pre-lithiation method for sulfur cathode used for future lithium metal free full battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunwen; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Nara, Hiroki; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2017-02-01

    Lithium metal free sulfur battery paired by lithium sulfide (Li2S) is a hot point in recent years because of its potential for relatively high capacity and its safety advantage. Due to the insulating nature and high sensitivity to moisture of Li2S, it calls for new way to introduce Li ion into S cathode besides the method of directly using the Li2S powder for the battery pre-lithiation. Herein, we proposed a pre-lithiation method to lithiate the polypyrrole (PPy)/S/Ketjenblack (KB) electrode into PPy/Li2S/KB cathode at room temperature. By this process, the fully lithiated PPy/Li2S/KB cathode showed facilitated charge transfer than the original PPy/S/KB cathode, leading to better cycling performance at high C-rates and disappearance of over potential phenomenon. In this work, the ion-selective PPy layer has been introduced on the cathode surface by an electrodeposition method, which can suppress the polysulfide dissolution from the cathode source. The lithium metal free full battery coupled by the prepared Li2S/KB cathode and graphite anode exhibited excellent cycling performance. Hence, we believe this comprehensive fabrication approach of Li2S cathode will pave a way for the application of new type lithium metal free secondary battery.

  10. Protected Sulfur Cathode with Mixed Conductive Coating Layer for Lithium Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wang, Qingsong; Gu, Sui; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Chunhua

    2016-10-01

    A mixed conductive coating layer composed of lithium ion conductive ceramic powder, carbon and binder was introduced on the surface of a sulfur electrode. This coating layer is designed to suppress the migration of lithium polysulfides from the sulfur electrode, and improve the cycling capacity of a lithium sulfur battery. The protected sulfur cathode with a mixed conductive coating layer delivered an initial specific capacity of 1236 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and maintained a capacity of 842 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. In particular, a soft package battery with protected cathode exhibits improved cycling capacity and excellent rate performance.

  11. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support

  13. Cathodes for lithium-air battery cells with acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan; Huang, Kan; Li, Yunfeng

    2016-07-19

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a layered metal-air cathode for a metal-air battery. Generally, the layered metal-air cathode comprises an active catalyst layer, a transition layer bonded to the active catalyst layer, and a backing layer bonded to the transition layer such that the transition layer is disposed between the active catalyst layer and the backing layer.

  14. Study of lithium/polypyrrole secondary batteries with Lithium as cathode and polypyrrole anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lithium/polypyrrole (Li/PPy) batteries were fabricated using lithium sheet as cathode, PPy as anode, microporous membrane polypropylene/polyethylene/polypropylene (PP/PE/PP) composite as separator and LiPF6/ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate-methyl ethyl carbonate (EC-DMC-EMC) as electrolyte. Polypyrrole was prepared by chemical polymerization. Certain fundamental electrochemical performances were investigated. Properties of the batteries were characterized and tested by SEM, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The influences of separator, morphology, and conductivity of PPy anode, cold-molded pressure, and electric current on the performances of the batteries were studied. Using PP/PE/PP membranes as separator, the battery showed good storage stability and cycling property. The conductivity of materials rather than morphology affected the behavior of the battery. The higher the conductivity, the better performances the cells had. Proper cold-molded pressure 20 MPa of the anode pellet would make the properties of the cells good and the fitted charge/discharge current was 0.1 mA. The cells showed excellent performance with 97%-100% coulombic efficiency. The highest discharge capacity of 95.2 mAh/g was obtained.

  15. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  16. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  17. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  19. The Influence of Polymer Binders on the Performance of Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Barsykov, V; V. Khomenko

    2001-01-01

    A systematic electrochemical investigation is performed to study the effect of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer binders on the performance of different cathodes for lithium-ion batteries in ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes. Electrochemical tests indicate that the nature of PVDF effects significantly on cathode stability in IL based electrolytes. The copolymer such as hexafluoropropylene (HFP) plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. Application of PVDF-HFP bi...

  20. Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The LiFePO4 Cathode DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Nanophase and...Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode Shoufeng Yang, Yanning Song, Peter Y. Zavalij and M. Stanley Whittingham...Institute for Materials Research, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902-1600, U.S.A. ABSTRACT LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by high temperature

  1. Polyimide encapsulated lithium-rich cathode material for high voltage lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Qingwen; Fang, Jianhua; Wang, Jiulin; Yang, Jun; NuLi, Yanna

    2014-10-22

    Lithium-rich materials represented by xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) are attractive cathode materials for lithium-ion battery due to their high specific energy and low cost. However, some drawbacks of these materials such as poor cycle and rate capability remain to be addressed before applications. In this study, a thin polyimide (PI) layer is coated on the surface of Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 (LNMCO) by a polyamic acid (PAA) precursor with subsequently thermal imidization process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results confirm the successful formation of a PI layer (∼3 nm) on the surface of LNMCO without destruction of its main structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra show a slight shift of the Mn valence state from Mn(IV) to Mn(III) in the PI-LNMCO treated at 450 °C, elucidating that charge transfer takes place between the PI layer and LNMCO surface. Electrochemical performances of LNMCO including cyclic stability and rate capability are evidently improved by coating a PI nanolayer, which effectively separates the cathode material from the electrolyte and stabilizes their interface at high voltage.

  2. High-capacity thick cathode with a porous aluminum current collector for lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hidetoshi; Kubota, Masaaki; Nemoto, Miyu; Masuda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yuichi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A high-capacity thick cathode has been studied as one of ways to improve the energy density of lithium secondary batteries. In this study, the LiFePO4 cathode with a capacity per unit area of 8.4 m Ah cm-2 corresponding to four times the capacity of conventional cathodes has been developed using a three-dimensional porous aluminum current collector called "FUSPOROUS". This unique current collector enables the smooth transfer of electrons and Li+-ions through the thick cathode, resulting in a good rate capability (discharge capacity ratio of 1.0 C/0.2 C = 0.980) and a high charge-discharge cycle performance (80% of the initial capacity at 2000th cycle) even though the electrode thickness is 400 μm. To take practical advantage of the developed thick cathode, conceptual designs for a 10-Ah class cell were also carried out using graphite and lithium-metal anodes.

  3. Superior lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); National Key Laboratory of Power Sources, Tianjin Institute of Power Sources, Tianjin 300381 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Minsi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Dong, Lei; Xiong, Dongbin [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers showed much enhanced lithium storage performance. • Kinetics process of electrospinning V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers was studied by means of EIS for the first time. • Strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode were concluded. - Abstract: The hierarchical V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers cathode materials with diameter of 200–400 nm are successfully synthesized via an electrospinning followed by annealing. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of phase-pure product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obviously display the hierarchical porous nanofibers constructed by attached tiny vanadium oxide nanoplates. Electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared product is systematically studied using galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It turns out that in comparison to the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other unique nanostructured materials in the literature, our V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers show much enhanced lithium storage capacity, improved cyclic stability, and higher rate capability. After 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1}, the specific capacity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers retain 133.9 mAh g{sup −1}, corresponding to high capacity retention of 96.05%. More importantly, the EIS at various discharge depths clearly reveal the kinetics process of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode reaction with lithium. Based on our results, the possible approach to improve the specific capacity and rate capability of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode material is proposed. It is expected that this study could accelerate the development of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  4. Few Atomic Layered Lithium Cathode Materials to Achieve Ultrahigh Rate Capability in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhixin; Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M; Chou, Shu-Lei; Chen, Lingna; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-09-01

    The most promising cathode materials, including LiCoO2 (layered), LiMn2 O4 (spinel), and LiFePO4 (olivine), have been the focus of intense research to develop rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronic devices. Sluggish lithium diffusion, however, and unsatisfactory long-term cycling performance still limit the development of present LIBs for several applications, such as plug-in/hybrid electric vehicles. Motivated by the success of graphene and novel 2D materials with unique physical and chemical properties, herein, a simple shear-assisted mechanical exfoliation method to synthesize few-layered nanosheets of LiCoO2 , LiMn2 O4 , and LiFePO4 is used. Importantly, these as-prepared nanosheets with preferred orientations and optimized stable structures exhibit excellent C-rate capability and long-term cycling performance with much reduced volume expansion during cycling. In particular, the zero-strain insertion phenomenon could be achieved in 2-3 such layers of LiCoO2 electrode materials, which could open up a new way to the further development of next-generation long-life and high-rate batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

    1994-11-01

    Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

  6. Synthesis, strctural and electrochemical characterizations of lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng

    The electrification trend for transportation systems requires alternative cathode materials to LiCoO2 with improved safety, lowered cost and extended cycle life. Lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials, which can be presented in a two component notation as xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO 2, (M= Ni, Co or Mn) have superior cost and energy density advantages. These cathode materials have shown success in laboratory scale experiments, but are still facing challenges such as voltage fade, moderate rate capacity and tap density for commercialization. The synthesis of precursors with high packing density and suitable physical properties is critical to achieve high energy density as well as the other acceptable electrochemical performance for the next generation lithium ion batteries. The aim of this study is to correlate the electrochemical properties of materials to their structural, morphological, and physical properties by coordinating the science of synthesis with the science of function, in order to enable the use of these compounds in vehicle technologies. Three different precursors including carbonate, hydroxide and oxalate were synthesized by co-precipitation reactions using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under various conditions. Research focused on areas such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, synthesis optimizations, and intrinsic limitations of each co-precipitation method. A combination of techniques such as PSA, BET, SEM, EDX FIB, TEM, Raman, FTIR, TGA-DSC, XRD, and ICP-MS, as well as electrochemical test methods such as cycling, CV, EIS and HPPC tests were used in correlation with each other in order to deepen our understanding to these materials. Related topics such as the composite structure formation process during the solid state reaction, lithium and nickel content effects on the cathode properties were also discussed. Additionally, the side reactions between the active materials and electrolyte as a result of the high charge potential were

  7. Exfoliation and reassembly of cobalt oxide nanosheets into a reversible lithium-ion battery cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C; Abouimrane, Ali; An, Zhi; Palmeri, Marc J; Brinson, L Catherine; Amine, Khalil; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2012-04-10

    An exfoliation-reassembly-activation (ERA) approach to lithium-ion battery cathode fabrication is introduced, demonstrating that inactive HCoO(2) powder can be converted into a reversible Li(1-x) H(x) CoO(2) thin-film cathode. This strategy circumvents the inherent difficulties often associated with the powder processing of the layered solids typically employed as cathode materials. The delamination of HCoO(2) via a combination of chemical and mechanical exfoliation generates a highly processable aqueous dispersion of [CoO(2) ](-) nanosheets that is critical to the ERA approach. Following vacuum-assisted self-assembly to yield a thin-film cathode and ion exchange to activate this material, the generated cathodes exhibit excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO(2) (~83 mAh g(-1) ), with this good electrochemical performance attributable to the high degree of order in the reassembled cathode.

  8. Anatase as a cathode material in lithium-organic electrolyte rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F.; Busani, L.; Lazzari, M.; Manstretta, M.; Rivolta, B.; Scrosati, B.

    1981-07-01

    Preliminary results of a study of the rechargable behavior of anatase TiO2 as a cathode material in secondary lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are reported. Measurements of operating characteristics were performed in electrochemical cells comprised of a lithium disk, glass wool separator disks soaked with a LiClO4-propylene carbonate solution and a pellet of either anatase or rutile as the positive material. The cells are found to exhibit an open circuit voltage between 2.80 and 2.90 V at room temperature for anatase and about 2.50 for rutile, corresponding to a cathodic utilization for anatase close to 60 percent. Polarization tests using a lithium reference electrode with anatase indicate an increase in the reversibility of the electrode as the test progressed, with polarization cycles in Li(0.2)TiO2 showing a practical absence of hysteresis. A maximum recharge efficiency in the first cycle was found to correspond to compositions of a Li/TiO2 mole ratio between 0.2 and 0.4. In extended cycling tests of material of optimal composition, indications of cell deterioration appeared progressively from the 30th cycle, due to lithium dendrite formation; when lithium dendrite effects are limited, cells based on anatase are found to maintain stable values of the discharge voltage for over 120 cycles. Results thus confirm the potential of anatase as a cathode material in lithium secondary batteries.

  9. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan-Sheng; Xu, Rui; Luu, Norman S; Secor, Ethan B; Hamamoto, Koichi; Li, Qianqian; Kim, Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Balla, Itamar; Guiney, Linda M; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Yu, Xiankai; Liu, Weiwei; Wu, Jinsong; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P; Barnett, Scott A; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-04-12

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 °C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  10. Catalyst morphology matters for lithium-oxygen battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Landon; Muralidharan, Nitin; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of using catalyst nanoparticles to reduce the overpotential and energy efficiency of lithium-oxygen (or lithium-air) batteries (LOBs) is usually attributed to the inherent catalytic properties of individual nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that the morphology of the catalyst layer is equally important in maintaining integrity of the catalyst coating during product formation in LOBs. We demonstrate this by comparing the performance of smooth, conformal coated Mn2O3 catalyst nanoparticles prepared by electric field-assisted deposition, and more irregular coatings using conventional film assembly techniques both on three-dimensional mesh substrates. Smooth coatings lead to an improved overpotential of 50 mV during oxygen reduction and 130 mV during oxygen evolution in addition to a nearly 2X improvement in durability compared to the more irregular films. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy combined with imaging studies elucidates a mechanism of morphology-directed deactivation of catalyst layers during charging and discharging that must be overcome at practical electrode scales to achieve cell-level performance targets in LOBs.

  11. Lithium Carbonate Recovery from Cathode Scrap of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery: A Closed-Loop Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-07

    A closed-loop process to recover lithium carbonate from cathode scrap of lithium-ion battery (LIB) is developed. Lithium could be selectively leached into solution using formic acid while aluminum remained as the metallic form, and most of the other metals from the cathode scrap could be precipitated out. This phenomenon clearly demonstrates that formic acid can be used for lithium recovery from cathode scrap, as both leaching and separation reagent. By investigating the effects of different parameters including temperature, formic acid concentration, H2O2 amount, and solid to liquid ratio, the leaching rate of Li can reach 99.93% with minor Al loss into the solution. Subsequently, the leaching kinetics was evaluated and the controlling step as well as the apparent activation energy could be determined. After further separation of the remaining Ni, Co, and Mn from the leachate, Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.90% could be obtained. The final solution after lithium carbonate extraction can be further processed for sodium formate preparation, and Ni, Co, and Mn precipitates are ready for precursor preparation for cathode materials. As a result, the global recovery rates of Al, Li, Ni, Co, and Mn in this process were found to be 95.46%, 98.22%, 99.96%, 99.96%, and 99.95% respectively, achieving effective resources recycling from cathode scrap of spent LIB.

  12. Nanostructured titanium nitride as a novel cathode for high performance lithium/dissolved polysulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries could potentially revolutionize the rechargeable battery market due to their high energy density and low cost. However, low active material utilization, electrode volumetric expansion and a high rate of capacity fade due to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide intermediates in the liquid electrolyte are the main challenges facing further Lisbnd S battery development. Here, we enhanced Lisbnd S batteries active material utilization and decreased the volumetric expansion by using the lithium/dissolved polysulfide configuration. Moreover, a novel class of cathode materials, Titanium Nitride (TiN), was developed for polysulfide conversion reactions. The surface chemical environment of the TiN has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The existence of Ssbnd Tisbnd N bonding at the cathode electrode surface was observed, which indicates the strong interactions between TiN and polysulfides. Therefore, the TiN electrode retains the sulfur species on the cathode surface, minimizing the active material and surface area loss and consequently, improves the capacity retention. The resultant cells demonstrated a high initial capacity of 1524 mAh g-1 and a good capacity retention for 100 cycles at a C/10 current rate.

  13. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-26

    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  14. Study of Stable Cathodes and Electrolytes for High Specific Density Lithium-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.; Wu, James; Bennett, William; Ming, Yu; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions require high specific energy battery technologies, greater than 400 Wh/kg. Current NASA missions are using "state-of-the-art" (SOA) Li-ion batteries (LIB), which consist of a metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the physical and electrochemical properties of the anode-electrolyte interface for ionic liquid based Li-air batteries. The voltage-time profiles for Pyr13FSI and Pyr14TFSI ionic liquids electrolytes studies on symmetric cells show low over-potentials and no dendritic lithium morphology. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that these ionic liquids have a wide electrochemical window. As a continuation of this work, sp2 carbon cathode and these low flammability electrolytes were paired and the physical and electrochemical properties were studied in a Li-air battery system under an oxygen environment.

  15. Accelerated discovery of cathode materials with prolonged cycle life for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Motoaki; Ootani, Takuya; Kamimura, Yuichi; Sueki, Toshitsugu; Esaki, Shogo; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Ohira, Koji; Koyama, Yukinori; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale battery systems are essential for efficiently utilizing renewable energy power sources from solar and wind, which can generate electricity only intermittently. The use of lithium-ion batteries to store the generated energy is one solution. A long cycle life is critical for lithium-ion battery when used in these applications; this is different from portable devices which require 1,000 cycles at most. Here we demonstrate a novel co-substituted lithium iron phosphate cathode with estimated 70%-capacity retention of 25,000 cycles. This is found by exploring a wide chemical compositional space using density functional theory calculations. Relative volume change of a compound between fully lithiated and delithiated conditions is used as the descriptor for the cycle life. On the basis of the results of the screening, synthesis of selected materials is targeted. Single-phase samples with the required chemical composition are successfully made by an epoxide-mediated sol-gel method. The optimized materials show excellent cycle-life performance as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

  16. Hierarchical surface atomic structure of a manganese-based spinel cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yoon, Gabin; Jeong, Minseul; Lee, Min-Joon; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-01-19

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in high-power applications requires improvement of their high-temperature electrochemical performance, including their cyclability and rate capability. Spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a promising cathode material because of its high stability and abundance. However, it exhibits poor cycling performance at high temperatures owing to Mn dissolution. Herein we show that when stoichiometric lithium manganese oxide is coated with highly doped spinels, the resulting epitaxial coating has a hierarchical atomic structure consisting of cubic-spinel, tetragonal-spinel, and layered structures, and no interfacial phase is formed. In a practical application of the coating to doped spinel, the material retained 90% of its capacity after 800 cycles at 60 °C. Thus, the formation of an epitaxial coating with a hierarchical atomic structure could enhance the electrochemical performance of LIB cathode materials while preventing large losses in capacity.

  17. Synthesis and properties of a spinel cathode material for lithium ion battery with flat potential plateau

    OpenAIRE

    AL-TABBAKH, AHMED ABDULRAHMAN AHMED; Kamarulzaman, Norlida; AL-ZUBAIDI, ASEEL

    2015-01-01

    A potential cathode material for lithium ion battery was synthesised by combustion reaction. The thermal behaviour of the as-synthesised precursor was measured using a thermogravimetric analyser and the range of calcination temperature from 500 $^{\\circ}$C to 800 $^{\\circ}$C was determined. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all calcined powders crystallised in the cubic spinel structure of the $Fd\\bar{3}m$ space group. The particle size distributions and morphologies of the p...

  18. Gas evolution behaviors for several cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weihe; Li, Hong; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan

    Several 18650 lithium-ion batteries using LiCoO 2, LiMn 2O 4, and LiFePO 4 as cathode materials were assembled separately. Gas species of these batteries under normal cycling and overcharging to 4.5 and 5.0 V conditions were examined by means of GC-MS method. Under the normal charge and discharge voltage range, it is found that gas components are independent to the cathode materials. C 2H 5F gas was detected in all cases. A formation mechanism is proposed. Under overcharging condition, it is found that the gas components are different and there is a correlation between the C 2H 2 product and the oxidation ability of various delithiated cathode materials.

  19. Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Susarla, Naresh; Dees, Dennis W.

    2017-02-01

    The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day-1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kgNMC-1 of energy, 15 L kgNMC-1 of process water, and cost 23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na2CO3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. A combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.

  20. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  1. Investigation of spinel-related and orthorhombic LiMNO2 cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gummow, RJ

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials that have been synthesized by reduction of lithium-manganese- Cathode materials that have been synthesized by reduction of lithium-manganese-oxide and manganese-oxide precursors with hydrogen at 300 to 350-degrees...

  2. Development of cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Mukhtaruly Turganaly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of the cathode material coated with carbon layer has been developed. Various carbon coating methods. There  has been carried out a comparative electrochemical analysis of the coated and uncoated with carbon cathode material. 

  3. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries.

  4. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can provide surface area for the deposition of Li{sub 2}S and Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}. ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g{sup −1}, and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm{sup −2}. Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process.

  5. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  6. Novel Nanosized Adsorbing Composite Cathode Materials for the Next Generational Lithium Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; ZHENG Wei; ZHANG Ping; WANG Lizhen; XIA Tongchi; HU Xinguo; YU Zhenxing

    2007-01-01

    A novel carbon-sulfur nano-composite material was synthesized by heating sublimed sulfur and high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) under certain conditions. The physical and chemical performances of the novel carbon-sulfur nano-composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances of nano-composite were characterized by charge-discharge characteristic, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results indicate that the electrochemical capability of nanocomposite material was superior to that of traditional S-containing composite material. The cathode made by carbon-sulfur nano-composite material shows a good cycle ability and a high specific charge-discharge capacity. The HSAAC shows a vital role in adsorbing sublimed sulfur and the polysulfides within the cathode and is an excellent electric conductor for a sulfur cathode and prevents the shuttle behavior of the lithium-sulfur battery.

  7. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  8. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  9. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A lithium-ion sulfur battery based on a carbon-coated lithium-sulfide cathode and an electrodeposited silicon-based anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Moongook; Nara, Hiroki; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-07-23

    In this paper, we report a lithium-ion battery employing a lithium sulfide cathode and a silicon-based anode. The high capacity of the silicon anode and the high efficiency and cycling rate of the lithium sulfide cathode allowed optimal full cell balance. We show in fact that the battery operates with a very stable capacity of about 280 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 1.4 V. To the best of our knowledge, this battery is one of the rare examples of lithium-metal-free sulfur battery. Considering the high theoretical capacity of the employed electrodes, we believe that the battery here reported may be of potential interest as high-energy, safe, and low-cost power source for electric vehicles.

  11. Toward More Reliable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: An All-Graphene Cathode Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruopian; Zhao, Shiyong; Pei, Songfeng; Qian, Xitang; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Liu, Chang; Li, Feng

    2016-09-27

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attracting increasing interest due to their high theoretical specific energy density, low cost, and eco-friendliness. However, most reports of the high gravimetric specific capacity and long cyclic life are not practically reliable because of their low areal specific capacity derived from the low areal sulfur loading and low sulfur content. Here, we fabricated a highly porous graphene with high pore volume of 3.51 cm(3) g(-1) as the sulfur host, enabling a high sulfur content of 80 wt %, and based on this, we further proposed an all-graphene structure for the sulfur cathode with highly conductive graphene as the current collector and partially oxygenated graphene as a polysulfide-adsorption layer. This cathode structural design enables a 5 mg cm(-2) sulfur-loaded cathode showing both high initial gravimetric specific capacity (1500 mAh g(-1)) and areal specific capacity (7.5 mAh cm(-2)), together with excellent cycling stability for 400 cycles, indicating great promise for more reliable lithium-sulfur batteries.

  12. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Application of gelatin as a binder for the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangyaqin9@sina.com; Wang Weikun; Yu Zhongbao; Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Gelatin, a natural biological macromolecule, was successfully used as a new binder in place of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the fabrication of the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. The structure and electrochemical performance of the two types of sulfur cathodes, with gelatin and PEO as binders, respectively, were compared in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} DME/DOL (V/V = 1/1) electrolyte. The results showed that the gelatin binder had multifunctional effects on the sulfur cathode: it not only functioned as a highly adhesive agent and an effective dispersion agent for the cathode materials, but also an electrochemically stable binder. The gelatin binder-sulfur cathode achieved a high initial capacity of 1132 mAh g{sup -1}, and remained at a reversible capacity of 408 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, all of which were better than with the PEO binder-sulfur cathode under the same conditions.

  14. Application of gelatin as a binder for the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Huang, Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Weikun; Yu, Zhongbao; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Gelatin, a natural biological macromolecule, was successfully used as a new binder in place of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the fabrication of the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. The structure and electrochemical performance of the two types of sulfur cathodes, with gelatin and PEO as binders, respectively, were compared in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} DME/DOL (V/V = 1/1) electrolyte. The results showed that the gelatin binder had multifunctional effects on the sulfur cathode: it not only functioned as a highly adhesive agent and an effective dispersion agent for the cathode materials, but also an electrochemically stable binder. The gelatin binder-sulfur cathode achieved a high initial capacity of 1132 mAh g{sup -1}, and remained at a reversible capacity of 408 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, all of which were better than with the PEO binder-sulfur cathode under the same conditions. (author)

  15. Recovery of cathode materials and Al from spent lithium-ion batteries by ultrasonic cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Cathode materials are difficult to separate from Al-foil substrates during the recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of the strong bonding force present. In this study, ultrasonic cleaning was used to separate and recycle these cathode materials. The mechanism of separation was ascribed to the dissolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and the cavitation caused by ultrasound. Based on this mechanism, the key parameters affecting the peel-off efficiency of cathode materials from Al foil was identified as solvent nature, temperature, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time. The peel-off efficiency of cathode materials achieved ∼ 99% under the optimized conditions of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) cleaning fluid, 70°C process temperature, 240 W ultrasonic power, and 90 min of ultrasonication. The cathode materials separated from Al foil displayed a low agglomeration degree, which is beneficial to the subsequent leaching process. Finally, a new, environmentally-sound process was proposed to efficiently recycle cathode materials and Al from spent LIBs, consisting of manual dismantling, ultrasonic cleaning, and picking.

  16. Advances in lithium-sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li-S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li-S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li-S batteries are summarized.

  17. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  18. Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-08-01

    Successful deployment of electric vehicles requires maturity of the manufacturing process to reduce the cost of the lithium ion battery (LIB) pack. Drying the coated cathode layer and subsequent recovery of the solvent for recycle is a vital step in the lithium ion battery manufacturing plant and offers significant potential for cost reduction. A spreadsheet model of the drying and recovery of the solvent, is used to study the energy demand of this step and its contribution towards the cost of the battery pack. The base case scenario indicates that the drying and recovery process imposes an energy demand of ∼10 kWh per kg of the solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), and is almost 45 times the heat needed to vaporize the NMP. For a plant producing 100 K battery packs per year for 10 kWh plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), the energy demand is ∼5900 kW and the process contributes 107 or 3.4% to the cost of the battery pack. The cost of drying and recovery is equivalent to 1.12 per kg of NMP recovered, saving 2.08 per kg in replacement purchase.

  19. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  20. Enhanced cycling stability of lithium sulfur batteries using sulfur-polyaniline-graphene nanoribbon composite cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Fei, Huilong; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-09-10

    A hierarchical nanocomposite material of graphene nanoribbons combined with polyaniline and sulfur using an inexpensive, simple method has been developed. The resulting composite, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis, has a good rate performance and excellent cycling stability. The synergistic combination of electrically conductive graphene nanoribbons, polyaniline, and sulfur produces a composite with high performance. The method developed here is practical for the large-scale development of cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries.

  1. Nitrogen--sulfur--carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium--sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T.; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-09-27

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to electron-conducting porous compositions comprising an organic polymer matrix doped with nitrogen atoms and having elemental sulfur dispersed therein, particularly such compositions having an ordered framework structure. The invention is also directed to composites of such S/N-doped electron-conducting porous aromatic framework (PAF) compositions, or composites of an S/N-doped mesoporous carbon composition, which includes the S/N-doped composition in admixture with a binder, and optionally, conductive carbon. The invention is further directed to cathodes for a lithium-sulfur battery in which such composites are incorporated.

  2. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  3. High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhonghua; Eberman, Kevin W

    2017-03-21

    A lithium transition metal oxide composition. The composition has the formula Li.sub.a[Li.sub.bNi.sub.cMn.sub.dCo.sub.e]O.sub.2, where a.gtoreq.0.9, b.gtoreq.0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05.ltoreq.c/d.ltoreq.1.4, 0.05.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.0.30, 0.9.ltoreq.(a+b)/M.ltoreq.1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.

  4. Characterization and electrochemical activities of nanostructured transition metal nitrides as cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavati, Negar; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2017-02-01

    The Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) battery system is one of the most promising candidates for electric vehicle applications due to its higher energy density when compared to conventional lithium ion batteries. However, there are some challenges facing Li-S battery commercialization, such as: low active material utilization, high self-discharge rate, and high rate of capacity fade. In this work, a series of transition metal nitrides: Tungsten nitride (WN), Molybdenum Nitride (Mo2N), and Vanadium Nitride (VN) was investigated as cathode materials for lithium polysulfide conversion reactions. Capacities of 697, 569, and 264 mAh g-1 were observed for WN, Mo2N, VN, respectively, with 8 mg cm-2 loading, after 100 cycles at a 0.1 C rate. WN higher electrochemical performance may be attributed to a strong reversible reaction between nitrides and polysulfide, which retains the sulfur species on the electrode surface, and minimizes the active material and surface area loss. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to gain a better understanding of the mechanism underlying each metal nitride redox reactions.

  5. Cathode based on molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Liu, Cong; Phillips, Patrick; Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Zapol, Peter; Klie, Robert F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O-2) batteries have been recognized as an emerging technology for energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical specific energy. One challenge is to find an electrolyte/cathode system that is efficient, stable, and cost-effective. We present such a system based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes combined with an ionic liquid (IL) that work together as an effective cocatalyst for discharge and charge in a Li-O-2 battery. Cyclic voltammetry results show superior catalytic performance for this cocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions compared to Au and Pt catalysts. It also performs remarkably well in the Li-O-2 battery system with 85% round-trip efficiency and reversibility up to 50 cycles. Density functional calculations provide a mechanistic understanding of the MoS2 nanoflakes/IL system. cocatalyst reported in this work could open the way for exploiting the unique properties of ionic liquids in Li-air batteries in combination with nanostructured MoS2 as a cathode material.

  6. Functionalized graphene-based cathode for highly reversible lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Won; Ocon, Joey D; Park, Dong-Won; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we highlight the salient issues in the development of lithium-sulfur battery (LSB) cathodes, present different points of view in solving them, and argue, why in the future, functionalized graphene or graphene oxide might be the ultimate solution towards LSB commercialization. As shown by previous studies and also in our recent work, functionalized graphene and graphene oxide enhance the reversibility of the charge-discharge process by trapping polysulfides in the oxygen functional groups on the graphene surface, thus minimizing polysulfide dissolution. This will be helpful for the rational design of new cathode structures based on graphene for LSBs with minimal capacity fading, low extra cost, and without the unnecessary weight increase caused by metal/metal oxide additives.

  7. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  8. New approaches for high energy density lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Scott; Nazar, Linda F

    2013-05-21

    The goal of replacing combustion engines or reducing their use presents a daunting problem for society. Current lithium-ion technologies provide a stepping stone for this dramatic but inevitable change. However, the theoretical gravimetric capacity (∼300 mA h g(-1)) is too low to overcome the problems of limited range in electric vehicles, and their cost is too high to sustain the commercial viability of electrified transportation. Sulfur is the one of the most promising next generation cathode materials. Since the 1960s, researchers have studied sulfur as a cathode, but only recently have great strides been made in preparing viable composites that can be used commercially. Sulfur batteries implement inexpensive, earth-abundant elements at the cathode while offering up to a five-fold increase in energy density compared with present Li-ion batteries. Over the past few years, researchers have come closer to solving the challenges associated with the sulfur cathode. Using carbon or conducting polymers, researchers have wired up sulfur, an excellent insulator, successfully. These conductive hosts also function to encapsulate the active sulfur mass upon reduction/oxidation when highly soluble lithium polysulfides are formed. These soluble discharge products remain a crux of the Li-S cell and need to be contained in order to increase cycle life and capacity retention. The use of mesoporous carbons and tailored designs featuring porous carbon hollow spheres have led to highly stable discharge capacities greater than 900 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles. In an attempt to fully limit polysulfide dissolution, methods that rely on coating carbon/sulfur composites with polymers have led to surprisingly stable capacities (∼90% of initial capacity retained). Additives will also play an important role in sulfur electrode design. For example, small fractions (> 3 wt%) of porous silica or titania effectively act as polysulfide reservoirs, decreasing their concentration in the

  9. Theoretical investigation of pillar[4]quinone as a cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Long; Xie, Ju; Chen, Ming; Diao, Guowang; Zhao, Rongfang; Zuo, Tongfei

    2017-04-01

    The applicability of a novel macrocyclic multi-carbonyl compound, pillar[4]quinone (P4Q), as the cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was assessed theoretically. The molecular geometry, electronic structure, Li-binding thermodynamic properties, and the redox potential of P4Q were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The results of the calculations indicated that P4Q interacts with Li atoms via three binding modes: Li-O ionic bonding, O-Li···O bridge bonding, and Li···phenyl noncovalent interactions. Calculations also indicated that, during the LIB discharging process, P4Q could yield a specific capacity of 446 mAh g(-1) through the utilization of its many carbonyl groups. Compared with pillar[5]quinone and pillar[6]quinone, the redox potential of P4Q is enhanced by its high structural stability as well as the effect of the solvent. These results should provide the theoretical foundations for the design, synthesis, and application of novel macrocyclic carbonyl compounds as electrode materials in LIBs in the future. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the proposed charge-discharge mechanism of Pillar[4]quinone as cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-07

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications.

  11. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications.

  12. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications. PMID:27600885

  13. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-03-27

    The present study sheds light on the long-standing challenges associated with high-voltage operation of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction (formation of a surface reduced layer, to transition) and chemical evolution (formation of a surface reaction layer) at the surface of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 particles. These are primarily responsible for the prevailing capacity fading and impedance buildup under high-voltage cycling conditions, as well as the first-cycle coulombic inefficiency. It was found that the surface reconstruction exhibits a strong anisotropic characteristic, which predominantly occurs along lithium diffusion channels. Furthermore, the surface reaction layer is composed of lithium fluoride embedded in a complex organic matrix. This work sets a refined example for the study of surface reconstruction and chemical evolution in battery materials using combined diagnostic tools at complementary length scales.

  14. Co3O4-Carbon Cloth free standing cathode for lithium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered to be one of the most promising next-generation electrochemical energy-storage systems due to its high theoretical energy of 2600 Wh kg-1 with low cost. The insulating nature of both sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides are the two primary challenges for the application of lithium sulfur batteries. Here, we developed a binder-free cathode by chemisorption of Co3O4 to carbon cloth (CC), which was used as a 3D current collector to accommodate a large amount of sulfur, multiwall carbon nanofiber (MWCNF) and carbon black (CB) hybrids within the conductive scaffold, enabling the fabrication of ultrahigh sulfur loaded electrodes. The interconnected carbon fibers established a long-range conductive matrix for an efficient electron transport, the multiple conductive pathways guarantee high sulfur utilization. More importantly, the high electrolyte absorbability of the Co3O4-CC-S current collector facilitates well-localized polysulfides within the Co3O4-CC-S, meanwhile, the polar Co3O4 could also effectively entrapped the intermediated polysulfides preventing their free diffusion to the lithium anode, guaranteeing good cycling stability. Consequently, the Co3O4-CC-S electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with sulfur loading of 4.3 mg cm-2.

  15. Laser annealing of textured thin film cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, R.; Bruns, M.; Smyrek, P.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Pfleging, W.

    2010-02-01

    The material development for advanced lithium ion batteries plays an important role in future mobile applications and energy storage systems. It is assumed that electrode materials made of nano-composited materials will improve battery lifetime and will lead to an enhancement of lithium diffusion and thus improve battery capacity and cyclability. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is commonly used as a cathode material. Thin films of this electrode material were synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering of LiCoO2 targets on silicon or stainless steel substrates. For the formation of the high temperature phase of LiCoO2 (HT-LiCoO2), which exhibits good electrochemical performance with a specific capacity of 140 mAh/g and high capacity retention, a subsequent annealing treatment is necessary. For this purpose laser annealing of thin film LiCoO2 was investigated in detail and compared to conventional furnace annealing. A high power diode laser system operating at a wavelength of 940 nm with an integrated pyrometer for temperature control was used. Different temperatures (between 200°C and 700°C) for the laser structured and unstructured thin films were applied. The effects of laser treatment on the LiCoO2 thin films studied with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine their stoichiometry and crystallinity. The development of HT-LiCoO2 and also the formation of a Co3O4 phase were discussed. The electrochemical properties of the manufactured films were investigated via electrochemical cycling against a lithium anode.

  16. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l-1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l-1) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l-1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

  17. LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in graphene nanoshells for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huilong; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-07-11

    LiFePO4 encapsulated in graphene nanoshells (LiFePO4@GNS) nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction between graphene-coated Fe nanoparticles and LiH2PO4. The resulting nanocomposite was demonstrated to be a superior lithium-ion battery cathode with improved cycle and rate performances.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cathode, anode and electrolyte materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng

    Two new classes of cathode materials were studied: iron phosphate/sulfate materials and layered manganese oxides, both of which are low cost and had shown some potential. The first class of materials have poor conductivity and cyclability. I studied a number of methods for increasing the conductivity, and determined that grinding the material with carbon black was as effective as special in-situ coatings. The optimum carbon loading was determined to be between 6 and 15 wt%. Too much carbon reduces the volumetric energy density, whereas too little significantly increased cell polarization (reduced the rate of reaction). The kinetic and thermodynamic stability of LiFePO 4 was also studied and it was determined that over discharge protection will be needed as irreversible Li3PO4 can be formed at low potentials. A novel hydrothermal synthesis method was developed, but the significant level of Fe on the Li site reduces the reaction rate too much. In the case of the layered manganese oxide, cation substitution with Co and Ni is found to be effective in avoiding Jahn-Teller effects and improving electrochemistry. A wide range of tin compounds have been suggested as lithium storage media for advanced anode materials, as tin can store over 4 Li per Sn atom. Lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF6, is presently the salt of choice for LiCoO2 batteries, but it is expensive and dissolves some manganese compounds. The lithium bis(oxolato)borate (BOB) salt was recently reported, and I made a study of its use in cells with the LiFePO4 cathode and the tin anode. During its synthesis, it became clear that LiBOB is very reactive with many solvents, and these complexes were characterized to better understand this new material. In LiBOB the lithium is five coordinated, an unstable configuration for the lithium ion so that water and many other solvents rapidly react to make a six coordination. Only in the case of ethylene carbonate was the lithium found to be four coordinated. The Li

  19. Modeling the Effects of the Cathode Composition of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery on the Discharge Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Cho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based on a finite element method is presented to calculate the cell voltage change of a LFP battery cell during galvanostatic discharge. To test the validity of the modeling approach, the modeling results for the variations of the cell voltage of the LFP battery as a function of time are compared with the experimental measurements during galvanostatic discharge at various discharge rates of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1.0C, and 2.0C for three different compositions of the LFP cathode. The discharge curves obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. On the basis of the validated modeling approach, the effects of the cathode composition on the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell are estimated. The modeling results exhibit highly nonlinear dependencies of the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell on the discharge C-rate and cathode composition.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes Act as Conductive Additives in the cathode of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guoping; Zhou Gumin; Qu MeiZhen; Wang Guixing; Wang Yunshi; Zhong Hong; Yu Zuolong

    2004-01-01

    The layered compounds LiCoO2, LiNiO2 and spinel compound LiMn2O4 have served as very effective cathode active materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Generally, their high conductive resistance easily results in a serious polarization and poor utilization of active materials.In order to make full use of the active materials and increase the capacity, the charge-discharge rate and the cycle life of lithium ion batteries, conductive additives are often added into the above cathode materials to form a conductive network. Carbon materials, such as carbon black, graphite powders and chemical vapor deposit carbon fibers have been widely used as conductive additives owing to their high electrical conductivity and chemical inertness. To effectively utilize the active materials, the contents of these carbon additives in the cathode often reach up to 10~20wt%. This leads to a great need for binder, for example, 10wt% or more. It follows therefore a considerable increase in volume of the lithium batteries and lower energy density because of the large amount of carbon additives and binder in the cathode.By substituting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for carbon black, graphite powders or chemical vapor deposit carbon fibers, much conductive additives and binder are saved, and the cathode with only 3~5wt% of conductive additives CNTs shows excellent rate capacity. At the discharge rate 0.5C,2.0C and 3.0C, the LiCoO2 cathode with CNTs exhibits discharge capacity up to 134mAh/g, 126 and 120mAh/g, respectively. The explanation is given as follows. Firstly, their microstructure and graphitic crystallinity are very important for electron transport. CNTs employed in the experiments comprise an array of complete graphite sheets seamlessly wrapped into cylindrical tubes which are concentrically nested like the rings of a tree trunk. Thus, the process of -electrons transport occurs in graphite sheet in super-conjugative manner when they move from one end to the other end in CNTs

  1. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  2. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  3. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  4. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanyi; Liu Dawei; Zhang Qifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yu Danmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Cao Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  5. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  6. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Facile Synthesis of V₂O₅ Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyuan; Wang, Jian-Gan; Liu, Huanyan; Liu, Hongzhen; Wei, Bingqing

    2017-01-18

    Three-dimensional V₂O₅ hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V₂O₅ materials are composed of microspheres 2-3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V₂O₅ hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V₂O₅ cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V₂O₅ hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  9. Measuring Spatially Resolved Collective Ionic Transport on Lithium Battery Cathodes Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Aaron; Wang, Zi; Hovington, Pierre; Miyahara, Yoichi; Paolella, Andrea; Gariepy, Vincent; Feng, Zimin; Enright, Tyler; Aiken, Connor; Zaghib, Karim; Bevan, Kirk H; Grutter, Peter

    2017-07-12

    One of the main challenges in improving fast charging lithium-ion batteries is the development of suitable active materials for cathodes and anodes. Many materials suffer from unacceptable structural changes under high currents and/or low intrinsic conductivities. Experimental measurements are required to optimize these properties, but few techniques are able to spatially resolve ionic transport properties at small length scales. Here we demonstrate an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based technique to measure local ionic transport on LiFePO4 to correlate with the structural and compositional analysis of the same region. By comparing the measured values with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we demonstrate that Coulomb interactions between ions give rise to a collective activation energy for ionic transport that is dominated by large phase boundary hopping barriers. We successfully measure both the collective activation energy and the smaller single-ion bulk hopping barrier and obtain excellent agreement with values obtained from our DFT calculations.

  10. Exploring Lithium Deficiency in Layered Oxide Cathode for Li-Ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung-Jin [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Uddin, Md-Jamal [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Alaboina, Pankaj K. [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Han, Sang Sub [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Imaging and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59718 USA; Choi, Yong Seok [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Hu, Enyuan [Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Nam, Kyung-Wan [Department of Energy Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620 Republic of Korea; Schwarz, Ashleigh M. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environmental Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Cho, Jong Soo [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro NC 27401 USA; Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 Republic of Korea; Choi, Daiwon [Energy and Environmental Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2017-06-23

    Abstract or short description: The ever-growing demand for high capacity cathode materials is on the rise since the futuristic applications are knocking on the door. Conventional approach to developing such cathode relies on the lithium-excess materials to operate the cathode at high voltage and extract more lithium-ion. Yet, they fail to satiate the needs because of their unresolved issues upon cycling such as, for lithium manganese-rich layered oxides – their voltage fading, and for as nickel-based layered oxides – the structural transition. Here, in contrast, lithium-deficient ratio is demonstrated as a new approach to attain high capacity at high voltage for layered oxide cathodes. Rapid and cost effective lithiation of a porous hydroxide precursor with lithium deficient ratio acted as a driving force to partially convert the layered material to spinel phase yielding in a multiphase structure (MPS) cathode material. Upon cycling, MPS revealed structural stability at high voltage and high temperature and resulted in fast lithium-ion diffusion by providing a distinctive SEI chemistry – MPS displayed minimum lithium loss in SEI and formed a thinner SEI. MPS thus offer high energy and high power applications and provides a new perspective compared to the conventional layered cathode materials denying the focus for lithium excess material.

  11. Studies on bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, MV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available at ScienceDirect Electrochimica Acta jo ur nal ho me p age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /e lec tac ta Graphical Abstract Electrochimica Acta xxx (2013) xxx–xxx Studies on Bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy... for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy∗, Thor Wei Jie, Charl J. Jafta, Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Mkhulu K. Mathe, A. Sree Kumaran Nair, Soo Soon Peng, M. Sobri Idris, Geetha Balakrishna, Fabian I. Ezema, B.V.R. Chowdari • Layered compounds, Li...

  12. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  13. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  14. Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries: Synthesis, analysis, and thermal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeom-Soo

    2001-12-01

    The effect of synthesis technique was studied with two representative techniques such as solid-state reaction (SSR) and sol-gel methods used for LixMn2O4 (x = 1.03) preparation. For the in-cell performance of LixMn2O4 as electrode material, variation in processing temperature and intermittent grinding were found to be the key parameters of synthesis. The characteristics of powder synthesized by these different methods were investigated and compared with stoichiometric LiMn2O4 spinel using a combination of physicochemical and electrochemical techniques. Physicochemical characteristics investigated including phase identification, particle size, density, BET surface area, and composition. The electrochemical performance was characterized with 2016 coin type cells, using a battery tester. In addition, the electro-analytical response was studied using slow sweep cyclic voltammetry (SSCV) and current pulse response (CPR). The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), one of the test profiles proposed by the Partnership for New Generation Vehicle (PNGV), was applied to check the possibility of using LixMn 2O4 electrodes in HEV batteries. Chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium (D Li+) in spinel LixMn2O 4 were measured by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). DLi+ varied with x in LixMn2O4, showing strong dependence on the concentration of lithium. The thermal behavior of major cathode materials for Li-ion battery (LiCoO 2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, and LiMn2O 4) was investigated using an isothermal microcalorimeter, in combination with a battery tester. The total heat generation rate was found to be dependent on the concentration of lithium in LixMn2O4 and LixCoO2 while it was relatively constant in the case of LixNi0.8Co0.2O2. The area-specific impedance (ASI) measured in these tests indicated that the heat

  15. Ordered mesoporous carbon/sulfur nanocomposite of high performances as cathode for lithium-sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuru [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhai Yunpu [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu Guiliang; Jiang Yanxia [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhao Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li Juntao; Huang Ling [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun Shigang, E-mail: sgsun@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon/sulfur (OMC/S) nanocomposites with hierarchically structured sulfur loading, ranging from 50 to 75 wt%, were synthesized via a simple melt-diffusion strategy. The OMC with a BET surface area of 2102 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, a pore volume of 2.0 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and unique bimodal mesoporous (5.6/2.3 nm) structure, was prepared from a triconstituent co-assembly method. The resulting OMC/S nanocomposite material served as cathode of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. It has been tested that the novel OMC/S cathode can deliver a superior reversible capacity and cyclability. In particular, the nanocomposite with a loading of 60 wt% sulfur (OMC/S-60) presents the highest sulfur utilization ca. 70%, an excellent high rate capability ca. 6 C and a good cycling stability for up to 400 full charge-discharge cycles. The exceptional electrochemical performances are exclusively attributed to the large internal surface area and high porosity of the ordered mesoporous carbon, which favorites both electron and Li-ion transportations.

  16. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  17. Selenium and Selenium–Sulfur Chemistry for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: Interplay of Cathode Structures, Electrolytes, and Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Liu, Jianzhao; Amine, Rachid; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2017-02-09

    In the search for a transformative new energy storage system, the rechargeable Li/sulfur battery is considered as one of the promising candidates due to its much higher energy density and lower cost than state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, the insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of intermediary polysulfides into the electrolyte significantly hinder its practical application. Very recently, selenium and selenium-sulfur systems have received considerable attention as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries owing to the high electronic conductivity (20 orders of magnitude higher than sulfur) and high volumetric capacity (3254 mAh/cm3 ) of selenium. In this perspective, we present an overview of the implications of employing selenium and selenium-sulfur systems with different structures and compositions as electroactive materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We also show how the cathode structures, electrolytes, and electrode-electrolyte interfaces affect the electrochemistry of Se and Se-S based cathodes. Furthermore, suggestions are provided on paths for future development of these cathodes.

  18. Enhanced cyclability of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur batteries with Na-alginate as a binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhai; Bao; Zhian; Zhang; Yongqing; Gan; Xiwen; Wang; Jie; Lia

    2013-01-01

    Na-alginate as a binder in an aqueous solvent has been applied in the preparation of sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries.Their electrochemical performances have been investigated by a charge-discharge cycle test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The EIS tests indicated that the alginate sulfur cathode had lower resistance and better kinetic characteristics than those of the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) sulfur cathode using PVDF as a binder in a N-methy-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent.The charge-discharge tests showed that the discharge capacity and the capacity retention rate of Na-alginate sulfur cathode were 508 mAh·g-1and 65.4% at the 50th cycle with a current density of 335 mA·g-1.Compared with PVDF sulfur cathode,the alginate sulfur cathode showed a remarkably better cycle performance.These results show that the alginate binder has promising potential for lithium-sulfur battery applications.

  19. Characterization of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode by addition of graphene for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honggowiranto, Wagiyo, E-mail: wagiyo@batan.go.id; Kartini, Evvy, E-mail: kartini@batan.go.id [Center for Science and Technology Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The improvement of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode performance has been performed by addition of Graphene (LFP+Graphene). The cathode was prepared from the active material with 5 wt % graphene and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride in an n-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. Another cathode material used only 5% artificial graphite for comparison (LFP+Graphite). The crystal structure, microstructure, electronic conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the cathodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and Impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Two half cell coin batteries were assembled using a lithium metal as an anode and LiPf{sub 6} as an electrolyte, and two cathodes (LFP+Graphene) and (LFP+Graphite). Charge discharge performance of battery was characterized by Battery analyser (BTS 8). The electronic conductivity of cathode with grapheme increased of about one order magnitude compared with the only cathode with graphite, namely from 1.97E-7S/cm (LFP+Graphite) to 1.92E-6S/cm (LFP+Graphene). The charge-discharge capacity after 10{sup th} cycles of LiFePO{sub 4} with graphene decreased of about 0.68% from 114.3 mAh/g to113.1 mAh/g, while LFP with graphite decreased of about 2.84% from 110.2 mAh/g to 107.1 mAh, at 0.1C-rates. It could be concluded that the addition of graphene has increased the ionic conductivity, and improved performance of the LFP lithium ion battery, such as higher capacity and better efficiency.

  20. Cathode material influence on the power capability and utilizable capacity of next generation lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Michael A.; Vetter, Jens; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Lithium-ion cells (Li-ion) comprising lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) based cathode active material are a promising battery technology for future automotive applications and consumer electronics in terms of safety, cycle and calendar lifetime and cost. Those cells comprise flat open circuit voltage (OCV) characteristics and long-term load history dependent cell impedance. In this work the special electric characteristics of LiFePO 4 based cells are elucidated, quantified and compared to Li-ion cells containing a competing cathode technology. Through pulse tests and partial cycle tests, performed with various olivine based cells, the cycling history dependency of the internal resistance and therefore on the power capability is shown. Hence, methods are illustrated to quantify this load history impact on the cells performance. Subsequently, methods to achieve a safe battery operation are elucidated. Furthermore strategies are given to obtain reliable information about the cells power capability, taking the mentioned properties into consideration.

  1. Kinetic Behavior of LiFePO4/C Thin Film Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinskis, G; Bajārs, G; Kleperis, J.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    LiFePO4 was prepared in a solid state synthesis with various levels of carbon content. LiFePO4/C thin films were obtained via magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology and structure was examined. Electrochemical properties of LiFePO4/C were studied, by using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thin films acquired show a potential use as a cathode in lithium ion batteries, displaying charge capacity up to 34 mAh g-1.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller

    . The type of cathode material affects the battery discharge capacity and charging potential and with a carbon based cathode many questions are still unanswered. The focus of this Ph.D. project has been the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide as well as the investigation of the effect of reduced graphene....... The addition of water to the electrolyte gave indications of additional reactions taking place in the cell. The information provided in this study is useful for a better understanding of reduced graphene oxide both in regards to synthesis and as cathode material in Li-air batteries. The thesis illuminates...... the importance of considering the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide as this seems to be couple to the abilities as cathode materials in Li-air batteries. It furthermore introduces two types of capillary battery designs optimized for Li-air and in situ X-ray diffraction, but with possibilities within metal...

  3. Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of...

  4. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube-ruthenium dioxide core-shell cathode for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. Y.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Tan, P.

    2016-11-01

    Exploitation of hierarchical porous carbons is increasingly attractive for high-capacity lithium (Li)-oxygen (O2) battery cathodes. However, their practical applications in non-aqueous electrolytes are limited by poor rechargeability, primarily due to the decomposition of carbon electrode and electrolyte. In this work, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT)-ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) core-shell (VACNT@RuO2) cathode for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The cathode is fabricated with VACNT as the core material and hydrous RuO2 as the shell material, which eliminates the direct contact between the carbon and nucleophilic reactive intermediate species in the electrolyte. In comparison with the VACNT cathode, the VACNT@RuO2 cathode presents a superior rate capability (3.3-fold less reduction in capacity) and cycling stability (sustainable for 100 cycles), with a maximum capacity as large as 13.2 mAh cm-2 (6600 mAh gelectrode-1) at 1.0 mA cm-2. The proposed cathode exhibiting a binder-free and hierarchical core-shell structure is a promising candidate for rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  5. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  6. Hierarchical Porous Nickel Cobaltate Nanoneedle Arrays as Flexible Carbon-Protected Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hairong; Wu, Shichao; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; He, Jianping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-06

    Rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are consequently considered to be an attractive energy storage technology because of the high theoretical energy densities. Here, an effective binder-free cathode with high capacity for Li-O2 batteries, needle-like mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays uniformly coated on the flexible carbon textile have been in situ fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process followed by low temperature calcination. Because of the material and structural features, the needle-like NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays (NCONWAs) served as a binder-free cathode exhibits high specific capacity (4221 mAh g(-1)), excellent rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability (200 cycles). This cathode based on nonprecious mesoporous metal oxides nanowire arrays has large open spaces and high surface area, providing numerous catalytically active sites and effective transmission pathways for lithium ion and oxygen, and promises the abundant Li2O2 storage. The fast electron transport by directly anchoring on the substrate ensures fast electrochemical reaction process involved with the every nanowire. Furthermore, a bendable Li-O2 battery assembled by using the flexible NCONWAs as the cathode, can be able to light an LED and shows good rate capability and cyclic stability.

  7. Electrochemical Effects of Atomic Layer Deposition on Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Isaac David

    One of the greatest challenges of modern society is to stabilize a consistent energy supply that will meet our growing energy demand while decreasing the use of fossil fuels and the harmful green house gases which they produce. Developing reliable and safe solutions has driven research into exploring alternative energy sources for transportation including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For the foreseeable future, though, rechargeable batteries appear to be the most practically viable power source. To deploy LIBs in next-generation vehicles, it is essential to develop electrodes with durability, high energy density, and high power. Unfortunately, the power capability of LIBs is generally hindered by Li+-ion diffusion in micrometer-sized materials and the formation of an insulating solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the active material. In addition, degradation of the battery material due to chemical and electrochemical reactions with the electrolyte lead to both capacity fade and safety concerns both at room and higher temperatures. The current study focuses on mitigating these issues for high voltage cathode materials by both using nanoscale particles to improve Li+-ion diffusion and using ultrathin nanoscale coatings to protect the battery materials from undesirable side reactions. The electrode material is coated with Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a method to grow conformal thin films with atomic thickness (angstrom level control) using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. First, nano-LiCoO 2 is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ALD coatings and demonstrates a profound increase in rate performance (>250% improvement) over generally employed micrometer-sized particles. Second, the cathode materials LiNi 0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiNi0.33Mn 0.33Co0.33O2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were used to demonstrate the benefits ALD coatings have on thermal runaway. The results show a

  8. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sookyung [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Donghyo, E-mail: ydh@kigam.re.kr [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyungjung, E-mail: kfromberk@gmail.com [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Ammoniacal leaching is used to recover spent Li-ion battery cathode materials. • Leaching agents consist of ammonia, ammonium sulfite and ammonium carbonate. • Ammonium sulfite is a reductant and ammonium carbonate acts as pH buffer. • Co and Cu can be fully leached while Mn and Al are not leached. • Co recovery via ammoniacal leaching is economical compared to acid leaching. - Abstract: As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCo{sub x}Mn{sub y}Ni{sub z}O{sub 2,} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub y}Co{sub z}O{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnCO{sub 3} and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al.

  9. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  10. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  11. Influence of dry mixing and distribution of conductive additives in cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Werner; Nötzel, Dorit; Wenzel, Valentin; Nirschl, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Conductive additives, like carbon black or graphite, are essential components of lithium ion batteries due to the limited electrical conductivity of most electrode materials. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the optimized distribution of these materials within the electrode. A dry mixing process is used in order to prepare a conductive coating by depositing carbon black on the surface of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) cathode particles. It is demonstrated that this - from a theoretically point of view - favorable distribution does not allow the preparation of working electrodes without taking into account the role of the binder. After adding an organic binder to the slurry, the polymer deposits on top of the carbon shell during drying and inhibits the conductive contact between the particles. This can be avoided by a fraction of distributed carbon particles which are associated with the binder phase providing conductive paths through the isolating organic material. It is shown that carbon black and graphite are principally fulfilling this task, but both materials are leading to varying processing behavior and electrode properties.

  12. Li2S-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Shen, Jingmei; Hayner, Cary M.; Ye, Hongqi; Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.

    2014-04-01

    A lithium sulfide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (Li2S-rGO) was synthesized and evaluated as the cathode material and Li source for the assembly of Li-S batteries. The composite, with a unique 3-D pocket structure, was synthesized by a combination of facile solution chemistry and thermal treatment. The as-prepared Li2S-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which showed 20-40 nm Li2S particles homogeneously dispersed between reduced graphene oxide sheets. Li2S contents as high as ∼66% could be obtained. When used with an electrolyte containing LiNO3 and polysulfide, the Li2S-rGO nanocomposites exhibited a high initial capacity of 982 mAh g-1 Li2S. However, there was noticeable capacity fade in subsequent cycles, probably due to polysulfide dissolution and the shuttle mechanism, but a capacity of 315 mAh g-1 could still be obtained after 100 cycles, with 90-95% coulomb efficiency. The effect of polysulfide additive in the electrolyte on the activation of Li2S in the first delithiation step was discussed.

  13. Nanosized LiFePO4 cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hal-Bon; Jun, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Gye-Choon; Jin, Bo; Jin, En Mei

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we prepared nano-particles of LiFePO4 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries by the solid-state reaction. A simple one-step heat treatment has been employed with control of heating temperature and heated LiFePO4 at 650 degrees C exhibited higher 125 mA h/g of the discharge capacity than 600 degrees C, 700 degrees C. To improve conductivity of the inter-particle, carbon coating was carried out by raw carbon or pyrene as carbon sources and their morphological properties of particles on the carbon coating was compared with by FE-SEM, TEM. From the FE-SEM results, the particles of carbon added LiFePO4 have much smaller size than LiFePO4 as below 300 nm. When adding pyrene (10 wt%), the carbon surrounded non-uniformly with surface of the particles compared with adding raw carbon which wrapped uniformly with carbon web and it was exhibited 152 mA h/g of the discharge capacity on LiFePO4/C composite cells at 10th cycle.

  14. A Sulfur Heterocyclic Quinone Cathode and a Multifunctional Binder for a High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Pan, Zeng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    We report a rational design of a sulfur heterocyclic quinone (dibenzo[b,i]thianthrene-5,7,12,14-tetraone=DTT) used as a cathode (uptake of four lithium ions to form Li4 DTT) and a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)= PSS) used as a binder for a high-performance rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Because of the reduced energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) caused by the introduced S atoms, the initial Li-ion intercalation potential of DTT is 2.89 V, which is 0.3 V higher than that of its carbon analog. Meanwhile, there is a noncovalent interaction between DTT and PSS, which remarkably suppressed the dissolution and enhanced the conductivity of DTT, thus leading to the great improvement of the electrochemical performance. The DTT cathode with the PSS binder displays a long-term cycling stability (292 mAh g(-1) for the first cycle, 266 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.1 C) and a high rate capability (220 mAh g(-1) at 1 C). This design strategy based on a noncovalent interaction is very effective for the application of small organic molecules as the cathode of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Surface oxidized mesoporous carbons derived from porous silicon as dual polysulfide confinement and anchoring cathodes in lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Ejorh, Dennis; Share, Keith; Cohn, Adam P.; Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Tovar, Trenton M.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-10-01

    Despite widespread focus on porous carbons for lithium-sulfur battery cathode materials, electrode design to preserve mass-specific performance and sustained extended cycling stability remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrochemically etched porous silicon as a sacrificial template to produce a new class of functional mesoporous carbons optimized for dual chemical and physical confinement of soluble polysulfides in lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. Melt infiltration loading of sulfur at 60 wt% enables initial discharge capacity of 1350 mAh/gsulfur at rates of 0.1 C - approaching theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh/gsulfur. Cycling performance measured at 0.2 C indicates 81% capacity retention measured over 100 cycles with 830 mAh/gsulfur capacity. Unlike other carbons, this template combines structural properties necessary for sulfur containment and polysulfide confinement to achieve high specific capacity, but also boasts surface-bound oxygen-containing functional groups that are able to chemically anchor the soluble Li2Sn species on the interior of the mesoporous carbon to sustain cycling performance. In turn, this elucidates a scalable and competitive material framework that is capable, without the addition of additional membranes or inactive anchoring materials, of providing the simultaneous anchoring and confinement effects necessary to overcome performance limitations in lithium sulfur batteries.

  16. Influence of Doping Rare Earth on Performance of Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinels as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhiyuan; Zhang Na; Lu Xinghe; Huang Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    Some rare earth doping spinel LiMn2-xRExO4 (RE=La, Ce, Nd) cathode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The structure characteristics of these produced samples were investigated by XRD, SEM, and particle size distribution analysis. According to the microstructure and charge-discharge testing, the effect of doping rare earth on stabilizing the spinel structure was analyzed. Through a series of doping experiments, it is shown that when the doping content x within the range of 0.01~0.02 the cycle performance of the materials is greatly improved. The discharge capacity of the sample LiMn1.98La0.02O4, LiMn1.98Ce0.02O4 and LiMn1.98Nd0.02O4 remain 119.1, 114.2 and 117.5 mAh*g-1 after 50 cycles.

  17. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  18. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Laser modification and characterization of Li-Mn-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Adelhelm, C.; Bruns, M.; Torge, M.; Heißler, S.; Przybylski, M.; Ziebert, C.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-03-01

    The development of future battery systems is mainly focused on powerful rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. To satisfy this demand, current studies are focused on cathodes based on nano-composite materials which lead to an increase in power density of the LIB primarily due to large electrochemically active surface areas. Electrode materials made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) are assumed to replace commonly used cathode materials like LiCoO2 due to less toxicity and lower costs. Thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering of a LiMn2O4 target on silicon and stainless steel substrates. In order to enhance power density and cycle stability of the cathode material, direct laser structuring methods were investigated using a laser system operating at a wavelength of 248 nm. Therefore, high aspect ratio micro-structures were formed on the thin films. Laser annealing processes were investigated in order to achieve an appropriate crystalline phase for unstructured and structured thin films as well as for an increase in energy density and control of grain size. Laser annealing was realized via a high power diode laser system. The effects of post-thermal treatment on the thin films were studied with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of electrochemically active and inactive phases was discussed. Surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Interaction between UV-laser radiation and the thin film material was analyzed through ablation experiments. Finally, to investigate the electrochemical properties, the manufactured thin film cathodes were cycled against a lithium anode. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the cathode side was discussed.

  20. Screen printed cathode for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. Y.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, L.; Wei, Z. H.

    2015-11-01

    An issue with conventional non-aqueous Li-O2 battery cathodes that are formed by spraying/brushing/casting/coating carbon black slurries is a lack of sufficiently large pores, vulnerable to clogging by solid discharge products, and hence resulting in a low capacity. In this work, we report a novel cathode structure formed by screen-printing method. This deposition method allows the creation of evenly distributed large pores (∼10 μm). As compared with the cathode formed by slurry-coating method, the cathode formed by the present method increases the battery's capacity by two times. The cyclability is also seen a significant improvement. The improved performance may be attributed to large pores that give more appropriate distributions of discharge products and hence facilitate the transportation of oxygen during cycling.

  1. Combining electrospinning and sputtering to improve rechargeable lithium battery cathodes: coating carbon fibre felt with nickel sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ryu, Ho Suk; Ahn, Chi Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Various nickel sulfide nanostructures have been developed for the fabrication of high surface area electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. In this study, we fabricated a nickel sulfide covered carbon fibre felt with high uniformity, high density, and large area for cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries, by using a combined electrospinning and sputtering deposition technique. In particular, the nickel sulfide/carbon fibre felt is a multi-functional material that can act as a conducting electrode itself without the use of binders and conductive materials owing to the high conductivity of the interlinked carbon fibre structures. A Li/nickel sulfide cell with current density of 100 mA g-1 exhibits good cycle performance and high first discharge capacity (970.46 mAh g-1) and good coulombic efficiency of 99% at 20 cycles. This electrode has good structural and electrochemical properties and has a potential to be commercialized when the properties are matured.

  2. Sulfur-infiltrated graphene-based layered porous carbon cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-05-27

    Because of advantages such as excellent electronic conductivity, high theoretical specific surface area, and good mechanical flexibility, graphene is receiving increasing attention as an additive to improve the conductivity of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, graphene is not an effective substrate material to confine the polysulfides in cathodes and stable the cycling. Here, we designed and synthesized a graphene-based layered porous carbon material for the impregnation of sulfur as cathode for Li-S battery. In this composite, a thin layer of porous carbon uniformly covers both surfaces of the graphene and sulfur is highly dispersed in its pores. The high specific surface area and pore volume of the porous carbon layers not only can achieve a high sulfur loading in highly dispersed amorphous state, but also can act as polysulfide reservoirs to alleviate the shuttle effect. When used as the cathode material in Li-S batteries, with the help of the thin porous carbon layers, the as-prepared materials demonstrate a better electrochemical performance and cycle stability compared with those of graphene/sulfur composites.

  3. Enhanced electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode using the carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) as novel binder in lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Wang, Daxiong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-10-13

    Novel water-based binder CMC-Li is synthesized using cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li as a binder is reported. Electrochemical properties of batteries cathodes based on commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and CMC-Li as a water-soluble binder are investigated. CMC-Li is a novel lithium-ion binder. Compare with conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, and the battery with CMC-Li as the binder retained 97.8% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 176 mAh g(-1), which is beyond the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrate that the LFP electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has the highest rate capability, follow closely by that using PVDF binder. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free and excellent stability.

  4. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  5. Preparation of three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure-encapsulated sulfur cathode for high-rate lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yang, Juan; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zou, Youlan; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Songcan; Chen, Feng

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure incorporating the merits of the MWCNTs webs (MWCNTs-W) and the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is designed to improve the high-rate cycling performance of the lithium-sulfur batteries. Owing to the excellent Li+ ion and electronic transport properties of the MWCNTs-W and the RGO, this unique structure can provide a three-dimensional conductive network and promote rapid charge-transfer reaction at the cathode. Furthermore, because of the rough surface and porous structure of the MWCNTs after activation with KOH, and the special adsorption ability of the RGO, the soluble polysulfide intermediates can be effectively trapped in the cathode. Therefore, when evaluating the electrochemical properties of the RGO@MWCNTs-W/S composite as the cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries, it exhibits an excellent cyclical stability and high rate performance. In particular, even at an ultrahigh rate (5 C), a discharge capacity as high as 620 mAh g-1 is still retained for the RGO@MWCNTs-W/S composite with 68.93 wt% sulfur after 200 cycles, and the average coulombic efficiency is 96%.

  6. High Rate, Long Lifespan LiV3 O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxue; Xu, Fei; Cao, Shunan; Li, Zhengfeng; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang

    2017-05-01

    LiV3 O8 nanorods with controlled size are successfully synthesized using a nonionic triblock surfactant Pluronic-F127 as the structure directing agent. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to characterize the samples. It is observed that the nanorods with a length of 4-8 µm and diameter of 0.5-1.0 µm distribute uniformly. The resultant LiV3 O8 nanorods show much better performance as cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries than normal LiV3 O8 nanoparticles, which is associated with the their unique micro-nano-like structure that can not only facilitate fast lithium ion transport, but also withstand erosion from electrolytes. The high discharge capacity (292.0 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) ), high rate capability (138.4 mAh g(-1) at 6.4 A g(-1) ), and long lifespan (capacity retention of 80.5% after 500 cycles) suggest the potential use of LiV3 O8 nanorods as alternative cathode materials for high-power and long-life lithium ion batteries. In particular, the synthetic strategy may open new routes toward the facile fabrication of nanostructured vanadium-based compounds for energy storage applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reaction mechanism and thermal stability study on cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin

    Olivine-type lithium iron phosphate has been a very promising cathode material since it was proposed by Padhi in 1997, low-cost, environmental friendly and stable structure ensure the commercialization of LiFePO 4. In LiFePO4, during charge and discharge process, Li ions are transferred between two phases, Li-poor LialphaFePO 4 and Li-rich Li1-betaFePO4, which implies a significant energy barrier for the new phase nucleation and interface growth, contrary to the fast reaction kinetics experimentally observed. The understanding of the lithiation and delithiation mechanism of this material has spurred a lot of research interests. Many theory models have been proposed to explain the reaction mechanism of LiFePO4, among them, the single phase model claims that the reaction goes through a metastable single phase, and the over potential required to form this single phase is about 30mV, so we studied the driving force to transport lithium ions between Lialpha FePO4 and Li1-betaFePO4 phases and compared the particle sizes effect. Experiment results shows that, the nano-sized (30nm) LiFePO4 has wider solid solution range, lower solid solution formation temperature and faster kinetics than normal LiFePO4 (150nm). Also a 20mV over potential was observed in both samples, either after relaxing the FePO4/LiFePO4 system to equilibrium or transport lithium from one side to the other side, the experiment result is corresponding to theoretical calculation; indicates the reaction might go through single-phase reaction mechanism. The energy and power density of lithium ion battery largely depend on cathode materials. Mn substituted LiFePO4 has a higher voltage than LiFePO4, which results a higher theoretical energy density. Safety issue is one of the most important criterions for batteries, since cathode materials need to maintain stable structure during hundreds of charge and discharge cycles and ranges of application conditions. We have reported that iron-rich compound o-Fe1-yMnyPO4

  8. Lithium-sulphur battery with activated carbon cloth-sulphur cathode and ionic liquid as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderska-Mocek, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In this study a binder-free activated carbon cloth-sulphur (ACC-S) composite cathode is presented. Such a cathode was obtained using the impregnating technique of microporous activated carbon cloth with elemental melted sulphur. The surface morphology of an activated carbon cloth-sulphur electrode was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which was equipped with an EDX spectroscopy attachment. Electrochemical properties of the ACC-S composite cathode was tested in an ionic liquid electrolyte consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (EtMeImNTf2) and bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (LiNTf2). The ACC-sulphur cathode working together with lithium anode was tested with the use of cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacity and cyclic stability of the ACC-S composite cathode were much better than those for the sulphur cathode (a mixture of sulphur from graphene nanoplatelets and carbon black) tested in the same ionic liquid electrolyte. The ACC-sulphur cathode showed good cyclability and coulombic efficiency (99%) with the ionic liquid electrolyte. The reversible capacity of the ACC-S|electrolyte|Li cell was ca. 830 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles.

  9. Cathode materials produced by spray flame synthesis for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, NoorAshrina Binti A.

    2013-07-03

    Lithium ion batteries are one of the most enthralling rechargeable energy storage systems for portable application due to their high energy density. Nevertheless, with respect to electromobility innovation towards better electrochemical properties such as higher energy and power density is required. Altering the cathode material used in Li-ion batteries is favorable since the mass- and volume performance is closely related to the cathode electrode mass. Instead of using LiCoO{sub 2} as cathode electrode, LiFePO{sub 4} has gained serious attention as this material owns a high theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g{sup -1}. It is non-toxic, cheap and consists of abundant materials but suffers from low electronic and ionic conductivity. Utilization of nanotechnology methods in combination with composite formation is known to cure this problem effectively. In this work, a new combination of techniques using highly scalable gas-phase synthesis namely spray-flame synthesis and subsequent solid-state reaction has been used to synthesize nanocomposite LiFePO{sub 4}/C. At first this work deals with the formation and characterization of nanosize FePO{sub 4} from a solution of iron(III)acetylacetonate and tributyl phosphate in toluene using spray-flame synthesis. It was shown that a subsequent solid state reaction with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and glucose yielded a LiFePO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite with very promising electrochemical properties. Based on these initial findings the influence of two synthesis parameter - carbon content and annealing temperature - was investigated towards the physicochemical properties of LiFePO{sub 4}/C. It was shown that an annealing temperature of 700 C leads to high purity composite materials consisting of crystalline LiFePO{sub 4} with crystallite sizes well below 100 nm and amorphous carbon consisting of disordered and graphite-like carbon. Variation of glucose amount between 10 and 30 wt% resulted in carbon contents between 2.1 and 7.3 wt%. In parallel

  10. Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-01

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated submicron sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ~600mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of amorphous oxygen-deficient TiO2-x on carbon nanotubes as cathode materials for lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingbo; Ma, Dingtao; Li, Yongliang; Zhang, Peixin; Mi, Hongwei; Deng, Libo; Sun, Lingna; Ren, Xiangzhong

    2017-08-01

    The amorphous oxygen-deficient TiO2-x thin layer coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized by atomic layer deposition and employed as cathode materials for lithium-air battery. The cathode demonstrates high electrocatalytic activity toward electrode reactions, resulting from the introduction of oxygen-deficient TiO2-x into the nanocomposites. It is found that the intrinsically isotropic nature of amorphous TiO2 which a certain amount of Ti3.5+ and Ti3+ can improve the catalytic activity. Consequently, the battery with the corresponded CNT@TiO2-x cathode shows high discharge/charge capacities and good cycling performance, which the cyclic retention of more than 90 cycles are achieved, while with the pristine CNTs only 50 cycles are obtained. This study provides an approach to fabricate cathode materials for lithium-air battery and moreover clarifies the influence of oxygen vacancies of TiO2 on the electrochemical performance.

  12. Carbon combustion synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide as cathode material for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongle Gan; Li Zhang; Yanxuan Wen; Fan Wang; Haifeng Su

    2008-01-01

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) was synthesized by carbon combustion synthesis (CCS) using carbon as fuel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that carbon combustion led to the formation of layered structure of LiCoO2 and the particle size could be controlled by carbon content. For the LiCoO2 sample prepared at 800 ℃ for 2 h, at molar ratio of C/Co= 0.5, the particle-size distribution fell in the narrow range of 3-5 μm. Electrochemical tests indicated this LiCoO2 sample delivered an initial discharge capacity of 148 mAh/g with capacity retention rate higher than 97% after 10 cycles.

  13. Exfoliated, Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanosheet Cathode for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    LAGP) in a solid-state lithium-oxygen cell and compared the cell performance with cells using cathodes prepared from mesoporous carbon...2. Isotherm shows adsorption hysteresis indicating the presence of micropores The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200...observed in BET isotherm and is due to the condensation of nitrogen in mesoporous GNSs. The CV curves recorded for GNSs, N-GNSs, Ex-N- GNSs, and

  14. A novel coating onto LiMn2O4 cathode with increased lithium ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiesheng; Li, Minsi; Li, Xifei; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Dongbin; Dong, Litian; Li, Dejun; Lushington, Andrew; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-10-01

    A sol-gel method was employed to synthesize LiMn2O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Calcination treatment with citric acid results in the reduction of external active materials of the cathode, finally a novel layer coating of MnO was proposed on the surface of LiMn2O4. The structures and morphologies of the as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and HRTEM techniques. It was found that the reaction between LiMn2O4 and citric acid derived carbon occurred during coating process, and the resultant layer was verified to be MnO uniformly coated onto the cathode. Electrochemical performances show that the amount of coating exhibits a significant effect on LiMn2O4 performance, and the optimized MnO coating could exhibit improved battery performance of the LiMn2O4 cathode. The obtained improvement is attributed to decreased Mn dissolution into electrolyte upon cycling resulting from the MnO coating.

  15. The Influence of Electrode Microstructure on the Performance of Free-Standing Cathode for Aprotic Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wang, Fan; Wu, Xiangwei; Chen, Chunhua

    2016-10-01

    Free-standing NiCo2O4@Ni cathodes for aprotic lithium-oxygen batteries were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by heat treatment in the air. The morphology of the NiCo2O4 deposit changed from nanosheet to nanowire with the increase of hydrothermal time. Further observation revealed that the nanosheet/nanowire NiCo2O4 were assembled by nanoparticles with a size of 10-20 nm. The directional assembly of the nanoparticles were not affected by the reaction time. The influence of catalyst microstructure on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries was studied. The results of battery tests in pure oxygen indicate that the cathode material with a high specific surface area, large pore volume and broad pore size distribution can facilitate the discharge reaction, leading to an improved cell performance. As a result, the cathode based on the NiCo2O4 nanowire array delivered a specific discharge capacity of 1682 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and a stable cyclability of 50 cycles with a capacity limitation of 500 mAh g-1.

  16. One-Dimensional Peptide Nanostructure Templated Growth of Iron Phosphate Nanostructures for Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susapto, Hepi Hari; Kudu, O Ulas; Garifullin, Ruslan; Yılmaz, Eda; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-07-13

    Template-directed synthesis of nanomaterials can provide benefits such as small crystalline size, high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio, and structural stability. These properties are important for shorter distance in ion/electron movement and better electrode surface/electrolyte contact for energy storage applications. Here nanostructured FePO4 cathode materials were synthesized by using peptide nanostructures as a template inspired by biomineralization process. The amorphous, high surface area FePO4 nanostructures were utilized as a cathode for lithium-ion batteries. Discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g was achieved at C/20 current rate. The superior properties of biotemplated and nanostructured amorphous FePO4 are shown compared to template-free crystalline FePO4.

  17. A novel nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite cathode with a dual-layered structure for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Konarov, Aishuak; Gosselink, Denise; Soboleski, Hayden Greentree; Chen, P.

    2013-11-01

    A method for synthesizing nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanosheet (nano-S/PPy/GNS) ternary composite with a dual-layered structure is described. By taking advantage of both capillary force driven self-assembly of polypyrrole on graphene nanosheets and adhesion ability of polypyrrole to sulfur, we develop a stable and ordered nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The high dispersion of nanoscopic sulfur on the surface of PPy/GNS composite and good electrical conductivity of GNS seems to benefit the sulfur utilization and the reactivity of the composite. Furthermore, PPy plays an important role in retarding diffusion of polysulfides out of the electrode. The resulting nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode delivers a high initial capacity of 1415.7 mAh g-1, remaining a reversible capacity of 641.5 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles at 0.1 C rate.

  18. Janus Separator of Polypropylene-Supported Cellular Graphene Framework for Sulfur Cathodes with High Utilization in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Wang, Dai-Wei; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yuan, Zhe; Wei, Fei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the conversion chemistry of the sulfur cathode, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries exhibit high theoretical energy density. However, the intrinsic mobile redox centers during the sulfur/Li2S-to-lithium polysulfides solid-to-liquid phase transition induce low sulfur utilization and poor cycling life. Herein, the Janus separator of mesoporous cellular graphene framework (CGF)/polypropylene membrane to promote the utilization of sulfur cathode is introduced. The porous polypropylene membrane serves as an insulating substrate in contact with lithium anode while CGFs that possess high electrical conductivity of 100 S cm(-1), a large mesopore volume of 3.1 cm(3) g(-1), and a huge surface area of 2120 m(2) g(-1) are adhered on cathode side to reactivate the shuttling-back polysulfides and to preserve the ion channels. Therefore, the Li-S cell with the "two-face" CGF Janus separator exhibit a high initial capacity of 1109 mAh g(-1) and superior capacity preserved upon 800 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at 0.2 C, which is 40% higher on sulfur utilization efficiency than the corresponding results with routine polypropylene separators. There are significant improvements on capacity as well as electrochemical kinetics. A very high areal capacity of 5.5 mAh cm(-2) combined with high sulfur content of 80% and areal loading amount of 5.3 mg cm(-2) is achieved for such advanced configuration. The negative impact of shuttle mechanism on lowering the utilization of sulfur and overall energy density of a Li-S battery is well eliminated by applying CGF separators. Consequently, employing carbonaceous materials as Janus face of separators enlightens new opportunities for improving the utilization of active materials and energy density of devices that involve complex phase evolution and conversion electrochemistry.

  19. Electrochemical properties of large-sized pouch-type lithium ion batteries with bio-inspired organic cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Yoo, Eun-Ji; Ha, Sang-Hyeon; Cheong, Dong-Ik; Cho, Sung-Baek

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of scaling up bio-inspired organic materials as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries, large-sized pouch cells are successfully prepared via tape casting using lumichrome with an alloxazine structure and aqueous styrene butadiene rubber-carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR-CMC) binders. A battery module with a two-in-series, six-in-parallel (2S6P) configuration is also successfully fabricated and is able to power blue LEDs (850 mW). Lumichrome shows no structural changes during the fabrication processes used to produce the positive electrode. The large-sized pouch cells show two sets of cathodic and anodic peaks with average potentials of 2.58 V and 2.26 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively. The initial discharge capacities are 142 mAh g-1 and 148 mAh g-1 for ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC-DMC) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolytes, respectively, similar to that of a coin cell (149 mAh g-1). The EC-DMC-injected pouch cells exhibit higher rate performance and cyclability than the TEGDME-injected ones. The TEGDME electrolyte is not suitable for lithium metal anodes because of electrolyte decomposition and subsequent cell swelling.

  20. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  1. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  2. Construction of tubular polypyrrole-wrapped biomass-derived carbon nanospheres as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhong; Lu, Yang; Peng, Tao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Luo, Rongjie; Wang, Yange; Yan, Hailong; Liu, Xianming; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2017-03-01

    A promising hybrid material composed of tubular polypyrrole (T-PPy)-wrapped monodisperse biomass-derived carbon nanospheres (BCSs) was first synthesized successfully via a simple hydrothermal approach by using watermelon juice as the carbon source, and further used as an anchoring object for sulfur (S) of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The use of BCSs with hydrophilic nature as a framework could provide large interface areas between the active materials and electrolyte, and improve the dispersion of T-PPy, which could help in the active material utilization. As a result, BCS@T-PPy/S as a cathode material exhibited a high capacity of 1143.6 mA h g-1 and delivered a stable capacity up to 685.8 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 C, demonstrating its promising application for rechargeable Li-S batteries.

  3. Improving the electrochemical behavior of lithium-sulfur batteries through silica-coated nickel-foam cathode collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Sung Man; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Byung Hyuk; Yoon, Woo Young

    2017-02-01

    A facile method that improves the initial specific capacity and capacity retention rate of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, using silica-back-coated nickel foam has been studied. A new cathode collector in which silica is back-coated onto the nickel foam is fabricated by a facile method that utilizes an ultrasonicator for reducing the electrolyte viscosity at the surface of the sulfur electrode using a polysulfide absorbent. The nickel foam provides more reaction sites than an aluminum current collector does, thus allowing the back-coated silica to absorb the polysulfides. This synergetic effect of nickel foam and silica suppresses the increasing viscosity of the electrolyte and leads to a higher initial specific capacity (1341 mAh/g) at a 0.2-C rate and a higher capacity retention rate after 150 cycles (85%), relative to pristine Li-S batteries (951 mAh/g and 79%, respectively).

  4. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H2SO4, and the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Durable polydopamine-coated porous sulfur core-shell cathode for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Xu, Hui; Bai, Zhaowen; Huang, Baoling; Su, Jingyang; Chen, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show fascinating potential for advanced energy system due to their high specific capacity, low-cost, and environmental benignity. However, their wide applications have been plagued by low coulombic efficiency, fast capacity fading and poor rate performance. Herein, a facile method for preparation of S@PDA (PDA = polydopamine) composites with core-shell structure and good electrochemical performance as well as the First-Principles calculations on the interactions of PDA and polysulfides are reported. Taking the advantages of the core-shell structure with porous sulfur core, the high mechanical flexibility of PDA for accommodating the volumetric variation during the discharge/charge processes, the good lithium ion conductivity and the strong chemical interactions between the nitrogen/oxygen atoms with lone electron pair and lithium polysulfides for alleviating their dissolution, the S@PDA composites exhibit high discharge capacities at different current densities (1048 and 869 mAh g-1 at 0.2 and 0.8 A g-1, respectively) and excellent capacity retention capability. A capacity decay as low as 0.021% per cycle and an average coulombic efficiency of 98.5% is observed over a long-term cycling of 890 cycles at 0.8 A g-1. The S@PDA electrode has great potential as a low-cost cathode in high energy Li-S batteries.

  6. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Gordin, Mikhail L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Xu, Terrence [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Chen, Shuru [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Yu, Zhaoxin [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Sohn, Hiesang [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Div.; Ren, Yang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Div.; Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAhg-1after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca.6 mAhcm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mgcm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  7. An Insoluble Benzoquinone-Based Organic Cathode for Use in Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Zhao, Qing; Li, Fujun; Chen, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Application of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has attracted great interest because such materials contain abundant carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. However, organic electrodes are highly soluble in organic electrolytes. An organic electrode of 2,3,5,6-tetraphthalimido-1,4-benzoquinone (TPB) is reported in which rigid groups coordinate to a molecular benzoquinone skeleton. The material is insoluble in aprotic electrolyte, and demonstrates a high capacity retention of 91.4 % (204 mA h g(-1) ) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The extended π-conjugation of the material contributes to enhancement of the electrochemical performance (155 mA h g(-1) at 10 C). Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that favorable synergistic reactions between multiple carbonyl groups and lithium ions can enhance the initial lithium ion intercalation potential. The described approach may provide a novel entry to next-generation organic electrode materials with relevance to lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Rechargeable lithium battery using non-flammable electrolyte based on tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and olivine cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Carbone, Lorenzo; Gancitano, Vincenzo; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-12-01

    We propose lithium metal cells employing LiCF3SO3-tetraethylene glycol dimethy ether (TEGDME) electrolyte solution with LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 cathodes. The electrolyte is selected due to its non-flammability, herein demonstrated, and considered as a key requirement for application cells employing high energy lithium metal anode. The selected olivine cathodes, i.e., stable materials prepared by solvothermal pathway, have regular submicrometrical morphology suitable for cell operation and homogeneous composition, as confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrochemical tests reveal promising cycling performances in terms of delivered capacity, stability and rate capability. The Li/LiCF3SO3-TEGDME/LiFePO4 cell operates at 3.5 V with capacity ranging from 150 mAh g-1 at C/10 to 110 mAh g-1 at 2C, while the Li/LiCF3SO3-TEGDME/LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 cell performs following two plateaus at 4.1 V and 3.5 V with capacity ranging from 160 mAh g-1 at C/10 to 75 mAh g-1 at 2C. Hence, the results demonstrate the suitability of TEGDME-based electrolytes in combination with LiFePO4 and LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 cathodes for high performances lithium battery.

  9. Sulfur-graphene nanostructured cathodes via ball-milling for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Min; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Jeon, In-Yup; Seo, Jeong-Min; Baek, Jong-Beom; Dai, Liming

    2014-10-28

    Although much progress has been made to develop high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs), the reported physical or chemical routes to sulfur cathode materials are often multistep/complex and even involve environmentally hazardous reagents, and hence are infeasible for mass production. Here, we report a simple ball-milling technique to combine both the physical and chemical routes into a one-step process for low-cost, scalable, and eco-friendly production of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) edge-functionalized with sulfur (S-GnPs) as highly efficient LSB cathode materials of practical significance. LSBs based on the S-GnP cathode materials, produced by ball-milling 70 wt % sulfur and 30 wt % graphite, delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 1265.3 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C in the voltage range of 1.5-3.0 V with an excellent rate capability, followed by a high reversible capacity of 966.1 mAh g(-1) at 2 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.099% per cycle over 500 cycles, outperformed the current state-of-the-art cathode materials for LSBs. The observed excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to a 3D "sandwich-like" structure of S-GnPs with an enhanced ionic conductivity and lithium insertion/extraction capacity during the discharge-charge process. Furthermore, a low-cost porous carbon paper pyrolyzed from common filter paper was inserted between the 0.7S-0.3GnP electrode and porous polypropylene film separator to reduce/eliminate the dissolution of physically adsorbed polysulfide into the electrolyte and subsequent cross-deposition on the anode, leading to further improved capacity and cycling stability.

  10. Lithium-Excess Research of Cathode Material Li2MnTiO4 for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-excess and nano-sized Li2+xMn1−x/2TiO4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 cathode materials were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments indicate that the obtained main phases of Li2.0MnTiO4 and the lithium-excess materials are monoclinic and cubic, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that the as-prepared particles are well distributed and the primary particles have an average size of about 20–30 nm. The further electrochemical tests reveal that the charge-discharge performance of the material improves remarkably with the lithium content increasing. Particularly, the first discharging capacity at the current of 30 mA g−1 increases from 112.2 mAh g−1 of Li2.0MnTiO4 to 187.5 mAh g−1 of Li2.4Mn0.8TiO4. In addition, the ex situ XRD experiments indicate that the monoclinic Li2MnTiO4 tends to transform to an amorphous state with the extraction of lithium ions, while the cubic Li2MnTiO4 phase shows better structural reversibility and stability.

  11. Structural and morphological studies of manganese-based cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, M., E-mail: monika.michalska83@gmail.com [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Lipińska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sikora, A. [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wrocław (Poland); Ziółkowska, D.; Korona, K.P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzejczuk, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Manganese cathode nanomaterials were successfully obtained by modified sol–gel method. • Crystallinity of the powders was confirmed by various structural method. • AFM and Raman spectroscopy showed that LiMnPO{sub 4} is promising material for LIBs. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline powders: lithium-manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) of spinel and lithium-manganese phosphate (LiMnPO{sub 4}) of olivine structure were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. In this synthesizing process, lithium and manganese salts and complexing agent were used as reactants. The obtained powders were characterized by a number of methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The mean sizes of crystallites were about 30 nm for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 60 nm for LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticles. The influence of crystallographic structure on the stability of two manganese compounds was studied. The correlation between the structural and morphological results of spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and olivine LiMnPO{sub 4} properties was examined for the first time in this work.

  12. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaephil; Cho

    2007-01-01

    1 Results For electrode materials in lithium batteries,a high surface area can provide higher electrode/electrolyte contact areas,thus eventually causing the shorter diffusion paths with the particles,and provides more facile intercalation for Li ions[1-4].In addition,reduced strain of intercalation and contributions from charge storage at the surface may also contribute to Li capacity,compared with bulk counterparts.In this regard,I am going to talk about the preparation and electrochemical properties o...

  13. A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2014-03-21

    A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1 mol dm-3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g-1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization.

  14. Effect of surfactants on the electrochemical behavior of LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, K.; Mandal, B. P.; Nazri, M.; Naik, V. M.; Garg, V. K.; Oliveira, A. C.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Nazri, G. A.; Naik, R.

    2014-11-01

    The application of lithium iron phosphate as positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries has been challenged by its poor electronic conductivity. To improve its conductivity and electrochemical performance, we have synthesized LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials by sol gel technique using long chain fatty acids, such as, lauric, myristic, and oleic acids, as surfactants for carbon coating. The phase purity of the three LiFePO4/C composites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the surfactants coat the LiFePO4 particles with carbon with varying degree of uniformity depending on the surfactant used. The sample prepared in presence of lauric acid shows smaller particle size and the lowest charge transfer resistance, higher Li-ion diffusion coefficient, higher discharge capacity (∼155 mAh g-1 at C/3 rate), better rate capability and cyclic stability compared to the other two samples. We found the smaller particle size, uniformity of carbon coating, reduced agglomeration, and a lower amount of Fe3+ impurity phase in the samples to be major contributing factors for better electrochemical properties in the LiFePO4/C cathode material.

  15. A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2014-03-01

    A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1 mol dm-3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g-1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization. PACS: 82.47.Aa; 82.45.Gj; 62.23.Kn

  16. Recovery of valuable metals from cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries: Leaching and kinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2015-11-01

    This work is focussed on the processing of cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) to ensure resource recovery and minimize environmental degradation. The sulfuric acid leaching of metals was carried out for the recovery of all the valuable metals including nickel and manganese along with the frequently targeted metals like lithium and cobalt. The process parameters such as acid concentration, pulp density, time and temperature for the leaching of metals from the cathode powder containing 35.8% Co, 6.5% Li, 11.6% Mn and 10.06% Ni, were optimized. Results show the optimized leach recovery of 93.4% Li, 66.2% Co, 96.3% Ni and 50.2% Mn when the material was leached in 1M H2SO4 at 368 K and 50 g/L pulp density for 240 min. The need of a reductant for improved recovery of cobalt and manganese has been explained by the thermodynamic analysis (Eh-pH diagram) for these metals. Leaching of the valuable metals was found to follow the logarithmic rate law controlled by surface layer diffusion of the lixiviant reacting with the particles. The mode of leaching of the metals from the spent LIBs was further examined by chemical analysis of the samples at various stage of processing which was further corroborated by characterizing the untreated sample and the leach residues by XRD phase identification and the SEM-EDS studies.

  17. A Facile Bottom-Up Approach to Construct Hybrid Flexible Cathode Scaffold for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Kumar, Rajat; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-12-14

    Lithium-sulfur batteries mostly suffer from the low utilization of sulfur, poor cycle life, and low rate performances. The prime factors that affect the performance are enormous volume change of the electrode, soluble intermediate product formation, poor electronic and ionic conductivity of S, and end discharge products (i.e., Li2S2 and Li2S). The attractive way to mitigate these challenges underlying in the fabrication of a sulfur nanocomposite electrode consisting of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic as well as electronic conductivity leading to a mechanically robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode. Herein, we report a novel bottom-up approach to synthesize a unique freestanding, flexible cathode scaffold made of porous reduced graphene oxide, nanosized sulfur, and Mn3O4 nanoparticles, and all are three-dimensionally interconnected to each other by hybrid polyaniline/sodium alginate (PANI-SA) matrix to serve individual purposes. A capacity of 1098 mAh g(-1) is achieved against lithium after 200 cycles at a current rate of 2 A g(-1) with 97.6% of initial capacity at a same current rate, suggesting the extreme stability and cycling performance of such electrode. Interestingly, with the higher current density of 5 A g(-1), the composite electrode exhibited an initial capacity of 1015 mA h g(-1) and retained 71% of the original capacity after 500 cycles. The in situ Raman study confirms the polysulfide absorption capability of Mn3O4. This work provides a new strategy to design a mechanically robust, mixed conductive nanocomposite electrode for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries and a strategy that can be used to develop flexible large power storage devices.

  18. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

  19. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn(4+) into Mn(2+) into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH4)2Mn(SO3)2·H2O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution.

  20. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  1. Rational Design of Cathode Structure for High Rate Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Changhong; Dai, Yafei; Qiu, Shengqiang; Yang, Jinlong; Lu, Wei; Chen, Liwei

    2015-08-12

    Practical applications of Li-S batteries require not only high specific capacities and long cycle lifetimes but also high rate performance. We report a rationally designed Li-S cathode, which consists of a freestanding composite thin film assembled from S nanoparticles, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and a multifunctional additive poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS). The S nanoparticles provide a high initial specific capacity, and the layered and porous rGO structure provides electron and ion transport paths and restricts polysulfide shuttling. PAQS is not only a highly efficient sulfide trapping agent but also an excellent Li(+) conductor, which benefits the battery reaction kinetics at a high rate. The resulting cathode exhibits an initial specific capacity of 1255 mAh g(-1) with a decay rate as low as 0.046% per cycles over 1200 cycles. Importantly, it displays a reversible capacity of 615 mAh g(-1) when discharged at a high rate of 8 C (13.744 A g(-1)).

  2. Inverse vulcanization of sulfur with divinylbenzene: Stable and easy processable cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Iñaki; Mecerreyes, David; Blazquez, J. Alberto; Leonet, Olatz; Ben Youcef, Hicham; Li, Chunmei; Gómez-Cámer, Juan Luis; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology is one of the promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems. Many studies have focused on the cathode materials to improve the cell performance. In this work we present a series of poly (S-DVB) copolymers synthesised by inverse vulcanization of sulfur with divinylbenzene (DVB). The poly (S-DVB) cathode shows excellent cycling performances at C/2 and C/4 current rates, respectively. It was demonstrated poly (S-DVB) copolymer containing 20% DVB did not influence the electrochemical performance of the sulfur material, compared to elemental sulfur as high specific capacities over ∼700 mAh g-1 at 500 cycles were achieved at C/4 current rate, comparable to conventional carbon-based S cathodes. However, the use of copolymer network is assumed to act firstly as sulfur reservoir and secondly as mechanical stabilizer, enhancing significantly the cycling lifetime. The Li-poly (S-DVB) cell demonstrated an extremely low degradation rate of 0.04% per cycle achieving over 1600 cycles at C/2 current rate.

  3. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Evangelista Sita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder extraction than DMF solutions. At 100 oC and under mechanical stirring or low power ultrasound bath NMP solution optimizes the binder dissolution. Powder extractions under DMF solutions are slow and an increase in the powder extraction efficiency was observed for crushed cathodes on solutions under ultrasound bath, at medium power. Filtration processes can separate the decanted LiCoO2 powder extracted upon DMF dissolution while the powder in suspension in the NMP solutions is separated by centrifugation techniques.

  4. Carbon nanostructures modified LiFePO4 cathodes for lithium ion battery applications: optimized porosity and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Lama; Singh Lalia, Boor; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2016-12-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery cathode was fabricated without using any metallic current collector and polymeric binder. Carbon nanostructures (CNS) were used as microbinders for LiFePO4 particles and at the same time as a 3D current collector. A facile and cost effective method of fabricating composite cathodes of CNS and LiFePO4 was developed. Thick electrodes with high loading of active material (20-25 mg cm-2) were obtained that are almost 2-3 folds higher than commercial electrodes. SEM images confirm that the 3D CNS conductive network encapsulated the LiFePO4 particles homogenously facilitating the charge transfer at the electrode-CNS interface. The composition, scan rate and porosity of the paper-like cathode were sequentially varied and their influence was systematically monitored by means of linear sweep cyclic voltammetry and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Addition of CNS improved the electrode’s bulk electronic conductivity, mechanical integrity, surface area and double layer capacitance, yet compromised the charge transfer resistance at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Based on a range of the tested binder-free electrodes, this study proposes that electrodes with 20 wt% CNS having 49 ± 2.5% porosity had realized best improvements of two folds and four folds in the electronic conductivity and diffusion coefficient, respectively.

  5. Highly-flexible 3D Li2S/graphene cathode for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Li, Pingjian; Qi, Fei; Wang, Zegao; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional Li2S/graphene hierarchical architecture (3DLG) is synthesized with a facile infiltration method. Highly-crystalline Li2S nanoparticles are deposited homogenously into three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) network grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in 3DLG with high surface area, porosity, flexibility and conductivity. The 3DLG is employed as flexible, free-standing and binder-free cathode without metallic current collectors or conducting additives. Due to the unique structure, the 3DLG exhibits a high discharge capacity of 894.7 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, a high capacity retention of 87.7% after 300 cycles at 0.2 C, and the high-rate capacity up to 4 C reaches 598.6 mAh g-1. The cyclic performance is record-breaking compared to the previous reports on free-standing graphene-Li2S cathodes. Flexible lithium-sulfur batteries based on the high-capacity 3DLG cathode have promising application potentials in flexible electronics, electrical vehicles, etc.

  6. Slurryless Li2S/reduced graphene oxide cathode paper for high-performance lithium sulfur battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xusheng; Yang, Yuan; Kushima, Akihiro; Chen, Jitao; Huang, Yunhui; Li, Ju

    2015-03-11

    Lithium sulfide (Li2S) is a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries with high capacity (theoretically 1166 mAh g(-1)) and can be paired with nonlithium-metal anodes to avoid potential safety issues. However, the cycle life of coarse Li2S particles suffers from poor electronic conductivity and polysulfide shuttling. Here, we develop a flexible slurryless nano-Li2S/reduced graphene oxide cathode paper (nano-Li2S/rGO paper) by simple drop-coating. The Li2S/rGO paper can be directly used as a free-standing and binder-free cathode without metal substrate, which leads to significant weight savings. It shows excellent rate capability (up to 7 C) and cycle life in coin cell tests due to the high electron conductivity, flexibility, and strong solvent absorbency of rGO paper. The Li2S particles that precipitate out of the solvent on rGO have diameters 25-50 nm, which is in contrast to the 3-5 μm coarse Li2S particles without rGO.

  7. Optimization of Pore Structure of Cathodic Carbon Supports for Solvate Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Based Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiguo; Ikoma, Ai; Li, Zhe; Ueno, Kazuhide; Ma, Xiaofeng; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-10-04

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are a promising energy-storage technology owing to their high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, their practical application remains a challenge because of the serve shuttle effect caused by the dissolution of polysulfides in common organic electrolytes. Polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes, such as solvate ionic liquids (ILs), have recently emerged as alternative candidates and shown great potential in suppressing the shuttle effect and improving the cycle stability of Li-S batteries. Redox electrochemical reactions in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes occur via a solid-state process at the interphase between the electrolyte and the composite cathode; therefore, creating an appropriate interface between sulfur and a carbon support is of great importance. Nevertheless, the porous carbon supports established for conventional organic electrolytes may not be suitable for polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes. In this work, we investigated the effect of the porous structure of carbon materials on the Li-S battery performance in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes using solvate ILs as a model electrolyte. We determined that the pore volume (rather than the surface area) exerts a major influence on the discharge capacity of S composite cathodes. In particular, inverse opal carbons with three-dimensionally ordered interconnected macropores and a large pore volume deliver the highest discharge capacity. The battery performance in both polysulfide-soluble electrolytes and solvate ILs was used to study the effect of electrolytes. We propose a plausible mechanism to explain the different porous structure requirements in polysulfide-soluble and polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes.

  8. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles.

  9. Importance of open pore structures with mechanical integrity in designing the cathode electrode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.-S.; Guerfi, A.; Hovington, P.; Trottier, J.; Gagnon, C.; Barray, F.; Vijh, A.; Armand, M.; Zaghib, K.

    2013-11-01

    The robustness of conductive networks and the accessibility of electrolyte into the network are important factors in designing the cathode electrode for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries containing liquid electrolytes that involve liquid phase electrochemical reactions. We show that the performance of Li/S cells can be significantly improved by simply optimizing the electrode processing conditions to have open pore structures and mechanical integrity of the electrode architecture. It is demonstrated that the capacity of 1000 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and the stable capacity retention of >700 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 0.5 C can be achieved with relatively high sulfur content of 68%. 417 Wh kg-1 in specific energy and 623 Wh l-1 in energy density are achievable with this new technology.

  10. Preparation and enhanced electrochemical properties of nano-sulfur/poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) cathode material for lithium/sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Linlin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Shichao, E-mail: csc@buaa.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Lan; Sun, Mingming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Weikun [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) (PPyA) copolymer nanofibers were prepared by chemical oxidation method with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) as template, and the nano-sulfur/poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) (S/PPyA) composite material in lithium batteries was achieved via co-heating the mixture of PPyA and sublimed sulfur at 160 deg. C for 24 h. The component and structure of the materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD, and SEM. PPyA with nanofiber network structure was employed as a conductive matrix, adsorbing agent and firm reaction chamber for the sulfur cathode materials. The nano-dispersed composite exhibited a specific capacity up to 1285 mAh g{sup -1} in the initial cycle and remained 866 mAh g{sup -1} after 40 cycles.

  11. Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres as high-power cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Ying; Wang, Bei; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Woo-Seong; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-05-01

    Porous LiFePO4/C microspheres were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal reaction combined with high-temperature calcinations. The morphology of the prepared material was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Porous microspheres with diameters around 1-3 microm were obtained, which consisting of primary LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared LiFePO4 microspheres were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. The carbon coated LiFePO4 microspheres showed lower polarization, higher rate capability, and better cycling stability than that of pristine LiFePO4 microspheres, indicating the potential application as the cathode material for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  12. Confined selenium within metal-organic frameworks derived porous carbon microcubes as cathode for rechargeable lithium-selenium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jia, Min; Zhang, Yan; Han, Jin; Li, Yi; Bao, ShuJuan; Liu, Dingyu; Jiang, Jian; Xu, Maowen

    2017-02-01

    Unique hierarchically porous carbon microcubes (CMCs) consists of irregular bubbles derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis method and carbonization treatment. Selenium nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the hierarchical porous structure of CMCs by a typical melt-diffusion process, and the yielding Se/CMCs composite is enabled as a cathode material for lithium-selenium rechargeable batteries. In the carbonate-based electrolyte, with Se loading of nearly ∼50 wt%, the Se/CMCs composite exhibits an ultrahigh initial discharge specific capacity of 780.4 mAh g-1 and still retains a reversible capacity of 425.2 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Specially, these hollow structure CMCs with high conductivity contribute to the outstanding electrochemical properties by effectively decreasing the charge transfer resistance and suppressing polyselenides dissolution in carbonate electrolyte.

  13. Three-dimensional investigation of cycling-induced microstructural changes in lithium-ion battery cathodes using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    For vehicle electrification, one of the biggest issues for lithium ion batteries is cycle life. Within this context, the mechanisms at the source of capacity degradation during cycling are not yet to be fully understood. In this work, we use state-of-the-art FIB-SEM serial sectioning and imaging techniques to determine the effect of cycling on lithium-ion battery cathodes. The three-dimensional (3D) microstructural study was performed on both pristine and cycled LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) and Li...

  14. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries and Sodium-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Sodium-ion intercalation cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    The Li-ion battery is one of the most important rechargeable energy storage devices due to its high energy density, long cycle life, and reliable safety. Although the performances of Li-ion batteries have been improved dramatically, the limit in terms of the energy density still needs to be resolved to meet the growing demands for large-scale mobile devices. Choosing the cathode material is the most pivotal issue in achieving higher energy, since the energy density is directly correlated to the specific capacity of the cathode. Intercalation-based cathode materials have been widely utilized in commercial products; however they yield a limited capacity due to restricted crystallographic sites for Li-ions. In this thesis, the NiF2 and NiO doped NiF2/C conversion materials, which display substantially greater capacities, are intensively studied using various synchrotron X-ray techniques and magnetic measurements. The enhanced electronic conductivity of NiO doped NiF2/C is associated with a significant improvement in the reversible conversion reaction. While bimodal Ni nanoparticles are maintained for NiO doped NiF2/C upon the discharge, for pure NiF2 only smaller nanoparticles remain following the 2nd discharge. Based on the electronic conductivity, it is demonstrated that the size of Ni nanoparticles is associated with the conversion kinetics and consequently the reversibility. Although Li-ion batteries offer the highest energy density among all the secondary batteries, the amount of the reserves and the cost associated with the Li sources are still a concern. In the second part of the thesis, P2 type Na2/3[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 is investigated to understand the structural stability in the Na-ion batteries. Significantly improved battery performances are obtained by excluding the phase transformation region. In addition, the structural evolution of the P2-Na0.8[Li0.12Ni0.22Mn0.66]O 2 is tracked by in situ technique and revealed no phase transformation during the cycling. It

  15. Layered Lithium-Rich Oxide Nanoparticles Doped with Spinel Phase: Acidic Sucrose-Assistant Synthesis and Excellent Performance as Cathode of Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Dongrui; Liao, Youhao; Zhong, Xiaoxin; Li, Weishan; Zhang, Yuegang

    2016-02-01

    Nanolayered lithium-rich oxide doped with spinel phase is synthesized by acidic sucrose-assistant sol-gel combustion and evaluated as the cathode of a high-energy-density lithium ion battery. Physical characterizations indicate that the as-synthesized oxide (LR-SN) is composed of uniform and separated nanoparticles of about 200 nm, which are doped with about 7% spinel phase, compared to the large aggregated ones of the product (LR) synthesized under the same condition but without any assistance. Charge/discharge demonstrates that LR-SN exhibits excellent rate capability and cyclic stability: delivering an average discharge capacity of 246 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C (1C = 250 mA g(-1)) and earning a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles at 4 C in the lithium anode-based half cell, compared to the 227 mA g(-1) and the 63% of LR, respectively. Even in the graphite anode-based full cell, LR-SN still delivers a capacity of as high as 253 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C, corresponding to a specific energy density of 801 Wh kg(-1), which are the best among those that have been reported in the literature. The separated nanoparticles of the LR-SN provide large sites for charge transfer, while the spinel phase doped in the nanoparticles facilitates lithium ion diffusion and maintains the stability of the layered structure during cycling.

  16. High electrochemical properties of graphene nanoribbons-hybridized manganese dioxide as cathode material for lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangyue; Fan, Zihan; Lin, Cunli; Jia, Lina; Lin, Baiwei; Wang, Jiaqi; Hu, Xiaolin, E-mail: linamethyst@fzu.edu.cn; Zhuang, Naifeng, E-mail: nfzhuang@fzu.edu.cn [Fuzhou University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2015-02-15

    Manganese dioxide crystallite and its composite hybridized with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of reaction temperature and time, surfactant, and reducing Mn resource are discussed. As the cathode material for Li battery, γ-MnO{sub 2} nanowire/nanorod hybridizing with (GNRs) (γ-MnO{sub 2}/GNRs) shows a higher discharge specific capacity than it covering with carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets. In addition, the discharge specific capacity of γ-MnO{sub 2}/GNRs is much higher than those of pure β-MnO{sub 2} and compact β-MnO{sub 2}/GNRs. The effects of crystal size, morphology, and GNR hybrid on the discharge specific capacity are discussed.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of lithium vanadium phosphate and lithium vanadium oxide composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Bai, W. Q.; Zhang, Y. D.; Niu, X. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-05-01

    A novel 2Li3V2(PO4)3·LiV3O8 composite with short rod and thin plate shapes is synthesized through sol-gel method followed by hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. LiV3O8 is used as an additive to improve the capacity of Li3V2(PO4)3. In the composite cathode, active impurity phase Li0.3V2O5 is also present, which has little impact on the whole electrochemical properties. The 2Li3V2(PO4)3·LiV3O8 composite delivers a high initial capacity of 162.8 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 in the voltage range of 2.0-4.3 V. Furthermore, the composite with high crystallinity also shows high electrochemical reversibility and good rate capability. The diffusion coefficient of Li ions in the composite is in the range of 10-11-10-9 cm2 s-1 obtained from galvanostatic intermittent titration technique.

  18. A High Voltage Olivine Cathode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Brescia, Rosaria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-01-01

    A new olivine composition (i.e., LiFe0.25 Mn0.5 Co0.25 PO4) is proposed as electrode material with increased energy density for application in lithium-ion batteries. The new formulation increases the working voltage and induces different electrochemical behavior with respect to bare olivine materials based on Fe. The study provides deep insight into the features of the Fe(3+) /Fe(2+), Mn(3+)/Mn(2+), and Co(3+)/Co(2+) redox couples within the olivine lattice in terms of electrochemical activity, Li(+) transport properties, and Li-cell behavior. The electrochemical characterization clearly reveals the voltage signatures corresponding to the various metals; however, the Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) process has higher intrinsic polarization with respect to Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Co(3+)/Co(2+). This issue is efficiently mitigated by carbon coating the material, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performances.

  19. Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method

    KAUST Repository

    Deshazer, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles of metal oxides with carefully controlled compositions can be easily prepared by the thermal decomposition of porous polymers, such as cellulose, into which solutions containing salts of the desired cations have been dissolved. This is a simple and versatile method that can be used to produce a wide variety of materials with a range of particle sizes and carefully controlled chemical compositions. Examples of the use of this method to produce fine particles of LiCoO2 and Li(NiMnCo)1/3O2, which are used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries, are shown. Experiments have demonstrated that materials made using this method can have electrochemical properties comparable to those typically produced by more elaborate procedures. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  20. Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Glass Ceramic Cathodes for Solid-State Lithium-Oxygen Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A. C.; Swanson, S .; Wilcke, W. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 2193−2203. (3) In Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, 2nd ed.; Linden , D., Ed...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0057 MESOPOROUS NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODES FOR SOLID-STATE LITHIUM−OXYGEN BATTERIES (Postprint...November 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MESOPOROUS NITROGEN-DOPED CARBON-GLASS CERAMIC CATHODES FOR SOLID-STATE LITHIUM−OXYGEN BATTERIES (Postprint

  1. Recent Progress in the Design of Advanced Cathode Materials and Battery Models for High-Performance Lithium-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Ma, Jianmin; Fan, Qinghua; Guo, Shaojun; Dou, Shixue

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances and achievements in emerging Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries with promising cathode materials open up new opportunities for the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery alternatives. In this review, we focus on an overview of recent important progress in the design of advanced cathode materials and battery models for developing high-performance Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries. We start with a brief introduction to explain why Li-X batteries are important for future renewable energy devices. Then, we summarize the existing drawbacks, major progress and emerging challenges in the development of cathode materials for Li-O2 (S) batteries. In terms of the emerging Li-X (Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries, we systematically summarize their advantages/disadvantages and recent progress. Specifically, we review the electrochemical performance of Li-Se (Te) batteries using carbonate-/ether-based electrolytes, made with different electrode fabrication techniques, and of Li-I2 (Br2 ) batteries with various cell designs (e.g., dual electrolyte, all-organic electrolyte, with/without cathode-flow mode, and fuel cell/solar cell integration). Finally, the perspective on and challenges for the development of cathode materials for the promising Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries is presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 锂硫二次电池正极研究进展%Review of Sulfur-Based Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚真东; 魏巍; 王久林; 杨军; 努丽燕娜

    2011-01-01

    综述了锂硫电池中硫基正极材料的制备方法、结构特征以及电化学性能.简述了单质硫正极材料,重点探iCT有机硫化物、碳,硫复合材料、聚合物,硫复合材料的结构设计、材料制备、反应机理以及充放电特性,并对其中存在的问题进行了分析,还介绍了硫化锂正极材料.最后对硫基正极的进一步发展,以及锂硫电池的商业化应用进行了展望.%The preparation, characteristics and electrochemical performances of the sulfur-based cathode materials in lithium/sulfur batteries are reviewed in this paper.The elemental sulfur cathode material is briefly introduced.The structural designs, preparation processes, reaction mechanisms, and charge/discharge properties of organic sulfide, sulfur-porous carbon and sulfur-polymer composites as cathode materials are systematically discussed and problems associated with these materials are also analyzed.In addition, the research and application of lithium sulfides as cathode materials are also outlined.Finally, the further development of sulfur-based cathode materials and the commercialization of lithium/sulfur batteries are discussed.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide encapsulated sulfur spheres for the lithium-sulfur battery cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feiyan; Liang, Jiyuan; Zhang, Chang; Yu, Liang; Zhao, Jinxing; Liu, Chang; Lan, Qian; Chen, Shengrui; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Zheng, Guang

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) encapsulated sulfur spheres for the Li-S batteries were prepared via the redox reaction between sodium polysulfide. XRD spectra showed that the diffraction peak of graphite oxide (GO) at 10° disappeared, while the relatively weak diffraction peak at 27° belongs to graphene emerged. FT-IR spectra showed that the vibrations of the functional groups of GO, such as 3603 cm-1, 1723 cm-1and 1619 cm-1 which contributed from sbnd OH, Csbnd Osbnd C and Cdbnd O respectively, disappeared when compared to the spectra of GSC. SEM observations indicated that the optimum experimental condition followed as: mass ratio of GO and S was 1:1, 10% NaOH was used to adjust the pH. EDX analysis showed that the sulfur content reached at 68.8% of the composite material. The resultant electric resistance was nearly less than GO's resistance in three orders of magnitude under same condition. Further electrochemical performance tests showed a coulombic efficiency was 96% from the first cycle capacity was 827 mAh g-1, to 388 mAh g-1 in the 100 cycles. This study carries substantial significance to the development of Li-S battery cathode materials.

  4. Spinel LiMn2O4 nanorods as lithium ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyung; Muralidharan, P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ruffo, Riccardo; Yang, Yuan; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-11-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline beta-MnO2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn2O4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 microm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn2O4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn2O4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3 V.

  5. Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2008-11-12

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline β-MnO 2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn 2O 4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 μm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn 2O 4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn 2O 4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3V. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  7. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  8. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  9. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  10. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  11. Sulfur loaded in micropore-rich carbon aerogel as cathode of lithium-sulfur battery with improved cyclic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihao; Li, Xiaogang; Liao, Youhao; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel composite of sulfur loaded in micropore-rich carbon aerogel (CA-S), as cathode of lithium-sulfur battery. Carbon aerogel (CA) is synthesized through phenol-formaldehyde reaction with a low catalyst concentration and carbonization under high temperature, and loaded with sulfur via chemical deposition and heat treatment. The physical properties of the resulting CA and the electrochemical performances of the resulting CA-S are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic discharge/charge test, with a comparison of a common carbon material, acetylene black (AB), and sulfur loaded in AB (AB-S). It is found that the CA is micropore-rich with micropore volume over 66% of total pore volume, and the CA-S exhibits significantly improved cyclic stability compared with AB-S. The improved performance of CA-S is attributed to the confinement of the micropores in CA to small sulfur allotropes and corresponding lithium sulfides.

  12. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of sol-gel derived LiMn2O4cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peifeng; FAN Huiqing; FU Yunfei; LI Zhuo; DENG Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 has been considered to be the most promising alternative cathode material for the new generation of lithium-ion batteries in terms of its low cost, non-toxicity and easy manufacture. The spinel lithium manganese mixed oxides were prepared from lithium nitrate, manganese nitrate and citric acid by asol-gel method and were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charging-discharging technique. The different sintering temperatures for different time have strong influence on the structure, initial discharge capacity and cycling performance of the lithium manganese oxide. It shows that the lithium manganese oxides sintered at 700 ℃ for 10 h have a single spinel structure and better electrochemical properties. The initial discharging capacity can be up to 125.9 mAh·g-1 , even after six cycles, it still retains 109.1 mAh·g-1 .

  14. Solution-combustion synthesized nickel-substituted spinel cathode materials (LiNixMn2-xO4; 0≤x≤0.2) for lithium ion battery: enhancing energy storage, capacity retention, and lithium ion transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherically shaped Ni-substituted LiNi(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) spinel cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and remarkable cycling performance were synthesized using the solution...

  15. Truncated octahedral LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Bo-Mi; Kim, Si-Jin; Lee, Young-Woo; Park, Han-Chul; Kim, Da-Mi; Park, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwpark@ssu.ac.kr

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been studied as a promising cathode candidate capable of replacing LiCoO{sub 2} in lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders prepared by a calcination process as a function of temperature and time. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure electrode prepared at 700 °C for 10 h forms a truncated octahedral structure consisting of {111} and {100} surfaces. In particular, the truncated octahedral structure exhibits the crystal orientation toward dominant {111} surfaces of octahedral structure to minimize Mn dissolution and a particular portion of {100} surfaces of the truncated structure to stabilize the electrode. The truncated octahedral structure shows excellent discharge capacity (∼132.14 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C), high capacity retention (∼100%) and durable cycling performance (after 100 cycle) compared to the octahedral shaped electrodes. In particular, the truncated octahedral structure of LMO-700-10h exhibits the crystal orientation toward majority {111} surfaces of octahedral structure and minority {100} surfaces. - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure materials were prepared for Li-ion batteries. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure materials were controlled by calcination temperatures. • The truncated octahedral nanostructure consists of {111} and {100} surfaces. • The truncated octahedral structure shows an excellent performance.

  16. Interfacial Processes and Influence of Composite Cathode Microstructure Controlling the Performance of All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Weber, Dominik A; Weigand, Harald; Arlt, Tobias; Manke, Ingo; Schröder, Daniel; Koerver, Raimund; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Hartmann, Pascal; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-05-31

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to become an important class of next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices. However, for achieving competitive performance, a better understanding of the interfacial processes at the electrodes is necessary for optimized electrode compositions to be developed. In this work, the interfacial processes between the solid electrolyte (Li10GeP2S12) and the electrode materials (In/InLi and LixCoO2) are monitored using impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling, showing a large resistance contribution and kinetic hindrance at the metal anode. The effect of different fractions of the solid electrolyte in the composite cathodes on the rate performance is tested. The results demonstrate the necessity of a carefully designed composite microstructure depending on the desired applications of an all-solid-state battery. While a relatively low mass fraction of solid electrolyte is sufficient for high energy density, a higher fraction of solid electrolyte is required for high power density.

  17. A new sealed lithium-peroxide battery with a co-doped Li2O cathode in a superconcentrated lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuoka, Shin-ichi; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Suga, Yosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Ono, Hironobu; Yonehara, Koji; Sumida, Yasutaka; Yamada, Yuki; Yamada, Atsuo; Oshima, Masaharu; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2014-07-14

    We propose a new sealed battery operating on a redox reaction between an oxide (O(2-)) and a peroxide (O2(2-)) with its theoretical specific energy of 2570 Wh kg(-1) (897 mAh g(-1), 2.87 V) and demonstrate that a Co-doped Li2O cathode exhibits a reversible capacity over 190 mAh g(-1), a high rate capability, and a good cyclability with a superconcentrated lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide electrolyte in acetonitrile. The reversible capacity is largely dominated by the O(2-)/O2(2-) redox reaction between oxide and peroxide with some contribution of the Co(2+)/Co(3+) redox reaction.

  18. Research on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  19. 锂离子电池纳米锂锰氧化物正极材料的研究进展%Research Progress in Nano-scale Lithium Manganese Oxide as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽珍

    2012-01-01

    综述了近年来锂离子电池正极材料锂锰氧化物的研究现状,重点对锂锰氧化物的结构和性能的关系,尖晶石锂锰氧化物的制备以及其改性研究进行了阐述。%New progress of nanotechnology applied in lithium ion battery of lithium manganese oxide as cathode material was summarized during recent years,focusing on the relationship between structure and properties of lithium manganese oxide,the preparation methods of nanometer lithium manganese oxide materials cathode material and modification of spinel lithium manganese oxide materials were described.

  20. Surface Study of Lithium-Air Battery Oxygen Cathodes in Different Solvent-Electrolyte pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, F; Herrera, S; Torres, W; Tesio, A Y; Williams, F J; Calvo, E J

    2015-08-25

    The O2/Li2O2 electrode reaction has been studied on low surface area Au electrodes in three solvent-electrolyte pairs (0.1 M LiPF6/DMSO, LiPF6/ACN, and LiBF4/ACN) using an electrochemical cell coupled to UHV XPS spectrometer, EQCM, AFM, and DEMS. The XPS spectra of the surfaces after treatment at selected electrode potentials for the O2 reduction and reoxidation of the surface show the presence of C and S from solvent decomposition and of F and P from electrolyte decomposition. Furthermore, Li 1s and O 1s peaks due to Li2O2 and decomposition products such as carbonate, organics, LiF, high oxidation sulfur, and phosphorus compounds were also observed. Using ACN instead of DMSO results in less solvent decomposition, whereas using LiBF4 results in less electrolyte decomposition. XPS, AFM, and EQCM show that O2 reduction products removal only takes place at very high overpotentials. In agreement with XPS which shows removal of carbonate surface species, DEMS confirms evolution of CO2 and consumption of O2 at 4.5 V, but LiF cannot be removed completely in a round trip of the Li-O2 battery cathode.

  1. Investigating the all-solid-state batteries based on lithium garnets and a high potential cathode - LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Christian; Afyon, Semih; Rupp, Jennifer L M

    2016-11-03

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on lithium garnets give new prospects for safer battery operations avoiding liquids, and could enable the integration of high energy density electrode materials. Herein, we critically investigate the structural and chemical stability of the high voltage cathode material, LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, based on the solid lithium garnet electrolyte LLZO (c-Li6.4Ga0.2La3Zr2O12) for all-solid Li-ion batteries. We manufacture battery cells based on nano-grained synthesized LLZO and composite cathodes (LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4/LLZO/C) fabricated via direct slurry casting of the cathode material and additives on sintered LLZO pellets against metallic Li anodes. The galvanostatic tests of such all-solid-state batteries up to 4.9 V at 95 °C reveal the incompatibility of the solid electrolyte and the cathode material under given conditions. Post-mortem analyses of the all-solid-state batteries demonstrate the formation of new inactive phases at the LLZO/LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 interfacial region through an irreversible reaction starting at ∼3.8 V during charging. The discovered limited chemical stability under the investigated conditions raises the question if LLZO could be a promising solid-electrolyte for future all-solid-state Li-ion batteries especially at higher operation potentials and demanding operation conditions.

  2. A Mo2C/Carbon Nanotube Composite Cathode for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with High Energy Efficiency and Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Won-Jin; Lau, Kah Chun; Shin, Chang-Dae; Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-04-28

    Although lithium-oxygen batteries are attracting considerable attention because of the potential for an extremely high energy density, their practical use has been restricted owing to a low energy efficiency and poor cycle life compared to lithium-ion batteries. Here we present a nanostructured cathode based on molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (Mo2C) dispersed on carbon nanotubes, which dramatically increase the electrical efficiency up to 88% with a cycle life of more than 100 cycles. We found that the Mo2C nanoparticle catalysts contribute to the formation of well-dispersed lithium peroxide nanolayers (Li2O2) on the Mo2C/carbon nanotubes with a large contact area during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This Li2O2 structure can be decomposed at low potential upon the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by avoiding the energy loss associated with the decomposition of the typical Li2O2 discharge products.

  3. Three-dimensional investigation of cycling-induced microstructural changes in lithium-ion battery cathodes using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanshuo; Foster, Jamie M.; Gully, Adam; Krachkovskiy, Sergey; Jiang, Meng; Wu, Yan; Yang, Xingyi; Protas, Bartosz; Goward, Gillian R.; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-02-01

    For vehicle electrification, one of the biggest issues for lithium ion batteries is cycle life. Within this context, the mechanisms at the source of capacity degradation during cycling are not yet to be fully understood. In this work, we use state-of-the-art FIB-SEM serial sectioning and imaging techniques to determine the effect of cycling on lithium-ion battery cathodes. The three-dimensional (3D) microstructural study was performed on both pristine and cycled LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) and Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13)O2 (HE-NMC) cathodes. The spatial distribution of active material, carbon-doped binder and pore spaces were successfully reconstructed by appropriate image processing. Comparisons of NMC and HE-NMC cathodes after different number of cycles showed only minor increases in the number of smaller active particles, possibly negligible, considering the intrinsic microstructure variation within the cathodes. However, the connectivity between carbon-doped binder additives and active particles in NMC and HE-NMC cathodes, assessed using a "neighbor counting" method, showed an appreciable decrease after cycling which indicates a detachment of carbon-doped binder from active particles. This significant cycling-induced detachment effect between the two phases (e.g., ∼22% for HE-NMC) could indicate a loss in electrical connectivity, which may partially explain the capacity fade in the cells.

  4. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  5. A Safe High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Vanadium Battery with a Freestanding V2O5 Nanowire Composite Paper Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Lai, Jingyuan; Gong, Yudong; Hu, Yongming; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chunwen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-21

    The electronic conductivity and structural stability are still challenges for vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as cathode materials in batteries. Here, we report a V2O5 nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite paper for direct use as a cathode without any additives for high-temperature and high-safety solid polymer electrolyte [PEO-MIL-53(Al)-LiTFSI] lithium-vanadium batteries. The batteries can show a fast and stable lithium-ion-storage performance in a wide voltage window of 1.0-4.0 V versus Li(+)/Li at 80 °C, in which with an average capacity of 329.2 mAh g(-1) at 17 mA g(-1) and a stable cycling performance over 40 cycles are achieved. The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly ascribed to integration of the electronic conductivity of rGO and interconnected networks of the V2O5 nanowires and solid electrolyte. This is a promising lithium battery for flexible and highly safe energy-storage devices.

  6. Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2013-07-01

    A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

  7. High mass-loading of sulfur-based cathode composites and polysulfides stabilization for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eHara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sulfur has a high theoretical gravimetric capacity, 1672 mAh/g, its insulating nature requires a large amount of conducting additives: this tends to result in a low mass-loading of active material (sulfur, and thereby, a lower capacity than expected. Therefore, an optimal choice of conducting agents and of the method for sulfur/conducting-agent integration is critically important. In this paper, we report that the areal capacity of 4.9 mAh/cm2 was achieved at a sulfur mass loading of 4.1 mg/cm2 by casting sulfur/polyacrylonitrile/ketjenblack (S/PAN/KB cathode composite into carbon fiber paper. This is the highest value among published/reported ones even though it does not contain expensive nano-sized carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, or graphene-derivatives, and competitive enough with the conventional LiCoO2-based cathodes (e.g., LiCoO2, <20 mg/cm2 corresponding to <2.8 mAh/cm2. Furthermore, the combination of sulfur/PAN-based composite and PAN-based carbon fiber paper enabled the sulfur-based composite to be used even in carbonate-based electrolyte solution that many lithium/sulfur battery researchers avoid the use of it because of severer irreversible active material loss than in electrolyte solutions without carbonate-based solutions, and even at the highest mass-loading ever reported (the more sulfur is loaded, the more decomposed sulfides deposit at an anode surface..

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of LiV3O8/polythiophene composite as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Liu, Li; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Yang, Zhenhua; Zhou, Meng; Tan, Jinli; Yan, Zichao; Hu, Hai; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-02-01

    LiV3O8/polythiophene (LiV3O8/PTh) composite has been chemically synthesized via an in-situ oxidative polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). LiV3O8/PTh composite shows a single phase in the XRD pattern, but the existence of PTh has been confirmed by FTIR spectra. HRTEM images show that an uniform PTh layer with a thickness of 3-5 nm covered on the surface of LiV3O8. Electrochemical performance of samples has been characterized by the charge/discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies (EIS) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). The LiV3O8/PTh composite exhibits much better electrochemical performance than bare LiV3O8. The initial discharge capacities of 15 wt.% LiV3O8/PTh composite are 213.3 and 200.3 mAh g-1 with almost no capacity retention after 50 cycles at current densities of 300 and 900 mA g-1, respectively. PTh could enhance electronic conductivity, decrease the charge transfer resistance, increase the lithium diffusion coefficient, and thus improve cycling performance of LiV3O8. All these results demonstrate that the LiV3O8/PTh composite has a promising application as cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on electrochemical performance of LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chang-Ling Fan; Hari Om; Ke-He Zhang; Shao-Chang Han

    2013-11-01

    Conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline is utilized to substitute conductive additive acetylene black in the LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Results show that LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 possesses stable structure and good performance. Percolation theory is used to optimize the content of conductive additive in cathode. It shows that the conductivity of cathode reaches its maximum value when the content of conductive additives is 15 wt%. This is in agreement with the results of charge and discharge experiments. The application of polyaniline can evidently enhance the electrochemical performance of cathode. The discharge capacity of cathode using 15 wt% polyaniline is 95.9 mAh g-1 at the current density of 170 mA g-1. The charge transfer resistance under different depths of discharge of cathode is much lower compared with the use of acetylene black. It can be concluded that the application of polyaniline in cathode can greatly improve the electrochemical performances of LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode.

  10. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Ma, Hongrui; Luo, Chuanbao; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-15

    Sustainable recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) may be necessary to alleviate the depletion of strategic metal resources and potential risk of environmental pollution. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the recovery of valuable metals from the cathode materials (LiCoO2) of spent LIBs using phosphoric acid as both leaching and precipitating agent under mild leaching conditions. According to the leaching results, over 99% Co can be separated and recovered as Co3(PO4)2 in a short-cut process involved merely with leaching and filtrating, under the optimized leaching conditions of 40°C (T), 60min (t), 4 vol.% H2O2, 20mLg(-1) (L/S) and 0.7mol/L H3PO4. Then leaching kinetics was investigated based on the logarithmic rate kinetics model and the obtained results indicate that the leaching of Co and Li fits well with this model and the activation energies (Ea) for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.2kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, it can be discovered from characterization results that the obtained product is 97.1% pure cobalt phosphate (Co3(PO4)2).

  11. Hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 mesostructures as high-performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Longmei; Li, He; Lai, Hongwei; Li, Danqin; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with enhanced performance to commercial ones are urgently demanded in portable electric devices. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of a dominant commercial cathode material (LiCoO2) by constructing 3D hierarchical LiNixCoyO2 (h-LNCO). The h-LNCO presents porous spherical-shaped morphology at mesoscale while comprises interconnected primary nanoparticles at nanoscale. Such a unique morphology endows the h-LNCO with porous structure for easy penetration of electrolyte, relatively small size of primary particles with short Li+ ions diffusion length and abundant exposed surface in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation. The synergism of these merits makes the h-LNCO exhibit superior electrochemical properties with high capacity, superior cyclability and rate capability, much better than the solid granular LNCO counterparts and commercial LiCoO2. This strategy of constructing porous hierarchical mesostructures could be extended to other electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  12. Rare Earth Elements-Doped LiCoO2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏进平; 曹晓燕; 潘桂玲; 叶茂; 阎杰

    2003-01-01

    Some compounds of LiCo1-xRExO2 (RE=rare earth elements and x=0.01~0.03) were prepared by doping rare earth elements to LiCoO2 via solid state synthesis. The microstructure characteristics of the LiCo1-xRExO2 were investigated by XRD. It was found that the lattice parameters c are increased and the lattice volumes are enlarged compared to that of LiCoO2. Moreover, the performance of LiCo1-xRExO2 as the cathode material in lithium ion battery is improved, especially LiCo1-xYxO2 and LiCo1-xLaxO2. The initial charge/discharge capacities of LiCo0.99Y0.01O2 and LiCo0.99La0.01O2 are 174/154 (mAh*g-1) and 159/149 (mAh*g-1) respectively, while those for LiCoO2 working in the same way are only 139/131 (mAh*g-1).

  13. Free-standing and flexible LiMnTiO4/carbon nanotube cathodes for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yinhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Le; Zhang, Xinyi; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Meng; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    A flexible, free-standing, and light-weight LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode has been prepared by vacuum filtration method for the first time. The as-prepared flexible LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode possesses a three-dimensional braiding structure in which LiMnTiO4 particles are well embedded in the twining CNT networks. The novel LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrodes show tensile strength of 1.34 MPa and 2.04 MPa, when the percentages of MWCNTs reach to 30% and 50%, respectively. This novel flexible electrode exhibits a superior electrochemical property, especially at rate capability and cycling stability. The LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can deliver capacity of 161 mAh g-1 (86.4% retention) after 50 cycles at 0.5C rate. Since the high conductivity from MWCNT networks, the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT electrode can still maintain a capacity of 77 mAh g-1 at 5C rate, which is much higher than that of the conventional electrode fabricated by slurry casting method on Al foil. The features of free-standing, light-weight, and excellent electrochemical performance indicate the potential of using the LiMnTiO4/MWCNT cathode in new-generation flexible lithium ion batteries.

  14. Carbon-coated LiFePO4-porous carbon composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haifang; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-07

    This work introduces a facile strategy for the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO(4)-porous carbon (C-LiFePO(4)-PC) composites as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The LiFePO(4) particles obtained are about 200 nm in size and homogeneously dispersed in porous carbon matrix. These particles are further coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from sucrose. The C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites display a high initial discharge capacity of 152.3 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C, good cycling stability, as well as excellent rate capability (112 mA h g(-1) at 5 C). The likely contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of the C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites could be related to the combined effects of enhancement of conductivity by the porous carbon matrix and the carbon coating layers. It is believed that further carbon coating is a facile and effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO(4)-PC.

  15. Surface Modification of the LiFePO4 Cathode for the Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Artur; Jo, Yong Nam; Oh, Si Hyoung; Park, Yeong Don; Mun, Junyoung

    2017-03-28

    The LiFePO4 surface is coated with AlF3 via a simple chemical precipitation for aqueous rechargeable lithium ion batteries (ARLBs). During electrochemical cycling, the unfavorable side reactions between LiFePO4 and the aqueous electrolyte (1 M Li2SO4 in water) leave a highly resistant passivation film, which causes a deterioration in the electrochemical performance. The coated LiFePO4 by 1 wt % AlF3 has a high discharge capacity of 132 mAh g(-1) and a highly improved cycle life, which shows 93% capacity retention even after 100 cycles, whereas the pristine LiFePO4 has a specific capacity of 123 mAh g(-1) and a poor capacity retention of 82%. The surface analysis results, which include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results, show that the AlF3 coating material is highly effective for reducing the detrimental surface passivation by relieving the electrochemical side reactions of the fragile aqueous electrolyte. The AlF3 coating material has good compatibility with the LiFePO4 cathode material, which mitigates the surface diffusion obstacles, reduces the charge-transfer resistances and improves the electrochemical performance and surface stability of the LiFePO4 material in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

  16. Controllable Preparation of V2O5/Graphene Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanglin; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Yifang; Liang, Shuquan; Pan, Anqiang

    2016-12-01

    Transition metal oxides and graphene composites have been widely reported in energy storage and conversion systems. However, the controllable synthesis of graphene-based nanocomposites with tunable morphologies is far less reported. In this work, we report the fabrication of V2O5 and reduced graphene oxide composites with nanosheet or nanoparticle-assembled subunits by adjusting the solvothermal solution. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the nanosheet-assembled V2O5/graphene composite exhibits better rate capability and long-term cycling stability. The V2O5/graphene composites can deliver discharge capacities of 133, 131, and 122 mAh g-1 at 16 C, 32 C, and 64 C, respectively, in the voltage range of 2.5-4.0 V vs. Li/Li+. Moreover, the electrodes can retain 85% of their original capacity at 1C rate after 500 cycles. The superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the porous structures created by the connected V2O5 nanosheets and the electron conductivity improvement by graphene.

  17. LiV₃O₈/Polytriphenylamine Composites with Enhanced Electrochemical Performances as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhu, Limin; Yu, Ziheng; Xie, Lingling; Cao, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-26

    LiV₃O₈/polytriphenylamine composites are synthesized by a chemical oxidative polymerization process and applied as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries (RLB). The structure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of the composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, galvanostatic discharge/charge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the polytriphenylamine particles were composited with LiV₃O₈ nanorods which acted as a protective barrier against the side reaction of LiV₃O₈, as well as a conductive network to reduce the reaction resistance among the LiV₃O₈ particles. Among the LiV₃O₈/polytriphenylamine composites, the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite showed the largest d100 spacing. The electrochemical results showed that the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite maintained a discharge capacity of 271 mAh·g(-1) at a current density of 60 mA·g(-1), as well as maintaining 236 mAh·g(-1) at 240 mA·g(-1) after 50 cycles, while the bare LiV₃O₈ sample retained only 169 and 148 mAh·g(-1), respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results implied that the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite demonstrated a decreased charge transfer resistance and increased Li⁺ ion diffusion ability, therefore manifesting better rate capability and cycling performance compared to the bare LiV₃O₈ sample.

  18. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  19. Controllable Preparation of V2O5/Graphene Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanglin; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Yifang; Liang, Shuquan; Pan, Anqiang

    2016-12-01

    Transition metal oxides and graphene composites have been widely reported in energy storage and conversion systems. However, the controllable synthesis of graphene-based nanocomposites with tunable morphologies is far less reported. In this work, we report the fabrication of V2O5 and reduced graphene oxide composites with nanosheet or nanoparticle-assembled subunits by adjusting the solvothermal solution. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the nanosheet-assembled V2O5/graphene composite exhibits better rate capability and long-term cycling stability. The V2O5/graphene composites can deliver discharge capacities of 133, 131, and 122 mAh g(-1) at 16 C, 32 C, and 64 C, respectively, in the voltage range of 2.5-4.0 V vs. Li/Li(+). Moreover, the electrodes can retain 85% of their original capacity at 1C rate after 500 cycles. The superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the porous structures created by the connected V2O5 nanosheets and the electron conductivity improvement by graphene.

  20. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  1. Lipon coatings for high voltage and high temperature Li-ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Liang, Chengdu; Nanda, Jagjit; Veith, Gabriel M.; Kim, Yoongu; Martha, Surendra Kumar

    2017-02-14

    A lithium ion battery includes an anode and a cathode. The cathode includes a lithium, manganese, nickel, and oxygen containing compound. An electrolyte is disposed between the anode and the cathode. A protective layer is deposited between the cathode and the electrolyte. The protective layer includes pure lithium phosphorus oxynitride and variations that include metal dopants such as Fe, Ti, Ni, V, Cr, Cu, and Co. A method for making a cathode and a method for operating a battery are also disclosed.

  2. Lipon coatings for high voltage and high temperature Li-ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Liang, Chengdu; Nanda, Jagjit; Veith, Gabriel M.; Kim, Yoongu; Martha, Surendra Kumar

    2017-02-14

    A lithium ion battery includes an anode and a cathode. The cathode includes a lithium, manganese, nickel, and oxygen containing compound. An electrolyte is disposed between the anode and the cathode. A protective layer is deposited between the cathode and the electrolyte. The protective layer includes pure lithium phosphorus oxynitride and variations that include metal dopants such as Fe, Ti, Ni, V, Cr, Cu, and Co. A method for making a cathode and a method for operating a battery are also disclosed.

  3. Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis of VS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Superior High-Rate Capability as Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenying; Zhao, Hongbin; Xie, Yanping; Fang, Jianhui; Xu, Jiaqiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-06-17

    In this study, a facile one-pot process for the synthesis of hierarchical VS2/graphene nanosheets (VS2/GNS) composites based on the coincident interaction of VS2 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is developed for the first time. The nanocomposites possess a hierarchical structure of 50 nm VS2 sheets in thickness homogeneously anchored on graphene. The VS2/GNS nanocomposites exhibit an impressive high-rate capability and good cyclic stability as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries, which retain 89.3% of the initial capacity 180.1 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at 20 C, the composites still deliver a high capacity of 114.2 mAh g(-1) corresponding to 62% of the low-rate capacity. Expanded studies show that VS2/GNS, as an anode material, also has a good reversible performance with 528 mAh g(-1) capacity after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance of the composites for reversible Li+ storage should be attributed to the exceptional interaction between VS2 and GNS that enabled fast electron transport between graphene and VS2, facile Li-ion diffusion within the electrode. Moreover, GNS provides a topological and structural template for the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional VS2 nanosheets and acted as buffer matrix to relieve the volume expansion/contraction of VS2 during the electrochemical charge/discharge, facilitating improved cycling stability. The VS2/GNS composites may be promising electrode materials for the next generation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  4. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2017-04-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  6. Triphenylamine-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Cathode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Coexistence of Redox Active Sites, High Working Voltage, and High Rate Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe; Yi, Xiaohui; Liu, Zixuan; Shang, Jie; Wang, Deyu

    2016-06-15

    Through rational organization of two redox active building block, a triphenylamine-based metal-organic framework (MOF) material, Cu-TCA (H3TCA = tricarboxytriphenyl amine), was synthesized and applied as a cathode active material for the first time in lithium batteries. Cu-TCA exhibited redox activity both in the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligand radicals (N/N(+)) with separated voltage plateaus and a high working potential vs Li/Li(+) up to 4.3 V, comparing with the current commercial LiCoO2 cathode materials. The electrochemical behaviors of this MOF electrode material at different states of charge were carefully studied by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Long cycling stability of this MOF was achieved with an average Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% for 200 cycles at a 2 C rate. Discussing the electrochemical performances on the basis of capacity contributions from the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligands (N/N(+)) proposes an alternative mechanism of capacity loss for the MOF materials used in lithium batteries. This improved understanding will shed light on the designing principle of MOF-based cathode materials for their practical application in battery sciences.

  7. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, J.; Guerfi, A.; Zaghib, K.; Striebel, K.A.

    2003-11-25

    The electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathodes with different carbon contents were studied to find out the role of carbon as conductive additive. LiFePO4 cathodes containing from 0 percent to 12 percent of conductive additive (carbon black or mixture of carbon black and graphite) were cycled at different C rates. The capacity of LiFePO4 cathode increased, as conductive additive content increased. Carbon increased the utilization of active material and the electrical conductivity of electrode, but decreased volumetric capacity of electrode.

  8. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathodes with different carbon contents were studied to find out the role of carbon as conductive additive. LiFePO4 cathodes containing from 0 percent to 12 percent of conductive additive (carbon black or mixture of carbon black and graphite) were cycled at different C rates. The capacity of LiFePO4 cathode increased, as conductive additive content increased. Carbon increased the utilization of active material and the electrical conductivity of e...

  9. Conversion from Li2SO4 to Li2S@C on carbon paper matrix: A novel integrated cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Xie, D.; Yang, T.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Integral construction of lithium sulfide (Li2S) cathode is indispensable and vital for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein we have demonstrated a facile strategy for fabricating free-standing carbon paper supported Li2S@C (P-Li2S@C) integrated cathode. The P-Li2S@C cathode is synthesized through simple pyrolysis of low-cost lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) and chitosan, and embedded in the double carbon matrixes with carbon paper support and outer CVD-carbon layer. Li2S nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the above designed double carbon matrixes. The P-Li2S@C cathode exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 820 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and still maintains 430 mAh g-1after 100 cycles, superior to the P-Li2S counterpart (480 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles). Our research verifies the effectiveness of double carbon modification on the Li2S, especially, the outer carbon coating not only improves the electrical conductivity of electrode, but also further prohibits the "shuttle effect" of polysulfides.

  10. Inorganic Polymer Nanocomposite Cathode for Long Cycle Life Lithium - Sulfur Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a hybrid composite structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with a class of polysulfide for lithium-sulfur...

  11. A Lithium-Air Battery with a High Energy Air Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will advance an efficient and lightweight energy storage device for Oxygen Concentrators by developing a high specific energy lithium-air cell....

  12. Carbon-Coated CFx Nanocomposite Cathodes for High Rate Lithium Primary Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require batteries that can operate in deep-space environments, including high radiation and extreme temperatures, and...

  13. Cation mixing (Li0.5Fe0.5)2SO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yang; Liu Lei; Dong Jin-Ping; Zhang Bin; Huang Xue-Jie

    2011-01-01

    We study the crystal structure of a triplite-structured (Li0.5Fe0.5)SO4F with full Li+/Fe2+ mixing.This promising polyanion cathode material for lithium-ion batteries operates at 3.9 V versus Li+/Li with a theoretical capacity of 151 mAh/g.Its unique cation mixing structure does not block the Li+ diffusion and results in a small lattice volume change during the charge/discharge process.The calculations show that it has a three-dimensional network for Li-ion migration with an activation energy ranging from 0.53 eV to 0.68 eV,which is comparable with that in LiFePO4 with only one-dimensional channels.This work suggests that further exploring cathode materials with full cation mixing for Li-ion batteries will be valuable.

  14. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  15. Microwave Synthesis of Cathode Material LixMn2O4 for Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hua; LIU Han-xing; OUYANG Shi-xi

    2002-01-01

    LiMn2O4 was synthesized rapidly by microwa e heating. The product phases of the microwave synthesis and conventional solid-state synthesis were comparatively invesitigated. The capacity of microwave synthesis product decreases relatively slow. The lithium ion can be inserted into and extracted from the spinel framework structure fluently after cycling. But the capacity of the conventional solid-state synthesis product is more remarkably lowered. The spinel framework structure was destroyed which hindered the lithium ion from inserting and extracting. The influential factors of the process parameters are discussed such as heat preservation time, pre-heating at 400℃ for 24h and coupled agent.

  16. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  17. Composite Conducting Polymer Cathodes For High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require secondary (rechargeable) batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures (-60oC to 60oC) yet deliver high...

  18. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  19. LiV3O8/Polytriphenylamine Composites with Enhanced Electrochemical Performances as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhu, Limin; Yu, Ziheng; Xie, Lingling; Cao, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    LiV3O8/polytriphenylamine composites are synthesized by a chemical oxidative polymerization process and applied as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries (RLB). The structure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of the composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, galvanostatic discharge/charge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the polytriphenylamine particles were composited with LiV3O8 nanorods which acted as a protective barrier against the side reaction of LiV3O8, as well as a conductive network to reduce the reaction resistance among the LiV3O8 particles. Among the LiV3O8/polytriphenylamine composites, the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite showed the largest d100 spacing. The electrochemical results showed that the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite maintained a discharge capacity of 271 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 60 mA·g−1, as well as maintaining 236 mAh·g−1 at 240 mA·g−1 after 50 cycles, while the bare LiV3O8 sample retained only 169 and 148 mAh·g−1, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results implied that the 17 wt % LVO/PTPAn composite demonstrated a decreased charge transfer resistance and increased Li+ ion diffusion ability, therefore manifesting better rate capability and cycling performance compared to the bare LiV3O8 sample. PMID:28772705

  20. LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4): A Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Hong; F Wang; X Wang; J Graetz

    2011-12-31

    The high redox potential of LiMnPO{sub 4}, {approx}4.0 vs. (Li{sup +}/Li), and its high theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g{sup -1} makes it a promising candidate to replace LiCoO{sub 2} as the cathode in Li-ion batteries. However, it has attracted little attention because of its severe kinetic problems during cycling. Introducing iron into crystalline LiMnPO{sub 4} generates a solid solution of LiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4} and increases kinetics; hence, there is much interest in determining the Fe-to-Mn ratio that will optimize electrochemical performance. To this end, we synthesized a series of nanoporous LiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4} compounds (with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2), using an inexpensive solid-state reaction. The electrodes were characterized using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy to examine their crystal structure and elemental distribution. Scanning-, tunneling-, and transmission-electron microscopy (viz., SEM, STEM, and TEM) were employed to characterize the micromorphology of these materials; the carbon content was analyzed by thermogravimetric analyses (TGAs). We demonstrate that the electrochemical performance of LiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4} rises continuously with increasing iron content. In situ synchrotron studies during cycling revealed a reversible structural change when lithium is inserted and extracted from the crystal structure. Further, introducing 20% iron (e.g., LiFe{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.8}PO{sub 4}) resulted in a promising capacity (138 mAh g{sup -1} at C/10), comparable to that previously reported for nano-LiMnPO{sub 4}.

  1. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Preparation and characterization of core-shell structured LiFePO4/C composite using a novel carbon source for lithium-ion battery cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Luo, Peifang; Wang, Daxiang

    2017-03-01

    Core-shell structured LiFePO4/C1 cathode material is synthesized via a rapid microwave irradiation route using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the novel carbon source. XRD results reveal that all the patterns can be indexed as the olivine-type structured LiFePO4 with the space group of Pnma. TEM images show that the obtained carbon is an amorphous layer with a thickness of about 3-4 nm. When the LiFePO4/C1 used as cathode material for lithium-ion battery, it delivers an initial discharge capacity of 163.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C which is about 96% of the theoretical capacity. Moreover, it also shows excellent rate performance and good cycle stability due to the enhanced electronic conductivity as proved by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thus, this carbon decorated LiFePO4 composite synthesized via the rapid microwave irradiation method is a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  3. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-28

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  4. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  5. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  6. Optimization of multicomponent aqueous suspensions of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) nanoparticles and carbon black for lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Kiggans, Jim; Wood, David L

    2013-09-01

    Addition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) to aqueous LiFePO4 nanoparticle suspensions improves stability and reduces agglomerate size, which is beneficial to lithium-ion battery cathode manufacturing. This research examines the effect of both PEI concentration and molecular weight (MW) on dispersing LiFePO4 and Super P C45 in multicomponent aqueous suspensions. It is demonstrated that the optimal conditions for obtaining stable suspensions with minimal agglomerate size are 1.5 wt% PEI with MW=2000 g mol(-1) and 5.0 wt% PEI with MW=10,000 g mol(-1) for LiFePO4 and Super P C45, respectively. The mixing sequence also affects rheological properties of these suspensions. It is found that dispersing the LiFePO4 and Super P C45 separately yielded suspensions with superior properties (Newtonian rheological behavior, smaller agglomerate size, improved settling, etc.). In particular, dispersing the LiFePO4 prior to the Super P C45 when making the final multicomponent suspension is found to be beneficial, which was evidenced by higher half-cell discharge capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multi-walled carbon nanotubes: a lithium-ion battery cathode with enhanced lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dai, Xiujuan J; Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Chen, Ying

    2013-12-14

    We report the preparation of a novel nanocomposite architecture of α-LiFeO2-MWCNT based on clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The composite represents a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The preparation of the nanocomposite is achieved by combining a molten salt precipitation process and a radio frequency oxygen plasma for the first time. We demonstrate that clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into MWCNTs are capable of delivering a stable and high reversible capacity of 147 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles with the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of ~95%. The rate capability of the composite is significantly improved and its reversible capacity is measured to be 101 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C. Both rate capability and cycling stability are not simply a result of introduction of functionalized MWCNTs but most likely originate from the unique composite structure of clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles integrated into a network of MWCNTs. The excellent electrochemical performance of this new nanocomposite opens up new opportunities in the development of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage application using the radio frequency oxygen plasma technique.

  8. 钒系磷酸盐锂离子电池正极材料%Vanadium-Based Phosphates as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慢慢; 刘素文; 卢启芳

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Li ion batteries have been widely used in many fields as power suppliers for mobile equipment.In commercialized Li ion batteries,cathode materials are mainly lithium transition-metal oxides.However,high cost and security problem limit their large-scale use.Phosphate materials,with a rigid phosphate network and remarkable electrochemical and thermal stability,are considered as a substitution for lithium transition-metal oxides.Among the newly-exploited phosphate cathode materials,vanadium-based phosphates,with stable structure and high theoretical specific capacity,have been attracting much research interest.In this review,recent progress is summarized on the vanadium-based phosphate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries,particularly focusing on the structure,preparation methods,and electrochemical performances of this series of materials.Also,the strategies and the corresponding mechanisms are discussed for the improvement of their general performances.%商业化锂离子电池以锂过渡金属氧化物作正极材料,由于安全性等问题限制了其更广泛的应用。在已经研究和开发的众多新型锂离子电池正极材料中,钒系磷酸盐由于具有较高的对锂电位和理论比容量而成为研究热点。本文综述了各种钒系磷酸盐类锂离子电池正极材料的研究现状,重点对各种材料的结构、制备方法和电化学性能进行了总结,并对改善材料综合性能的方法和机理进行了探讨。

  9. Full microwave synthesis of advanced Li-rich manganese based cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shaojun; Zhang, Saisai; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Ting; Zong, Jianbo; Zhao, Mengxi; Yang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    In technologically important Li-rich layered cathode materials, the synthesis time is a critical determinant to overcome the practical difficulties. Normal technology costs at least one day or even more to obtain final Li-rich cathode material. Full microwave synthesis is performed here to obtain final Li1.2Mn0.56Ni0.16Co0.08O2 within 60 min with high time-efficiency and power economization. The as-prepared Li-rich oxides keep the spherical hierarchical structure of the precursor. Compared to the same material obtained by traditional calcination, it exhibits well-formed layered structure with higher ordered ion arrangement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that microwave assisted heating contributes to a more ordered and stable surface with desired Mn, Co, Ni element states and less impurity. Thus, the as-prepared material reveals remarkable electrochemical property with high discharge capacity of 159.3 mAh g-1 at high current density of 2000 mA g-1. And 88.6% specific capacity is remained after 300 cycles at such high current density. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) are carried out to overall investigate and estimate the material. It is concluded that such full microwave synthesis is really promising as one of the dominant way to obtain Li-rich layered cathode material for applications.

  10. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO4 and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar(University of Delhi, Delhi, India); Thomas, R.; N. K. Karan; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; M K Singh; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and carbon-coated LiFePO4 (C-LiFePO4) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon...

  11. Transition metal alloy-modulated lithium manganese oxide nanosystem for energy storage in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Li(sup+) ion charge and discharge. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s(sup-1) cyclic voltammetry of the pure LiMn(sub2)O(sub4) cathode material in 1 M LiPF(sub6)/electrolyte solution, showed two sets of redox peaks with a third observed at lower potentials...

  12. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Jiulin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Ding, Fei [Tianjin Inst. of Power Sources (China); Chen, Xilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nasybulin, Eduard N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Yaohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harbin Inst. of Technology (China); Zhang, Jiguang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  13. Heteroatomic SenS8-n Molecules Confined in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbons as Reversible Cathode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fugen; Cheng, Hongye; Chen, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Nan; Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-09-27

    A reversible cathode material in an ether-based electrolyte for high-energy lithium batteries was successfully fabricated by homogeneously confining heteroatomic SenS8-n molecules into nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (NMCs) via a facile melt-impregnation route. The resultant SenS8-n/NMC composites exhibit highly reversible electrochemical behavior, where selenium sulfides are recovered through the reversible conversion of polysulfoselenide intermediates during discharge-charge cycles. The recovery of selenium sulfide molecules endows the SenS8-n/NMC cathodes with the rational integration of S and Se cathodes. Density functional theory calculations further reveal that heteroatomic selenium sulfide molecules with higher polarizability could bind more strongly with NMCs than homoatomic sulfur molecules, which provides more efficient suppression of the shuttling phenomenon. Therefore, with further assistance of mesopore confinement of the nitrogen-doped carbons, the Se2S6/NMC composite with an optimal Se/S mole ratio of 2/6 presents excellent cycle stability with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% and a high reversible capacity of 883 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles and 780 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 250 mA g(-1). These encouraging results suggest that the heteroatomization of chalcogen (such as S, Se, or Te) molecules in mesostructured carbon hosts is a promising strategy in enhancing the electrochemical performances of chalcogen/carbon-based cathodes for Li batteries.

  14. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  15. Li2S@C composite incorporated into 3D reduced graphene oxide as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Xie, D.; Yang, T.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Surface conductive engineering on Li2S is critical for construction of advanced cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we construct a high-performance Li2S-based composite cathode with the help of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3D-rGO) network and outer carbon coating. Typically, the Li2S@C particles are uniformly embedded into 3D-rGO to form a binder-free 3D-rGO-Li2S@C cathode by the combination of a liquid solution-evaporation coating and PVP (Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone) carbonization. The 3D-rGO-Li2S@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 856 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, superior cycling stability with a capacity of 388.4 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 1C, corresponding to a low capacity fading rate. It is demonstrated that the outer conductive coating is effective and necessary for electrochemical enhancement of Li2S cathodes by improving electrical conductivity and prohibiting polysulfide from shuttling during cycling.

  16. Highly rechargeable lithium-CO{sub 2} batteries with a boron- and nitrogen-codoped holey-graphene cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qie, Long; Xu, Jiantie; Dai, Liming [Center of Advanced Science and Engineering for Carbon, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lin, Yi [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA (United States); Connell, John W. [Advanced Materials and Processing Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Metal-air batteries, especially Li-air batteries, have attracted significant research attention in the past decade. However, the electrochemical reactions between CO{sub 2} (0.04 % in ambient air) with Li anode may lead to the irreversible formation of insulating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, making the battery less rechargeable. To make the Li-CO{sub 2} batteries usable under ambient conditions, it is critical to develop highly efficient catalysts for the CO{sub 2} reduction and evolution reactions and investigate the electrochemical behavior of Li-CO{sub 2} batteries. Here, we demonstrate a rechargeable Li-CO{sub 2} battery with a high reversibility by using B,N-codoped holey graphene as a highly efficient catalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction and evolution reactions. Benefiting from the unique porous holey nanostructure and high catalytic activity of the cathode, the as-prepared Li-CO{sub 2} batteries exhibit high reversibility, low polarization, excellent rate performance, and superior long-term cycling stability over 200 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 A g{sup -1}. Our results open up new possibilities for the development of long-term Li-air batteries reusable under ambient conditions, and the utilization and storage of CO{sub 2}. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  18. Sulfur/graphitic hollow carbon sphere nano-composite as a cathode material for high-power lithium-sulfur battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eon Sung; Kim, Min-Seop; Cho, Won Il; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2013-08-03

    The intrinsic low conductivity of sulfur which leads to a low performance at a high current rate is one of the most limiting factors for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur battery. Here, we present an easy and convenient method to synthesize a mono-dispersed hollow carbon sphere with a thin graphitic wall which can be utilized as a support with a good electrical conductivity for the preparation of sulfur/carbon nano-composite cathode. The hollow carbon sphere was prepared from the pyrolysis of the homogenous mixture of the mono-dispersed spherical silica and Fe-phthalocyanine powder in elevated temperature. The composite cathode was manufactured by infiltrating sulfur melt into the inner side of the graphitic wall. The electrochemical cycling shows a capacity of 425 mAh g-1 at 3 C current rate which is more than five times larger than that for the sulfur/carbon black nano-composite prepared by simple ball milling.

  19. 3D Porous Graphene Aerogel Cathode with High Sulfur Loading and Embedded TiO2 Nanoparticles for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Qiu; Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Zheng-Long; Chong, Woon Gie; Qin, Xianying; Wang, Xiangyu; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2016-10-07

    Three-dimensional graphene aerogel/TiO2/sulfur (GA/TiO2/S) composites are synthesized through a facile, one-pot hydrothermal route as the cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries. With a high sulfur content of 75.1 wt%, the conductive, highly porous composite electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 512 mAh/g after 250 cycles at a current rate of 1 C with a low capacity decay of 0.128% per cycle. The excellent capacities and cyclic stability arise from several unique functional features of the cathode. (i) The conductive graphene aerogel framework ameliorates ion/electron transfer while accommodating the volume expansion induced during discharge; and (ii) TiO2 nanoparticles play an important role in restricting the dissolution of polysulfides by chemical bonds with sulfur.

  20. Facile design and synthesis of Li-rich nanoplates cathodes with habit-tuned crystal for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jili; Jia, Tiekun; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Jian; Cao, Chuanbao

    2016-11-01

    Li-ion batteries with high-energy and high-power density are pursued to apply in the electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems. In this work, layered Li-rich transition-metal oxide cathode Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoplates with enhanced growth of {010} planes (LNMO-NP) is successfully synthesized through a facile and versatile strategy. Ethylene glycol plays an important role in the formation of LNMO-NP nanoplates with {010} electrochemically active surface planes exposure. As cathode for Li-ion batteries, LNMO-NP demonstrates a high specific discharge capacity of 270.2 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 300 mA g-1) and an excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanoplates with the growth of {010} electrochemically active planes which is in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and rate capability performance of the micro-porous MnO{sub 2} nanowires as cathode material in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Ranjusha; S, Sonia T.; S, Roshny; V, Lakshmi [Nano Solar Division, Amrita Centre for Nanosciences, Kochi 682 041 (India); Kalluri, Sujith [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Kim, Taik Nam [Department of Materials Engineering, Paichai University, Daejeon 302-735 (Korea, Republic of); Nair, Shantikumar V. [Nano Solar Division, Amrita Centre for Nanosciences, Kochi 682 041 (India); Balakrishnan, A., E-mail: avinash.balakrishnan@gmail.com [Nano Solar Division, Amrita Centre for Nanosciences, Kochi 682 041 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Translating MnO{sub 2} nanowires as cathode materials in coin cell and studying their discharge behavior and cycling stability at different C-rates. - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} nanowires have been synthesized via hydrothermal route. • The nanowires were employed as cathode materials in Li-batteries. • Discharge and cycling stability were studied at different C-rates. • Specific capacity and power density of 251 mAh g{sup −1} and 200 W kg{sup −1} were attained. - Abstract: A peculiar architecture of one-dimensional MnO{sub 2} nanowires was synthesized by an optimized hydrothermal route and has been lucratively exploited to fabricate highly efficient microporous electrode overlays for lithium batteries. These fabricated electrodes comprised of interconnected nanoscale units with wire-shaped profile which exhibits high aspect ratio in the order of 10{sup 2}. Their outstanding intercalation/de-intercalation prerogatives have also been studied to fabricate lithium coin cells which revealed a significant specific capacity and power density of 251 mAh g{sup −1} and 200 W kg{sup −1}, respectively. A detailed electrochemical study was performed to elucidate how surface morphology and redox reaction behaviors underlying these electrodes influence the cyclic behavior of the electrode. Rate capability tests at different C-rates were performed to evaluate the capacity and cycling performance of these coin cells.

  2. First-principles modelling of lithium iron oxides as battery cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catti, Michele; Montero-Campillo, Merced

    Starting from published charge/discharge curves and X-ray data on Pmmn-LiFeO 2 and LiFe 5O 8 as cathode materials vs. Li anode, a scheme of electrochemical reactions is proposed to explain the unclear electrode functionality of the 'corrugated layer' LiFeO 2 phase. The scheme was validated by quantum-mechanical calculations (CRYSTAL09 code, hybrid B3LYP Hamiltonian) on a number of structural models for Li 1- xFeO 2, LiFe 5O 8, and Li 3Fe 5O 8. Magnetic interactions were taken into account, finding antiferromagnetic (Li 1- xFeO 2) and ferrimagnetic (LiFe 5O 8 and Li 3Fe 5O 8) orderings as stable states. At variance with spinel-like LiFe 5O 8, Li 3Fe 5O 8 displays a rocksalt-type superstructure. The computed energies for reactions (I) 4LiFeO 2 → 4Li 0.75FeO 2 + Li, (II) 4Li 0.75FeO 2 + Li → 4/5LiFe 5O 8 + 8/5Li 2O, and (III) 1/2LiFe 5O 8 + Li ↔ 1/2Li 3Fe 5O 8 are 4.44, -3.62, and -2.10 eV, respectively. Such values compare satisfactorily with the average charge/discharge voltages observed for positive electrodes made up of Pmmn-LiFeO 2 and of LiFe 5O 8.

  3. Synthesis and rate performance of lithium vanadium phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Bing, E-mail: huangbingbzu@sina.com [Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603 (China); Fan Xiaoping [Military Representative Office in ChangHong Group, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000 (China); Zheng Xiaodong; Lu Mi [Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603 (China)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite is sphere-like with carbon-coated. > The composite containing large amount of ultrafine particles linked together. > The synthesis method is two-session-ball-milling-assisted spray-drying. > The discharge capacity is 100 mAh g{sup -1} at 20 C rate in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V. - Abstract: A sphere-like carbon-coated Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} composite was synthesized by carbothermal reduction method with two sessions of ball milling followed by spray-drying with the dispersant of polyethylene glycol added. The structure, particle size, and surface morphology of the cathode material were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite has a sphere-like morphology composed of a large number of carbon-coated ultrafine particles linked together with a monoclinic structure. In the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, it exhibits the discharge capacities of 130 mAh g{sup -1} and 100 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.2 C and 20 C rates, respectively. This behavior indicates that the obtained Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C material has excellent rate capability.

  4. Novel cathode materials LixNa2-xV2O6 (x = 2, 1.4, 1, 0) for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiqi; Cao, Liufei; Huang, Zheng; Chen, Liang; Chen, Zhongxue; Fu, Chaopeng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, sodium doped LiVO3 cathode is proposed to achieve enhanced cycling performance for lithium ion battery (LIB) application. LixNa2-xV2O6 (x = 2, 1.4, 1, 0) compounds have been prepared and characterized, and X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the successful Na doping with various amounts in the LiVO3. The electrochemical performances of the various Na doped compounds LiVO3, Li1.4Na0.6V2O6, LiNaV2O6, and NaVO3 are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results reveal that Na-doping amount strongly affects the electrochemical performance, and LiNaV2O6 (x = 1) is considered as the optimized Na doped compound for LIB cathodes. The LiNaV2O6 cathode displays enhanced cycling and rate performances as a specific capacity of 193 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C after 100 cycles is delivered. The enhanced performance is explained that the doping of Na can provide good channels and increase Li+ diffusion coefficient for lithium ion intercalation/deintercalation.

  5. Preparation, structure study and electrochemistry of layered H2V3O8 materials: High capacity lithium-ion battery cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Bhowmik, Arghya; Pan, Jaysree; Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-10-01

    The present study explores H2V3O8 as high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB's). Despite having high discharge capacity, H2V3O8 material suffers from poor electrochemical stability for prolonged cycle life. Ultra-long H2V3O8 nanobelts with ordered crystallographic patterns are synthesized via a hydrothermal process to mitigate this problem. The growth of the crystal is facile along [001] direction, and the most common surface is (001) as suggested by Wulff construction study. Electrochemical performance of H2V3O8 cathode is tested against Li/Li+ at various current rates. At 50 mA g-1current rate, it delivers a discharge capacity of 308 mAh g-1, whereas, at 3000 mA g-1, an initial discharge capacity of 144 mAh g-1 is observed and stabilized at 100 mAh g-1 till 500 cycles. Further, the density functional theory (DFT) based simulations study of both the pristine and lithiated phase of H2V3O8 cathode materials is undertaken. DFT study reveals the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl unit in the framework of the host. In correlation, the magnetic property of vanadium atoms is examined in detail with through partial density of states (PDOS) calculation during three stage lithiation processes and evaluating various potential steps involved in lithium insertion.

  6. A sulfur-polyacrylonitrile/graphene composite cathode for lithium batteries with excellent cyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Kai; Li, Mingqi; Gosselink, Denise; Zhang, Yongguang; Chen, P.

    2014-04-01

    A sulfur-polyacrylonitrile/reduced graphene oxide (SPAN/RGO) composite with unique electrochemical properties is prepared via deposition of PAN on the surface of RGO sheets followed by ball milling with sulfur and heat treatment. Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy studies indicate that the composite consists of RGO decorated by SPAN particles of 100 nm average size. The SPAN/RGO composite shows good overall electrochemical performance when used in Li-S batteries. It exhibits ∼85% retention of the initial reversible capacity of 1467 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at a constant current rate of 0.1C and retains 1100 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. In addition, the composite displays excellent Coulombic efficiency and rate capability, delivering up to 828 mAh g-1 reversible capacity at 2C. The improved performance stems from the composition and structure of the composite, wherein RGO renders a robust electron transport framework and PAN matrix help suppresses the shuttle effect by absorbing sulfur/polysulfides.

  7. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangping, E-mail: chenxiangping101@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Hongrui, E-mail: mahr@sust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Luo, Chuanbao; Zhou, Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt can be directly recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} from waste LiCoO{sub 2} using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as leaching and precipitating agent. - Highlights: • Phosphoric acid was innovatively used as leaching and precipitating agent. • Over 99% Co and Li can be separated and recovered in a single leaching step. • Co and Li can be separated under mild conditions of 40 °C and 0.7 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • Activation energy values for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.168 kJ/mol. • Cobalt phosphate (97.1% in purity) can be obtained as the leaching product. - Abstract: Sustainable recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) may be necessary to alleviate the depletion of strategic metal resources and potential risk of environmental pollution. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the recovery of valuable metals from the cathode materials (LiCoO{sub 2}) of spent LIBs using phosphoric acid as both leaching and precipitating agent under mild leaching conditions. According to the leaching results, over 99% Co can be separated and recovered as Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} in a short-cut process involved merely with leaching and filtrating, under the optimized leaching conditions of 40 °C (T), 60 min (t), 4 vol.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 20 mL g{sup −1} (L/S) and 0.7 mol/L H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Then leaching kinetics was investigated based on the logarithmic rate kinetics model and the obtained results indicate that the leaching of Co and Li fits well with this model and the activation energies (Ea) for Co and Li are 7.3 and 10.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, it can be discovered from characterization results that the obtained product is 97.1% pure cobalt phosphate (Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}).

  8. Chemical Synthesis, Computational Modeling, and Surface Reactions of Silicon Nanotube Anodes and Silicate Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured materials show significant promise in enhancing the performance and safety of Li-ion batteries at greatly reduced cost. We highlight certain classes of materials for next generation anodes, cathodes, and solid electrolytes in addition to interface reactions and show how advanced chemical spectroscopy and first principles modeling can be utilized to improve battery performance and stability. In this work, we utilize advanced materials characterization techniques (in-situ XPS and FTIR, Raman, AFM, XRD) to elucidate the chemical bonding, nanostructure, and electrochemical properties that lead to improved storage capabilities in these materials. We describe the recent progress in chemical synthesis methods of fabricating hydrogenated amorphous-Si nanotube anodes and tetrahedral transition metal silicate cathodes (Li2MSiO4) , which may be well-suited for future technologies. Additionally, insight into the redox potentials and ionic and electronic conductivities has been investigated using first-principles modeling. Our findings suggest that high-voltage, multi-component Li2MSiO4 cathodes (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) with high Mn content are strong candidates for future Li-ion batteries. Inorganic solid electrolytes are also discussed highlighting their potential for improved safety, increased ionic conductivities, and stability against adverse reactions with the electrodes. Finally, we illustrate the complexity of interfacial chemistry in these new materials and the need for advanced spectroscopic characterization to make progress on all aspects of electrode and electrolyte development.

  9. Temperature-dependent oxygen behavior of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Kim, Su Jae; Jeong, Myung Yung; Lee, Seongsu; Rim, Young Hoon; Yang, Yong Suk

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the temperature-dependent oxygen behavior in the lithium battery cathode LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) materials in the temperature range 30-1000 °C. As the temperature increases, oxygen release occurs and the change of crystal structures from the face centered cubic spinel at 30 °C to other phases follows. The amount of released oxygen and the changed crystalline phases are dependent on Li content and temperature. These phenomena are reversible against temperature in air, but not in vacuum and argon gas environments. This study illustrates the important role of temperature and atmospheric environments in synthesizing the LNMO battery materials.

  10. Lithium-air batteries, method for making lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Stefan; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Tyo, Eric C.

    2016-11-15

    The invention provides a method for generating Li.sub.2O.sub.2 or composites of it, the method uses mixing lithium ions with oxygen ions in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst comprises a plurality of metal clusters, their alloys and mixtures, each cluster consisting of between 3 and 18 metal atoms. The invention also describes a lithium-air battery which uses a lithium metal anode, and a cathode opposing the anode. The cathode supports metal clusters, each cluster consisting of size selected clusters, taken from a range of between approximately 3 and approximately 18 metal atoms, and an electrolyte positioned between the anode and the cathode.

  11. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  12. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R.; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R. Vasant

    2014-05-01

    A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector thus decreasing the weight of the cathode by typically ~20-30 wt%. A Li-S battery with the sulphur-FLG foam cathode shows good electrochemical stability and high rate discharge capacity retention for up to 400 discharge/charge cycles at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. Even after 400 cycles the capacity decay is only ~0.064% per cycle relative to the early (e.g. the 5th cycle) discharge capacity, while yielding an average columbic efficiency of ~96.2%. Our results indicate the potential suitability of graphene foam for efficient, ultra-light and high-performance batteries.A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector

  13. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV3O8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g(-1) at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g(-1), respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1). The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V(4+)) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV3O8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV3O8 without detectable V(4+) (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  14. A density functional theory study on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of anthraquinone analogue cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Jing; Qin, Xiao-Ya; He, Rongxing; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhao, Liu-Bin

    2017-05-21

    Organic redox compounds have become the emerging electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The high electrochemical performance provides organic electrode materials with great opportunities to be applied in electric energy storage devices. Among the different types of organic materials, conjugated carbonyl compounds are the most promising type at present, because only they can simultaneously achieve, high energy density, high cycling stability, and high power density. In this research, a series of heteroatom substituted anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives were designed theoretically so that the high theoretical capacity of AQ remained. The discharge and charge mechanism as well as the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ and its derivatives were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. Using heteroatom substitution, both the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ as cathode materials could be largely improved. Among these conjugated carboxyl compounds, BDOZD and BDIOZD with a simultaneously high theoretical capacity and high working potential exhibit the largest energy density of about 780 W h kg(-1), which is 41% larger than that of AQ. The PQD with the smallest value of λ gives the largest charge transfer rate constant, which is about four times as large as the prototype molecule, AQ. The most interesting finding is that the lithium ion transfer plays a very important role in influencing both the discharge potential and electrochemical charge transfer rate. The present study illustrates that theoretical calculations provide a highly effective way to discover potential materials for use with rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  15. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  16. Achieving high capacity and rate capability in layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Juhyeon; Susanto, Dieky; Noh, Jae-Kyo; Ali, Ghulam; Cho, Byung Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we target to find a new composition for a layered mixed metal oxide, which has a high structural stability and a good electrochemical performance. Our strategy is to alter the transition metal composition focusing on the relative amounts of redox active Ni and Co to the inactive Mn, based on highly-stabilized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses show that the degree of cation disorder decreases on increasing the ratio of Ni and Co to Mn, by the presence of Ni3+, suggesting that slightly higher Ni and Co contents lead to improved structural stability. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 cathodes exhibit considerable improvements in both the reversible capacity and the rate capabilities at a voltage range of 2.5-4.6 V. In situ XRD measurements reveal that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 maintains a single-phase and undergoes lesser structural variations compared to controlled compositions during a delithiation process up to 4.6 V, while achieving a high reversible capacity over 200 mAh g-1. As a result, LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 experiences fewer structural degradations during electrochemical cycling, which explains the excellent long-term cycling performance.

  17. Improvement of Energy Capacity with Vitamin C Treated Dual-Layered Graphene-Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Won; Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Ho-Sung; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-09-07

    A graphene-based cathode design for lithium-sulfur batteries (LSB) that shows excellent electrochemical performance is proposed. The dual-layered cathode is composed of a sulfur active layer and a polysulfide absorption layer, and both layers are based on vitamin C treated graphene oxide at various degrees of reduction. By controlling the degree of reduction of graphene, the dual-layered cathode can increase sulfur utilization dramatically owing to the uniform formation of nanosized sulfur particles, the chemical bonding of dissolved polysulfides on the oxygen-rich sulfur active layer, and the physisorption of free polysulfides on the absorption layer. This approach enables a LSB with a high specific capacity of over 600 mAh gsulfur (-1) after 100 cycles even under a high current rate of 1C (1675 mA gsulfur (-1) ). An intriguing aspect of our work is the synthesis of a high-performance dual-layered cathode by a green chemistry method, which could be a promising approach to LSBs with high energy and power densities.

  18. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF. PMID:27553901

  19. Long-Life Nickel-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes with a Uniform Li2ZrO3 Surface Coating for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bohang; Li, Wangda; Oh, Seung-Min; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-22

    As nickel-rich layered oxide cathodes start to attract worldwide interest for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries, their long-term cyclability in full cells remains a challenge for electric vehicles. Here we report a long-life Ni-rich layered oxide cathode (LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2) with a uniform surface coating of the cathode particles with Li2ZrO3. A pouch-type full cell fabricated with the Li2ZrO3-coated cathode and a graphite anode displays 73.3% capacity retention after 1500 cycles at a C/3 rate. The Li2ZrO3 coating has been optimized by a systematic study with different synthesis approaches, annealing temperatures, and coating amounts. The complex relationship among the coating conditions, uniformity, and morphology of the coating layer and their impacts on the electrochemical properties are discussed in detail.

  20. Thermal and electrochemical decomposition of lithium peroxide in non-catalyzed carbon cathodes for Li-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, H; Meini, S; Tsiouvaras, N; Piana, M; Gasteiger, H A

    2013-07-14

    The decomposition of lithium peroxide during the charging process of lithium-air batteries is investigated. A novel preparation method for electrodes in the discharged state, i.e., prefilled with Li2O2 using polyethylene oxide as a binder, is presented. The composition and reactivity of Li2O2-prefilled electrodes are examined by thermal analysis coupled with on-line mass spectrometry. Voltage profiles and gas evolution during the charging process of Li2O2-prefilled electrodes in battery cells are correlated with the thermal decomposition process of Li2O2 and its impact on other electrode compounds. It is found that both thermal Li2O2 decomposition and the electrochemical decomposition of Li2O2 during charging enhance the oxidation of the electrolyte, the binder, and/or carbon, which is suggested to be due to the formation of "nascent" oxygen during Li2O2 decomposition into O2 and Li2O (thermally) or into O2 and lithium ions (electrochemically).

  1. Sustainable Sulfur-rich Copolymer/Graphene Composite as Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode with Excellent Electrochemical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shukla, Swapnil; Khosla, Gaganpreet Singh; Lochab, Bimlesh; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-04-01

    A sulfur-rich copolymer, poly(S-r-C-a) has been synthesized via a sustainable route, showing the utility of two major industrial wastes- elemental sulfur (petroleum waste) and cardanol (agro waste), to explore its potential as cathode material for Li-S batteries. The sulfur-rich copolymer exhibited a reduction in the active material dissolution into the electrolyte and a low self-discharge rate behavior during the rest time compared to an elemental sulfur cathode, indicating the chemical confinement of sulfur units. The presence of organosulfur moieties in copolymer suppress the irreversible deposition of end-discharge products on electrode surfaces and thus improve the electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries. This sulfur copolymer offered a reversible capacity of 892 mA h g‑1 at 2nd cycle and maintained the capacity of 528 mA h g‑1 after 50 cycles at 200 mA g‑1. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared via a sustainable route was used as a conductive filler to extract the better electrochemical performances from this sulfur copolymer. Such sustainable origin batteries prepared via economically viable showed an improved specific capacity of ~975 mA h g‑1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g‑1 current rate with capacity fading of 0.15% per cycle and maintained a stable performance over 500 cycles at 2000 mA g‑1.

  2. Lithium Polymer Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    formation of the galvanic cell , lithium foil approximately 150 µm thick and with an area of 0.785 cm2 was placed on top of the pressed electrolyte/cathode...pellet. The entire galvanic cell fabricated in this configuration was hermetically sealed and under pressure. A Tenney environmental chamber was

  3. Structural and Electrical Properties of Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Battery Using the LiFePO4/Carbon Cathode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sung; Jeoung, Tae-Hoon; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jea-Chul; Lee, Sung-Gap

    2015-03-01

    LiFePO4/C composite powder as cathode material and graphite powder as anode material for Li-ion batteries were synthesized by using the sol-gel method. An electrochemical improvement of LiFePO4 materials has been achieved by adding polyvinyl alcohol as a carbon source into as-prepared materials. The samples were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-EM). The chemical composition of LiFePO4/C powders was in a good agreement with that of the starting solution. The capacity loss after 500 cycles of LiFePO4/C cell is 11.1% in room temperature. These superior electrochemical properties show that LiFePO4/C composite materials are promising candidates as cathode materials.

  4. Modification of lithium iron phosphate of lithium-ion battery cathode material%锂离子电池正极材料磷酸铁锂的改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈孟锋; 李凝; 付憧津; 卢娜; 王俊芳

    2011-01-01

    磷酸铁锂(LiFePO4)作为新兴的一种Li+动力电池正极材料,具有安全性好、价格低廉、循环性能好、结构稳定等其他锂离子材料无可比拟的优点,是现代商业化锂离子电池首选的正极活性材料.综述了LiFePO4正极材料的充放电机理及提高LiFePO4电化学性能的改性现状:表面包覆、掺杂金属离子及纳米颗粒改性.最后指出利用纳米粒子效应,合成纳米LiFePO4颗粒正极材料具有更深远的现实意义.%Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a new cathode material for Li* battery with a better safety, lower cost, better cycle performance, and structural stability advantages than that of other lithium-ion materials, which is a choice of an active cathode material in modern commercial lithium-ion battery firstly. The charge and discharge mechanism of LiFePO4 cathode material was reviewed in this text, and the modification including surface coat, doping metal ions and nanoparticles to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 were also discussed. The preparation of nano-particle LiFePO4 cathode material was pointed out by nano-particle action effects at last, with a more far-reaching practical significance.

  5. Room temperature large-scale synthesis of layered frameworks as low-cost 4 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, A. Shahul; Reddy, M. V.; Nagarathinam, M.; Runčevski, Tomče; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Adams, Stefan; Chowdari, B. V. R.; Vittal, Jagadese J.

    2015-11-01

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as the best available technology to push forward the production of eco-friendly electric vehicles (EVs) and for the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Transformation from conventional vehicles to EVs are hindered by the high upfront price of the EVs and are mainly due to the high cost of LIBs. Hence, cost reduction of LIBs is one of the major strategies to bring forth the EVs to compete in the market with their gasoline counterparts. In our attempt to produce cheaper high-performance cathode materials for LIBs, an rGO/MOPOF (reduced graphene oxide/Metal-Organic Phosphate Open Framework) nanocomposite with ~4 V of operation has been developed by a cost effective room temperature synthesis that eliminates any expensive post-synthetic treatments at high temperature under Ar/Ar-H2. Firstly, an hydrated nanocomposite, rGO/K2[(VO)2(HPO4)2(C2O4)]·4.5H2O has been prepared by simple magnetic stirring at room temperature which releases water to form the anhydrous cathode material while drying at 90 °C during routine electrode fabrication procedure. The pristine MOPOF material undergoes highly reversible lithium storage, however with capacity fading. Enhanced lithium cycling has been witnessed with rGO/MOPOF nanocomposite which exhibits minimal capacity fading thanks to increased electronic conductivity and enhanced Li diffusivity.

  6. Room temperature large-scale synthesis of layered frameworks as low-cost 4 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, A. Shahul; Reddy, M. V.; Nagarathinam, M.; Runčevski, Tomče; Dinnebier, Robert E; Adams, Stefan; Chowdari, B. V. R.; Vittal, Jagadese J.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as the best available technology to push forward the production of eco-friendly electric vehicles (EVs) and for the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Transformation from conventional vehicles to EVs are hindered by the high upfront price of the EVs and are mainly due to the high cost of LIBs. Hence, cost reduction of LIBs is one of the major strategies to bring forth the EVs to compete in the market with their gasoline counterparts. In our attempt to produce cheaper high-performance cathode materials for LIBs, an rGO/MOPOF (reduced graphene oxide/Metal-Organic Phosphate Open Framework) nanocomposite with ~4 V of operation has been developed by a cost effective room temperature synthesis that eliminates any expensive post-synthetic treatments at high temperature under Ar/Ar-H2. Firstly, an hydrated nanocomposite, rGO/K2[(VO)2(HPO4)2(C2O4)]·4.5H2O has been prepared by simple magnetic stirring at room temperature which releases water to form the anhydrous cathode material while drying at 90 °C during routine electrode fabrication procedure. The pristine MOPOF material undergoes highly reversible lithium storage, however with capacity fading. Enhanced lithium cycling has been witnessed with rGO/MOPOF nanocomposite which exhibits minimal capacity fading thanks to increased electronic conductivity and enhanced Li diffusivity. PMID:26593096

  7. Room temperature large-scale synthesis of layered frameworks as low-cost 4 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, A Shahul; Reddy, M V; Nagarathinam, M; Runčevski, Tomče; Dinnebier, Robert E; Adams, Stefan; Chowdari, B V R; Vittal, Jagadese J

    2015-11-23

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as the best available technology to push forward the production of eco-friendly electric vehicles (EVs) and for the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Transformation from conventional vehicles to EVs are hindered by the high upfront price of the EVs and are mainly due to the high cost of LIBs. Hence, cost reduction of LIBs is one of the major strategies to bring forth the EVs to compete in the market with their gasoline counterparts. In our attempt to produce cheaper high-performance cathode materials for LIBs, an rGO/MOPOF (reduced graphene oxide/Metal-Organic Phosphate Open Framework) nanocomposite with ~4 V of operation has been developed by a cost effective room temperature synthesis that eliminates any expensive post-synthetic treatments at high temperature under Ar/Ar-H2. Firstly, an hydrated nanocomposite, rGO/K2[(VO)2(HPO4)2(C2O4)]·4.5H2O has been prepared by simple magnetic stirring at room temperature which releases water to form the anhydrous cathode material while drying at 90 °C during routine electrode fabrication procedure. The pristine MOPOF material undergoes highly reversible lithium storage, however with capacity fading. Enhanced lithium cycling has been witnessed with rGO/MOPOF nanocomposite which exhibits minimal capacity fading thanks to increased electronic conductivity and enhanced Li diffusivity.

  8. Nitrogen-doped MOF-derived micropores carbon as immobilizer for small sulfur molecules as a cathode for lithium sulfur batteries with excellent electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqiang; Yin, Longwei

    2015-02-25

    Nitrogen-doped carbon (NDC) spheres with abundant 22 nm mesopores and 0.5 nm micropores are obtained by directly carbonization of nitrogen-contained metal organic framework (MOF) nanocrystals. Large S8 and small S2-4 molecules are successfully infiltrated into 22 nm mesopores and 0.5 nm micropores, respectively. We successfully investigate the effect of sulfur immobilization in mesopores and micropores on the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery based on NDC-sulfur hybrid cathodes. The large S8 molecules in 22 nm mesopores can be removed by a prolonged heat treatment, with only small molecules of S2-4 immobilized in micropores of NDC matrices. The NDC/S2-4 hybrid exhibits excellent cycling performance, high Coulombic efficiency, and good rate capability as cathode for Li-S batteries. The confinement of smaller S2-4 molecules in the micropores of NDS efficiently avoids the loss of active sulfur and formation of soluble high-order Li polysulfides. The porous carbon can buffer the volume expansion and contraction changes, promising a stable structure for cathode. Furthermore, N doping in MOF-derived carbon not only facilitates the fast charge transfer but also is helpful in building a stronger interaction between carbon and sulfur, strengthening immobilization ability of S2-4 in micropores. The NDS-sulfur hybrid cathode exhibits a reversible capacity of 936.5 mAh g(-1) at 100th cycle with a Coulombic efficiency of 100% under a current density of 335 mA g(-1). It displays a superior rate capability performance, delivering a capacity of 632 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 5 A g(-1). This uniquely porous NDC derived from MOF nanocrystals could be applied in related high-energy storage devices.

  9. Electrochemical analysis of the effect of Cr coating the LiV3O8 cathode in a lithium ion battery with a lithium powder anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ha; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2013-08-14

    Rechargeable 2032-coin-type cells were produced with Li-powder anodes (i.e., Li-powder electrodes, LPEs) and either Cr-coated lithium trivanadate (Li1+xV3O8, LVO) cathodes or uncoated LVO cathodes. The initial discharge capacity of a cell with an LPE and a Cr-coated LVO cathode (Cellcoated) was 252 mAh g(-1) at a 0.2 C-rate and that of a cell with an LPE and an uncoated LVO cathode (Cellbare) was 223 mAh g(-1). After the 50th cycle, Cellcoated exhibited higher capacity retention (about 89%) than Cellbare (about 78%). Changes in the surface morphology of the Cr-coated LVO cathode were observed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The change in the electrical conductivity of the cell was measured using the impedance analysis. The electrochemical properties of the cells were also evaluated based on the differential capacity curve, voltage profiles, and capacity versus number of cycles.

  10. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-10-25

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  11. A Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material for use in hybrid lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixin; Ji, Xiaobo; Pan, Chengchi; Zhu, Yirong; Chen, Qiyuan; Banks, Craig E

    2013-09-14

    A NASICON-structure Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material prepared by carbothermal reduction method is employed in a hybrid-ion battery with Li-involved electrolyte and anode. The ion-transportation mechanism is firstly investigated in this complicated system for an open three-dimensional framework Na3V2(PO4)3. Ion-exchange is greatly influenced by the standing time, for example, the 1 hour battery presents a specific capacity of 128 mA h g(-1) while the 24 hour battery exhibits a value of 148 mA h g(-1) with improved rate and cycling performances over existing literature reported Li-ion batteries. In the hybrid-ion system, an ion-exchange process likely takes place between the two Na(2) sites in the rhombohedral structure. NaLi2V2(PO4)3 could be produced by ion-transportation since the Na(+) in the Na(1) site is stationary and the three Na(2) sites could be used to accommodate the incoming alkali ions; Li(x)Na(y)V2(PO4)3 would come out when the vacant site in Na(2) was occupied depending on the applied voltage range. The reported methodology and power characteristics are greater than those previously reported.

  12. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  13. A truncated octahedral spinel LiMn2O4 as high-performance cathode material for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caihua; Tang, Zilong; Wang, Shitong; Zhang, Zhongtai

    2017-07-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a promising cathode candidate for lithium ion batteries whose electrochemical properties strongly depend on the surface orientation. In this work, we have successfully synthesized a high crystalline and well-defined truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 through the hydrothermal and heat treatment. The main {111} facets are aligned along the orientations mitigating Mn dissolution while the truncated {100} and {110} facets are along those facilitating Li+ diffusion. Benefiting from the unique structure, the octahedral LiMn2O4 delivers 143.4 mAh g-1 (close to the theoretical capacity of 148 mAh g-1) at 0.2 C and over 120 mAh g-1 at 30 C (discharged within 2 min) at 55 °C. Moreover, the fabricated LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 full cell demonstrates 121.6 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 56.0 mAh g-1 at 30 C with ∼81.2% capacity retention following 1000 cycles. The facilely synthesized truncated octahedral LiMn2O4 shows great potentials in practical applications for ultrafast and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  14. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  15. Soft-contact conductive carbon enabling depolarization of LiFePO4 cathodes to enhance both capacity and rate performances of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenju; Wang, Kai; Yang, Jinlong; Tan, Rui; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Duan, Yandong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Conductive nanocarbons generally are used as the electronic conductive additives to contact with active materials to generate conductive network for electrodes of commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). A typical of LiFePO4 (LFP), which has been widely used as cathode material for LIBs with low electronic conductivity, needs higher quantity of conductive nanocarbons to enhance the performance for cathode electrodes. In this work, we systematically studied three types of conductive nanocarbons and related performances in the LFP electrodes, and classify them as hard/soft-contact conductive carbon (named as H/SCC), respectively, according to their crystallite size, surface graphite-defect, specific surface area and porous structure, in which SCC can generate much larger contact area with active nano-particles of cathode materials than that of HCC. It is found that LFP nanocrystals wrapped in SCC networks perform significantly enhanced both capacity and rate performance than that in HCC. Combined experiments with multiphysics simulation, the mechanism is that LFP nanoparticles embedded in SCC with large contact area enable to generate higher depolarized effects with a relatively uniform current density vector (is) and lithium flux vector (NLi) than that in HCC. This discovery will guide us to how to design LIBs by selective using conductive carbon for high-performance LIBs.

  16. In situ XAFS of the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2} cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, J.; Johnson, C. S.

    2000-01-17

    The layered LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} system is being considered as a new cathode material for the lithium-ion battery. Compared with LiCoO{sub 2}, the standard cathode formulation, it possesses improved electrochemical performance at a projected lower cost. In situ x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) measurements were conducted on a cell cycled at a moderate rate and normal Li-ion operating voltages (3.0--4.1 V). The XAFS data collected at the Ni and Co edges approximately every 30 min. revealed details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction. These measurements on the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode (0.29 < x < 0.78) demonstrated the excellent reversibility of the cathode's short-range structure. However, the Co and Ni atoms behaved differently in response to Li insertion. This study corroborates previous work that explains the XAFS of the Ni atoms in terms of a Ni{sup 3+} Jahn-Teller ion. An analysis of the metal-metal distances suggests, contrary to a qualitative analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), that the Co{sup 3+} is oxidized to the maximum extent possible (within the Li content range of this experiment) at x = 0.47 {+-} 0.04, and further oxidation occurs at the Ni site.

  17. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu, E-mail: tadanaga@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Kelsen 5 (Campus de Cantoblanco), Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  18. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  19. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  20. Synthesis and Electrochemical Property of LiMn2O4 Porous Hollow Nanofiber as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lianfeng; Zhang, Xueyu; Yue, Kaiqiang; Wu, Yue; Zhuang, Jian; Lü, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers with a porous structure have been synthesized by modified electrospinning techniques and subsequent thermal treatment. The precursors were electrospun directly onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The heating rate and FTO as substrate play key roles on preparing porous hollow nanofiber. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers showed the high specific capacity of 125.9 mAh/g at 0.1 C and a stable cycling performance, 105.2 mAh/g after 400 cycles. This unique structure could relieve the structure expansion effectively and provide more reaction sites as well as shorten the diffusion path for Li+ for improving electrochemical performance for LIBs.

  1. The preparation and graphene surface coating NaTi2(PO4)3 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yanping; Rao, Richuan; Dong, Xiongzi; Zhang, Xianwen; Zhu, Sane

    2017-03-01

    The graphene coated NaTi2(PO4)3 has been fabricated via a simple sol-gel process followed by calcination. The NaTi2(PO4)3/graphene (NTP/G) composite is used directly as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion battery and the electrochemical properties of the composite in this system is firstly studied in detail. In the charge-discharge process, two Li+ can occupy octahedral M (2) site and be reversibly intercalated into the 3D framework of NTP through the ion conduction channel where almost all of Na+ are immobilized to sustain the framework. At 5C rate, the capacity retention of the NTP/G composite after 800 cycles is still up to 82.7%. The superior electrochemical properties of NTP/G is ascribed to its stable 3-D framework and the enhanced electronic conduction resulting from the graphene sheets surface modification.

  2. Interfacial characteristics of a PEGylated imidazolium bistriflamide ionic liquid electrolyte at a lithium ion battery cathode of LiMn2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Simon E; Wu, Lin; Crain, Daniel J; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Roy, Dipankar

    2013-03-01

    Nonvolatile and nonflammable ionic liquids (ILs) have distinct thermal advantages over the traditional organic solvent electrolytes of lithium ion batteries. However, this beneficial feature of ILs is often counterbalanced by their high viscosity (a limiting factor for ionic conductivity) and, sometimes, by their unsuitable electrochemistry for generating protective layers on electrode surfaces. In an effort to alleviate these limiting aspects of ILs, we have synthesized a PEGylated imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (bistriflamide) IL that exhibited better thermal and electrochemical stability than a conventional electrolyte based on a blend of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. The electrochemical performance of this IL has been demonstrated using a cathode consisting of ball-milled LiMn2O4 particles. A direct comparison of the ionic liquid electrolyte with the nonionic low-viscosity conventional solvent blend is presented.

  3. Graphene oxide assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 nanoparticles as cathode material for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changchang Xu; Li Li; Fangyuan Qiu; Cuihua An; Yanan Xu; Ying Wang; Yijing Wang; Lifang Jiao; Huatang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Assisted by graphene oxide (GO), nano-sized LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 with excellent electrochemical performance was prepared by a facile hy-drothermal method as cathode material for lithium ion battery. SEM and TEM images indicate that the particle size of LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 (S2) was about 80 nm in diameter. The discharge capacity of LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 nanoparticles was 140.3 mAh·g-1 in the first cycle. It showed that graphene oxide was able to restrict the growth of LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 and it in situ reduction of GO could improve the electrical conductivity of LiMn0.6Fe0.4PO4 material.

  4. Synthesis and Electrochemical Property of LiMn2O4 Porous Hollow Nanofiber as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lianfeng; Zhang, Xueyu; Yue, Kaiqiang; Wu, Yue; Zhuang, Jian; Lü, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers with a porous structure have been synthesized by modified electrospinning techniques and subsequent thermal treatment. The precursors were electrospun directly onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The heating rate and FTO as substrate play key roles on preparing porous hollow nanofiber. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiMn2O4 hollow nanofibers showed the high specific capacity of 125.9 mAh/g at 0.1 C and a stable cycling performance, 105.2 mAh/g after 400 cycles. This unique structure could relieve the structure expansion effectively and provide more reaction sites as well as shorten the diffusion path for Li(+) for improving electrochemical performance for LIBs.

  5. Mapping Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in V- and Fe-Doped LiMnPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D; Loveridge, Melanie; Bhagat, Rohit; Darr, Jawwad A

    2016-11-14

    A series of LiMn1-x-yFexVyPO4 (LMFVP) nanomaterials have been synthesized using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (CHFS) and evaluated as high voltage cathodes in Li-ion batteries at a production rate of 0.25 kg h(-1). The rapid synthesis and screening approach has allowed the specific capacity of the high Mn content olivines to be optimized, particularly at high discharge rates. Consistent and gradual changes in the structure and performance are observed across the compositional region under investigation; the doping of Fe at 20 at% (with respect to Mn) into lithium manganese phosphate, rather than V or indeed codoping of Fe and V, gives the best balance of high capacity and high rate performance.

  6. Recent Development of lithium ion Battery Cathode Material lithium iron Phosphate%锂离子电池磷酸铁锂正极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶焕英

    2016-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate olivine structure of security is very high,and is excellent in cycle performance at high temperatures can also be used,is the most promising battery cathode material.Lithium iron phosphate longer life cycle,and its discharge performance of other ion batteries can not be compared,at a high temperature stability is better,so that became the lithium iron phosphate battery cathode materials commonly used.However,the conductivity of lithium iron phosphate is not particularly desirable,and less than the diffusion coefficient of lithium ions at low temperatures can not play good results,so have some limitations. By analyzing the structure of lithium iron phosphate,performance,etc.,to a certain extent,can improve the performance of lithium iron phosphate.%橄榄石结构的磷酸铁锂的安全性非常高,而且其循环性能优异,在高温下也可以使用,是最有发展前景的电池正极材料。磷酸铁锂的循环寿命较长,而且其放电性能是其他的离子电池不能比的,在高温下稳定性比较好,使磷酸铁锂成为电池正极常用的材料。但是,磷酸铁锂的电导率并不是特别的理想,而且锂离子的扩散系数不足,在低温下不能发挥较好的效果,所以产生一定的局限性。通过分析磷酸铁锂的结构、性能等,在一定程度上可以完善磷酸铁锂的性能。

  7. In-situ synthesis of monodisperse micro-nanospherical LiFePO4/carbon cathode composites for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Xue, Hairong; Wang, Tao; He, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    The LiFePO4 is recognized as the promising cathode material, due to its high specific capacity, excellent, structural stability and environmental benignity. However, it is blamed for the low tap density and poor rate performance when served as the cathode materials for a long time. Here, the microspheric LiFePO4/C composites are successfully synthesized through a one-step in-situ solvothermal method combined with carbothermic reduction. These LiFePO4/C microspheres are assembled by LiFePO4 nanoparticles (∼100 nm) and uniformly coated by the carbon, which show a narrow diameter distribution of 4 μm. As a cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the LiFePO4/C composites can deliver an initiate charge capacity of 155 mAh g-1 and retain 90% of initial capacity after 200 cycles at 0.1 C. When cycled at high current densities up to 20 C, it shows a discharge capacity of ∼60 mAh g-1, exhibiting superior rate performance. The significantly improved electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C composites material can be attributed to its special micro-nano hierarchical structure. Microspheric LiFePO4/C composites exhibit a high tap density about 1.3 g cm-3. What's more, the well-coated carbon insures the high electrical conductivity and the nano-sized LiFePO4/C particles shorten lithium ion transport, thus exhibiting the high specific capacity, high cycling stability and good rate performance.

  8. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Dramatically Improved Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2012-05-29

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g -1 in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g -1 after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials. The nature of the electrolyte has a dramatic effect on the performance of poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT) as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. Whereas the use of an ethylene/diethyl carbonate (EC/DEC)-based electrolyte resulted in very poor performance, the use of a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte dramatically improved the performance in terms of both the discharge capacity and capacity retention (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from silk fibroin protein encapsulating sulfur as a superior cathode material for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Cai, Yurong; Zhong, Qiwei; Lai, Dongzhi; Yao, Juming

    2015-11-14

    The features of a carbon substrate are crucial for the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Nitrogen doping of carbon materials is assumed to play an important role in sulfur immobilisation. In this study, natural silk fibroin protein is used as a precursor of nitrogen-rich carbon to fabricate a novel, porous, nitrogen-doped carbon material through facile carbonisation and activation. Porous carbon, with a reversible capacity of 815 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 60 cycles, serves as the cathode material in Li-S batteries. Porous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 567 mA h g(-1), which corresponds to a capacity retention of 98% at 1 C after 200 cycles. The promising electrochemical performance of porous carbon is attributed to its mesoporous structure, high specific surface area and nitrogen doping into the carbon skeleton. This study provides a general strategy to synthesise nitrogen-doped carbons with a high specific surface area, which is crucial to improve the energy density and electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries.

  10. RuO2 nanoparticles decorated MnOOH/C as effective bifunctional electrocatalysts for lithium-air battery cathodes with long-cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil-Pyo; Lim, Dongwook; Park, Inyeong; Park, Hyelee; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    Manganite (MnOOH) is one of the most effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and RuO2 nanoparticles exhibit high activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We herein report a facile means of producing well dispersed RuO2/MnOOH on Ketjen black (RuO2/MnOOH/C) as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. RuO2/MnOOH/C was simply synthesized using a hydrothermal/precipitation based method, and was used as a cathode for a Li-air battery using a Swagelok-type cell. The importance of dispersing active catalysts on a carbon support was clearly demonstrated by textural, charge-discharge voltammetric, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, comparing results with a catalyst produced by physically mixing RuO2/MnOOH with carbon (RuO2/MnOOH + C). RuO2/MnOOH/C showed low overpotential and stable cycleability up to 170th cycles with 1000 mAh g-1 of charge-discharge capacity, which was attributed to its enhanced active surface area and low charge-transfer resistance. The results obtained suggest that this strategy can be widely applied to bifunctional electrocatalysis, such as secondary batteries and regenerative fuel cell (RFC).

  11. Scale-up of lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Bowles, P.; Gilmour, A.; Allan, J.

    Small-size lithium rechargeable cells in an envelope format were reported at the 20th International Power Sources Symposium [1,2]. This design offers the possibility of making cells using much lighter packing than cells with metal cans. The prismatic format allows good packing in rectangular boxes. Hence they offer the potential for high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. The cells have now been developed to a size sufficient to form components of a large battery, built to power Army man-portable equipment. Lithium-ion cells have been manufactured using lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and other cathode materials are under investigation. Individual cells up to the 3 A h size have been successfully cycled, with further development possible. A 24 V battery has been constructed and its performance and prospects are described.

  12. Copper oxide as a high temperature battery cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Mullins, A. P.

    1994-10-01

    Copper oxide has been tested as a cathode material for high temperature primary reserve thermal batteries in single cells at 530 to 600 C and at current densities of 0.1 to 0.25 A cm(exp -2) using lithium-aluminium alloy anodes and lithium fluoride-lithium chloride-lithium bromide molten salt electrolytes. Initial on-load voltages were around 2.3 V, falling to 1.5 V after about 0.5 F mol(exp -1) had been withdrawn. Lithium copper oxide, LiCu2O2, and cuprous oxide, Cu2O, were identified as discharge products.

  13. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  14. Highly Efficient Retention of Polysulfides in "Sea Urchin"-Like Carbon Nanotube/Nanopolyhedra Superstructures as Cathode Material for Ultralong-Life Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Cheng, Baorui; Zhu, Guoyin; Chen, Renpeng; Hu, Yi; Ma, Lianbo; Lv, Hongling; Wang, Yanrong; Liang, Jia; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-11

    Despite high theoretical energy density, the practical deployment of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries is still not implemented because of the severe capacity decay caused by polysulfide shuttling and the poor rate capability induced by low electrical conductivity of sulfur. Herein, we report a novel sulfur host material based on "sea urchin"-like cobalt nanoparticle embedded and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube/nanopolyhedra (Co-NCNT/NP) superstructures for Li-S batteries. The hierarchical micromesopores in Co-NCNT/NP can allow efficient impregnation of sulfur and block diffusion of soluble polysulfides by physical confinement, and the incorporation of embedded Co nanoparticles and nitrogen doping (∼4.6 at. %) can synergistically improve the adsorption of polysulfides, as evidenced by beaker cell tests. Moreover, the conductive networks of Co-NCNT/NP interconnected by nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) can facilitate electron transport and electrolyte infiltration. Therefore, the specific capacity, rate capability, and cycle stability of Li-S batteries are significantly enhanced. As a result, the Co-NCNT/NP based cathode (loaded with 80 wt % sulfur) delivers a high discharge capacity of 1240 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.1 C (based on the weight of sulfur), high rate capacity (755 mAh g(-1) at 2.0 C), and ultralong cycling life (a very low capacity decay of 0.026% per cycle over 1500 cycles at 1.0 C). Remarkably, the composite cathode with high areal sulfur loading of 3.2 mg cm(-2) shows high rate capacities and stable cycling performance over 200 cycles.

  15. Preparation and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4/C composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Han Chen; Shao-Chang Han; Wen-Zhi Yu; Hong-Zhi Bo; Chang-Ling Fan; Zhong-Yu Xu

    2006-12-01

    Three kinds of LiFePO4/C composites for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by solid-state reaction. The crystalline structure, morphology and specific surface area of the composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and multi-point Brunauer, Emmett and Teller. The results showed that the samples were all well-ordered olivine structures. A network structure, LiFePO4/C composite, was obtained using phenolic resin as carbon source. It possessed the highest specific surface area of 115.65 m2/g, exhibited the highest discharge capacity of 164.89 and 149.12 mAh/g at 0.1 C and 1 C rates, respectively. The discharge capacity was completely recovered when 0.1 C rate was applied again.

  16. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    2017-10-10

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  17. Nanocasting hierarchical carbide-derived carbons in nanostructured opal assemblies for high-performance cathodes in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Claudia; Thieme, Sören; Brückner, Jan; Oschatz, Martin; Biemelt, Tim; Mondin, Giovanni; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    Silica nanospheres are used as templates for the generation of carbide-derived carbons with monodisperse spherical mesopores (d=20-40 nm) and microporous walls. The nanocasting approach with a polycarbosilane precursor and subsequent pyrolysis, followed by silica template removal and chlorine treatment, results in carbide-derived carbons DUT-86 (DUT=Dresden University of Technology) with remarkable textural characteristics, monodisperse, spherical mesopores tunable in diameter, and very high pore volumes up to 5.0 cm3 g(-1). Morphology replication allows these nanopores to be arranged in a nanostructured inverse opal-like structure. Specific surface areas are very high (2450 m2 g(-1)) due to the simultaneous presence of micropores. Testing DUT-86 samples as cathode materials in Li-S batteries reveals excellent performance, and tailoring of the pore size allows optimization of cell performance, especially the active center accessibility and sulfur utilization. The outstanding pore volumes allow sulfur loadings of 80 wt %, a value seldom achieved in composite cathodes, and initial capacities of 1165 mAh gsulfur(-1) are reached. After 100 cycle capacities of 860 mAh gsulfur(-1) are retained, rendering DUT-86 a high-performance sulfur host material.

  18. Synthesis and Exploration of Ladder-Structured Large Aromatic Dianhydrides as Organic Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Chen, Wangqiao; Wang, Zilong; Jie, Kenneth Choo Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qichun

    2017-04-18

    Compared to anode materials in Li-ion batteries, the research on cathode materials is far behind, and their capacities are much smaller. Thus, in order to address these issues, we believe that organic conjugated materials could be a solution. In this study, we synthesized two non-polymeric dianhydrides with large aromatic structures: NDA-4N (naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms) and PDA-4N (perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms). Their electrochemical properties have been investigated between 2.0 and 3.9 V (vs. Li(+) /Li). Benefiting from multi-electron reactions, NDA-4N and PDA-4N could reversibly achieve 79.7 % and 92.3 %, respectively, of their theoretical capacity. Further cycling reveals that the organic compound with a relatively larger aromatic building block could achieve a better stability, as an obvious 36.5 % improvement of the capacity retention was obtained when the backbone was switched from naphthalene to perylene. This study proposes an opportunity to attain promising small-molecule-based cathode materials through tailoring organic structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A Search for the Optimum Lithium Rich Layered Metal Oxide Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet Nurullah; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship between electrochemical performance in Li cells and chemical composition of a series of Li rich layered metal oxides of the general formula xLi2MnO3 · (1-x)LiMn0.33Ni0.33Co0.33O2 in which x = 0,1, 0.2, 0,3, 0.5 or 0.7, synthesized using the same method. In order to identify the cathode material having the optimum Li cell performance we first varied the ratio between Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 segments of the composite oxides while maintaining the same metal ratio residing within their LiMO2 portions. The materials with the overall composition 0.5Li2MnO3 · 0.5LiMO2 containing 0.5 mole of Li2MnO3 per mole of the composite metal oxide were found to be the optimum in terms of electrochemical performance. The electrochemical properties of these materials were further tuned by changing the relative amounts of Mn, Ni and Co in the LiMO2 segment to produce xLi2MnO3 · (1-x)LiMn0.50Ni0.35Co0.15O2 with enhanced capacities and rate capabilities. The rate capability of the lithium rich compound in which x = 0.3 was further increased by preparing electrodes with about 2 weight-percent multiwall carbon nanotube in the electrode. Lithium cells prepared with such electrodes were cycled at the 4C rate with little fade in capacity for over one hundred cycles. PMID:26478598

  20. Effect of the compactness of the lithium chloride layer formed on the carbon cathode on the electrochemical reduction of SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte in Li-SOCl{sub 2} batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung-Bok Lee; Su-Il Pyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Eung-Jo Lee [Hana Tek Co Ltd., Kyounggi (Korea). R and D Center

    2001-07-01

    Effect of the compactness of the lithium chloride layer formed on the carbon cathode on the electrochemical reduction of SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte in Li-SOCl{sub 2} primary battery was investigated using ac-impedance spectroscopy and potentiostatic current transient technique. From the facts that the straight lines of the Nyquist plots of the ac-impedance spectra and the peak-like runs of the plot of It{sup 1/2} versus log t were observed from the pure carbon cathode, it was suggested that the porous layer of lithium chloride deposited on the pure carbon cathode was relatively compact enough to strongly impede the diffusion of SOCl{sub 2} through it, and hence the rate-controlling step for overall SOCl{sub 2} reduction is changed from the 'interfacial reaction between the pure carbon cathode and electrolyte' to the 'diffusion of SOCl{sub 2} through the porous lithium chloride layer'. On the other hand, any of the straight lines of the Nyquist plots of the ac-impedance spectra and of the peak-like courses of the plot of It{sup 1/2} versus log t can not be found in the Co-phthalocyanine (Pc)-incorporated carbon cathode. Thus, it was concluded that the porous layer of lithium chloride formed on the Co-Pc-incorporated carbon cathode was relatively porous enough to considerably facilitate the diffusion of SOCl{sub 2} through it, and hence the overall reduction rate of SOCl{sub 2} is governed by the 'interfacial reaction between the Co-Pc-incorporated carbon cathode and electrolyte' throughout the whole discharge of the Li-SOCl{sub 2} batteries. (author)

  1. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  2. Rational in-situ construction of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/C composite as enhanced cathode for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Xie, D.; Niu, X. Q.; Ge, X.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of advanced cathode materials is indispensable and vital for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we develop a facile in-situ route to synthesize three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/carbon composite (3D-rGO-Li2S/C). The Li2S/C nanoparticles are intimately anchored on the surface of 3D-rGO forming an integrated 3D porous composite. Due to the improved conductivity and reduced polysulfide dissolution, the 3D-rGO-Li2S/C cathode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with a high initial capacity of 819 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity retention of 415 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1C. The integrated 3D conductive network is responsible for the enhancement of the electrochemical properties by providing fast ion/electron transfer and high mechanical stability.

  3. Synthesis of Cu-doped Li2O and its cathode properties for lithium-ion batteries based on oxide/peroxide redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Makimoto, Tetsuya; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Okuoka, Shin-ichi; Ono, Hironobu; Yonehara, Koji; Sumida, Yasutaka; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2017-02-01

    Cu-doped Li2O, synthesized by mechanochemical reactions between Li2O and CuO, is demonstrated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction and absorption analyses suggest that in the Cu-doped Li2O, Cu2+ ions are located at 48g sites less symmetrical than 8c sites for Li+ ions, distorting the arrangement of surrounding O2- ions slightly from tetrahedral to square-planar, while the Cu2+ ions are doped in an antifluorite-type Li2O. The Cu-doped Li2O cathode has a charge capacity of 360 mAh g-1 without an irreversible O2 gas evolution reaction and exhibits a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g-1. Cu K-edge XANES spectroscopy and quantitative analysis of peroxide species reveal that redox of copper ions, formation/neutralization of O 2p electron holes, and generation/annihilation of peroxide species take place during charge/discharge.

  4. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications.

  5. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO4 and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 and carbon-coated LiFePO4 (C-LiFePO4 cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO4 and C-LiFePO4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO4 where as in case of C-LiFePO4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C-LiFePO4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.

  6. Sucrose-assisted loading of LiFePO4 nanoparticles on graphene for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmin; Wen, Zhenhai; Feng, Hongbin; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-26

    A simple approach for loading LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles on graphene (G) that could assemble amorphous LiFePO4 nanoparticles into a stable, crystalline, graphene-modified layered materials (G-S-LFP, S=sucrose) by using graphene as building block and sucrose as a linker has yet to be developed. On the basis of differential scanning calorimetric and transmission electron microscopy analysis of the samples from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the "linker" process of LFP and graphene with sucrose as the linker. The electrochemical properties of the samples as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries were studied by cyclic voltammogrametry and galvanostatic methods. Results showed that G-S-LFP displayed superior lithium-storage capability with current density changes randomly form 0.5 to 10 C. The significant improvement for rate and cycle performance could be attributed to the high conductivity of the graphene host, the high crystallinity, and the layered structure.

  7. Ion and gas chromatography mass spectrometry investigations of organophosphates in lithium ion battery electrolytes by electrochemical aging at elevated cathode potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Waldemar; Wagner, Ralf; Streipert, Benjamin; Kraft, Vadim; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical aging of commercial non-aqueous lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/organic carbonate solvent based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of ionic and non-ionic alkylated phosphates. Subject was a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate EC:EMC (1:1, by wt.) with 1 M LiPF6 (LP50 Selectilyte™, BASF). The analysis was carried out by ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for ionic compounds and (headspace) gas chromatography mass spectrometry ((HS)-GC-MS) for non-ionic compounds. The electrochemical aging was performed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and potentiostatic experiments with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) as cathode material at increased cut-off potentials (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). A strong dependence of the formation of organophosphates on the applied electrode potential was observed and investigated by quantitative analysis of the formed phosphates. In addition, new possible "fingerprint" compounds for describing the electrolyte status were investigated and compared to existing compounds.

  8. In Situ XRD and XAS Investigation of Cathode Materials in Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.G.Duh; P.Y.Liao; H.W.Chan; S.Y.Tsai

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Lithium ion batteries have been widely used in modern portable electronics,such as cellular phones and notebook computers,because of their low cost,long life,and high energy density.In the lithium ion batteries,the cathode provides lithium ion source and plays a critical role to determinate the performance of battery.Lithium transition metal oxides have been investigated as active cathode materials due to their high potential versus Li/Li+ and large proportion of the lithium ions can be insert...

  9. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  10. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  11. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  12. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai

    2017-02-09

    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  13. Experiment and simulation of the fabrication process of lithium-ion battery cathodes for determining microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Mehdi M.; Chao, Chien-Wei; Bustamante, Danilo; Mazzeo, Brian A.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication process of Li-ion battery electrodes plays a prominent role in the microstructure and corresponding cell performance. Here, a mesoscale particle dynamics simulation is developed to relate the manufacturing process of a cathode containing Toda NCM-523 active material to physical and structural properties of the dried film. Particle interactions are simulated with shifted-force Lennard-Jones and granular Hertzian functions. LAMMPS, a freely available particle simulator, is used to generate particle trajectories and resulting predicted properties. To make simulations of the full film thickness feasible, the carbon binder domain (CBD) is approximated with μm-scale particles, each representing about 1000 carbon black particles and associated binder. Metrics for model parameterization and validation are measured experimentally and include the following: slurry viscosity, elasticity of the dried film, shrinkage ratio during drying, volume fraction of phases, slurry and dried film densities, and microstructure cross sections. Simulation results are in substantial agreement with experiment, showing that the simulations reasonably reproduce the relevant physics of particle arrangement during fabrication.

  14. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  15. Nanostructured Metal Oxides and Sulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-02-03

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with high energy density and long cycle life are considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage systems beyond routine lithium-ion batteries. Various approaches have been proposed to break down technical barriers in Li-S battery systems. The use of nanostructured metal oxides and sulfides for high sulfur utilization and long life span of Li-S batteries is reviewed here. The relationships between the intrinsic properties of metal oxide/sulfide hosts and electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries are discussed. Nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides hosts used in solid sulfur cathodes, separators/interlayers, lithium-metal-anode protection, and lithium polysulfides batteries are discussed respectively. Prospects for the future developments of Li-S batteries with nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides are also discussed.

  16. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  17. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Zhang, K.; Mundle, R.; Arslan, M.; Amponsah, O.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    Layered lithiated transition metal oxides have been extensively developed and investigated as a cathode materials for lithium ion batteries due to the following advantages, such as high output voltage of 3.6 V, high energy density larger than 450Wh/dm3, low self-discharge rate less than 10%, no memory effect resulting in long cycle lives for more than 1000 times charging and discharging, free maintenance and no environmental pollution. The cathode materials in lithium ion battery are generally in the form of LiMO2 (M= Co, Ni, Mn, etc). Currently, lithium vanadium oxides also were studied. It is well known that the synthetic condition and methods are closely related to the electrochemical properties of lithium ion batteries. In this work, the wet chemical sol gel techniques have been used to synthesize LiNiO2 and LiV3O8. In this study, the LiNiO2 particles and LiV3O8 nanorods were successfully synthesized by sol-gel wet chemical methods. Annealing heat treatment influence the crystallinity of the final product, which may be consequently affected their electrochemical performance.

  19. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

  20. Metalized, three-dimensional structured oxygen cathode materials for lithium/air batteries and method for making and using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weibing; Buettner-Garrett, Josh

    2017-04-18

    This disclosure relates generally to cathode materials for electrochemical energy cells, more particularly to metal/air electrochemical energy cell cathode materials containing silver vanadium oxide and methods of making and using the same. The metal/air electrochemical energy cell can be a lithium/air electrochemical energy cell. Moreover the silver vanadium oxide can be a catalyst for one or more of oxidation and reduction processes of the electrochemical energy cell.

  1. Modification of Ni-Rich FCG NMC and NCA Cathodes by Atomic Layer Deposition: Preventing Surface Phase Transitions for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Dahlberg, Kevin; King, David M; David, Lamuel A; Sefat, Athena S; Wood, David L; Daniel, Claus; Dhar, Subhash; Mahajan, Vishal; Lee, Myongjai; Albano, Fabio

    2016-05-26

    The energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on layered LiMO2 cathodes (M = Ni, Mn, Co: NMC; M = Ni, Co, Al: NCA) needs to be improved significantly in order to compete with internal combustion engines and allow for widespread implementation of electric vehicles (EVs). In this report, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve LIB performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization. Our results show that Al2O3 coating improved the NMC cycling performance by 40% and the NCA cycling performance by 34% at 1 C/-1 C with respectively 4.35 V and 4.4 V UCV in 2 Ah pouch cells. High resolution TEM/SAED structural characterization revealed that Al2O3 coatings prevented surface-initiated layered-to-spinel phase transitions in coated materials which were prevalent in uncoated materials. EIS confirmed that Al2O3-coated materials had significantly lower increase in the charge transfer component of impedance during cycling. The ability to mitigate degradation mechanisms for Ni-rich NMC and NCA illustrated in this report provides insight into a method to enable the performance of high-voltage LIBs.

  2. Modification of Ni-Rich FCG NMC and NCA Cathodes by Atomic Layer Deposition: Preventing Surface Phase Transitions for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Dahlberg, Kevin; King, David M.; David, Lamuel A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus; Dhar, Subhash; Mahajan, Vishal; Lee, Myongjai; Albano, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on layered LiMO2 cathodes (M = Ni, Mn, Co: NMC; M = Ni, Co, Al: NCA) needs to be improved significantly in order to compete with internal combustion engines and allow for widespread implementation of electric vehicles (EVs). In this report, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve LIB performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization. Our results show that Al2O3 coating improved the NMC cycling performance by 40% and the NCA cycling performance by 34% at 1 C/-1 C with respectively 4.35 V and 4.4 V UCV in 2 Ah pouch cells. High resolution TEM/SAED structural characterization revealed that Al2O3 coatings prevented surface-initiated layered-to-spinel phase transitions in coated materials which were prevalent in uncoated materials. EIS confirmed that Al2O3-coated materials had significantly lower increase in the charge transfer component of impedance during cycling. The ability to mitigate degradation mechanisms for Ni-rich NMC and NCA illustrated in this report provides insight into a method to enable the performance of high-voltage LIBs.

  3. Synthesis of surface modified LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material via polyol technique for high rate lithium secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, M., E-mail: susiva73@yahoo.co.in; Muruganantham, R.; Subadevi, R.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • NiO coating on LiFePO{sub 4} via polyol technique may be the first attempt. • Surface coating using NiO on LiFePO{sub 4} did not affect its orthorhombic olivine structure. • Surface modification using NiO on LiFePO{sub 4} delivers the discharge capacity of 164 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate. - Abstract: The NiO-coated LiFePO{sub 4} composite cathode materials were prepared by simple tailored polyol technique, which has orthorhombic olivine structure without NiO phase. It delivers the reverse capacity of 164 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C at ambient temperature. The material exhibits stable reverse capacity for several cycles even for the higher C-rates. Increasing the rate, the reverse capacity is almost stable over several cycles. Furthermore, at a high rate viz., 10, 20 and 30 C, the discharge capacity has been observed for the optimized NiO-coated LFP as 135, 120 and 69 mAh g{sup −1}, which demonstrates the excellent rate performance that can be useful for high power lithium secondary battery.

  4. EG-Assisted Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Ultrathin Carbon-Coated LiMnPO4 Nanoplates as Cathodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin carbon-coated LiMnPO4 (ULMP/C nanoplates were prepared through an ethylene glycol- (EG- assisted pyrolysis method. Different from most of LiMnPO4/C works, the obtained ULMP/C possessed relatively small particle size (less than 50 nm in thickness and preferable carbon coating (~1 nm in thickness, 2 wt.%. As a reference, LiMnPO4/C (LMP/C composites were also fabricated via the traditional hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry (CV were performed to characterize the crystalline phase, morphology, structure, carbon content, and electrochemical behaviors of samples. The electrochemical performance of bare and carbon-coated LiMnPO4 was evaluated as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. As a result, the obtained ULMP/C nanoplates demonstrated much higher reversible capacities (110.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C and rate performances than pure LMP and LMP/C composites. This facile and efficient EG-assisted pyrolysis method can enlighten us on exploiting advanced routes to modify active materials with ultrathin and homogeneous carbon layers.

  5. Enhanced performance of sulfur-infiltrated bimodal mesoporous carbon foam by chemical solution deposition as cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae-Gyung; Chun, Jinyong; Cho, Byung-Won; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-02-01

    The porous carbon matrix is widely recognized to be a promising sulfur reservoir to improve the cycle life by suppressing the polysulfide dissolution in lithium sulfur batteries (LSB). Herein, we synthesized mesocellular carbon foam (MSUF-C) with bimodal mesopore (4 and 30 nm) and large pore volume (1.72 cm2/g) using MSUF silica as a template and employed it as both the sulfur reservoir and the conductive agent in the sulfur cathode. Sulfur was uniformly infiltrated into MSUF-C pores by a chemical solution deposition method (MSUF-C/S CSD) and the amount of sulfur loading was achieved as high as 73% thanks to the large pore volume with the CSD approach. MSUF-C/S CSD showed a high capacity (889 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 0.2 C), an improved rate capability (879 mAh/g at 1C and 420 mAh/g at 2C), and a good capacity retention with a fade rate of 0.16% per cycle over 100 cycles.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of triclinic structural LiVPO4F as possible 4.2 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Sheng-kui; YIN Zhou-lan; WANG Zhi-xing; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2007-01-01

    A potential 4.2 V cathode material LiVPO4F for lithium batteries was prepared by two-step reaction method based on a carbon-thermal reduction (CTR) process. Firstly, V2O5, NH4H2PO4 and acetylene black are reacted under an Ar atmosphere to yield VPO4. The transition-metal reduction is facilitated by the CTR based on C→CO transition. These CTR conditions favor stabilization of the vanadium as V3+ as well as leaving residual carbon, which is useful in the subsequent electrode processing. Secondly, VPO4 reacts with LiF to yield LiVPO4F product. The property of the LiVPO4F was investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical measurement. XRD studies show that LiVPO4F synthesized has triclinic particle size is about 2 μm together with homogenous distribution. Electrochemical test shows that the initial discharge capacity of LiVPO4F powder is 119 mA·h/g at the rate of 0.2C with an average discharge voltage of 4.2V (vs Li/Li+), and the capacity retains 89 mA·h/g after 30 cycles.

  7. ZnO-doped LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for lithium-ion battery fabricated by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yemin, E-mail: huyemin@shu.edu.cn [Laboratory for Microstructures/School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Yao, Jun; Zhao, Zhe; Zhu, Mingyuan; Ying Li,; Jin, Hongming [Laboratory for Microstructures/School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao, Huijun [Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Wang, Jiazhao [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

    2013-09-16

    LiFePO{sub 4} particles doped with zinc oxide was synthesized via a hydrothermal route and used as cathode material for lithium-ion battery. Sample of preferable shape and structure was obtained by a concise and efficient process. ZnO doping into the LiFePO{sub 4} matrix was positively confirmed by the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD); high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). LiFePO{sub 4} doped with ZnO tends to form nanometer-size and homogeneous particles, which can improve markedly the performance and stability of charge-discharge cycle. A specific discharge capacity of ZnO-doped LiFePO{sub 4} at 132.3 mAh g{sup −1} was achieved, with 1.8% decrease after 100 cycles. Based on the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results, it has further shown that ZnO doping effectively reduces the impacts of polarization and transfer resistance during electrochemical processes. - Highlights: • Zinc source is added into LiFePO{sub 4} precursor in the form of Zn(OH){sub 2} solution. • ZnO help LiFePO{sub 4} form fine and even particles in the hydrothermal condition. • ZnO particles and Zn{sup 2+} ions act on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} together.

  8. Enhanced performance of sulfur-infiltrated bimodal mesoporous carbon foam by chemical solution deposition as cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae-Gyung; Chun, Jinyong; Cho, Byung-Won; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The porous carbon matrix is widely recognized to be a promising sulfur reservoir to improve the cycle life by suppressing the polysulfide dissolution in lithium sulfur batteries (LSB). Herein, we synthesized mesocellular carbon foam (MSUF-C) with bimodal mesopore (4 and 30 nm) and large pore volume (1.72 cm2/g) using MSUF silica as a template and employed it as both the sulfur reservoir and the conductive agent in the sulfur cathode. Sulfur was uniformly infiltrated into MSUF-C pores by a chemical solution deposition method (MSUF-C/S CSD) and the amount of sulfur loading was achieved as high as 73% thanks to the large pore volume with the CSD approach. MSUF-C/S CSD showed a high capacity (889 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 0.2 C), an improved rate capability (879 mAh/g at 1C and 420 mAh/g at 2C), and a good capacity retention with a fade rate of 0.16% per cycle over 100 cycles. PMID:28165041

  9. Discharge-charge process of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode for rechargeable lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyao; Xiong, Xing; Wang, Weikun; Zhao, Shengrong; Li, Chengming; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Zhongbao; Huang, Yaqin

    2014-02-01

    The discharge-charge process of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that the porous nanocomposite enhances the electrolyte infiltrate into the cathode materials evenly, has a good capability of confining the soluble polysulfides and preventing the aggregation of insoluble Li2S. The regenerated elemental sulfur of the porous sulfur/carbon nanocomposite cathode exists in nano-size particles in the pore and the resistance decreases compared with the original cathode. Moreover, the porous nanocomposite realizes the micro-reactors during the discharge-charge process and can accommodate the volume change which is benefit for stabilization of the cathode during the electrochemical reaction.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of new cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Annual report, April 26, 1976-September 15, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the first year of this study was the investigation of two new classes of complex sulfide materials of potential value for ambient and high temperature, high energy rechargeable batteries with lithium anodes. The two new classes were the sulfospinels and simple and mixed layered disulfides of transitional metals of groups IVB and VB. In addition, three simple sulfides, CoS, CoS/sub 2/ and FeS/sub 2/ were also investigated. Studies of the synthesis methods have resulted in the development of the two-zone quartz furnace capable of firing temperatures up to 1000/sup 0/C with controllable sulfur vapor pressures. Optimum synthesis methods for preparation of TiS/sub 2/ and substituted disulfides of the type M/sub x/Ti/sub 1-x/S/sub 2/ (M = Co, Cr, Mo, V) as well as for sulfospinels have been established. In the area of mixed disulfides, compounds with 5 mole % molybdenum and 25 mole % chromium or vanadium were found to be superior in electrochemical cell performance to TiS/sub 2/. The higher electrical conductivity of these compounds compared to that of TiS/sub 2/ is the probable reason. The preparation of the Co-substituted disulfide was not successful and resulted in a sulfospinel structure of CoTi/sub 2/S/sub 4/. Among the sulfospinels studied CoCo/sub 2/S/sub 4/ = (Co/sub 3/S/sub 4/) and CoFe/sub 2/S/sub 4/, high capacity densities up to 605 mAH/g have been found with the former showing more electrochemical reversibility. The initial findings in organic electrolyte cells have been confirmed in high temperature tests conducted at Argonne National Laboratory in molten salt cell tests. The simple sulfides have been found to perform in organic electrolyte cells with CoS/sub 2/ showing lower polarization than FeS/sub 2/ or CoS.

  11. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  12. Research development on polymer cathode material for lithium ion batteries%锂离子电池聚合物正极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运灿; 罗琳; 刘钰; 郝建原

    2013-01-01

    高储能的锂电池聚合物正极材料是近年来新型电化学能源研究发展的热点.本文综述了自由基聚合物、导电聚合物、有机多硫聚合物以及多骨架碳硫交联聚合物正极材料的结构、制备、导电机理和电化学性能.重点介绍了自由基聚合物氮氧结构的特点和快速充放电性能,导电聚合物的合成方法和掺杂机理,以及有机多硫聚合物和多骨架碳硫交联聚合物中-(S-S)n-键的高效储能特性和超高比容量性质.最后提出了解决聚合物材料容量的衰减和易降解性以保证稳定的循环性能以及完善合成及制备工艺是未来的研究重点.%In recent years, the lithium polymeric cathode materials with high energy storage capability are hot research topics in the field of new electrochemical energy. In this paper, we introduced the structure, preparation, conductive mechanism and electrochemical properties of the radical polymers, conducting polymers, polysulfides and carbon-sulfur skeleton cross-linked polymers. This review focused on the characteristics of nitrogen-oxygen structure and high charging/discharging efficiency for radical polymers, as well as the synthesis methods and doping mechanisms for conducting polymers. Besides, the excellent storage capability of- (S - S)B- bond for polysulfides and carbon-sulfur skeleton cross-linked polymers was emphasized, that could result in an ultra high specific capacity for lithium batteries. Finally we pointed out that the tackling of capacity attenuation and degradability of polymeric cathode materials to ensure the cycling stability and optimization of synthesis and preparation processes shall be the focuses of future research work.

  13. Overview of ENEA's Projects on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, F.; Conte, M.; Passerini, S.; Prosini, P. P.

    The increasing need of high performance batteries in various small-scale and large-scale applications (portable electronics, notebooks, palmtops, cellular phones, electric vehicles, UPS, load levelling) in Italy is motivating the R&D efforts of various public and private organizations. Research of lithium batteries in Italy goes back to the beginning of the technological development of primary and secondary lithium systems with national know-how spread in various academic and public institutions with a few private stakeholders. In the field of lithium polymer batteries, ENEA has been dedicating significant efforts in almost two decades to promote and carry out basic R&D and pre-industrial development projects. In recent years, three major national projects have been performed and coordinated by ENEA in co-operation with some universities, governmental research organizations and industry. In these projects novel polymer electrolytes with ceramic additives, low cost manganese oxide-based composite cathodes, environmentally friendly process for polymer electrolyte, fabrication processes of components and cells have been investigated and developed in order to fulfill long-term needs of cost-effective and highly performant lithium polymer batteries.

  14. Correlating cation ordering and voltage fade in a lithium-manganese-rich lithium-ion battery cathode oxide: a joint magnetic susceptibility and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Sefat, Athena S; Li, Jianlin; Meisner, Roberta A; Rondinone, Adam J; Payzant, E Andrew; Abraham, Daniel P; Wood, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2013-11-28

    Structure-electrochemical property correlation is presented for lithium-manganese-rich layered-layered nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LMR-NMC) having composition Li1.2Co0.1Mn0.55Ni0.15O2 (TODA HE5050) in order to examine the possible reasons for voltage fade during short-to-mid-term electrochemical cycling. The Li1.2Co0.1Mn0.55Ni0.15O2 based cathodes were cycled at two different upper cutoff voltages (UCV), 4.2 V and 4.8 V, for 1, 10, and 125 cycles; voltage fade was observed after 10 and 125 cycles only when the UCV was 4.8 V. Magnetic susceptibility and selected-area electron diffraction data showed the presence of cation ordering in the pristine material, which remained after 125 cycles when the UCV was 4.2 V. When cycled at 4.8 V, the magnetic susceptibility results showed the suppression of cation ordering after one cycle; the cation ordering diminished upon further cycling and was not observed after 125 cycles. Selected-area electron diffraction data from oxides oriented towards the [0001] zone axis revealed a decrease in the intensity of cation-ordering reflections after one cycle and an introduction of spinel-type reflections after 10 cycles at 4.8 V; after 125 cycles, only the spinel-type reflections and the fundamental O3 layered oxide reflections were observed. A significant decrease in the effective magnetic moment of the compound after one cycle at 4.8 V indicated the presence of lithium and/or oxygen vacancies; analysis showed a reduction of Mn(4+) (high spin/low spin) in the pristine oxide to Mn(3+) (low spin) after one cycle. The effective magnetic moment was higher after 10 and 125 cycles at 4.8 V, suggesting the presence of Mn(3+) in a high spin state, which is believed to originate from distorted spinel (Li2Mn2O4) and/or spinel (LiMn2O4) compounds. The increase in effective magnetic moments was not observed when the oxide was cycled at 4.2 V, indicating the stability of the structure under these conditions. This study shows that structural

  15. SiO2-coated sulfur particles with mildly reduced graphene oxide as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brennan; Bell, Jeffrey; Hosseini Bay, Hamed; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, SiO2-coated sulfur particles (SCSPs) were fabricated via a facile two-step wet chemical process for application as a novel lithium-sulfur cathode material. With the addition of mildly reduced graphene oxide (mrGO), SCSPs demonstrate even greater cycling stability, maintaining over 700 mA h g-1 after the 50th cycle.

  16. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  17. Microwave synthesis of Li2FeSiO4 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Dong Peng; Yan Bing Cao; Guo Rong Hu; Ke Du; Xu Guang Gao; Zheng Wei Xiao

    2009-01-01

    A novel synthetic method of microwave processing to prepare Li2FeSiO4 cathode materials is adopted. The Li2FeSiO4 cathode material is prepared by mechanical ball-milling and subsequent microwave processing. Olivin-type Li2FeSiO4 sample with uniform and fine particle sizes is successfully and fast synthesized by microwave heating at 700 ℃ in 12 min. And the obtained Li2FeSiO4 materials show better electrochemical performance and microstructure than those of Li2FeSiO4 sample by the conventional solid-state reaction.

  18. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... quantity, size, watt hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium...

  19. Complex impedance studies of lithium iodine batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.L.; Skarstad, P.M. (Promeon Division Medtronic, Inc. Minneapolis, MN (US))

    1990-08-01

    Complex impedance spectra of conductivity cells containing iodine/poly-2-vinylpyridine cathode material were taken by two- and four-probe techniques. The impedance spectra contain a current-independent bulk resistance in series with a current-dependent interfacial resistance. The current-dependent interfacial resistance has the characteristics expected of a charge-transfer resistance. Moreover, electronically blocked (lithium/lithium iodide) electrodes give the same result as non-blocked (stainless steel) electrodes. This is exactly what would be expected if the medium were an ionic conductor. Complex impedance spectra of lithium/iodine batteries show additional structure, as might be expected, but are consistent with results from the conductivity cells.

  20. LiFePO4 nanoparticles enveloped in freestanding sandwich-like graphitized carbon sheets as enhanced remarkable lithium-ion battery cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Xiao; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    A novel nanostructure where LiFePO4 nanoparticles are enveloped in sandwich-like carbon sheets as an enhanced cathode in lithium-ion batteries has successfully been synthesized for the first time. Compared to previous carbon-based nanocomposites, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit totally different architecture, in which LiFePO4 nanoparticles are tightly entrapped between two carbon layers, instead of being anchored on the carbon sheet surfaces. In other words, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposite carbon layers are actually freestanding and can be operated and separated from each other. This is a great breakthrough in the design and synthesis of carbon-based functional materials. The obtained sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites present excellent electrochemical performance, which is rationally ascribed to the superb and unique structure and architecture. Of particular note is that the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit enhanced cyclability and rate capability. At a high current density of 0.1 A g-1, a stable specific capacity of approximately 168.5 mAh g-1 can be delivered over 1000 cycles, and when the charge-discharge rates increase to 0.6, 2, 5 and 10 A g-1, the specific capacities still survive at 149, 129, 114 and 91 mAh g-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the sandwiched nanocomposite demonstrates a significantly improved low-temperature electrochemical energy storage performance. With respect to the excellent Li storage performance, and facility and reliability of production, the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites are reasonably believed to have a great potential for multiple electrochemical energy storage applications.

  1. LiFePO4 nanoparticles enveloped in freestanding sandwich-like graphitized carbon sheets as enhanced remarkable lithium-ion battery cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Xiao; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-15

    A novel nanostructure where LiFePO4 nanoparticles are enveloped in sandwich-like carbon sheets as an enhanced cathode in lithium-ion batteries has successfully been synthesized for the first time. Compared to previous carbon-based nanocomposites, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit totally different architecture, in which LiFePO4 nanoparticles are tightly entrapped between two carbon layers, instead of being anchored on the carbon sheet surfaces. In other words, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposite carbon layers are actually freestanding and can be operated and separated from each other. This is a great breakthrough in the design and synthesis of carbon-based functional materials. The obtained sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites present excellent electrochemical performance, which is rationally ascribed to the superb and unique structure and architecture. Of particular note is that the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit enhanced cyclability and rate capability. At a high current density of 0.1 A g(-1), a stable specific capacity of approximately 168.5 mAh g(-1) can be delivered over 1000 cycles, and when the charge-discharge rates increase to 0.6, 2, 5 and 10 A g(-1), the specific capacities still survive at 149, 129, 114 and 91 mAh g(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the sandwiched nanocomposite demonstrates a significantly improved low-temperature electrochemical energy storage performance. With respect to the excellent Li storage performance, and facility and reliability of production, the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites are reasonably believed to have a great potential for multiple electrochemical energy storage applications.

  2. EFFECT OF COATED CARBON ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CATHODE MATERIALS FOR POWER LITHIUM ION BATTERY%碳包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料电化学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怡辰; 王振波; 秦华

    2011-01-01

    概述了碳材料包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料LiFePO4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4和Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2电化学性能的影响,综述了不同碳源炭化后形成的碳的特性及对各种电极材料性能的影响,总结了碳包覆动力锂离子电池正极材料的发展方向.%Effect of coated carbon on the performance of cathode materials of LiFePO4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, and Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3 ]O2 for power lithium ion battery were reviewed in this paper.The influences of different carbon sources on carbon properties after their carbonization and the performances of different cathode materials coated carbon were introduced.The development progress of the cathode materials coated carbon for power lithium ion battery was presented.

  3. An Effectively Activated Hierarchical Nano-/Microspherical Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode for Long-Life and High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Bai, Ying; Bi, Xuanxuan; Qian, Ji; Ma, Lu; Tian, Jun; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-04-07

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high energy and high power density are required in the application of electric vehicles and portable electronics. Herein, we introduce a type of spherical Li-rich cathode material, Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, assembled from uniform nanocubes by a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted hydrothermal method. The material with a hierarchical nano-/microstructure exhibits stable high-rate performance. Furthermore, the precipitant (i.e., urea) and the structure-directing agent (i.e., PVP) effectively activated the Li2 MnO3 components in the microscale material to achieve a high specific capacity of 298.5 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle. This Li-rich cathode material still delivered 243 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C after 200 cycles and the capacity retentions at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 C were 94.4, 78.7, 76.3, and 67.8% after 150 cycles, respectively. The results make this Li-rich nano-/microstructure a promising cathode material for long-life and high-performance lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lithium-Air Batteries with Hybrid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-07

    During the past decade, Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptionally high capacity. Introducing aqueous solutions and ceramic lithium superionic conductors to Li-air batteries can circumvent some of the drawbacks of conventional Li-O2 batteries such as decomposition of organic electrolytes, corrosion of Li metal from humidity, and insoluble discharge product blocking the air electrode. The performance of this smart design battery depends essentially on the property and structure of the cell components (i.e., hybrid electrolyte, Li anode, and air cathode). In recent years, extensive efforts toward aqueous electrolyte-based Li-air batteries have been dedicated to developing the high catalytic activity of the cathode as well as enhancing the conductivity and stability of the hybrid electrolyte. Herein, the progress of all aspects of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes is reviewed. Moreover, some suggestions and concepts for tailored design that are expected to promote research in this field are provided.

  5. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    , V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  6. Well-dispersed sulfur anchored on interconnected polypyrrole nanofiber network as high performance cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fuxing; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Menbayeva, Almagul; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Wang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Preparation of novel sulfur/polypyrrole (S/PPy) composite consisting well-dispersed sulfur particles anchored on interconnected PPy nanowire network was demonstrated. In such hybrid structure, the as-prepared PPy clearly displays a three-dimensionally cross-linked and hierarchical porous structure, which was utilized in the composite cathode as a conductive network trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and enhancing the overall electrochemical performance of the system. Benefiting from this unique structure, the S/PPy composite demonstrated excellent cycling stability, resulting in a discharge capacity of 931 mAh g-1 at the second cycle and retained about 54% of this value over 100 cycles at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the S/PPy composite cathode exhibits a good rate capability with a discharge capacity of 584 mAh g-1 at 1 C.

  7. Preparation and characterization of LiFePO4 thin films as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhuo-bing; MA Ming-you

    2006-01-01

    LiFePO4 thin films were prepared by sol-gel technique. The phase and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the thin films were measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 mol/L LiPF6/EC-DMC solution using lithium metal as both counter and reference electrodes. The films prepared by this method are of pure LiFePO4 phase. The capacity of the film annealed at 700 ℃ for 30 min is 145 Ma·h/g, and the capacity loss per cycle is 0.06% after being cycled 50 times. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the diffusion rate of lithium ion in LiFePO4 thin film is 5.1×10-14cm2/s.

  8. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  9. Physical and Electrochemical Properties of Doped LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yongxun; Duan Zhenzhong; Li Yuenan; Gu Hongwei; Hua Zhiqiang; Luan Wenzhou; Wang Yuan

    2004-01-01

    LiFePO4 cathode material was synthesized by a solid-state reaction using doping several elements (Nb5 + ,Zr4 + ). The starting materials were mixed with a high-efficient sander and treated thermally under flowing N2. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission gun electron microscopy (FEG), and their electrochemical performance was investigated in the term of cycling behavior. Room temperature discharge capacity about 140.6 mA·h·g-1 was obtained at C/5 rate.

  10. Influence of lanthanum doping on performance of LiFePO_4 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗绍华; 田勇; 李辉; 史科捷; 唐子龙; 张中太

    2010-01-01

    Using solid-state synthesis method,a series of samples of lanthanum doped Li1-xLaxFePO4(x=0.0025,0.005,0.0075,0.01) were prepared.Each cathode structural and electrochemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffractometry(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) and charge/discharge cycling.Nanopowders material with single-phase could be obtained.The reversible capacity could be drastically improved by the introduction of La.The optimum cells with Li0.99La0....

  11. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  12. Hydroxylated N-doped carbon nanotube-sulfur composites as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-01

    Despite the higher energy density than the conventional Li-ion cells at a lower cost, commercialization of Lisbnd S batteries is hindered by the insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides (Li2SX, 4 batteries to reduce polysulfide shuttling through an interaction between polysulfides and nitrogen and hydroxyl groups in the H-NCNT. This sulfur-carbon composite electrode with 2.2 mg cm-2 sulfur displays excellent performance with high rate capability (initial capacity of 1341 mAh g-1 at C/5 rate and 849 mAh g-1 at 5C rate), rate stability until 500 cycles (a decay of 0.06% per cycle). Furthermore, a stable reversible capacity of as high as ∼1081 mAh g-1 is realized with a higher sulfur loading of 5.1 mg cm-2.

  13. The synergistic effect of inert oxide and metal fluoride dual coatings on advanced cathode materials for lithium ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi

    2016-06-21

    The effect of Al2O3/LiF dual coatings on the electrochemical performance of over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO) has been investigated. A uniform coating of Al2O3 and LiF is obtained on the surface of the layered pristine material. The OLO with a dual Al2O3/LiF coating with a ratio of 1 : 1.5 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 265.66 mA h g(-1) is obtained at a C-rate of 0.1C. This capacity is approximately 15 mA h g(-1) higher than that of pristine OLO. The capacity retention (92.8% at the 50th cycle) is also comparable to that of pristine OLO (91.4% at the 50th cycle). Coating the cathode with a dual layer comprising Al2O3 and LiF leads to improved charging and discharging kinetics, and prevents direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte.

  14. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Wen, Jianguo; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Zhai, Dengyun; Miller, Dean; Jeong, Yo-Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Although the superoxide of lithium (LiO2) is believed to be a key intermediate in Li-O2 batteries leading to the formation of lithium peroxide, LiO2 has never been observed in its pure state. In this work, we provide evidence that use of a cathode based on a reduced graphene oxide with Ir nanoparticles in a Li-O2 battery results in a LiO2 discharge product formed by single electron transfer without further electron transfer or disproportionation to form Li2O2. High energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) patterns indicates the presence of crystalline LiO2 with no evidence of Li2O2 or Li2O. The HEXRD studies as a function of time also show that LiO2 can be stable in its crystalline form after one week of aging in the presence of electrolyte. The results provide evidence that LiO2 is stable enough that it can be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (~3.2 V) and may open the avenue for a lithium superoxide-based battery.

  15. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  16. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  17. Electrospun FeS2@Carbon Fiber Electrode as a High Energy Density Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Luo, Chao; Gao, Tao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-26

    In this study, an FeS2@carbon fiber electrode is developed with FeS2 nanoparticles either embedded in or attached to carbon fibers by using an electrospinning method. By applying this binder-free, metal-current-collector-free FeS2@carbon fiber electrode, both the redox reaction and capacity decay mechanisms for the Li-FeS2 system are revealed by changing the electrolyte (conventional carbonate electrolyte and a "solvent-in-salt"-type Li-S battery electrolyte) and working voltage ranges (1.0-3.0 V and 1.5-3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)). The FeS2@carbon fiber electrode shows stable cycling performance in both the conventional carbonate electrolyte and the solvent-in-salt-type Li-S battery electrolyte in the voltage range of 1.5-3.0 V. Electrochemical tests in the solvent-in-salt-type Li-S battery electrolyte indicate that the Li-FeS2 system becomes a hybrid of the Li-S cell and Li-iron sulfide cell after the initial cycle. Based on the understanding on the capacity decay mechanisms, the cycling stability of the Li-FeS2 system in the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V is then significantly enhanced by coating the FeS2@carbon fiber electrode with a thin layer of Al2O3. The Al2O3-coated electrode demonstrates excellent cycling performance with high discharge energy densities at both the material level (∼1300 Wh/kg-FeS2) and the electrode level (∼1000 Wh/kg-FeS2 electrode).

  18. A series of spinel phase cathode materials prepared by a simple hydrothermal process for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Yu; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Hu-Lin

    2006-07-01

    A series of spinel-structured materials have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure in an aqueous medium. The new synthetic method is time and energy saving i.e., no further thermal treatment and extended grinding. The main experimental process involved the insertion of lithium into electrolytic manganese dioxide with glucose as a mild reductant in an autoclave. Both the hydrothermal temperature and the presence of glucose play the critical roles in determining the final spinel integrity. Particular electrochemical performance has also been systematically explored, and the results show that Al 3+, F - co-substituted spinels have the best combination of initial capacity and capacity retention among all these samples, exhibited the initial capacity of 115 mAh/g and maintained more than 90% of the initial value at the 50th cycle.

  19. Nanosized manganese oxide as cathode material for lithium batteries: Influence of carbon mixing and grinding on cyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Palos, A.; Strobel, P.; Darie, C.; Bacia, M.; Soupart, J. B.

    New manganese oxi-iodides were prepared by redox reaction of sodium permanganate with lithium iodide in aqueous medium at room temperature. The effects of Li/Mn ratio, carbon incorporation at the synthesis stage and grinding were systematically studied. Structural characterization showed that these materials are nanocrystalline. Best electrochemical results were obtained either on samples with carbon mixed after synthesized, submitted to extensive grinding before electrode fabrication, or on samples for which carbon black was incorporated directly in the aqueous reaction medium at the synthesis stage. Typical capacities in the potential window 1.8-3.8 V are160 and 130 mAh g -1 at the 40th and 100th cycle, respectively.

  20. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries.......The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...

  1. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  2. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxie@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hongbin, E-mail: hbcao@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Nawaz, Faheem [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yi [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g{sup −1}, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} are 201 mAh g{sup −1} and 155.4 mAh g{sup −1} (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  3. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  4. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  5. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  6. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  7. Enhanced electrochemical performance in LiFePO4/graphene nanocomposite cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Kulwinder; Mandal, B.; Lin, M. W.; Nazri, M.; Vaishnava, P.; Naik, V.; Nazri, G. A.; Naik, R.; Zhou, Z. X.

    2012-02-01

    We synthesized LiFePO4/graphene nano-composite employing a sol-gel method, where graphene oxide solution was added to the LiFePO4 precursors during the synthesis. Electrical measurement reveals that the addition of 10% graphene (by weight) to LiFePO4 increases its conductivity by 5 orders of magnitude. SEM images of the composite show that the material consists of LiFePO4 nanoparticles (with a mean particle size ˜ 50 nm) homogeneously mixed with graphene sheets; the latter provides a three-dimensional conducting network for Li+ ion and electron transport. A large specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was observed at a discharge rate of C/2. To further increase the conductivity and inhibit particle size growth of LiFePO4 (thus to increase the rate capacity), we coated the nanoparticles with a thin carbon layer by adding 0.25M lauric acid as precursor in addition to graphene oxide during the synthesis. The respective roles of graphene and lauric-acid-induced carbon coating in the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate of the LiFePO4 cathode material will be discussed.

  8. Lithium ion diffusion measurements in high quality LiCoO{sub 2} thin film battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, C.S.; McGraw, J.M.; Perkins, J.D.; Parilla, P.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    2000-07-01

    Highly crystalline, textured thin films of LiCo{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}O{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.5) have been grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films of both stoichiometries were dense and uniaxially textured with Li, Co (or Co,Al) layers parallel to the substrate. It was found that crystal quality depended strongly on oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature, and substrate material. The deposition of LiCo{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} is also highly dependent upon laser fluence, requiring at least 12.8 J/cm{sup 2} for high quality films. Chemical diffusion measurements were performed over a wide range of lithium contents using the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique. Maximum and minimum effective {tilde D} for LiCoO{sub 2} were 4.0 x 10{sup {minus}11} and 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}12}/s, respectively, and for LiCo{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, 2.2 x 10{sup {minus}12} and 8.0 x 10{sup {minus}17} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively.

  9. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  10. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...

  11. Surface and in-depth characterization of lithium-ion battery cathodes at different cycle states using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Magnus; Schlifke, Annalena [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Falk, Mareike; Janek, Jürgen [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Fröba, Michael, E-mail: froeba@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cathode material LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} for lithium-ion batteries has been studied with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (CMXRF) combined with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the Mn-K edge and the Ni-K edge. This technique allows for a non-destructive, spatially resolved (x, y and z) investigation of the oxidation states of surface areas and to some extent of deeper layers of the electrode. Until now CMXRF-XANES has been applied to a limited number of applications, mainly geo-science. Here, we introduce this technique to material science applications and show its performance to study a part of a working system. A novel mesoporous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} material was cycled (charged and discharged) to investigate the effects on the oxidation states at the cathode/electrolyte interface. With this approach the degradation of Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+} only observable at the surface of the electrode could be directly shown. The spatially resolved non-destructive analysis provides knowledge helpful for further understanding of deterioration and the development of high voltage battery materials, because of its nondestructive nature it will be also suitable to monitor processes during battery cycling. - Highlights: • The potential of confocal micro-XRF-XANES for spatial resolved species analysis in a part of a working system is shown. • The spatial resolution enables differentiation of the oxidized interface from deeper layers. • With the analytical technique confocal micro-XRF-XANES 3D in-situ analyses of working systems are feasible. • The multidimensional and nondestructive analysis of Li-ion battery cathodes is shown. • The analysis will allow for a deeper understanding of processes at interfaces in battery science and others.

  12. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  13. Research progress and application of Li-Ni-Co-Mn-O as cathode material for lithium ion battery%锂离子电池正极三元材料的研究进展及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡少伟

    2013-01-01

    对近年来锂离子电池正极材料氧化镍钴锰锂的研究进展进行了综述,介绍其结构、性能特点、制备方法、电化学性能以及掺杂、包覆改性等方面的研究情况,论述了三元材料的研究现状和市场应用,环保、高能的三元材料将成为下一代动力锂离子电池的首选.%The research progress of layered Li-Ni-Co-Mn-O as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries in recent years was reviewed and the emphasis is placed on their structure,properties,synthesis methods,electrochemical performances,as well as doping and surface-modification investigation.Then,the present progress and market of research on cathode material Li-Ni-Co-Mn-O were studied.The environment-friendly and high energy ternary materials will become the first choice for the next power lithium ion battery.

  14. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  15. High performance Li2MnO3/rGO composite cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Xiong, Lilong; Xu, Youlong; Li, Houli; Ren, Zaihuang

    2017-05-01

    The novel composite Li2MnO3 (LMO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been synthesized successfully. Based on the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, LMO is found to distribute separately on the rGO sheets by forming a laminated structure, which is in favor of good electrical contact between the cathode active materials and the rGO matrix, and also facilitates the separation of LMO secondary particles with reduced size. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests show that the charge transfer resistance decreases from 81.2 Ω for LMO to 29.6 Ω for LMO/rGO composite. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of LMO/rGO composite is almost triple that of LMO. As a result, the LMO/rGO composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 284.9 mAh g-1 with a capacity retention of 86.6% after 45 cycles at 0.1 C between 2.0 and 4.6 V. Cycle performance is even better at a higher current density 0.2 C while the retention ratio is up to 97.1% after 45 cycles. The rate capability is also significantly enhanced, and the LMO/rGO composite could exhibit a large discharge capacity of 123.7 mAh g-1 which is more than three times larger than that of LMO (40.8 mAh g-1) at a high rate of 8 C.

  16. Nitrate-Melt Synthesized HT-LiCoO2 as a Superior Cathode-Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyappan Sathiya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemically-active high-temperature form of LiCoO2 (HT-LiCoO2is prepared by thermally decomposing its constituent metal-nitrates at 700 ºC. The synthetic conditions have been optimized to achieve improved performance with the HT-LiCoO2cathode in Li-ion batteries. For this purpose, the synthesized materials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. Cathodes comprising HT-LiCoO2 exhibit a specific capacity of 140 mAhg-1 with good capacity-retention over several charge-discharge cycles in the voltage range between 3.5 V and 4.2 V, and can sustain improved rate capability in contrast to a cathode constituting LiCoO2 prepared by conventional ceramic method. The nitrate-melt-decomposition method is also found effective for synthesizing Mg-/Al- doped HT-LiCoO2; these also are investigated as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  17. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Li3V2(PO4)3−xBrx/Carbon Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyu; Mo, Lulu; Zhu, Limin; Xie, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    Li3V2(PO4)3−xBrx/carbon (x = 0.08, 0.14, 0.20, and 0.26) composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were prepared through partially substituting PO43− with Br−, via a rheological phase reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical properties were evaluated by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD results reveal that the Li3V2(PO4)3−xBrx/carbon composites with solid solution phase are well crystallized and have the same monoclinic structure as the pristine Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite. It is indicated by SEM images that the Li3V2(PO4)3−xBrx/carbon composites possess large and irregular particles, with an increasing Br− content. Among the Li3V2(PO4)3−xBrx/carbon composites, the Li3V2(PO4)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite shows the highest initial discharge capacity of 178.33 mAh·g−1 at the current rate of 30 mA·g−1 in the voltage range of 4.8–3.0 V, and the discharge capacity of 139.66 mAh·g−1 remains after 100 charge/discharge cycles. Even if operated at the current rate of 90 mA·g−1, Li3V2(PO4)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite still releases the initial discharge capacity of 156.57 mAh·g−1, and the discharge capacity of 123.3 mAh·g−1 can be maintained after the same number of cycles, which is beyond the discharge capacity and cycleability of the pristine Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite. EIS results imply that the Li3V2(PO4)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite demonstrates a decreased charge transfer resistance and preserves a good interfacial compatibility between solid electrode and electrolyte solution, compared with the pristine Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite upon cycling. PMID:28336886

  18. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/Carbon Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyu; Mo, Lulu; Zhu, Limin; Xie, Lingling

    2017-02-24

    Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon (x = 0.08, 0.14, 0.20, and 0.26) composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were prepared through partially substituting PO₄(3-) with Br(-), via a rheological phase reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical properties were evaluated by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). XRD results reveal that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites with solid solution phase are well crystallized and have the same monoclinic structure as the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite. It is indicated by SEM images that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites possess large and irregular particles, with an increasing Br(-) content. Among the Li₃V₂(PO₄)3-xBrx/carbon composites, the Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite shows the highest initial discharge capacity of 178.33 mAh·g(-1) at the current rate of 30 mA·g(-1) in the voltage range of 4.8-3.0 V, and the discharge capacity of 139.66 mAh·g(-1) remains after 100 charge/discharge cycles. Even if operated at the current rate of 90 mA·g(-1), Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite still releases the initial discharge capacity of 156.57 mAh·g(-1), and the discharge capacity of 123.3 mAh·g(-1) can be maintained after the same number of cycles, which is beyond the discharge capacity and cycleability of the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite. EIS results imply that the Li₃V₂(PO₄)2.86Br0.14/carbon composite demonstrates a decreased charge transfer resistance and preserves a good interfacial compatibility between solid electrode and electrolyte solution, compared with the pristine Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/carbon composite upon cycling.

  19. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  20. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  1. The synthesis of Li(Cosbnd Mnsbnd Ni)O2 cathode material from spent-Li ion batteries and the proof of its functionality in aqueous lithium and sodium electrolytic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senćanski, Jelena; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Majstorović, Divna; Tchernychova, Elena; Papan, Jelena; Vujković, Milica

    2017-02-01

    Several spent Li-ion batteries were manually dismantled and their components were uncurled and separated. The chemical composition of each battery's component was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Among several ways to separate cathode material from the collector, the alkali dissolution treatment was selected as the most effective one. After both complete separation and acid leaching steps, the co-precipitation method, followed by a thermal treatment (700 °C or 850 °C), was used to resynthesize cathode material LiCo0.415Mn0.435Ni0.15O2. Its structure and morphology were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS methods. The electrochemical behavior of recycled cathode materials was examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in both LiNO3 and NaNO3 aqueous solutions. High sodium storage capacity, amounting to 93 mAh g-1, was measured galvanostatically at a relatively high current of ∼100 mA g-1. Initial lithium intercalation capacity of ∼64 mAh g-1, was determined potentiodynamically at very high scan rate of 20 mV s-1 (∼40 C). Somewhat lower initial capacity of ∼30 mAh g-1, but much lower capacity fade on cycling, was found for sodium intercalation at the same scan rate. The differences in the Li and Na charge storage capability were explained in terms of ion rearrangement during charging/discharging processes.

  2. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as ...

  3. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  4. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  5. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  6. Enhanced rate performance of molybdenum-doped spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Rong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    The Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes are successfully synthesized by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The result demonstrates that the Mo-doped LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathodes present the improved electrochemical performance over pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. At the 2 C rate after 80 cycles, the discharge capacities are 68.5 mAh g-1 for the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material (53.9% of the capacity at 0.1 C), 107.4 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.425Ni0.5Mo0.05O4 material (82.1% at 0.1 C), and 122.7 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 material (90.5% at 0.1 C). Mo-doping is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, suggesting that Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes have faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics during cycling. Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes show lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. In addition, LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathode exhibits the smallest particle size, the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, indicating that it has a high reversibility and good rate capability.

  7. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  8. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  9. Spinel Phases LiRExMn2-xO4(RE=Nd,Ce) as Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several series of LiRExMn2-xO4(RE=Ce, Nd) samples prepared at different contents and in different rare earth metals substitution were studied in order to further understand the dependence of the electrochemical performance on the doping rare earth metals. These cathodes were more tolerant to repeat lithium extraction and insertion than a standard LiMn2O4 spinel electrode in spite of a small reduction in the initial capacity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the Mn4+ contents for spinel LiMn2O4 directly affected the initial capacity and cyclability of LiMn2O4.

  10. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  11. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  12. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  13. Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

    1999-02-03

    The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

  14. Development of carbon-based cathodes for Li-air batteries: Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyungsub; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Chunjoong; Nam, Seunghoon; Park, Byungwoo

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-air) batteries are regarded as one of the most fascinating energy storage devices for use in the future electric vehicles, since Li-air batteries provide ten-times-higher theoretical capacities than those from current Li-ion batteries. Nonetheless, Li-air batteries have not yet been implemented to the market because of several major drawbacks such as low capacity, poor cycle life, and low round-trip efficiency. These battery performances are highly dependent on the design of air cathodes, thus much effort has been devoted to the development of high performance cathode. Among various materials, carbonaceous materials have been widely studied as the basis of air cathodes especially for non-aqueous Li-O2 cells due to their high electric conductivity, low cost, and ease of fabrication. This review summarizes the history, scientific background, and perspectives of Liair batteries, particularly from the viewpoint of carbon-based air cathodes.

  15. Electrochemical and thermal behaviour of Li[Li(x)(Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6)1 - x]O2 (x = 0.09, 0.11) cathode Materials for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vediappan, Kumaran; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-04-01

    High rate capable Mn-rich layered Li[Li(x)(Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6)1-x]O2 (x = 0.09, 0.11) cathode materials that are fully charged are investigated with respect to stability. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to determine the thermal stability of cathode material compositions together with PVdF binder and a conductive agent by heating from 30 degrees C to 400 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. In the Li[Li(x)(Ni0.3Co0.1Mn0.6)1-x]O2 (x = 0.09, x = 0.11) cathode materials, the exothermic reaction started at 100 degrees C. Due to thermal runway, a sharp peak was observed at 279.25 degrees C for the material of x = 0.09 with exothermic heat generation of 168.4 J/g. For the Mn-rich cathode material, where x = 0.11, two relatively smaller peaks appeared at 250.72 degrees C and 268.60 degrees C with heat evolution of 71.49 J/g and 93.67 J/g, respectively. These layered cathode materials are thermally stable. The x = 0.09 composition shows huge heat flow occurrence when compared to the x = 0.11. It is concluded from a heat generation analysis that the two Mn-rich cathode materials are thermally stable for lithium rechargeable batteries.

  16. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  17. Systematic Effect for an Ultralong Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Ye, Yusheng; Chen, Renjie; Qian, Ji; Zhao, Teng; Li, Li; Li, Wenhui

    2015-11-11

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive candidates for energy storage devices because they have five times the theoretical energy storage of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The main problems plaguing Li-S batteries are poor cycle life and limited rate capability, caused by the insulating nature of S and the shuttle effect associated with the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides. Here, we report the use of biocell-inspired polydopamine (PD) as a coating agent on both the cathode and separator to address these problems (the "systematic effects"). The PD-modified cathode and separator play key roles in facilitating ion diffusion and keeping the cathode structure stable, leading to uniform lithium deposition and a solid electrolyte interphase. As a result, an ultralong cycle performance of more than 3000 cycles, with a capacity fade of only 0.018% per cycle, was achieved at 2 C. It is believed that the systematic modification of the cathode and separator for Li-S batteries is a new strategy for practical applications.

  18. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  19. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  20. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun

    2013-01-10

    The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  1. Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries using lithium-rich layered oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Julie; Castets, Aurore; Timperman, Laure; Santos-Peña, Jesùs; Dumont, Erwan; Levasseur, Stéphane; Tessier, Cécile; Dedryvère, Rémi; Anouti, Mérièm

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report positive effect of Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) as additive during initial activation and cycling of Li-rich-NMC xLi2MnO3-(1 - x)LiMO2 (x >> 1; M = Ni, Co, Mn) cathode in EC/DMC + 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte. Firstly conductivity and viscosity of electrolyte with x wt.% TTFP; 0 wt.% NMC full cell is maintained after 50 cycles at C rate. Finally, XPS analysis of Li-rich -NMC electrodes show presence of TTFP on the surface during cycling and confirm the presence of Mn3+ at the end of discharge. The convergence of all characterizations indicates that TTFP should act as a catalyst to several surface reactions which are beneficial to long cycling cell performances.

  2. Recovery process of cathode material of the spent lithium-ion batteries using Pechini methods; Reprocessamento de catodos de baterias de ions litio descartadas utilizando sintese Pechini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo Fonseca, C.; Prado, R.M.; Santos Junior, G.A.; Marques, E.C.; Neves, S., E-mail: carla.polo@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Sao Francisco (LCAM/USF), Itatiba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao e Aplicacao de Materiais; Amaral, F. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work proposes a new process of recovering LiCoO{sub 2} from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by a combination of acid leaching and Pechini synthesis, as an alternative process to improve the recovery efficiency of LiCoO{sub 2} and reduce energy consumption and pollution. The effects of calcination temperature and lithium acetate addition in the synthesis on the structure and morphology of LiCoO{sub 2} powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. According to the analysis, the crystallinity of LiCoO{sub 2} powders depends on the calcination temperature. The results indicate the layered HT-LiCoO{sub 2} powders can be obtained at 750 deg C for 24 h in oxygen with lithium salt addition. Cyclic voltammograms showed one reversible redox process at 4.0/3.85 V for the LiCoO{sub 2} obtained with lithium addition in the synthesis and irreversible redox process for the LiCoO{sub 2} obtained without lithium addition. (author)

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  4. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  5. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  6. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  7. Co3O4-Pt/graphene as air cathode catalyst for lithium-air battery%四氧化三钴-铂/石墨烯锂空气电池阴极材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大明; 杨丹丹; 李加展; 王余; 于晨涛

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that the preparation of Co3 O4-Pt/graphene hybrid and its use as air cathode catalyst for enhanced specific capacity in Lithium-air battery. Co3O4-Pt/graphene was synthesized by a two-step method. More specifically, Pt/graphene was prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process, and then it was mixed with Co3 O4 uniformly to get highly efficient Co3O4-Pt/graphene as air-cathode catalyst. Micromorphology, composition and compositional dispersion of the obtained hybrid catalyst were then characterized by X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) , scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) , X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy ( XEDS ) , transmission electron microscopy (TEM),Raman Spectroscopy(Ram). Co3O4-Pt/graphene air cathode catalyst was assembled with metal lithium anode, LiPF6/EC-DMC-EMC electrolyte, and PP/PE/PP to construct a lithium-air battery. The constant current charge-discharge tests of the lithium-air battery exhibit enhanced specific capacity: the discharge specific capacity reaches up to 8 000 mAh/g and the voltage is above 2. 6 V, which is superior to alternative cathode catalysts. The enhanced performance of lithium-air battery is attributed to the joint effect of preparation process, composition, and compositional dispersion.%为提高锂空气电池的比容量,采用微波辅助乙二醇还原法将H2 PtCl6 ·6H2 O及氧化石墨还原为Pt/石墨烯,再将其与Co3 O4混合均匀,得到高效Co3 O4-Pt/石墨烯锂空气电池复合阴极材料,作为对比,同时制备了Co3 O4-石墨、Co3 O4-石墨烯等阴极材料,用其与金属锂阳极、LiPF6/EC-DMC-EMC电解液、PP/PE/PP隔膜组装锂空气电池.用X射线衍射( XRD)、扫描电子显微镜( SEM)、透射电子显微镜( TEM)、X射线能量散射能谱( XEDS)、拉曼光谱( Ram)等方法对材料的微观形貌、组成及各组分在材料中的分散程度进行了表征,对电池进行恒流充放电测试,结果显示,Co3 O4-Pt/石墨烯阴极材料的比容量可超过8 000 m

  8. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  9. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  10. Deposition and characterization of thin films of materials with application in cathodes for lithium rechargeable micro batteries; Deposito y caracterizacion de peliculas delgadas de materiales con aplicacion en catodos para microbaterias recargables de litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, J. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis work is reported the deposition and characterization of thin films of materials of the type LiMO{sub 2}, with M=Co and Ni, which have application in cathodes for micro-batteries of lithium ions. In the last years some investigators have reported that the electrochemical operation of the lithium ions batteries it can improve recovering the cathode, in bundle form, with some metal oxides as the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; for that the study of the formation of thin films in bilayer form LiMO{sub 2}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} is of interest in the development of lithium ions micro batteries. The thin films were deposited using the laser ablation technique studying the effect of some deposit parameters in the properties of the one formed material, as: laser fluence, substrate temperature and working atmosphere, with the purpose of optimizing it. In the case of the LiCoO{sub 2} it was found that to use an inert atmosphere of argon allows to obtain the material with the correct composition. Additionally, with the use of a temperature in the substrate of 150 C is possible to obtain to the material with certain crystallinity grade that to the subjected being to a post-deposit thermal treatment at 300 C for three hours, it gives as result a totally crystalline material. In the case of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2}, it was necessary to synthesize the oxide starting from a reaction of solid state among nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) obtaining stoichiometric LiNiO{sub 2}. For the formation of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2} it was used an argon atmosphere and the laser fluence was varied, the deposits were carried out to two different substrates temperatures, atmosphere and 160 C. In both cases the material it was recovered with an alumina layer, found that this layer didn't modify the structural properties of the base oxide (LiCoO{sub 2} and LiNiO{sub 2}). (Author)

  11. An in-situ electrolytically formed lithium iodine battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourey, William M.

    2011-12-01

    Today the lithium and lithium-ion batteries represent the premiere high energy density battery. Beyond improving performance, there is a desire to reduce cost of manufacture and enable battery technology to adapt conformally to a variety of operating environments. Recently Rutgers introduced a concept of electrolytically formed batteries (EFBs) as a type of self-assembled approach where the entire anode and cathode is formed in-situ on the atomic level. EFBs have the potential to offer a unique pathway to much lower cost cell manufacture (no electrodes, no lithium metal to handle), a non lithium metal containing reserve cell, and to form batteries in very demanding architectures such as those dictated by advanced 3-D battery designs. This thesis represents the first comprehensive research related to lithium EFBs, specifically one based on LiI. Specific focus on the structure and ionic and electronic transport of in-situ formed polyiodide networks will be discussed along with the key role of stabilizing interphases.

  12. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interface Limited Lithium Transport in Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Qian, Danna; McGilvray, Thomas; Wang, Ziying; Wang, Feng; Camino, Fernando; Graetz, Jason; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-01-16

    Understanding the role of interfaces is important for improving the performance of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. To study these interfaces, we present a novel approach for fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries using focused ion beams and their characterization by analytical electron microscopy. Morphological changes by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and correlated elemental concentration changes by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping are presented. We provide first evidence of lithium accumulation at the anode/current collector (Si/Cu) and cathode/electrolyte (LixCoO2/LiPON) interfaces, which can be accounted for the irreversible capacity losses. Interdiffusion of elements at the Si/LiPON interface was also witnessed with a distinct contrast layer. These results highlight that the interfaces may limit the lithium transport significantly in solid-state batteries. Fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries also enables in situ electron microscopy observation of electrochemical phenomena in a variety of solid-state battery chemistries.

  14. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  15. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  16. Effect of Surfactants on the Physical Properties and Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4 Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, K.; Naik, R.; Nazri, G. A.; Nazri, M.; Naik, V.; Mandal, B. P.; Vaishnava, P. P.

    2012-10-01

    Use of lithium iron phosphate in lithium ion battery is hampered by the poor electronic conductivity and slow lithium ion diffusion. Several methods have been tried to improve the conductivity. Carbon coating is found to be very suitable way to enhance the electronic conductivity. Here, we report synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO4 composite materials using lauric, myristic, and oleic acid as source of carbon. The phase purity of these three LiFePO4/C composites was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction. The quality of carbon coating has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. In all the samples, the carbon content is found to be approximately 10%. SEM and TEM investigations reveal that the surfactants coat the LiFePO4 particles uniformly with carbon and the coating reduces the particle size to approximately 30 nm. Due to high electrical conductivity, controlled particle size and suitable microstructure, among the three LiFePO4 coated samples, the sample prepared in presence of lauric acid exhibited superior electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity, the cycling stability and delivered high discharge capacity of ˜140 mAhg-1 at C/2 rate.

  17. A novel three-dimensional sulfur/graphene/carbon nanotube composite prepared by a hydrothermal co-assembling route as binder-free cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guanghui; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui; Bai, Jintao

    2015-01-01

    A novel sulfur/graphene/carbon nanotube (S/GN/CNT) composite was successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal co-assembling route. When used as cathode for lithium-sulfur battery, the S/GN/CNT composite can be pressed directly onto nickel foam without binder and conductive additive, thereby simplifying the manufacturing process. The resulting S/GN/CNT composite exhibited high and stable-specific discharge capacities of 670 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 0.2 C and good rate capability. This enhanced electrochemical performance could be attributed to the combinative effects of GN and CNT, which not only function as a flexible conductive matrix, favoring the ion transport and electrolyte diffusion, but also for provide a porous three-dimensional architecture with open channels to effectively confine the soluble polysulfides.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of LiMgyMn2–yO4 cathode materials by a modified Pechini process for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Subramania; N Angayarkanni; A R Sathiya Priya; R Gangadharan; T Vasudevan

    2005-12-01

    Cubic spinels of composition, LiMgyMn2–yO4, with = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2, were synthesized by a modified Pechini process using polyethylene glycol and citric acid. The phase formation and/or crystallization of the precursors were studied by thermal analysis. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Coin cells were fabricated with lithium as the anode and LiMgyMn2–yO4 as the cathode in an electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in a 1 : 1 (v/v) mixture of EC and DEC. The charge–discharge studies were performed and the results were compared with materials prepared by a solid state thermal method.

  19. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  20. Morphological Evolution of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Critical Effects of Surface Orientations and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Dong; Qi, Xin; Qiu, Bao; Fang, Jianhui; Kloepsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    An evolution panorama of morphology and surface orientation of high-voltage spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode materials synthesized by the combination of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique and a postcalcination process is presented. Nanoparticles, octahedral and truncated octahedral particles with different preferential growth of surface orientations are obtained. The structures of different materials are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of various morphologies (including surface orientations and particle size) on kinetic parameters, such as electronic conductivity and Li(+) diffusion coefficients, are investigated as well. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that the morphological differences result in divergent rate capabilities and cycling performances. They reveal that appropriate surface-tailoring can satisfy simultaneously the compatibility of power capability and long cycle life. The morphology design for optimizing Li(+) transport and interfacial stability is very important for high-voltage spinel material. Overall, the crystal chemistry, kinetics and electrochemical performance of the present study on various morphologies of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 spinel materials have implications for understanding the complex impacts of electrode interface and electrolyte and rational design of rechargeable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding performance of our truncated octahedral LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 materials makes them promising as cathode materials to develop long-life, high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  2. Porous Carbon Paper as Interlayer to Stabilize the Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Long; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Ye-Zheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-11-23

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is expected to be the high-energy battery system for the next generation. Nevertheless, the degradation of lithium anode in Li-S battery is the crucial obstacle for practical application. In this work, a porous carbon paper obtained from corn stalks via simple treating procedures is used as interlayer to stabilize the surface morphology of Li anode in the environment of Li-S battery. A smooth surface morphology of Li is obtained during cycling by introducing the porous carbon paper into Li-S battery. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance of sulfur cathode is partially enhanced by alleviating the loss of soluble intermediates (polysulfides) into the electrolyte, as well as the side reaction of polysulfides with metallic lithium. The Li-S battery assembled with the interlayer exhibits a large capacity and excellent capacity retention. Therefore, the porous carbon paper as interlayer plays a bifunctional role in stabilizing the Li anode and enhancing the electrochemical performance of the sulfur cathode for constructing a stable Li-S battery.

  3. Manipulating size of Li3V2(PO4)3 with reduced graphene oxide: towards high-performance composite cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianjun; Yan, Zan; Wu, Wenyan; Zeng, Wencong; Du, Yuanxin; Zhong, Yu; Zhai, Haidie; Ji, Hengxing; Zhu, Yanwu

    2014-08-29

    Lithium vanadium phosphate (Li3V2(PO4)3, LVP)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite is prepared with a rheological method followed by heat treatment. The size and interface of LVP particles, two important merits for a cathode material, can be effectively tuned by the rGO in the composite, which plays as surfactant to assist sol-gelation and simultaneously as conductive carbon coating. As a consequence, the composite with 7.0 ± 0.4 wt.% rGO shows a capacity of 141.6 mAh g(-1) at 0.075 C, and a rate capacity of 119.0 mAh g(-1) at 15 C with respect to the mass of LVP/rGO composite, and an excellent cycling stability that retains 98.7% of the initial discharge capacity after 50 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the well-controlled rGO content that yields synergic effects between LVP and rGO. Not only do the rGO sheets reduce the size of LVP particles that favor the Li(+) ion migration and the electron transfer during charging and discharging, but also contribute to the reversible lithium ions storage.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.8M0.2O2 cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sathiyamoorthi; P Manisankar; P Shakkthivel; Mu Sang Lee; T Vasudevan

    2008-06-01

    LiNiO2 and substituted nickel oxides, LiNi0.8M0.2O2 and LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+), have been synthesized using simple solid state technique and used as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable cells. Physical properties of the synthesized products are discussed in the structural (XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of the synthesized oxides. The composition of the materials was explored by EDAX analysis. Electrochemical studies were carried out in the range 3–4.5 V (vs Li metal) using 1 M LiBF4 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. The doping involving 20% Mg resulted in a discharge capacity of 185 mAhg-1 at 0.1 mA/cm2 and remained stable even after 25 cycles. Discharge capacity retention for Mg doped lithium nickelate at 25th cycle was noted to be nearly 7% higher than for the undoped material.

  5. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  6. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  7. Nanostructured lithium sulfide materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yun Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-08-01

    Upon the maturation and saturation of Li-ion battery technologies, the demand for the development of energy storage systems with higher energy densities has surged to meet the needs of key markets such as electric vehicles. Among the many next generation high-energy storage options, the Lisbnd S battery system is considered particularly close to mass commercialization because of its low cost and the natural abundance of sulfur. In this review, we focus on nanostructured Li2S materials for Lisbnd S batteries. Due to a lithium source in its molecular structure, Li2S can be coupled with various Li-free anode materials, thereby giving it the potential to surmount many of the problems related with a Li-metal anode. The hurdles that impede the full utilization of Li2S materials include its high activation barrier and the low electrical conductivity of bulk Li2S particles. Various strategies that can be used to assist the activation process and facilitate electrical transport are analyzed. To provide insight into the opportunities specific to Li2S materials, we highlight some major advances and results that have been achieved in the development of metal Li-free full cells and all-solid-state cells based on Li2S cathodes.

  8. Lithium Reserve Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the high temperature stability of 2M LiAsF6/MF electrolyte solutions. It was found that the addition of small amounts of LiBF4 to these solutions...greatly increased their high temperature storage capabilities. It was determined that the LiBF4 was effective only when lithium metal was also present in...the solution. LiBF4 was able to stabilize solutions prepared with grades of LiAsF6 obtained from other vendors but to a much lesser degree.

  9. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  10. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  11. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium–sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  12. Manganese modified zeolite silicalite-1 as polysulphide sorbent in lithium sulphur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapornik, Vida; Novak Tusar, Natasa; Ristic, Alenka; Chellappan, Rajesh Kumar; Foix, Dominique; Dedryvère, Rémi; Gaberscek, Miran; Dominko, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Discharge/charge process of classical lithium sulphur battery proceeds through intermediate polysulphides which are soluble in classical electrolyte systems. Due to concentration gradient soluble polysulphides easily diffuse/migrate out from cathode composite forming non-uniform distribution of the sulphur within cathode. Eventually polysulphides can be completely reduced on the metallic lithium anode. In this work we compare the sorption properties of manganese modified zeolite silicalite-1 (MnS-1) with a cathode composite containing SBA-15 additive and a cathode composite without additive. Careful analysis using XPS and FIB microscopy equipped with EDX show improved retention of polysulphide species within cathode composite in the case of MnS-1 zeolite as an additive. Interestingly, the amount of sulphur species detected by XPS on the metallic lithium is very similar regardless on cathode composite we use. Finally, similar cycling behaviour can be observed if MnS-1 zeolite is used as an interlayer between composite cathode and separator.

  13. Nano-LiCoO{sub 2} as cathode material of large capacity and high rate capability for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University (China); Shanghai Institute of Space Power-Sources (SISP), Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (China); Liu, L.L.; Tian, S.; Li, L.; Wu, Y.P. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University (China); Yue, Y.B.; Guan, S.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast China University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, K. [Shanghai Institute of Space Power-Sources (SISP), Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (China)

    2010-11-15

    Crystalline nanoparticles of LiCoO{sub 2} are prepared by a sol-gel method at 550 C and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrochemical behaviors were characterized by cyclic voltammograms, capacity measurement and cycling performance. Results show that the reversible capacity of the nano-LiCoO{sub 2} can be up to 143 mAh/g at 1000 mA/g and still be 133 mAh/g at 10,000 mA/g (about 70C) in 0.5 mol/l Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. In addition, their cycling behavior is also very satisfactory, no evident capacity fading during the initial 40 cycles. These data present great promise for the application of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries. (author)

  14. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Gang, Ling; Jian, Gao; Rui-Juan, Xiao; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 51172274) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201).

  15. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-04

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  16. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  17. Wave-like free-standing NiCo2O4 cathode for lithium-oxygen battery with high discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wang, Fan; Rui, Kun; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xiangwei

    2015-10-01

    A novel free-standing air electrode for Li-O2 battery with a wave-like microstructure is designed and synthesized through a facile electrochemical deposition process. Interconnected NiCo2O4 nanosheets with planes grown almost parallel to the surface of Ni foam build up continues porous catalytic surface with open space for the growth of Li2O2 discharge product. Li-O2 battery with the synthesized cathode delivers a high discharge capacity of 7004 mAh g-1 at 40 mA g-1 with a charge potential lower than 3.6 V (vs. Li/Li+), and significantly lower impedance compared to conventional electrode. Flower-like Li2O2 particles with a large size are observed as discharge products, consisting with the high discharge capacity. The unique wave-like microstructure and DMSO-based electrolyte with a high-doner-number are proposed to be responsible for the high discharge capacity, and the formation of large size Li2O2 discharge products. In addition, the electrode also exhibits stable cycle performance up to 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 due to the robust composition and microstructure of the free-standing design.

  18. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  19. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-21

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg(2+) doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg(2+) doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li(+) diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg(2+) doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of "cushion" as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.

  1. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  2. Preventing the dissolution of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur cells by using Nafion-coated cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Jung; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2014-09-01

    The principal drawback of lithium-sulfur batteries is the dissolution of long-chain lithium polysulfides into the electrolyte, which limits cycling performance. To overcome this problem, we focused on the development of a novel cathode as well as anode material and designed Nafion-coated NiCrAl/S as a cathode and lithium powder as an anode. Nafion-coated NiCrAl/S cathode was synthesized using a two-step dip-coating technique. The lithium-powder anode was used instead of a lithium-foil anode to prohibit dendrite growth and to improve on the electrochemical behaviors. The cells showed an initial discharge capacity of about 900 mA g(-1) and a final discharge capacity of 772 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.1 C-rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrate that using the Nafion-coated NiCrAl/S cathode can suppress the dissolution of long-chain lithium polysulfides.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-graft-carbon nanotubes with LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}O$_4$ and its application as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THANG VAN LE; THU ANH NGUYEN; NGUYET MINH THI NGUYEN; ANH TUAN LUU; LE-THU T NGUYEN; HA TRAN NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    The P3HT grafted on CNTs to form the P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites was synthesized and their morphologies, structure have been characterized via the sedimentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-raydiffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the P3HT-$g$-CNTs has a better thermal stability than that of the P3HT/CNTs blend. The nanocomposite based on P3HT-g-CNTs and doped spinel LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ (LNMO) have been fabricated via mixing process. The structure and morphologies of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites have also been performed by SEM, XRD and TEM. The electrochemical performance of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites as cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and exhibited the high diffusion of lithium ions in the charge–discharge process.

  4. Ferrocene-Promoted Long-Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yingying; Liu, Wen; Yang, Ke R; Jiang, Jianbing; Fan, Qi; Weng, Zhe; Zhong, Yiren; Wu, Zishan; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S; Zhou, Henghui; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-11-14

    Confining lithium polysulfide intermediates is one of the most effective ways to alleviate the capacity fade of sulfur-cathode materials in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. To develop long-cycle Li-S batteries, there is an urgent need for material structures with effective polysulfide binding capability and well-defined surface sites; thereby improving cycling stability and allowing study of molecular-level interactions. This challenge was addressed by introducing an organometallic molecular compound, ferrocene, as a new polysulfide-confining agent. With ferrocene molecules covalently anchored on graphene oxide, sulfur electrode materials with capacity decay as low as 0.014 % per cycle were realized, among the best of cycling stabilities reported to date. With combined spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations, it was determined that effective polysulfide binding originates from favorable cation-π interactions between Li(+) of lithium polysulfides and the negatively charged cyclopentadienyl ligands of ferrocene.

  5. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  6. In situ neutron depth profiling: A powerful method to probe lithium transport in micro-batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Labohm, F.; Mulder, M.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Mulder, F.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    In situ neutron depth profiling (NDP) offers the possibility to observe lithium transport inside micro-batteries during battery operation. It is demonstrated that NDP results are consistent with the results of electrochemical measurements, and that the use of an enriched6LiCoO2 cathode offers more i

  7. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  8. Li K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra for a library of lithium compounds applied in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongniu; Zuin, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) have achieved great success as energy supply systems in portable devices and in electrical vehicles. Identifying the local chemical structures of elemental lithium in lithium compounds is beneficial for improving understanding of battery components and performance. Herein, a library of Li K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of lithium compounds relevant to Li-ion batteries is reported. Materials described include lithium metals (anode), Li-containing cathodes, electrolytes and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The results illustrate the characteristic spectral features stemming from the various electronic structures and chemical environment of lithium atoms for each and every possible battery component. XANES spectra of Sn based anode after discharging reveal the appearance of Li2CO3 on electrode surface. X-ray damage on sensitive lithium species is also assessed; the results reveal that more attention should be paid to irradiation effects to conduct XANES measurements for battery materials properly.

  9. Improved electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material synthesized by citric acid assisted sol-gel method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Hyungsub; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Youn, Hee-Chang; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Byung-Won; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-01

    A citric acid assisted sol-gel method is employed for synthesizing LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 for use as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and oxygen atmosphere on the structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 are investigated, in order to determine optimal conditions for the synthesis of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 via the citric acid assisted sol-gel method. In particular, the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere effectively leads to a decrease in the degree of cation mixing and the formation of LiOH and Li2CO3 on the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2. Furthermore, heat-treatment in an oxygen atmosphere improves the uniformity of oxidation state of Ni ions between the surface and bulk. LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 synthesized by heat-treatment at 850 °C under an oxygen atmosphere shows a discharge capacity of 174 mA h g-1 and 89% capacity retention after 100 cycles. In addition, it shows high rate capability (i.e., 41% capacity retention at 10 C), which is an improved rate performance over a previous report. The results of this study should provide useful information for the synthesis of Ni-rich layered oxides for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Nie, Anmin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhou, Yungang; Lu, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zu, Xiaotao; Xiao, Jie; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Gao, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-01-14

    Voltage and capacity fading of layer structured lithium and manganese rich (LMR) transition metal oxide is directly related to the structural and composition evolution of the material during the cycling of the battery. However, understanding such evolution at atomic level remains elusive. Based on atomic level structural imaging, elemental mapping of the pristine and cycled samples and density functional theory calculations, it is found that accompanying the hoping of Li ions is the simultaneous migration of Ni ions towards the surface from the bulk lattice, leading to the gradual depletion of Ni in the bulk lattice and thickening of a Ni enriched surface reconstruction layer (SRL). Furthermore, Ni and Mn also exhibit concentration partitions within the thin layer of SRL in the cycled samples where Ni is almost depleted at the very surface of the SRL, indicating the preferential dissolution of Ni ions in the electrolyte. Accompanying the elemental composition evolution, significant structural evolution is also observed and identified as a sequential phase transition of C2/m →I41→Spinel. For the first time, it is found that the surface facet terminated with pure cation is more stable than that with a mixture of cation and anion. These findings firmly established how the elemental species in the lattice of LMR cathode transfer from the bulk lattice to surface layer and further into the electrolyte, clarifying the long standing confusion and debate on the structure and chemistry of the surface layer and their correlation with the voltage fading and capacity decaying of LMR cathode. Therefore, this work provides critical insights for designing of cathode materials with both high capacity and voltage stability during cycling.

  11. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...TR-7584 ● JAN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion- Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium... Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  12. Exploration of the Feasibility of Present Generation Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    AD-A 24 098 EXPLORATION 0F THE FEASIBILT 0F PRESENT GENERATION 1/ LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES (U) EIC LABS INC NEWTON MA P B HARRIS ET AL...LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES by P. B. Harris, G. L. Holleck, J. Buzby, J. Avery, L. Pitts and K. M. Abraham EIC Laboratories, Inc. 67 Chapel...8217cathodes, 2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran/LiAsF6 electrolytes for cyclinq lithium, Use of ambient temperature lithium cells for electric vehicles . ’\\’U 9

  13. Development of a benchmarking model for lithium battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, Timm; Korte, Carsten; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a benchmarking model to enable systematic selection of anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries in stationary applications, hybrid and battery electric vehicles. The model incorporates parameters for energy density, power density, safety, lifetime, costs and raw materials. Combinations of carbon anodes, Li4Ti5O12 or TiO2 with LiFePO4 cathodes comprise interesting combinations for application in hybrid power trains. Higher cost and raw material prioritization of stationary applications hinders the breakthrough of Li4Ti5O12, while a combination of TiO2 and LiFePO4 is suggested. The favored combinations resemble state-of-the-art materials, whereas novel cell chemistries must be optimized for cells in battery electric vehicles. In contrast to actual research efforts, sulfur as a cathode material is excluded due to its low volumetric energy density and its known lifetime and safety issues. Lithium as anode materials is discarded due to safety issues linked to electrode melting and dendrite formation. A high capacity composite Li2MnO3·LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with silicon as anode material promise high energy densities with sufficient lifetime and safety properties if electrochemical and thermal stabilization of the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and bulk materials is achieved. The model allows a systematic top-down orientation of research on lithium batteries.

  14. Carboxymethyl chitosan/conducting polymer as water-soluble composite binder for LiFePO4 cathode in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haoxiang; He, Aiqin; Lu, Jidian; Sun, Minghao; He, Jiarong; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2016-12-01

    A water-soluble conductive composite binder consisting of carboxymethyl chitosan (CCTS) as a binder and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a conduction-promoting agent is reported for the LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode in Li-ion batteries. The introduction of conductive PEDOT:PSS as a conductive composite binder facilitates the formation of homogeneous and continuous conducting bridges throughout the electrode and raises the compaction density of the electrode sheet by decreasing the amounts of the commonly used conducting agent of acetylene black. The optimized replacement ratios of acetylene black with PEDOT:PSS (acetylene black/PEDOT:PSS = 1:1, by weight) are obtained by measuring electrical conductivity, peel strength and compaction density of the electrode sheets. The LFP half-cell with the optimized conductive binder exhibits better cycling and rate performance and more favorable electrochemical kinetics than that using only acetylene black conducting agent. The pilot application of PEDOT:PSS/CCTS binder in 10 Ah CCTS-LFP prismatic cell exhibits a comparable cycling performance, retaining 89.7% of capacity at 1 C/2 C (charge/discharge) rate as compared with 90% for commercial PVDF-LFP over 1000 cycles, and better rate capability than that of commercial PVDF-LFP, retaining 98% capacity of 1 C at 7 C rate as compared with 95.4% for PVDF-LFP.

  15. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  16. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, G. C.

    1987-09-01

    During this reporting period a number of novel solid polymer electrolytes formed by salts of multivalent cations and polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been prepared and characterized. These materials are of interest not only because of their potential ionic conductivities, but also because some of them may have electronic conductivity and oxidizing power which would be useful for novel electrode materials in all-solid-state batteries. Two broad classes of materials were investigated: PEO solutions of Zn(2), Cd(2), and Pb(2), all of which are potential electrolytes for solid-state batteries, and PEO solutions of transition metal salts, which are of interest as possible cathode materials. Mixed compositions containing both divalent cations and lithium ions were also prepared. Electrolytes formed with small, highly-polarizing ions, such as Mg(2) and Ca(2), are essentially pure anion conductors. Electrolytes containing Zn(2) behave similarly, unless they are hydrated, in which case the Zn(2) ions are quite mobile. Electrolytes formed with larger, more polarizable cations, such as Pb(2) and Cd(2), conduct both anions and cations. Solutions of salts of transition metal cations form a third group of electrolytes. Of the electrolytes investigated so far, those formed with Ni(++) salts are the most unusual. It appears as if the transport number of Ni(2) and the electrolyte conductivity can be greatly enhanced by controlling the hydration and dehydration of the polymer.

  17. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 life. We have examined a polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified carbon paper (CP-PVP) current collector in Li/polysulfide cells. PVP is soluble in the electrolyte solvent, but shows strong affinity with lithium polysulfides. The retention of polysulfides in the CP-PVP current collector is improved

  18. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  19. Studies on Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Li1+δNi1-xCoxO2-yFy Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-quan; HE Ze-zhen; LI Shu-hua; LIN Xiao-jing

    2004-01-01

    It is a technological problem of LiNiO2 cathode material for lithium-ion secondary batteries because of the difficult preparation and hard purification, instable performance, remarkable capacity fading at initial discharge, worse thermal stability and safety of Ni-series cathode materials,and it is also the key factor of hindering LiNiO2 cathode material from practical applications.Recently, by doping some metal cations such as Co, Mn, Mg, Al, Cr and so on[1-5] into LiNiO2, the preparation difficulty and the purification hardness can be obviously improved, and the initial irreversible discharge capacity can be reduced, and the ratio of the initial discharge to charge capacity can be enhanced. But the cyclic stability, thermal stability and safety of LiNiO2 are not enough to satisfy the demand of commercial use.At present, the synthesis of LiNiO2 cathode material must be sintered under oxygen atmosphere in most cases, and the improved effect of fluoride doping on the electrochemical properties of LiNiO2 has seldom been reported in the literatures.In this paper, the cobalt cation and fluorine anion co-doping cathode materials Li1+δNi1-xCoxO2-yFy( 0≤δ≤0.2, 0≤x≤0.5, 0≤y≤0.1 ) were synthesized by solid state reaction method at 650℃ ~750℃ under air atmosphere, and characterized by XRD、 SEM、 TEM、 BET、 laser particle-size distribution measurement and electrochemical performance testing, the effect of different nickel sources on the properties of as-synthesized cathode materials was investigated. The results demonstrated that the cobalt and fluorine ions co-doping cathode materials Li1+δNi1-xCoxO2-yFy have complete layered structure, uniform surface morphology and better particle-size distribution as well as excellent electrochemical performances. At 20~25℃, 0.15~0.25mA charge and discharge current,4.25~2.70V cut-off voltage, 0.2~0.5C charge and discharge rate and 0.2~0.5 mA/cm2 current density,LiNi0.8Co0.2O1.95F0.05 cathode material

  20. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.