WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithium batteries status

  1. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  2. More Reliable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Status, Solutions and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruopian; Zhao, Shiyong; Sun, Zhenhua; Wang, Da-Wei; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted tremendous interest because of their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. The target of Li-S battery research is to produce batteries with a high useful energy density that at least outperforms state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, due to an intrinsic gap between fundamental research and practical applications, the outstanding electrochemical results obtained in most Li-S battery studies indeed correspond to low useful energy densities and are not really suitable for practical requirements. The Li-S battery is a complex device and its useful energy density is determined by a number of design parameters, most of which are often ignored, leading to the failure to meet commercial requirements. The purpose of this review is to discuss how to pave the way for reliable Li-S batteries. First, the current research status of Li-S batteries is briefly reviewed based on statistical information obtained from literature. This includes an analysis of how the various parameters influence the useful energy density and a summary of existing problems in the current Li-S battery research. Possible solutions and some concerns regarding the construction of reliable Li-S batteries are comprehensively discussed. Finally, insights are offered on the future directions and prospects in Li-S battery field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  4. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  5. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  6. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  7. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  10. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  11. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  12. Carbon/Sulfur Composite Cathodes for Flexible Lithium/Sulfur Batteries: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Bakenova, Zagipa; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    High specific energy and low cost flexible lithium/sulfur batteries have attracted significant attention as a promising power source to enable future flexible and wearable electronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the development of free-standing sulfur composite cathodes, with special emphasis on electrode material selectivity and battery structural design. The mini-review is organized based on the dimensionality of different scaffold materials, namely one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT), two-dimensional graphene, and three-dimensional CNT/graphene composite, respectively. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives of the future research directions are discussed.

  13. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  14. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  15. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  16. Lithium-air batteries: survey on the current status and perspectives towards automotive applications from a battery industry standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Myounggu; Sun, Heeyoung; Lee, Hyungbok; Lee, Junesoo [Battery R and D, SK Innovation, Wonchon-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Li-air rechargeable batteries theoretically have advantages from both secondary batteries and fuel cells, which can be viewed as the best technological blends for automotive applications resolving the so called mileage anxiety problem due to the limited driving range of electrical vehicles based upon Li-ion batteries; this problem is rooted in the intrinsically small energy density of Li-ion batteries. This very scientific trait of Li-air batteries, which is apparently suited to the requirements of batteries for future electric vehicles, has induced quite a strong surge of research recently. This occurrence has motivated the authors to undertake a thorough review in an effort to understand the current status of Li-air battery related technologies. A comprehensive survey from a battery industry standpoint has been conducted on the fundamentals of chemistry, utilized Li-air cell configurations (or types) vs. performance, and major components comprising Li-air batteries using various sources of previously published peer-reviewed journal papers, book chapters, patents, and industrial reports. The survey results are presented here. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  18. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  19. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  20. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  1. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  2. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  3. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  4. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  5. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  6. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  8. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  9. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  10. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  11. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  12. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  13. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  14. Market research of batteries placed on the market and returned, in particular lithium batteries; Marktstudie des Batterieaufkommens und der Batterierueckgabe, speziell der Lithium-Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisenzahl, Sonja; Sittig, Peter-Paul; Hoeck, Michael [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Industriebetriebslehre, Produktionswirtschaft und Logistik

    2013-06-15

    The resource-efficient handling of raw materials also includes the knowledge of already processed raw materials in the meanings of the recycling management. The research project 'Hybride Lithiumgewinnung', which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and GC Potential (German: WK Potential), will investigate the raw material Lithium in particular. The study of the recovery of secondary raw materials focuses on the device batteries. The findings of the market study on device batteries will be presented with the priority for Lithium device batteries. A status analysis of resent battery systems focusing Lithium batteries and a stockpile analysis in a German sorting facility for used Lithium batteries were conducted. The aim of the investigation is the varying kinds of chemical composition of Lithium batteries and to determine the age distribution of the used Lithium batteries. (orig.)

  15. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  16. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  17. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  18. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  19. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  20. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  1. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  2. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  3. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  4. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  5. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  6. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  7. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  8. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  9. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  10. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  12. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  13. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  14. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  15. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  16. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  17. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  18. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  19. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  20. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  1. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  2. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting...

  3. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  4. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will...

  5. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  6. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal... Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  7. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  8. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held May...

  9. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  10. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  11. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  12. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  13. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  15. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  16. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  17. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise

  18. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  19. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  20. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with [email protected] , with a subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

  1. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  2. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  3. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  4. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  5. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  6. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  7. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  8. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  9. Materials for lithium-ion battery safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Pei, Allen; Cui, Yi

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered to be one of the most important energy storage technologies. As the energy density of batteries increases, battery safety becomes even more critical if the energy is released unintentionally. Accidents related to fires and explosions of LIBs occur frequently worldwide. Some have caused serious threats to human life and health and have led to numerous product recalls by manufacturers. These incidents are reminders that safety is a prerequisite for batteries, and serious issues need to be resolved before the future application of high-energy battery systems. This Review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the origins of LIB safety issues and highlight recent key progress in materials design to improve LIB safety. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in battery safety, especially for emerging LIBs with high-energy density.

  10. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes

  11. Overview of ENEA's Projects on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, F.; Conte, M.; Passerini, S.; Prosini, P. P.

    The increasing need of high performance batteries in various small-scale and large-scale applications (portable electronics, notebooks, palmtops, cellular phones, electric vehicles, UPS, load levelling) in Italy is motivating the R&D efforts of various public and private organizations. Research of lithium batteries in Italy goes back to the beginning of the technological development of primary and secondary lithium systems with national know-how spread in various academic and public institutions with a few private stakeholders. In the field of lithium polymer batteries, ENEA has been dedicating significant efforts in almost two decades to promote and carry out basic R&D and pre-industrial development projects. In recent years, three major national projects have been performed and coordinated by ENEA in co-operation with some universities, governmental research organizations and industry. In these projects novel polymer electrolytes with ceramic additives, low cost manganese oxide-based composite cathodes, environmentally friendly process for polymer electrolyte, fabrication processes of components and cells have been investigated and developed in order to fulfill long-term needs of cost-effective and highly performant lithium polymer batteries.

  12. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  13. A Foldable Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wu, Zi Ping; Sun, Hao; Chen, Deming; Gao, Jian; Suresh, Shravan; Chow, Philippe; Singh, Chandra Veer; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-11-24

    The next generation of deformable and shape-conformable electronics devices will need to be powered by batteries that are not only flexible but also foldable. Here we report a foldable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery, with the highest areal capacity (∼3 mAh cm(-2)) reported to date among all types of foldable energy-storage devices. The key to this result lies in the use of fully foldable and superelastic carbon nanotube current-collector films and impregnation of the active materials (S and Li) into the current-collectors in a checkerboard pattern, enabling the battery to be folded along two mutually orthogonal directions. The carbon nanotube films also serve as the sulfur entrapment layer in the Li-S battery. The foldable battery showed batteries with significantly greater energy density than traditional lithium-ion batteries could power the flexible and foldable devices of the future including laptops, cell phones, tablet computers, surgical tools, and implantable biomedical devices.

  14. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  15. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    algorithms are evaluated experimentally using two different batteries namely lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) and lithium titanate (LTO), both subjected to constant and dynamic current profiles. Results highlight the robustness of these algorithms to battery's nonlinear dynamic nature, hysteresis, aging, dynamic current profile, and parametric uncertainties. Consequently, these methods are susceptible and effective if incorporated with the BMS of EVs', HEVs', and other battery powered devices.

  16. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  17. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  18. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  19. Effective Usage of Lithium Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 耕治; ハマダ, コウジ; Koji, HAMADA

    2008-01-01

    Pure Electric Vehicles(PEV's) are promising when seen in relation to global environment. However, there is the need to solve a number of problems before PEV's become viable alternatives of transportation. For example, reduction of battery charge time, improvement of battery performance, and reduction in vehicle cost. A way to improve battery performance is to use lithium ion batteries. One problem with lithium ion batteries is with charging (recharging). It is difficult to provide a constant ...

  20. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  1. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  2. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  3. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation Organization...) to address the air transportation risks posed by lithium cells and batteries. Some of the proposals...

  4. 78 FR 1119 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... lithium cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation... edition, when transporting batteries domestically by air. Incorporation by reference of the 2013-2014...

  5. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  6. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  7. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  8. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  9. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  10. Evaluation Method for Low-Temperature Performance of Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. W.; Ma, Q.; Fu, Y. L.; Tao, Z. Q.; Xiao, H. Q.; Bai, H.; Bai, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the evaluation method for low temperature performance of lithium battery is established. The low temperature performance level was set up to determine the best operating temperature range of the lithium battery using different cathode materials. Results are shared with the consumers for the proper use of lithium battery to make it have a longer service life and avoid the occurrence of early rejection.

  11. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  12. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  13. Electrolyte additives for lithium metal anodes and rechargeable lithium metal batteries: progresses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Rodriguez-Martínez, Lide M; Armand, Michel

    2018-02-14

    Lithium metal (Li°) - based rechargeable batteries (LMBs), such as Li° anode vs. intercalation and/or conversion type cathode batteries, lithium-sulphur (Li-S), and lithium-oxygen (O2)/air (Li-O2/air) are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system, enabling sustainable mobility in the near future. Though some rechargeable LMBs batteries (e.g., Li°/LiFePO4 batteries from Bolloré Bluecar®, Li-S batteries from OXIS Energy and Sion Power) are already commercially viable in niche applications, their large-scale deployment is still hampered due to the existence of a number of formidable challenges, including lithium dendrite growth, electrolyte instability towards high voltage intercalation type cathode, poor electronic and ionic conductivities of sulphur (S8) and O2, as well as their corresponding reduction products (e.g., Li2S and Li2O), dissolution and shuttling of polysulphide (PS) intermediates etc. This ultimately results in short cycle life, low coulombic/energy efficiency, poor safety, and a high self-discharge rate. Among other mitigating strategies, the use of electrolyte additives is considered as one of the most economical, and effective approach for circumventing these dilemmas. Set out to offer an in-depth insight into the rapidly growing research on the account of electrolyte additives for rechargeable LMBs, this review presents an overview of the various functional additives, that are being applied in Li-anode/intercalation cathode-based, Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. This review is believed to assess the status quo of the research and thereby arouse new thoughts and opportunities, opening new avenues for the practical realization of these appealing devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg −1 ), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O 2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  16. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  17. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  18. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  19. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  20. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Haolan; Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Rouvala, Markku; Alexandrou, Ioannis; Andrew, Piers; Ryhä nen, Tapani; Amaratunga, Gehan A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable

  1. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  2. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  3. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  4. Lithium battery fires: implications for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frank; Mills, Gordon; Howe, Robert; Zobell, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries provide more power and longer life to electronic medical devices, with the benefits of reduced size and weight. It is no wonder medical device manufacturers are designing these batteries into their products. Lithium batteries are found in cell phones, electronic tablets, computers, and portable medical devices such as ventilators, intravenous pumps, pacemakers, incubators, and ventricular assist devices. Yet, if improperly handled, lithium batteries can pose a serious fire threat to air medical transport personnel. Specifically, this article discusses how lithium-ion batteries work, the fire danger associated with them, preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of a lithium battery fire, and emergency procedures that should be performed in that event. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and...

  6. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  7. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  8. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  9. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  10. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  11. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  12. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  13. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  14. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both...

  15. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out

  16. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  17. Solid lithium ion conductors for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weppner, W.

    1985-01-15

    The phase equilibria and conductivities of the LiF-LiH, LiF-LiOH, LiF-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-LiCl and Li/sub 2/S-LiBr systems were investigated. All ternary single phases and two-phase mixtures are solid electrolytes which are thermodynamically stable in respect of reaction with elemental lithium (anode) and at practically useful, low lithium activities (cathode). The conductivity normally increases with decreasing thermodynamic stability and vice versa. The conductivity may be optimized in the case of solid solutions by selecting a composition with a decomposition voltage just above the value required by the cathode material employed. All materials are isotropic in structure and no dendrite formation was observed. This allows their use in rechargeable, thin film electrolyte batteries.

  18. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  19. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  20. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  1. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  2. Nano silicon for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Michael; Buqa, Hilmi; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Hahn, Matthias; Wuersig, Andreas; Scheifele, Werner; Novak, Petr; Koetz, Ruediger; Veit, Claudia; Petrat, Frank-Martin

    2006-01-01

    New results for two types of nano-size silicon, prepared via thermal vapour deposition either with or without a graphite substrate are presented. Their superior reversible charge capacity and cycle life as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries have already been shown in previous work. Here the lithiation reaction of the materials is investigated more closely via different electrochemical in situ techniques: Raman spectroscopy, dilatometry and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). The Si/graphite compound material shows relatively high kinetics upon discharge. The moderate relative volume change and low gas evolution of the nano silicon based electrode, both being important points for a possible future use in real batteries, are discussed with respect to a standard graphite electrode

  3. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  5. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, WUT-Harvard Joint Nano Key Laboratory, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-27

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  6. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  7. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Wei, Qiulong; Sun, Ruimin; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism need to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate that the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reaction limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible optimization strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays, and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some “beyond Li-ion” batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air batteries are also described.

  8. Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Qin, Yan; Amine, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

  9. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. In 2015 Lithium Price Tripled,Lithium Battery is In a Draught of the Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    According to'Report on Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategy Analysis of China Power Lithium Battery Industry'of the Qianzhan Industry Institute,currently lithium demand is mainly concentrated in mobile battery and glass,lubricating oil markets,whose percentage is up to 85%,market share of electric vehicle and ESS energy backup system

  11. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2016-06-06

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode -1 (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs -1 (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs -1). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode -1 at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode -1 at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Anode Improvement in Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Lu, Shengguo; Fan, Ye; Lei, Weiwei; Huang, Shaoming; Chen, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Owing to their theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg -1 , lithium-sulfur batteries represent a promising future energy storage device to power electric vehicles. However, the practical applications of lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from poor cycle life and low Coulombic efficiency, which is attributed, in part, to the polysulfide shuttle and Li dendrite formation. Suppressing Li dendrite growth, blocking the unfavorable reaction between soluble polysulfides and Li, and improving the safety of Li-S batteries have become very important for the development of high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. A comprehensive review of various strategies is presented for enhancing the stability of the anode of lithium sulfur batteries, including inserting an interlayer, modifying the separator and electrolytes, employing artificial protection layers, and alternative anodes to replace the Li metal anode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  14. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  15. Nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    ""The book has good technical depth, yet is still very readable. It contains many photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs of data that provide the reader with the insight needed to understand the phenomena being described and the processes occurring in lithium battery chemistry. Researchers as well as students studying lithium-ion batteries will find this book well worth reading. It provides insight into many different avenues for potentially improving lithium-ion battery performance. The reader will learn about these new ideas and gain a better understanding of what currently limits batt

  16. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  17. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  18. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  19. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  20. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  1. Transit bus applications of lithium ion batteries : progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    This report provides an overview of diverse transit bus applications of advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs). The report highlights and illustrates several FTA programs that fostered the successful development, demonstration, and deployment of fuel-...

  2. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Delnick, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Miller, D.L. (Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  3. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  4. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  5. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured

  6. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.; Wessells, C.D.; Deshazer, H.D.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case

  7. Effect of shrapnel penetration on lithium-carbon monofluoride and lithium-manganese dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, W. N. C.

    National BR2/3A lithium-carbon monofluoride and Duracell DL2/3A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries were subjected to simulated shrapnel penetration using a projectile from an M16 rifle. Trials were conducted on batteries in various states of charge (0, 50, and 100 percent discharged) in both wet and dry environments. Only one fully charged Duracell Battery (under wet conditions) caught fire during the test. The effects of environmental conditions, the chemical reactions involved, and the state of charge of the batteries on the probability of the batteries igniting are discussed.

  8. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  10. Advanced Carbon Fluorides For Primary Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-CFx battery using a specific fluorinated nanocarbon as cathode material exhibits a capacity exceeding the expected theoretical value when used as an electrode material in primary lithium battery. Carbon nanodiscs were partially fluorinated by atomic fluorine released by thermal decomposition of TbF4, and the capacity of this material was up to 1180 mAh.g−1, whereas a theoretical value of 847 mAh.g−1 for the CF0.95 sample was calculated. The obtained value is also higher than the maximum one of 865 mAh.g−1 expected for CF1 carbon fluorides. The discharge mechanism was investigated using mainly SEM and solid state NMR in order to understand this “extracapacity”. Both the unfluorinated carbon and the LiF covering, which is formed outside the carbon lattice during the discharge mechanism, play a key role for the achievement of the extracapacity by the consumption of Li+ to form Li2F+ species stabilized by the carbon host structure formed after the electrochemical defluorination.

  11. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  12. Non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries based on the control-oriented electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.

  13. An improved high-performance lithium-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2012-06-10

    Although dominating the consumer electronics markets as the power source of choice for popular portable devices, the common lithium battery is not yet suited for use in sustainable electrified road transport. The development of advanced, higher-energy lithium batteries is essential in the rapid establishment of the electric car market. Owing to its exceptionally high energy potentiality, the lithium-air battery is a very appealing candidate for fulfilling this role. However, the performance of such batteries has been limited to only a few charge-discharge cycles with low rate capability. Here, by choosing a suitable stable electrolyte and appropriate cell design, we demonstrate a lithium-air battery capable of operating over many cycles with capacity and rate values as high as 5,000 mAh g(carbon)(-1) and 3 A g(carbon)(-1), respectively. For this battery we estimate an energy density value that is much higher than those offered by the currently available lithium-ion battery technology.

  14. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  16. Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan

    2018-01-01

    Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  18. Development of new anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries have been introduced in the early 1990s by Sony Corporation. Ever since their introduction carbonaceous materials have received considerable attention for use as anodes because of their potential safety and reliability advantages. Natural graphite, cokes, carbon fibres, non-graphitizable carbon, and pyrolytic carbon have been used as sources for carbon materials. Recently metal alloys and metal oxides have been studied as alternatives to carbon as negative electrodes in lithium-ion cells. This paper reviews the performance of some of the carbonaceous materials used in lithium-ion batteries as well as some of the new metallic alloys of aluminum, silica, selenium, lead, bismuth, antimony and arsenic, as alternatives to carbon as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. It is concluded that while some of these materials are promising, practical applications will continue to be limited until after the volume expansion and the irreversibility problems are resolved. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  20. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Gao; McIlwrath, Kevin; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

  1. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  2. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  3. An improved PNGV modeling and SOC estimation for lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Because lithium iron phosphate battery has many advantages, it has been used more and more widely in the field of electric vehicle. The lithium iron phosphate battery, presents the improved PNGV model, and the batteries charge discharge characteristics and pulse charge discharge experiments, identification of parameters of the battery model by interpolation and least square fitting method, to achieve a more accurate modeling of lithium iron phosphate battery, and the extended Calman filter algorithm (EKF) is completed state nuclear power battery (SOC) estimate.

  4. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  5. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium?sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium?sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  6. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  7. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  8. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  9. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  11. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  12. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  13. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  14. NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    (NASA) and University College London (UCL) for a cutting-edge study on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and in Space | News | NREL NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space

  15. Current sensorless quick charger for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient, simple and low cost quick charger based on the double-loop controller is proposed for the charging of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. With positive and negative feedback of the battery voltage, charging profile similar to the constant current and constant voltage (CC-CV) charging strategy can be performed without actually sensing the charging current. The charging time can easily be shortened by raising the level of saturation in the primary voltage control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the battery charger. The charger could be a low cost and high performance replacement for existing Li-ion battery chargers.

  16. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  17. Thermal Behavior and Heat Generation Modeling of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence of the tempe......Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence...... of the temperature on the performance parameters of a 3.4 Ah Lithium-Sulfur battery cell. Furthermore, the values of the internal resistance and entropic heat coefficient, which are necessary for the parametrization of a heat generation model, are determined experimentally....

  18. Computational research on lithium ion battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ping

    Crystals of LiFePO4 and related materials have recently received a lot of attention due to their very promising use as cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. This thesis studied the electronic structures of FePO 4 and LiMPO4, where M=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni within the framework of density-functional theory. The first study compared the electronic structures of the LiMPO 4 and FePO4 materials in their electrochemically active olivine form, using the LAPW (linear augmented plane wave) method [1]. A comparison of results for various spin configurations suggested that the ferromagnetic configuration can serve as a useful approximation for studying general features of these systems. The partial densities of states for the LiMPO4 materials are remarkably similar to each other, showing the transition metal 3d states forming narrow bands above the O 2p band. By contrast, in absence of Li, the majority spin transition metal 3d states are well-hybridized with the O 2p band in FePO4. The second study compared the electronic structures of FePO4 in several crystal structures including an olivine, monoclinic, quartz-like, and CrVO4-like form [2,3]. For this work, in addition to the LAPW method, PAW (Projector Augmented Wave) [4], and PWscf (plane-wave pseudopotential) [5] methods were used. By carefully adjusting the computational parameters, very similar results were achieved for the three independent computational methods. Results for the relative stability of the four crystal structures are reported. In addition, partial densities of state analyses show qualitative information about the crystal field splittings and bond hybridizations and help rationalize the understanding of the electrochemical and stability properties of these materials.

  19. Application of neutron radiography to visualize the distribution of lithium in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Sigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have tried to visualize the motion of lithium ions in lithium ion conductors such as Li 1.33 Ti 1.67 O 4 at high temperatures using neutron radiography (NR) technique and confirmed that NR is very effective to the 6 Li containing systems. This means NR may be used as a non-destructive investigating method to study the electrode reactions and the mass transfer in lithium batteries. Here in this work, it was tried to visualize the distribution of lithium in commercial lithium batteries before and after discharge using NR technique. Obtained NR images will be presented with brief explanation on NR method. Further explanations on the principle of NR and on the NR facilities were presented elsewhere. (J.P.N.)

  20. Innovation and its Management as Observed in the Lithium Ion Secondary Battery Business

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三

    2008-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei, where the present author formerly worked. In this paper, the author describes how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor, how the technology originated in Japan and...

  1. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  3. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  4. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-01-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO 4 ), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm

  5. Recycling and Disposal of Lithium Battery: Economic and Environmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Lithium-ion battery technology for Electric Vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle has received attention worldwide recently. The price of cobalt (Co and lithium (Li has increased due to the production of EV/HEV.  The used lithium battery is the valuable source of active metals (Co, Li, and Al and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste is still studied. The focus of this paper is to recovering active metals by using a hydro-metallurgical method in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery to reveal the economic and environment benefits. Calcination on extracted active metals as pre-thermal treatment has been conducted at 700°C to remove the organic compounds from the surface of active metals. The experiment has been conducted and the result shows that the recovery of active metals (cathode is 41% of cell cathode and an anode is 8.5% of the cell anode materials, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively. By recycling the battery active metals about 47.34%, the emission can be reduced by 47.61% for battery metal production and 60.7% for transportation of used battery disposal. The total emission can be controlled about 52.85% by recycling the active metals on battery production.

  6. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  7. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  8. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  9. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  10. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  11. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Status of life cycle inventories for batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Gaines, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cradle-to-gate (ctg) energy and emissions compared among five battery systems. ► Calculate material production values fall well within observed ranges. ► Values based on recycled materials in poor agreement with observed ranges. ► Material production data needed for recycled and some virgin battery materials. ► Battery manufacturing data range widely and hence also need updating. - Abstract: This study reviews existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) results for cradle-to-gate (ctg) environmental assessments of lead-acid (PbA), nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), sodium-sulfur (Na/S), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. LCI data are evaluated for the two stages of cradle-to-gate performance: battery material production and component fabrication and assembly into purchase ready batteries. Using existing production data on battery constituent materials, overall battery material production values were calculated and contrasted with published values for the five battery technologies. The comparison reveals a more prevalent absence of material production data for lithium ion batteries, though such data are also missing or dated for a few important constituent materials in nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, and sodium sulfur batteries (mischmetal hydrides, cadmium, β-alumina). Despite the overall availability of material production data for lead acid batteries, updated results for lead and lead peroxide are also needed. On the other hand, LCI data for the commodity materials common to most batteries (steel, aluminum, plastics) are up to date and of high quality, though there is a need for comparable quality data for copper. Further, there is an almost total absence of published LCI data on recycled battery materials, an unfortunate state of affairs given the potential benefit of battery recycling. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and

  13. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro [NEC Corp., Environment and Material Research Labs., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wound jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronic equipment such as notebook type computers. (Author)

  14. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wounded jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronics equipment such as notebook type computer

  15. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  16. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we

  18. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  19. Oral Exposure of a Child to a Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Curran, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Battery exposure has the potential for severe morbidity and possible mortality. Accidental exposure is rising with the increased use of button batteries, and young children and older adults are at highest risk for accidental exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of mouth exposure to a lithium ion battery in a boy. A review of the current literature on incidence, diagnosis, and outcomes of battery exposure is presented. When symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal distress of non-specific origin are present, battery ingestion should be included in the differential diagnosis. Dentists may be the first health professionals to encounter battery exposure, especially in the case of mouth exposures. Knowledge of signs and symptoms are necessary to properly diagnose and refer for medical management.

  20. Direct observation of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries using operando X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Joanna; Bouchet, Renaud; Trabesinger, Sigita; Marino, Cyril; Gubler, Lorenz; Villevieille, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In the on going quest towards lithium-battery chemistries beyond the lithium-ion technology, the lithium-sulfur system is emerging as one of the most promising candidates. The major outstanding challenge on the route to commercialization is controlling the so-called polysulfide shuttle, which is responsible for the poor cycling efficiency of the current generation of lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the mechanistic understanding of the reactions underlying the polysulfide shuttle is still incomplete. Here we report the direct observation of lithium polysulfides in a lithium-sulfur cell during operation by means of operando X-ray diffraction. We identify signatures of polysulfides adsorbed on the surface of a glass-fibre separator and monitor their evolution during cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adsorption of the polysulfides onto SiO2 can be harnessed for buffering the polysulfide redox shuttle. The use of fumed silica as an electrolyte additive therefore significantly improves the specific charge and Coulombic efficiency of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  1. Characterization of positive electrode/electrolyte interphase in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, N.; Martin, J.F.; Soudan, P.; Guyomard, D. [Inst.des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    Lithium batteries appear to be the most viable energy source for portable electronic devices because of their energy density. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the negative electrode and the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery monitors the overall battery behaviour in terms of irreversible capacity loss, charge transfer kinetics and storage properties. This paper reported on a study that examined the influence of the storage atmosphere and the formation of a protective surface layer on the electrochemical performance. The objective was to better understand the interfacial problems controlling the long term life duration and cyclability. The positive/electrolyte interphase evolution was followed upon aging/cycling using 7Li MAS NMR, XPS and impedance spectroscopy. This very novel and uncommon technique was used to characterize the growth and evolution of the surface of some electrode materials for lithium batteries, due to contact with the ambient atmosphere or electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 were chosen for the studies because they are among the most promising candidates for positive electrodes for future lithium batteries. The reaction of LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 with the ambient atmosphere or LiPF6 electrolyte is extremely fast and leads to an important amount of lithium-containing diamagnetic species. The NMR spectra provided valuable structural information on the interaction between the interphase and the active material after contact with electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. MAS NMR was shown to be a very promising tool to monitor phenomena taking place at the interface between electrode and electrolyte in lithium batteries. The study showed the affect of the potential on the strength of the interaction between the surface layer and the active material and the partial removal of this layer along the electrochemical cycling. 11 refs.

  2. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  3. Towards room-temperature performance for lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, J.B.; Liu, Gao; Curtiss, L.A.; Redfern, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on molecular simulations of the mechanisms of lithium ion conductance has pointed towards two types of limiting process. One has involved the commonly cited segmental motion while the other is related to energy barriers in the solvation shell of polymeric ether oxygens around the lithium ions. Calculations of the barriers to lithium ion migration have provided important indicators as to the best design of the polymer. The theoretical work has coincided with and guided some recent developments on polymer synthesis for lithium batteries. Structural change of the polymer solvation shell has been pursued by the introduction of trimethylene oxide (TMO) units into the polymer. The conductivity measurements on polymers containing TMO unit are encouraging. The architecture of the polymer networks has been varied upon which the solvating groups are attached and significant improvements in sub-ambient performance are observed as a result. However, the above-ambient temperature performance appears controlled by an Arrhenius process that is not completely consistent with the theoretical calculations described here and may indicate the operation of a different mechanism. The new polymers possess significantly lower T g values in the presence of lithium salts, which indicates weaker binding of the lithium ions by the polymers. These properties provide considerable improvement in the transport properties close to the electrode surfaces resulting in decreased impedances at the surfaces both at lithium metal and in composite electrodes. The greater flexibility of the solvation groups combined with appropriate architecture not only has applications in lithium metal-polymer batteries but also in lithium ion liquid and gel systems as well as in fuel cell electrodes

  4. Microscale Electrolysis Using Coin-Type Lithium Batteries and Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Yajima, Seiko

    2013-01-01

    An educational experiment illustrates the electrolysis of water and copper chloride to middle school science students. The electrolysis cell is composed of filter paper soaked with Na[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4] or CuCl[subscript 2] aqueous solution sandwiched, along with a sheet of platinum foil, between two coin-type lithium batteries. When the…

  5. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  6. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel microwave method is described for the preparation of electrode materials required for lithium batteries. The method is simple, fast and carried out in most cases with the same starting material as in conventional methods. Good crystallinity has been noted and lower temperatures of reaction has been inferred in ...

  7. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  8. Effect of current pulses on Lithium intercalation batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de P.E.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of (dis)charge pulses on lithium-ion batteries is evaluated using an electronic network model. Simulations give insight into the effect of the pulses on the internal processes such as diffusion, migration, electrochemical reactions, heat generation, etc. on time scales from microseconds

  9. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  10. Properties and structures of electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, G. E.

    1985-01-15

    Rules which have been employed to explain and predict solvent properties of lithium battery electrolytes are described and results reviewed. The equilibrium behavior of moderate to high concentration electrolyte solutions is also reviewed. Recent theoretical approaches to explain the behavior are discussed, and a new theory incorporating contact ion pair concepts into an advanced statistical theory for free ions is proposed.

  11. Electrosorption in lithium-sulfur batteries: modeling of solvation and adsorption at nanostructured cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Lück, Jessica; Danner, Timo; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-01-01

    Since the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is reaching its ceiling so that improvements are just of minor nature, researchers have moved their focus to systems beyond lithium-ion. One of the most promising candidates besides the lithium-air technology for future energy storage both for automotive and stationary applications are lithium-sulfur batteries. The use of sulfur as an active material offers many benefits compared to lithium-ion systems. First of all sulfur is expec...

  12. Electrophoretic Nanocrystalline Graphene Film Electrode for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaprans, Kaspars; Bajars, Gunars; Kucinskis, Gints; Dorondo, Anna; Mateuss, Janis; Gabrusenoks, Jevgenijs; Kleperis, Janis; Lusis, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition method from water suspension of graphene oxide followed by thermal reduction. The formation of nanocrystalline graphene sheets has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of graphene sheets as anode material for lithium ion batteries was evaluated by cycling voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Fabricated graphene sheets exhibited high discharge capacity of about 1120 mAh·g −1 and demonstrated good reversibility of lithium intercalation and deintercalation in graphene sheet film with capacity retention over 85 % after 50 cycles. Results show that nanocrystalline graphene sheets prepared by EPD demonstrated a high potential for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries

  13. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  14. Heat generation in lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of heat from lithium/thionyl chloride batteries has been measured in two conduction calorimeters. Several types of cells have been studied, both at rest and during low- and high-rate discharge. In contrast with other reports in the literature, no conditions were found under which the discharge of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries was endothermic. Results at low currents, which are described in terms of the thermodynamic formalism developed previously, are consistent with measurements of the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. Cells discharged at higher currents produced more heat flux than predicted by the simple thermodynamic treatment. The current and time variation of the additional heat is consistent with a current-dependent corrosion of the lithium electrode. 14 refs.

  15. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  16. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  17. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  18. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  19. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  20. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  1. Thermal modeling of cylindrical lithium ion battery during discharge cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Baek, Seung Man

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. → This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. → A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. → The contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate. → The contribution of heat source due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. - Abstract: Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. The simplified model by adopting a cylindrical coordinate was employed. This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. The mathematical model solves conservation of energy considering heat generations due to both joule heating and entropy change. A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. The temperature profile from simulation had similar tendency with experiment. The temperature profile was decomposed with contributions of each heat sources and was presented at several discharge rates. It was found that the contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate, whereas that due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. Also the effect of cooling condition and the LiNiCoMnO 2 /C battery were analyzed for the purpose of temperature reduction.

  2. Advanced characterization of lithium battery materials with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo; Kuriplach, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Cathode materials are crucial to improved battery performance, in part because there are not yet materials that can maintain high power and stable cycling with a capacity comparable to that of anode materials. Our parameter-free, gradient-corrected model for electron-positron correlations predicts that spectroscopies based on positron annihilation can be deployed to study the effect of lithium intercalation in the oxide matrix of the cathode. The positron characteristics in oxides can be reliably computed using methods based on first-principles. Thus, we can enable a fundamental characterization of lithium battery materials involving positron annihilation spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. The detailed information one can extract from positron experiments could be useful for understanding and optimizing both battery materials and bi-functional catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution. (paper)

  3. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.

  4. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  5. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...... material exhibits the extremely high reversible lithium ion capacity and extraordinary rate capability with high cycling stability at high discharge current. In this presentation we demonstrate that the disorder plays a decisive role in achieving those exceptional electrochemical performances. We describe...... how the disorder affects the migration of both lithium ions and electrons. It is found that both the modified glassy surface and the heterogeneous superlattice structure greatly contribute to the extremely high discharge/charge rates owing to the enhanced storage capacity of lithium ions and ultrafast...

  6. Lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles; Lithium-Ionen-Batterie-Entwicklung fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter; Schiemann, Michael; Moerstaedt, Uwe [Continental AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich HEV

    2009-03-15

    Continental is the first company worldwide to produce lithium-ion batteries for a serial production vehicle (Mercedes S 400 Hybrid). The supplier describes cell and system strategies, as well as safety relevant production details and integration strategies, which determine the application in hybrid and electric vehicles. (orig.)

  7. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  8. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  9. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  10. A material flow of lithium batteries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.C.; You, S.J.; Yu, B.S.; Yao, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Li batteries, including secondary and cylindrical/button primary Li batteries, are used worldwide in computers, communications and consumer electronics products. However, there are several dangerous issues that occur during the manufacture, shipping, and storage of Li batteries. This study analyzes the material flow of lithium batteries and their valuable heavy metals in Taiwan for the year 2006 by material flow analysis. According to data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, Bureau of Foreign Trade, Directorate General of Customs, and the Li batteries manufactures/importers/exporters. It was found that 2,952,696 kg of Li batteries was input into Taiwan for the year 2006, including 2,256,501 kg of imported Li batteries and 696,195 kg of stock Li batteries in 2005. In addition, 1,113,867 and 572,215 kg of Li batteries was domestically produced and sold abroad, revealing that 3,494,348 kg of different types of Li batteries was sold in Taiwan. Of these domestically sold batteries, 504,663 and 146,557 kg were treated domestically and abroad. Thus, a total of 2,843,128 kg of Li batteries was stored by individual/industry users or illegally disposed. In addition, it was also observed that 2,120,682 kg of heavy metals contained in Li batteries, including Ni, Co, Al, Cu and Ni, was accumulated in Taiwan, with a recycled value of 38.8 million USD. These results suggest that these heavy metals should be recovered by suitable collection, recycling and reuse procedures

  11. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  12. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  13. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T; Marchand, R; Fragnaud, P; Schleich, D M [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  14. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qizhao; Wang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e − and h + ) and ionic species (Li + ) at the electrode–electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li + storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. (topical review)

  15. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  16. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m 2 g −1 ) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m 2 g −1 ), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study

  17. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-08

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles.

  18. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  19. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  20. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... and discharging power capability rates of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery's temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus......, thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...

  1. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  2. Intercalation Dynamics in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    tensor for species β; thus, the above is essentially a generalization of Fick’s first law and the Nernst -Planck equation . For non-conserved quantities...crystal of rechargeable-battery electrode materials. It is based on the Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled to reaction rate laws as boundary conditions to...regimes found in different limits of the governing equations . Further, I will present several new findings relevant to batteries Defect Interactions

  3. Nanostructured lithium titanates (Li4Ti5O12) for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured lithium titanates (Li(sub4)Ti(sub5)O(sub12)) have been intensively investigated as anode materials of Li-ion batteries due to their many advantages, such as excellent performance, outstanding safety, and excellent cycle life...

  4. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  6. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  7. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  8. Destruction mechanism of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swornowski, Paweł J.

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the reasons for destruction of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry have been explained. They manifest themselves in the battery's overheating, and in extreme cases they result in explosion. The report presents the results of experiments, which consisted in subjecting the tested Lithium-ion battery to vibration over a specified period of time and observing the changes of temperature inside it with the use of a thermal infrared camera. Another focal point of the study was the influence of vibrations on voltage change in relation to variable current load, and the influence of ambient temperature change on the Lithium-ion battery's voltage change. It has also been demonstrated that vibrations can damage the control electronics of the Lithium-ion battery. Moreover, the mechanism by which potentially dangerous thermal hot spots are formed in a Lithium-ion battery has been presented, as well as an uncertainty analysis of all measurement results. - Highlights: • The causes of internal destruction of Lithium-ion batteries are external vibrations. • The influence of vibrations on the change of a Lithium-ion battery's most parameters. • The mechanism leading to the explosion of a Lithium-ion battery was demonstrated. • The conclusions ensuring safe exploitation of a Lithium-ion battery were presented.

  9. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Das, Shyamal K.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes

  11. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  12. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  13. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lithium titanium oxide (LTO anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs, especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH estimation and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of battery management system (BMS for LTO batteries in EVs.

  14. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  15. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  17. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  18. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  19. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  20. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  1. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Shi-Gang; Gao Jian; Xiao Rui-Juan; Chen Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. (topical review)

  2. High-throughput characterization methods for lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Lyu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-performance lithium ion batteries requires the discovery of new materials and the optimization of key components. By contrast with traditional one-by-one method, high-throughput method can synthesize and characterize a large number of compositionally varying samples, which is able to accelerate the pace of discovery, development and optimization process of materials. Because of rapid progress in thin film and automatic control technologies, thousands of compounds with different compositions could be synthesized rapidly right now, even in a single experiment. However, the lack of rapid or combinatorial characterization technologies to match with high-throughput synthesis methods, limit the application of high-throughput technology. Here, we review a series of representative high-throughput characterization methods used in lithium batteries, including high-throughput structural and electrochemical characterization methods and rapid measuring technologies based on synchrotron light sources.

  3. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  4. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  5. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-07-02

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at different lithium compositions and during several cycles of charge and discharge in a half cell vs. metallic lithium. The impedance analysis shows the contribution of both surface resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominated by a solid electrolyte layer (SEI) consisting of an inner, inorganic insoluble part and several organic compounds at the outer interface, as seen by XPS analysis. The surface resistivity, which seems to be correlated with the Coulombic efficiency of the electrode, grows at very high lithium contents due to an increase in the inorganic SEI thickness. We estimate the diffusion coefficient of about 2 × 10 -10 cm 2/s for lithium diffusion in silicon. A large increase in the electrode impedance was observed at very low lithium compositions, probably due to a different mechanism for lithium diffusion inside the wires. Restricting the discharge voltage to 0.7 V prevents this large impedance and improves the electrode lifetime. Cells cycled between 0.07 and 0.70 V vs. metallic lithium at a current density of 0.84 A/g (C/5) showed good Coulombic efficiency (about 99%) and maintained a capacity of about 2000 mAh/g after 80 cycles. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Sources of pressure in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R. C.

    1982-11-01

    The generation of pressure in Li/SOCl2 batteries has been investigated. Hydrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen are the principal gases evolved. Reaction of lithium metal with protic species in the liquid electrolyte produces hydrogen gas on open circuit and more rapidly on discharge. Sulfur dioxide is a product of electrochemical discharge. Nitrogen, trapped in lithium metal as dissolved gas or as lithium nitride is released during discharge. In addition, smaller amounts of gas, trapped in cathode pores and adsorbed on the surface of carbon, are evolved when discharge products are deposited in the cathode. Hydrogen pressure is very sensitive to the care used in drying the electrolyte and cathodes. Alternate cycles of evacuation and backfill with SO2 eliminate much of the moisture and trapped gas from the cell prior to filling with electrolyte.

  7. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Cost and Price Metrics for Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-02-01

    Values of current energy technology costs and prices, available from a variety of sources, can sometimes vary. While some of this variation can be due to differences in the specific materials or configurations assumed, it can also reflect differences in the definition and context of the terms "cost" and "price." This fact sheet illustrates and explains this latter source of variation in a case study of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Recovery of cobalt and lithium fromspent Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Busnardo, Natália Giovanini; Paulino, Jéssica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The "active mass" (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 ºC) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the "active mass" was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 ºC) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of so...

  10. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  11. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium-ion...... battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...

  12. A highly efficient polysulfide mediator for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Hart, Connor; Pang, Quan; Garsuch, Arnd; Weiss, Thomas; Nazar, Linda F.

    2015-01-01

    The lithium-sulfur battery is receiving intense interest because its theoretical energy density exceeds that of lithium-ion batteries at much lower cost, but practical applications are still hindered by capacity decay caused by the polysulfide shuttle. Here we report a strategy to entrap polysulfides in the cathode that relies on a chemical process, whereby a host—manganese dioxide nanosheets serve as the prototype—reacts with initially formed lithium polysulfides to form surface-bound intermediates. These function as a redox shuttle to catenate and bind ‘higher’ polysulfides, and convert them on reduction to insoluble lithium sulfide via disproportionation. The sulfur/manganese dioxide nanosheet composite with 75 wt% sulfur exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,300 mA h g-1 at moderate rates and a fade rate over 2,000 cycles of 0.036%/cycle, among the best reported to date. We furthermore show that this mechanism extends to graphene oxide and suggest it can be employed more widely.

  13. Phase transition and hysteresis in a rechargeable lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko [Kemijski Institut Ljubljana Slovenija (Slovenia). L10 Lab. for Materials Electrochemistry

    2007-07-01

    We develop a model which describes the evolution of a phase transition that occurs in some part of a rechargeable lithium battery during the process of charging/discharging. The model is capable to simulate hysteretic behavior of the voltage - charge characteristics. During discharging of the battery, the interstitial lattice sites of a small crystalline host system are filled up with lithium atoms and these are released again during charging. We show within the context of a sharp interface model that two mechanical phenomena go along with a phase transition that appears in the host system during supply and removal of lithium. At first the lithium atoms need more space than it is available by the interstitial lattice sites, which leads to a maximal relative change of the crystal volume of about 6%. Furthermore there is an interface between two adjacent phases that has very large curvature of the order of magnitude 100 m, which evoke here a discontinuity of the normal component of the stress. In order to simulate the dynamics of the phase transitions and in particular the observed hysteresis we establish a new initial and boundary value problem for a nonlinear PDE system that can be reduced in some limiting case to an ODE system. (orig.)

  14. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  16. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable battery technologies, including high specific energy and energy density, operation over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to 70. °C) and a low self-discharge rate, which translates into a long shelf-life (~10 years) [1]. However, upon release of the first generation of rechargeable Li batteries, explosions related to the shorting of the circuit through Li dendrites bridging the anode and cathode were observed. As a result, Li metal batteries today are generally relegated to non-rechargeable primary battery applications, because the dendritic growth of Li is associated with the charging and discharging process. However, there still remain significant advantages in realizing rechargeable secondary batteries based on Li metal anodes because they possess superior electrical conductivity, higher specific energy and lower heat generation due to lower internal resistance. One of the most practical solutions is to use a solid polymer electrolyte to act as a physical barrier against dendrite growth. This may enable the use of Li metal once again in rechargeable secondary batteries [2]. Here we report a flexible and solid Li battery using a polymer electrolyte with a hierarchical and highly porous nanocarbon electrode comprising aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanohorns (CNHs). Electrodes with high specific surface area are realized through the combination of CNHs with CNTs and provide a significant performance enhancement to the solid Li battery performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Lithium-polymer batteries for EV applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The project initially held a strong 'battery materials' profile, but has moved in its final year into more 'battery engineering' aspects; the performances of a range of potential materials have been screened, and candidates have emerged. It is noteworthy that these same materials have also now become 'best-choice' materials in commercial Japanese Li-ion batteries for mobile-phone, lap-top and, more recently, even electric-vehicle (EV) applications. It is now clear that the Li-ion (polymer) battery offers a genuinely viable option in electric and electric-hybrid vehicle concepts. Specifically, our work has involved synthetic, structural, morphological and electrochemical studies of lithium insertion mechanisms in TMO-based cathodes (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiFePO{sub 4}, etc) and graphitic carbon anodes. Performance has been optimised from cell capacity, power, shelf-life and safety viewpoints. Cost has also emerged as a critical variable. Novel methods have been developed within the project for elevated-temperature battery studies (up to 80 deg C); they have become widely applied internationally. The electrode materials which have been developed have subsequently been incorporated into laboratory-scale lithium-ion battery prototypes, whose performance has then been evaluated. The final phase of the project has focussed on a new cathode material (LiFePO{sub 4}) not in current commercial use and yet ideally suited to EV application by virtue of its cheapness, high capacity (ca 170 mAh/g), high voltage vs. Li (3.5V), and extremely flat discharge curve. This could well prove to be the 'best compromise' Li-ion battery cathode for EV applications in the future.

  18. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum.Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost

  19. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  20. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  1. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  2. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B.; Williams, R.; Tsay, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Frank, H.

    1982-01-01

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl2 cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl2 are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl2 cell safety.

  3. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, B.; Frank, H.; Rodriquez, A.; Tsay, F.; Williams, R.

    1982-08-01

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl/sub 4// SOCl/sub 2/ electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl/sub 2/ cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl/sub 2/ are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl/sub 2/ cell safety.

  4. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B.; Williams, R.; Tsay, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Frank, H.

    Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl2 cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl2 are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl2 cell safety.

  5. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  6. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-06-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg-1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg-1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  7. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  8. Advances in repurposing and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Increased electrification of vehicles has increased the use of lithium-ion batteries for energy storage, and raised the issue of : what to do with post-vehicle-application batteries. Three possibilities have been identified: 1) remanufacturing for in...

  9. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  10. Piperidinium tethered nanoparticle-hybrid electrolyte for lithium metal batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Korf, Kevin S.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the synthesis of novel piperidinium-based ionic liquid tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes and investigate their physical and electrochemical properties. Hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PP-TFSI) were blended with propylene carbonate-1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide (LiTFSI). We employed NMR analysis to confirm the successful creation of the hybrid material. Dielectric and rheological measurements show that these electrolytes exhibit exceptional room-temperature DC ionic conductivity (10-2 to 10 -3 S cm-1) as well as high shear mechanical moduli (105 to 106 Pa). Lithium transference numbers were found to increase with particle loading and to reach values as high as 0.22 at high particle loadings where the particle jam to form a soft glassy elastic medium. Analysis of lithium electrodeposits obtained in the hybrid electrolytes using SEM and EDX spectra show that the SiO2-PP-TFSI nanoparticles are able to smooth lithium deposition and inhibit lithium dendrite proliferation in Li metal batteries. LTOSiO2-PP-TFSI/PC in 1 M LiTFSILi half-cells based on the SiO2-PP-TFSI hybrid electrolytes exhibit attractive voltage profiles and trouble-free extended cycling behavior over more than 1000 cycles of charge and discharge. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. Multifunctional structural lithium ion batteries for electrical energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Atif; Zeshan Ali, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    Multifunctional structural batteries based on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites are fabricated that can bear mechanical loads and act as electrochemical energy storage devices simultaneously. Structural batteries, containing woven carbon fabric anode; lithium cobalt oxide/graphene nanoplatelets coated aluminum cathode; filter paper separator and cross-linked polymer electrolyte, were fabricated through resin infusion under flexible tooling (RIFT) technique. Compression tests, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and impedance spectroscopy were done on the cross-linked polymer electrolytes while cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and in-plane shear tests were conducted on the fabricated structural batteries. A range of solid polymer electrolytes with increasing concentrations of lithium perchlorate salt in crosslinked polymer epoxies were formulated. Increased concentrations of electrolyte salt in cross-linked epoxy increased the ionic conductivity, although the compressive properties were compromised. A structural battery, exhibiting simultaneously a capacity of 0.16 mAh L‑1, an energy density of 0.32 Wh L‑1 and a shear modulus of 0.75 GPa have been reported.

  12. Graphene-based integrated electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ying; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Jing; Pei, Songfeng; Huang, Kun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared flexible free-standing electrodes with anode and cathode active materials deposited on a highly conductive graphene membrane by a two-step filtration method. Compared with conventional electrodes using metal as current collectors, these electrodes have displayed stronger adhesion, superior electrochemical performance, higher energy density, and better flexibility. A full lithium ion battery assembled by adopting these graphene-based electrodes has showed high rate capability and long cyclic life. We have also assembled a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery with poly-(dimethyl siloxane) sheets as packaging material to light a red light-emitting diode. This flexible battery can be easily bent without structural failure or performance loss and operated well under a bent state. The fabrication process of these graphene-based integrated electrodes only has two filtration steps; thus it is easy to scale up. These results suggest great potential for these graphene-based flexible batteries in lightweight, bendable, and wearable electronic devices. (paper)

  13. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in next generation lithium batteries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce; Liu, Ping; Meng, Shirley

    2013-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries have enabled the portable electronics revolution that changed how we communicate and share information. They have also started to penetrate the vehicle electrification and grid storage markets, two applications that are at the core of a sustainable future. In the pursuit of higher energy densities, lower costs, and longer life, nanotechnology is regularly employed to create new materials and processes in order to achieve these goals. A wonderful example is the commercialization of the lithium iron phosphate cathode which functions as a high power material only in a nanophase form, clearly demonstrating the benefit of nanotechnology. Materials engineered at the nanoscale are expected to offer a suite of advantages: high power densities are enabled by much reduced solid-state diffusion distance; high surface area reduces the effective current density; and new material structures and compositions are stabilized by nanostructuring, leading to new charge storage mechanisms. On the other hand, the use of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries raises significant technological challenges. Thermodynamically unstable electrode/electrolyte interfaces combined with the high surface area of nanomaterials magnify the side reactions leading to performance losses. In addition electrically connecting large amounts of nanoparticles requires the use of large amounts of conducting diluents. Nanomaterials also tend to have low tap densities and are often more expensive to produce. In order for lithium ion batteries to meet the performance and cost requirements for vehicle electrification and grid storage, they increasingly employ electrode materials with challenging reaction kinetics, such as limited ionic and electronic conductivities and complex multiphase processes. By understanding nanoscale processes and using this understanding to extend the spatial scale over which battery design can be implemented, nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly

  14. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  15. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  16. The state-of-the-art and prospects for the development of rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skundin, Aleksandr M; Efimov, Oleg N; Yarmolenko, Ol'ga V

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of investigations into the development and perfection of the most promising class of chemical power sources, namely, rechargeable lithium batteries, is considered. The main problems of designing the batteries with a metallic lithium electrode are formulated and the use of alternative negative electrodes is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the studies dealing with the principles of the performance of lithium-ion batteries as well as the key directions for the perfection of these devices, which mainly concern the elaboration of new materials for lithium-ion batteries. A separate section is devoted to the consideration of polymeric electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The bibliography includes 390 references.

  17. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  18. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  19. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  20. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.J.; Willis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  1. User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. J.; Willis, A. H.

    The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

  2. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  3. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  4. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  5. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material.

  6. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  7. Lithium Battery Transient Response as a Diagnostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E.; Nigmatullin, R.; Evdokimov, Y.; Timergalina, G.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium batteries are currently used as the main energy storage for electronic devices. Progress in the field of portable electronic devices is significantly determined by the improvement of their weight/dimensional characteristics and specific capacity. In addition to the high reliability required of lithium batteries, in some critical applications proper diagnostics are required. Corresponding techniques allow prediction and prevention of operation interruption and avoidance of expensive battery replacement, and also provide additional benefits. Many effective diagnostic methods have been suggested; however, most of them require expensive experimental equipment, as well as interruption or strong perturbation of the operating mode. In the framework of this investigation, a simple diagnostic method based on analysis of transient processes is proposed. The transient response is considered as a reaction to an applied load variation that typically corresponds to normal operating conditions for most real applications. The transient response contains the same information as the impedance characteristic for the system operating in linear mode. Taking into account the large number of publications describing the impedance response associated with diagnostic methods, it can be assumed that the transient response contains a sufficient amount of information for creation of effective diagnostic systems. The proposed experimental installation is based on a controlled load, providing current variation, measuring equipment, and data processing electronics. It is proposed to use the second exponent parameters U 2 and β to estimate the state of charge for secondary lithium batteries. The proposed method improves the accuracy and reliability of a set of quantitative parameters associated with electrochemical energy sources.

  8. Kinetics Tuning the Electrochemistry of Lithium Dendrites Formation in Lithium Batteries through Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ran; Bi, Xuanxuan; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Li, Shu; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Lithium batteries are one of the most advance energy storage devices in the world and have attracted extensive research interests. However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. In this paper, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li"+ salts, LiPF_6, LiAsF_6, LiBF_4 and LiClO_4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. The kinetic parameters of charge transfer step (exchange current density, j_0, transfer coefficient, α) of Li"+/Li redox system, the mass transfer parameters of Li"+ (transfer number of Li"+, t_L_i_+, diffusion coefficient of Li"+, D_L_i_+), and the conductivity (κ) of each electrolyte were studied separately. The results demonstrate that the solvents play a critical role in the measured j_0, t_L_i_+, D_L_i_+, and κ of the electrolyte, while the choice of Li"+ salts only slightly affect the measured parameters. Finally, the understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal.

  9. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  10. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+y Mn 2 0 4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  11. Materials Compositions for Lithium Ion Batteries with Extended Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, Kaushik

    Advancements in portable electronics have generated a pronounced demand for rechargeable energy storage devices with superior capacity and reliability. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have evolved as the primary choice of portable power for several such applications. While multiple variations have been developed, safety concerns of commercial technologies limit them to atmospheric temperature operability. With several niche markets such as aerospace, defense and oil & gas demanding energy storage at elevated temperatures, there is a renewed interest in developing rechargeable batteries that could survive temperatures beyond 100°C. Instability of critical battery components towards extreme thermal and electrochemical conditions limit their usability at high temperatures. This study deals with developing material configurations for LIB components to stabilize them at such temperatures. Flammable organic solvent based electrolytes and low melting polymer based separators have been identified as the primary bottleneck for LIBs to survive increasing temperature. Furthermore, thermally activated degradation processes in oxide based electrodes have been identified as the reason for their limited lifetime. A quasi-solid composite comprising of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and Clay was developed as an electrolyte/separator hybrid and tested to be stable up to 120°C. These composites facilitate complete reversible Li intercalation in lithium titanate (LTO) with a stable capacity of 120 mAh g-1 for several cycles of charge and discharge while simultaneously resisting severe thermal conditions. Modified phosphate based electrodes were introduced as a reliable alternative for operability at high temperatures in this study. These systems were shown to deliver stable reversible capacity for numerous charge/discharge cycles at elevated temperatures. Higher lithium intercalation potential of the developed cathode materials makes them interesting candidates for high voltage

  12. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  13. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy. (author)

  14. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  15. Electrodeposition of high-density lithium vanadate nanowires for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kang; Li, Xiujuan; Fang, Dong; Yi, Jianhong; Bao, Rui; Luo, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    Lithium vanadate nanowires have been electrodeposited onto a titanium (Ti) foil by a direct current electrodeposition without template. The morphology, crystal structure, and the effects of deposition voltage, temperature and time on the prepared samples were tested and presented. The as-prepared lithium vanadate nanowires/Ti composite can be used as electrode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode displayed a specific discharge capacitance as high as 235.1 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g-1. This research provides a new pathway to explore high tap density vanadates nanowires on metals with enhanced electrochemical performance.

  16. Ionic liquids and derived materials for lithium and sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Xing, Huabin; Dai, Sheng

    2018-03-21

    The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity. These properties create the possibilities of designing batteries with excellent safety, high energy/power density and long-term stability, and also provide better ways to synthesize known materials. IL-derived materials, such as poly(ionic liquids), ionogels and IL-tethered nanoparticles, retain most of the characteristics of ILs while being endowed with other favourable features, and thus they have received a great deal of attention as well. This review provides a comprehensive review of the various applications of ILs and derived materials in lithium and sodium batteries including Li/Na-ion, dual-ion, Li/Na-S and Li/Na-air (O 2 ) batteries, with a particular emphasis on recent advances in the literature. Their unique characteristics enable them to serve as advanced resources, medium, or ingredient for almost all the components of batteries, including electrodes, liquid electrolytes, solid electrolytes, artificial solid-electrolyte interphases, and current collectors. Some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities are also presented in this review for further development.

  17. Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lindberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

  18. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Development of the lithium polymer battery for the GM Precept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, R.; Richard, M.; Pomerleau, D.; St-Germain, P.; St-Pierre, C. [Argo-Tech Productions Inc., Boucherville, PQ (Canada); Gastonguay, L.; Choquette, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Research Inst

    2000-07-01

    The role that Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech played in the development of the GM Precept was discussed. The prototype hybrid electric-powered vehicle is a 5-passenger family sedan developed by General Motors. It is expected to achieve 80 mpg efficiency and emit fewer exhaust gases. The car's energy storage system uses lithium polymer battery (LPB) technology developed jointly by Hydro-Quebec and Argo-Tech. The development team had to meet the objectives of the GM Precept program using a unique electrochemical configuration, module and pack design. This included battery management and thermal management systems. The performance targets and parameters for the prototype were established by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. In 1993, the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) issued a contract to Hydro-Quebec to further develop their ongoing research on the LPB for EV applications. This included improvements in base chemistry as well as in the development processes and manufacturing technologies needed to produce a high-performance, low-cost electric-vehicle battery, under a series of USABC cost-shared contracts. The design and performance data of the LPB in addition to tests at the cell level suggest that the commercialization of the LPB battery is achievable. Focus is now being placed on reproducibility and robustness. Commercialization is planned for 2005. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Lithium/disulfide battery R and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T. D.; Deluca, W.; Lee, J.; Redey, L.; Nelson, P. A.

    The focus of molten-salt cell R and D in the past year at Argonne National Laboratory has been on developing an understanding of the excellent performance and stability of a lithium/disulfide cell using LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte. For further improvement, we have initiated development of a rod-electrode cell design and design of cells which can tolerate overdischarge and overcharge abuse. Earlier Li/FeS2 cells offered performance quite below expectations and had high capacity decline rates: 0.10 to 0.25 percent per cycle. Approaches for reducing the capacity decline rates of the earlier cells also reduced cell performance. However, our improved Li/FeS2 cell tests indicate good prospects for attaining cell development goals of specific energy of 200 Wh/kg at a 4-h discharge rate, a specific power of 200 W/kg at 80 percent depth of discharge, and a cycle life of 1000 cycles.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES POTENTIALLY STREAMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Halutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models in the electrical parameters of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries are developed. The developed model parameters (discharge mode are identified out of family of discharging curve. By using of the parameters of this model we get the numerically model of lithium-ion battery.

  2. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  3. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design feature associated with Lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...) T00012WI for installation of Lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. The Model 680 is a twin-engine, medium...

  4. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Terrat, J.P. [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A.; Vinatier, P.; Meunier, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1996-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  5. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M; Terrat, J P [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A; Vinatier, P; Meunier, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1997-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  6. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  7. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Internal Resistance of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cells during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly considered for a wide area of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparisons to other energy storage technologies. However, at present, Lithium-ion batteries are expensive storage devices and consequently their ageing behavior must...... be known in order to estimate their economic viability in different application. The ageing behavior of Lithium-ion batteries is described by the fade of their discharge capacity and by the decrease of their power capability. The capability of a Lithium-ion battery to deliver or to absorb a certain power...... is directly related to its internal resistance. This work aims to investigate the dependency of the internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries on the storage temperature and on the storage time. For this purpose, accelerated ageing calendar lifetime tests were carried out over a period of one year. Based...

  9. Lithium-ion battery state of function estimation based on fuzzy logic algorithm with associated variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, L.; Yang, F.; Shi, Y. F.; He, H. L.

    2017-11-01

    Many occasions related to batteries demand to know how much continuous and instantaneous power can batteries provide such as the rapidly developing electric vehicles. As the large-scale applications of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries are used to be our research object. Many experiments are designed to get the lithium-ion battery parameters to ensure the relevance and reliability of the estimation. To evaluate the continuous and instantaneous load capability of a battery called state-of-function (SOF), this paper proposes a fuzzy logic algorithm based on battery state-of-charge(SOC), state-of-health(SOH) and C-rate parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for battery SOF estimation.

  10. Numerical Analysis and Design of Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Pack Using Thermoelectric Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design of thermal management system for lithium ion battery pack using thermoelectric coolers (TECs is proposed. Firstly, the 3D thermal model of a high power lithium ion battery and the TEC is elaborated. Then the model is calibrated with experiment results. Finally, the calibrated model is applied to investigate the performance of a thermal management system for a lithium ion battery pack. The results show that battery thermal management system (BTMS with TEC can cool the battery in very high ambient temperature. It can also keep a more uniform temperature distribution in the battery pack than common BTMS, which will extend the life of the battery pack and may save the expensive battery equalization system.

  11. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  12. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  13. Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

    1984-12-25

    A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

  14. Development of reliable lithium microreference electrodes for long-term in situ studies of lithium-based battery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    An in situ method to prepare lithium microreference electrodes has been developed. The microreference electrodes are made by electrochemical deposition of metallic lithium from both the positive and negative electrodes onto a copper wire positioned in-between the two Li-based battery electrodes. The

  15. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic and reliable multiscale modelling of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Selcuk; Schmuck, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the increasing interest in lithium batteries as energy storage devices (e.g. cars/bycicles/public transport, social robot companions, mobile phones, and tablets), we investigate three basic cells: (i) a single intercalation host; (ii) a periodic arrangement of intercalation hosts; and (iii) a rigorously upscaled formulation of (ii) as initiated in. By systematically accounting for Li transport and interfacial reactions in (i)-(iii), we compute the associated chracteristic current-voltage curves and power densities. Finally, we discuss the influence of how the intercalation particles are arranged. Our findings are expected to improve the understanding of how microscopic properties affect the battery behaviour observed on the macroscale and at the same time, the upscaled formulation (iii) serves as an efficient computational tool. This work has been supported by EPSRC, UK, through the Grant No. EP/P011713/1.

  17. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpert, G.; Frank, H.; Lutwack, R.

    1988-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  18. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  19. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  20. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  1. A lithium-oxygen battery with a long cycle life in an air-like atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Sayahpour, Baharak; Abbasi, Pedram; Ngo, Anh T; Karis, Klas; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Liu, Cong; Narayanan, Badri; Gerard, Marc; Yasaei, Poya; Hu, Xuan; Mukherjee, Arijita; Lau, Kah Chun; Assary, Rajeev S; Khalili-Araghi, Fatemeh; Klie, Robert F; Curtiss, Larry A; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2018-03-21

    Lithium-air batteries are considered to be a potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries for transportation applications, owing to their high theoretical specific energy. So far, however, such systems have been largely restricted to pure oxygen environments (lithium-oxygen batteries) and have a limited cycle life owing to side reactions involving the cathode, anode and electrolyte. In the presence of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour, these side reactions can become even more complex. Moreover, because of the need to store oxygen, the volumetric energy densities of lithium-oxygen systems may be too small for practical applications. Here we report a system comprising a lithium carbonate-based protected anode, a molybdenum disulfide cathode and an ionic liquid/dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte that operates as a lithium-air battery in a simulated air atmosphere with a long cycle life of up to 700 cycles. We perform computational studies to provide insight into the operation of the system in this environment. This demonstration of a lithium-oxygen battery with a long cycle life in an air-like atmosphere is an important step towards the development of this field beyond lithium-ion technology, with a possibility to obtain much higher specific energy densities than for conventional lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  3. Comparative Study of Ether-Based Electrolytes for Application in Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the characteristics of electrolytes using various ether-solvents with molecular composition CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3, differing by chain length, and LiCF3SO3 as the lithium salt. The electrolytes, considered as suitable media for lithium-sulfur batteries, are characterized in terms of thermal properties (TGA, DSC), lithium ion conductivity, lithium interface stability, cyclic voltammetry, self-diffusion properties of the various components, and lithium transference number measured by NMR. Furthermore, the electrolytes are characterized in lithium cells using a sulfur-carbon composite cathode by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results clearly evidence the influence of the solvent chain length on the species mobility within the electrolytes that directly affects the behavior in lithium sulfur cell. The results may effectively contribute to the progress of an efficient, high-energy lithium-sulfur battery.

  4. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  5. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  6. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  7. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  8. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  9. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  10. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  11. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe; Kanoun, Olfa; Traenkler, Hans-Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects

  12. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.troeltzsch@unibw-muenchen.de; Kanoun, Olfa [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Traenkler, Hans-Rolf [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2006-01-20

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects.

  13. Estimation of power lithium-ion battery SOC based on fuzzy optimal decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Hou, Enguang; Qiao, Xin; Liu, Guangmin

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve vehicle performance and safety, need to accurately estimate the power lithium battery state of charge (SOC), analyzing the common SOC estimation methods, according to the characteristics open circuit voltage and Kalman filter algorithm, using T - S fuzzy model, established a lithium battery SOC estimation method based on the fuzzy optimal decision. Simulation results show that the battery model accuracy can be improved.

  14. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Meng, Jinhao; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed......State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered...... a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightly dependent on the variation of the battery model parameters with the SOC....

  15. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  16. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  17. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  18. The faradaic efficiency of the lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoier, S.N.; Eisenmann, E.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Research Dept.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D-size, low and medium rate lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, under DC and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of the faradaic efficiency, and showed that self-discharge is far more pervasive than previously acknowledged by researchers and battery manufacturers. Evaluations of the cell dynamics prove that current load and temperature fluctuations combine to disrupt the lithium passivation and to greatly enhance self-discharge. Typical faradaic efficiencies for DC range from abut 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75% at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiency levels, except at very low average current densities. The decreased faradaic efficiency of Li/TC batteries in certain pulse situations needs to be studied further to define the range of applications for which it can be successfully used.

  19. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Layered lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Horikawa, Kumi; Fujiyosi, Minako; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    We report the approach to overcome the deterrents of the hexagonal Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N as potential insertion anode for lithium ion batteries: the rapid capacity fading upon long cycles and the fully Li-rich state before cycling. Research reveals that the appropriate amount of Co substituted by Cu can greatly improve the cycling performance of Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N. It is attributed to the enhanced electrochemical stability and interfacial comparability. However, doped Cu leads to a slightly decreased capacity. High energy mechanical milling (HEMM) was found to effectively improve the reversible capacity associated with the electrochemical kinetics by modifying the active hosts' morphology characteristics. Moreover, the composite based on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) and Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N was developed under HEMM. The composite demonstrates a high first cycle efficiency at 100% and a large reversible capacity of ca. 450 mAh g -1 , as well as a stable cycling performance. This work may contribute to a development of the lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium ion batteries

  1. New Aqueous Binders for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Trask, Stephen E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Polzin, Bryant J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lu, Wenquan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Kahvecioglu Feridun, Ozge [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Hellring, Stuart D. [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Stewart, Matthew [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final report summarizes the research effort of the CRADA between PPG Industries and Argonne National Laboratory (CRADA # C1400501 and Amendment 1 - ACK 85C11, Rev. 1), and completes the requirements of Task #5 in the CRADA. The results from Argonne represent a combined effort between the MERF and CAMP Facility (Materials Engineering Research Facility and the Cell Analysis, Modeling and Prototyping Facility). The key points of this report can be briefly summarized as: The multicomponent aqueous binder for NCM cathodes developed by PPG shows promising results when used on the CAMP Facility’s pilot-scale coater; NCM523 cathode electrodes exposed to water exhibit a voltage anomaly in the first two formation cycles that appears to have little effect on the material capacity, but needs to be explored further; the experimental LFP electrode produced by PPG does cycle electrochemically, but with reduced capacity and an uncharacteristic voltage profile; there is no obvious correlation between the pH and zeta-potential of materials that are commonly used in the lithium-ion battery; lithium ions are more readily dissolved out of NCM523 by water than the transition metals (by two orders of magnitude), and suggests that the plating bath may need to be spiked with a lithium salt; the approach of creating sub-micron size NCM523 particles via ball milling results in a cathode material with poor electrochemical performance.

  2. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  3. Oxygen-Rich Lithium Oxide Phases Formed at High Pressure for Potential Lithium-Air Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenge; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Liuxiang; Li, Nana; Tang, Lingyun; Amine, Khalil; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    The lithium-air battery has great potential of achieving specific energy density comparable to that of gasoline. Several lithium oxide phases involved in the charge-discharge process greatly affect the overall performance of lithium-air batteries. One of the key issues is linked to the environmental oxygen-rich conditions during battery cycling. Here, the theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure conditions are reported. Three new high pressure oxide phases that form at high temperature and pressure are identified: Li 2 O 3 , LiO 2 , and LiO 4 . The LiO 2 and LiO 4 consist of a lithium layer sandwiched by an oxygen ring structure inherited from high pressure ε-O 8 phase, while Li 2 O 3 inherits the local arrangements from ambient LiO 2 and Li 2 O 2 phases. These novel lithium oxides beyond the ambient Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , and LiO 2 phases show great potential in improving battery design and performance in large battery applications under extreme conditions.

  4. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-01-01

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3 SO 3- . The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10 -3 Scm -1 . The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2 O 4 cells

  5. Fabrication and evaluation of 100 Ah cylindrical lithium ion battery for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Moon, Seong-In; Yum, Duk-Hyeng; Yun, Seong-Kyu

    A total of 100 Ah class lithium ion cells with C/LiCoO 2 cell system for electric vehicles (EVs) was developed. EV-size lithium ion battery was developed by Sony, KERI/STC, SAFT, VARTA, Sanyo and Matsushita. GS battery and Hitachi have developed also stationary type large scale (70-80 Ah) lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion battery module for EVs was demonstrated by Sony/Nissan and KERI/STC in 1996. At present, the performance of developed EV-cells was up to 115 Wh/kg and 286 W/kg of specific power at 80% DOD. We assume our EV cells to have 248 and 242 km driving distance per one charge with DST-120 mode and ECE-15 mode, respectively. Finally, we performed safety/abuse tests of developed lithium ion cell.

  6. Interfacial Mechanism in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: How Salts Mediate the Structure Evolution and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shuang-Yan; Xiao, Rui-Juan; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wen, Rui; Wan, Li-Jun

    2018-06-08

    Lithium-sulfur batteries possess favorable potential for energy-storage applications due to their high specific capacity and the low cost of sulfur. Intensive understanding of the interfacial mechanism, especially the polysulfide formation and transformation under complex electrochemical environment, is crucial for the build-up of advanced batteries. Here we report the direct visualization of interfacial evolution and dynamic transformation of the sulfides mediated by the lithium salts via real-time atomic force microscopy monitoring inside a working battery. The observations indicate that the lithium salts influence the structures and processes of sulfide deposition/decomposition during discharge/charge. Moreover, the distinct ion interaction and diffusion in electrolytes manipulate the interfacial reactions determining the kinetics of the sulfide transformation. Our findings provide deep insights into surface dynamics of lithium-sulfur reactions revealing the salt-mediated mechanisms at nanoscale, which contribute to the profound understanding of the interfacial processes for the optimized design of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  7. Prelithiation of silicon-carbon nanotube anodes for lithium ion batteries by stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Michael W; Ganter, Matthew J; Staub, Jason W; Ridgley, Richard D; Landi, Brian J

    2013-09-11

    Stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) has been applied during battery assembly to effectively prelithiate high capacity (1500-2500 mAh/g) silicon-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anodes, eliminating the 20-40% first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Pressure-activation of SLMP is shown to enhance prelithiation and enable capacity matching between Si-CNT anodes and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes in full batteries with minimal added mass. The prelithiation approach enables high energy density NCA/Si-CNT batteries achieving >1000 cycles at 20% depth-of-discharge.

  8. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  10. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Latz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  11. High-Performance Lithium-Air Battery with a Coaxial-Fiber Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Lie; Guo, Ziyang; Xu, Yifan; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-03-24

    The lithium-air battery has been proposed as the next-generation energy-storage device with a much higher energy density compared with the conventional lithium-ion battery. However, lithium-air batteries currently suffer enormous problems including parasitic reactions, low recyclability in air, degradation, and leakage of liquid electrolyte. Besides, they are designed into a rigid bulk structure that cannot meet the flexible requirement in the modern electronics. Herein, for the first time, a new family of fiber-shaped lithium-air batteries with high electrochemical performances and flexibility has been developed. The battery exhibited a discharge capacity of 12,470 mAh g(-1) and could stably work for 100 cycles in air; its electrochemical performances were well maintained under bending and after bending. It was also wearable and formed flexible power textiles for various electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  13. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...... is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic...

  14. Li+-Permeable Film on Lithium Anode for Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bo; Liu, Yun-Xia; Song, Zhiping; Zhou, Yun-Hong; Zhan, Hui

    2017-11-08

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is an important candidate for next-generation energy storage. However, the reaction between polysulfide and lithium (Li) anode brings poor cycling stability, low Coulombic efficiency, and Li corrosion. Herein, we report a Li protection technology. Li metal was treated in crown ether containing electrolyte, and thus, treated Li was further used as the anode in Li-S cell. Due to the coordination between Li + and crown ether, a Li + -permeable film can be formed on Li, and the film is proved to be able to block the detrimental reaction between Li anode and polysulfide. By using the Li anode pretreated in 2 wt % B15C5-containing electrolyte, Li-S cell exhibits significantly improved cycling stability, such as∼900 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles, and high Coulombic efficiency of>93%. In addition, such effect is also notable when high S loading condition is applied.

  15. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  16. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  17. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kandler A.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  18. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  19. Effect of thermal contact resistances on fast charging of large format lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yonghuang; Saw, Lip Huat; Shi, Yixiang; Somasundaram, Karthik; Tay, Andrew A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of thermal contact resistance on thermal performance of large format lithium ion batteries. • The effect of temperature gradient on electrochemical performance of large format batteries during fast charging. • The thermal performance of lithium ion battery utilizing pulse charging protocol. • Suggestions on battery geometry design optimization to improve thermal performance. - Abstract: A two dimensional electrochemical thermal model is developed on the cross-plane of a laminate stack plate pouch lithium ion battery to study the thermal performance of large format batteries. The effect of thermal contact resistance is taken into consideration, and is found to greatly increase the maximum temperature and temperature gradient of the battery. The resulting large temperature gradient would induce in-cell non-uniformity of charging-discharging current and state of health. Simply increasing the cooling intensity is inadequate to reduce the maximum temperature and narrow down the temperature difference due to the poor cross-plane thermal conductivity. Pulse charging protocol does not help to mitigate the temperature difference on the bias of same total charging time, because of larger time-averaged heat generation rate than constant current charging. Suggestions on battery geometry optimizations for both prismatic/pouch battery and cylindrical battery are proposed to reduce the maximum temperature and mitigate the temperature gradient within the lithium ion battery

  20. Issues and Challenges Facing Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries for Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyungyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Yoonji; Cho, Jaephil; Park, Minjoon

    2017-12-27

    With the advent of flexible electronics, lithium-ion batteries have become a key component of high performance energy storage systems. Thus, considerable effort is made to keep up with the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. To date, many researchers have studied newly designed batteries with flexibility, however, there are several significant challenges that need to be overcome, such as degradation of electrodes under external load, poor battery performance, and complicated cell preparation procedures. In addition, an in-depth understanding of the current challenges for flexible batteries is rarely addressed in a systematical and practical way. Herein, recent progress and current issues of flexible lithium-ion batteries in terms of battery materials and cell designs are reviewed. A critical overview of important issues and challenges for the practical application of flexible lithium-ion batteries is also provided. Finally, the strategies are discussed to overcome current limitations of the practical use of flexible lithium-based batteries, providing a direction for future research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  2. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-cut recovery of cobalt and lithium was directly obtained using oxalic acid. • Short-cut recovery process was optimized for a high recovery rate. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • Leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} using oxalic acid was first proposed. - Abstract: With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L{sup −1} solid–liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  4. State of health detection for Lithium ion batteries in photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DC resistances of batteries. ► Fuzzy logic inference. ► SOH detection for battery. - Abstract: In many photovoltaic systems, rechargeable batteries are required to even out irregularities in solar irradiation. However, the health conditions of the batteries are crucial for the reliability of the overall system. In this paper, the equivalent DC resistances of Lithium ion battery cells of various health conditions during charging under different temperatures have been collected and the relationships between equivalent DC resistance, health condition and working temperature have been identified. The equivalent DC resistance can easily be obtained during the charging period of a battery by switching off the charging current periodically for a very short duration of time. A simple and effective battery charger with state of health (SOH) detection for Lithium ion battery cell has been developed based on the identified equivalent DC resistance. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SOH determination scheme.

  5. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A.; Sarrazin, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  6. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A; Sarrazin, C; Fauvarque, J F [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  7. One-step separation by thermal treatment and cobalt acid-leaching from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in portable storage devices and automobiles, therefore the environment and resource problems caused by spent lithium ion batteries have become increasingly severe. This paper focuses on the recovery process of spent lithium cobalt oxide active material and comes up with reasonable processes and the best conditions for cobalt leaching ultimately.

  8. Research on the Heat Dissipation Characteristics of Lithium Battery Spatial Layout in an AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the power demand requirements of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs, the power supply is generally composed of a large number of high-energy lithium battery groups. The lithium battery heat dissipation properties not only affect the underwater vehicle performance but also bring some security risks. Based on the widespread application of lithium batteries, lithium batteries in an AUV are taken as an example to investigate the heat dissipation characteristics of the lithium battery spatial layout in an AUV. With the aim of increasing the safety of lithium batteries, a model is developed for the heat transfer process based on the energy conservation equation, and the battery heat dissipation characteristics of the spatial layout are analyzed. The results indicate that the most suitable distance between the cells and the cross arrangement is better than the sequence arrangement in terms of cooling characteristics. The temperature gradient and the temperature change inside the cabin with time are primarily affected by the navigation speed, but they have little relationship with the environmental temperature.

  9. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... vehicle application. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary and renewable energy application. Therefore, possible second life opportunities have been identified and further assessed. In this paper, the main ageing effects of lithium...... ion batteries are explained. Next, an overview of different validated battery models will be discussed. Finally, a methodology for assessing the performance of the battery cells in a second life application is presented....

  10. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Wang, Qingzheng

    2010-12-14

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. The redox shuttles are capable of thousands hours of overcharge tolerance and have a redox potential at about 3-5.5 V vs. Li and particularly about 4.4-4.8 V vs. Li. Accordingly, in one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive that is an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring with four or more electronegative substituents, two or more oxygen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring, and no hydrogen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  12. Pulse Power Capability Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    The pulse power capability (PPC) represents one of the parameters that describe the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries independent on the application. Consequently, extended information about the Li-ion battery PPC and its dependence on the operating conditions become necessary. Thus......, this paper analyzes the power capability characteristic of a 13Ah high power Lithium Titanate Oxide-based battery and its dependence on temperature, load current and state-of-charge. Furthermore, a model to predict the discharging PPC of the battery cell at different temperatures and load currents for three...

  13. A Combined Thermodynamics & Computational Method to Assess Lithium Composition in Anode and Cathode of Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Van Durmen, Pauline; Saadat, Somaye; Yazami, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    With aim to address the open question of accurate determination of lithium composition in anode and cathode at a defined state of charge (SOC) of lithium ion batteries (LIB), we developed a method combining electrochemical thermodynamic measurements (ETM) and computational data fitting protocol. It is a common knowledge that in a lithium ion battery the SOC of anode and cathode differ from the SOC of the full-cell. Differences are in large part due to irreversible lithium losses within cell and to electrode mass unbalance. This implies that the lithium composition range in anode and in cathode during full charge and discharge cycle in full-cell is different from the composition range achieved in lithium half-cells of anode and cathode over their respective full SOC ranges. To the authors knowledge there is no unequivocal and practical method to determine the actual lithium composition of electrodes in a LIB, hence their SOC. Yet, accurate lithium composition assessment is fundamental not only for understanding the physics of electrodes but also for optimizing cell performances, particularly energy density and cycle life.

  14. International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Rome, Italy, April 27-29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-15

    Topics discussed include the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of organic electrolytes with lithium, the electrochemistry of a nonaqueous lithium/sulfur cell, chromium oxides as cathodes for lithium cells, and the behavior of various cathode materials for nonaqueous lithium cells. Papers are presented on a reversible graphite-lithium negative electrode for electrochemical generators, on interfacial conduction in lithium iodide containing inert oxides, on the mechanism for ion conduction in alkali metal-polymer complexes, and on Li/SOCl2 cells for high temperature applications. Attention is also given to Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of electrolytes used in the Li/SOCl2 battery, to surface films on lithium in acetonitrile-sulfur dioxide solutions, and to polarization of the lithium electrode in sulfuryl chloride solutions.

  15. Investigation into the role of silica in lithium polysulfide adsorption for lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Miso; Kang, Sung-Hwan; Manuel, James; Zhao, Xiaohui; Cho, Kwon Koo; Ahn, Jou Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN) were prepared. • Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out with silica nanoparticles and AFSN. • Sulfur cathodes were prepared with SN and AFSN for Li–S batteries. • AFSN showed excellent polysulfide adsorption. - Abstract: A new type of sulfur electrodes with the ability for polysulfide adsorption was prepared by incorporating silica nanoparticles (SN) or amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN). AFSN was synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method. The functionalization and surface morphology of silica were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out using UV–vis spectrometer, which confirmed the excellent adsorption of polysulfides by AFSN. Interaction of polysulfides with SN or AFSN was studied using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The effective polysulfide adsorption by SN and AFSN leads to good and stable cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. The results show that the incorporation of SN or AFSN with sulfur is a promising method to prepare cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries

  16. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  17. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  18. Novel polymeric systems for lithium ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-PietraSanta, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked, self-supporting, membranes for lithium ion battery gel electrolytes were obtained by cross-linking a mixture of polyfluorosilicone (PFSi) and polysilicone containing ethylene oxide (EO) units [P(Si-EO)]. The membranes were also reinforced with nanosized silica. The two polymer precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional, polymer matrices. The precursors were dissolved in a common solvent and cross-linked to obtain free-standing PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 composite films. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, aprotic, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. The properties of the swelled PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 samples were evaluated as a function of the electrolytic solutions and the dipping time. The PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 membranes exhibited large swelling properties, high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability

  19. Non-Flammable, High Voltage Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrolyte will be demonstrated for lithium ion batteries with increased range of charge and discharge voltages and with improved fire safety. Experimental...

  20. Novel Electrolytes for -100°C Lithium Battery Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires advanced high power primary lithium batteries for ultra low temperature applications. The key component that limits the performance at low temperature...

  1. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  2. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  3. A Comprehensive Study on the Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as the key energy storage technology for both e-mobility and stationary renewable energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the Lithium-ion batteries are complex energy storage devices, which are characterized by a complex degradation behavior, which affects both...... their capacity and internal resistance. This paper investigates, based on extended laboratory calendar ageing tests, the degradation of the internal resistance of a Lithium-ion battery. The dependence of the internal resistance increase on the temperature and state-of-charge level have been extensive studied...... and quantified. Based on the obtained laboratory results, an accurate semi-empirical lifetime model, which is able to predict with high accuracy the internal resistance increase of the Lithium-ion battery over a wide temperature range and for all state-of-charge levels was proposed and validated....

  4. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...... managed, testing has shown that thermal runaway in a single cell can propagate to other cells in a battery and may lead to a potentially catastrophic event. Lithium-ion batteries are becoming more widely used in a number of human-rated extravehicular activity (EVA) space applications on the International...... Space Station. Thermal modeling in support of thermal runaway propagation mitigation in the Lithium-ion Rechargeable EVA Battery Assembly (LREBA) and the Lithium-on Pistol Grip Tool (LPGT) was pursued to inform design decisions and to understand the results of extensive development testing with the goal...

  5. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber

  6. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green

  7. Remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As lithium-ion batteries are an efficient energy storage mechanism, their use in vehicles is increasing to support electrification : to meet increasing average mileage and decreasing greenhouse gas emission standards. Principles of environmentalism :...

  8. Coordination Polymer Modified Separator for Mitigating Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The development of the new cathode and anode materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) with high energy density and outstanding electrochemical performance is of substantial technological importance due to the ever-increasing demand for economic

  9. Redox Species-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lu, Ang-Yu; Wahyudi, Wandi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Seeking high-capacity cathodes has become an intensive effort in lithium ion battery research; however, the low energy density still remains a major issue for sustainable handheld devices and vehicles. Herein, we present a new strategy

  10. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...... is a considerable technical problem and has become an important factor which might postpones subsequent extension of lithium-ion batteries. This paper reviews different methods for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. Various methods such as using Phase change materials and using air cooling, straight......Decreasing of fossil fuel sources and ecological worries has spurred global attention in the expansion of developing energy storing systems for electric vehicles (EVs). As a consequence of escalating appeal on new dependable power supplier for hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion (Li...

  11. Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan; McDowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Wu, Hui; Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major

  12. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon

  13. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Choi, Jang Wook; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon

  14. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  15. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  16. High Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Extended Cycle Life, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional lithium-ion batteries demonstrate great potential for energy storage applications but they face some major challenges such as low energy density and...

  17. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  18. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  19. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph.; Le Nay, F. [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J.M. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  20. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph; Le Nay, F [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J M [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  1. Thermal behavior of an experimental 2.5-kWh lithium/iron sulfide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. C.; Olszanski, T. W.; Gibbard, H. F.

    1981-10-01

    The thermal energy generation and the gross thermal energy balance in the battery systems was studied. High temperature lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicle applications were developed. The preferred battery temperature range during operation and idle periods is 400 to 500 C. Thermal management is an essential part of battery design, the battery requires a thermal insulation vessel to minimize heat loss and heating and cooling systems to control temperature. Results of temperature measurements performed on a 2.5-kWh battery module, which was built to gain information for the design of larger systems are reported.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  4. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  5. Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Staiger, Chad L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pratt, III, Harry D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chaudhari, Mangesh I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Travis Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes advances in electrolytes for lithium primary battery systems. Electrolytes were synthesized that utilize organosilane materials that include anion binding agent functionality. Numerous materials were synthesized and tested in lithium carbon monofluoride battery systems for conductivity, impedance, and capacity. Resulting electrolytes were shown to be completely non-flammable and showed promise as co-solvents for electrolyte systems, due to low dielectric strength.

  6. Challenges and issues facing lithium metal for solid-state rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, A.; Armand, M.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial use of lithium metal batteries was delayed because of dendrite formation on the surface of the lithium electrode, and the difficulty finding a suitable electrolyte that has both the mechanical strength and ionic conductivity required for solid electrolytes. Recently, strategies have developed to overcome these difficulties, so that these batteries are currently an option for different applications, including electric cars. In this work, we review these strategies, and discuss the different routes that are promising for progress in the near future.

  7. Lithium Titanate Ceramic System as Electronic and Li-ion Mixed Conductors for Cathode Matrix in Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-Titanat-Spinell Li4/3Ti5/3O4, Ramsdellit Li2Ti3O7, und Spinell - Steinsalz abgeleitet Li4/3+xTi5/3O4 (0 kleiner/gleich x kleiner/gleich 1) wurden untersucht, um ein gemischtes (d.h. Li-Ionen und Elektronen) leitendes keramisches Material als eine Kathode-Matrix für alle Festköper-Lithium-Schwefel-Batterie zu entwickeln.

  8. Storage of a lithium-ion secondary battery under micro-gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu; Ooto, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Eguro, Takashi; Sakai, Shigeru; Yoshida, Teiji; Takahashi, Keiji; Uno, Masatoshi; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Tajima, Michio; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    'HAYABUSA' is a Japanese inter-planetary spacecraft built for the exploration of an asteroid named 'ITOKAWA.' The spacecraft is powered by a 13.2 Ah lithium-ion secondary battery. To realize maximum performance of the battery for long flight operation, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery was maintained at ca. 65% during storage, in case it is required for a loss of attitude control. The capacity of the battery was measured during flight operations. Along with the operation in orbit, a ground-test battery was discharged, and both results showed a good agreement. This result confirmed that the performance of the lithium-ion secondary battery stored under micro-gravity conditions is predictable using a ground-test battery.

  9. Cycle aging studies of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Santarelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The cycle aging of a commercial 18650 lithium-ion battery with graphite anode and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide-based cathode at defined operating conditions is studied by regular electrochemical characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and post-mortem analysis.

  10. Recycling positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Steven E.

    2017-11-21

    Examples are disclosed of methods to recycle positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery. In one example, the positive-electrode material is heated under pressure in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After heating, the positive-electrode material is separated from the concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After separating, the positive electrode material is rinsed in a basic liquid. After rinsing, the positive-electrode material is dried and sintered.

  11. Numerical study on lithium titanate battery thermal response under adiabatic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiujuan; Wang, Qingsong; Zhao, Xuejuan; Sun, Jinhua; Lin, Zijing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of lithium titanate battery during cycling was investigated. • The temperature rate in charging was less than that of discharging in the cycling. • The temperature difference was less than 0.02 °C at 0.5 C in adiabatic condition. • The temperature distribution and thermal runaway of the battery were predicted. - Abstract: To analyze the thermal behavior of 945 mA h lithium titanate battery during charging and discharging processes, the experimental and numerical studies are performed in this work. The cathode and anode of the 945 mA h lithium titanate soft package battery are the lithium nickel–cobalt–manganese-oxide and lithium titanate, respectively. In the experiment, an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter combined with battery cycler is employed to investigate the electrochemical–thermal behavior during charge–discharge cycling under the adiabatic condition. In numerical simulation, one electrochemical-thermal model is adopted to predict the thermal response and validated with the experimental results. From both experimental and simulated results, the profile of potential and current, the heat generation, the temperature, the temperature changing rate and the temperature distribution in the cell are obtained and thermal runaway is predicted. The analysis of the electrochemical and thermal behavior is beneficial for the commercial application of lithium titanate battery in the fields of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles

  12. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid...... on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific...... and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact...

  13. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  14. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  15. Sizing of lithium-ion stationary batteries for nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exavier, Zakaria Barie; Chang, Choong-koo

    2017-01-01

    Class 1E power system is very essential in preventing significant release of radioactive materials to the environment. Batteries are designed to provide control power for emergency operation of safety-related equipment or equipment important to safety, including power for automatic operation of the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and Engineered Safety Features (ESF) protection systems during abnormal and accident conditions through associated inverters. Technical challenges that are involved in the life cycle of batteries used in the nuclear power plants (NPP) are significant. The extension of dc battery backup time used in the dc power supply system of the Nuclear Power Plants also remains a challenge. The lead acid battery is the most popular utilized at the present. And it is generally the most popular energy storage device, because of its low cost and wide availability. The lead acid battery is still having some challenges since many phenomenon are occurred inside the battery during its lifecycle. The image of Lithium-ion battery in 1991 is considered as alternative for lead acid battery due to better performance which Lithium-ion has over Lead acid. It has high energy density and advanced gravimetric and volumetric properties. It is known that industrial standards for the stationary Lithium-Ion battery are still under development. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of replacing of lead acid battery with lithium-ion battery. To study the ongoing research activities and ongoing developed industrial standards for Lithium-ion battery and suggest the method for sizing including, capacity, dimensions, operational conditions, aging factor and safety margin for NPP use. (author)

  16. All-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries - paving the way to large-scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Joscha; Günther, Till; Knoche, Thomas; Vieider, Christoph; Köhler, Larissa; Just, Alexander; Keller, Marlou; Passerini, Stefano; Reinhart, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    Challenges and requirements for the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries are herein evaluated via workshops with experts from renowned research institutes, material suppliers, and automotive manufacturers. Aiming to bridge the gap between materials research and industrial mass production, possible solutions for the production chains of sulfide and oxide based all-solid-state batteries from electrode fabrication to cell assembly and quality control are presented. Based on these findings, a detailed comparison of the production processes for a sulfide based all-solid-state battery with conventional lithium-ion cell production is given, showing that processes for composite electrode fabrication can be adapted with some effort, while the fabrication of the solid electrolyte separator layer and the integration of a lithium metal anode will require completely new processes. This work identifies the major steps towards mass production of all-solid-state batteries, giving insight into promising manufacturing technologies and helping stakeholders, such as machine engineering, cell producers, and original equipment manufacturers, to plan the next steps towards safer batteries with increased storage capacity.

  17. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  18. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li–metal, Li–O2, and Li–S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3–4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable...... combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium–metal (Li–metal), lithium–oxygen (Li–O2......), and lithium–sulfur (Li–S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability....

  19. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  20. Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163 544 mg/kg; σ = 62 897; limit 8000), copper (average 98 694 mg/kg; σ = 28 734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11 438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  1. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO 4 cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles

  2. Development of Gel Polymer Electrolytes Using Radiation for Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Ki; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Dong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Recently, demands of high performance lithium battery are increased. Development of battery materials for high power, high capacity, high safety are also needed. This project deals with the new gel polymer electrolyte based on the microporous matrix with specific functions using radiation techniques.

  3. In situ neutron depth profiling: A powerful method to probe lithium transport in micro-batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Labohm, F.; Mulder, M.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Mulder, F.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    In situ neutron depth profiling (NDP) offers the possibility to observe lithium transport inside micro-batteries during battery operation. It is demonstrated that NDP results are consistent with the results of electrochemical measurements, and that the use of an enriched6LiCoO2 cathode offers more

  4. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ...

  5. An overview of online implementable SOC estimation methods for Lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Ricco, Mattia; Guangzhao, Luo

    2017-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is also developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safety usage and reduce the average lifecycle cost, accurate State Of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required in different applications...

  6. An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao

    2018-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safe usage and to reduce its average lifecycle cost, an accurate State of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required for different applications...

  7. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-05-26

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  8. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-06-07

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service-temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, we report such wide-temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the ethylene carbonate (EC) content in the ternary solvent system of EC, propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) with LiPF 6 salt and CsPF 6 additive. An extended service-temperature range from -40 to 60 °C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNi 0.80 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 , NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room temperature and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated together with the ionic conductivity and phase-transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt) with 0.05 M CsPF 6 , which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite∥NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite∥LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 . This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the high capacity retention (68%) at -40 °C and C/5 rate, significantly higher than that (20%) of the conventional LIB electrolyte, and the nearly identical stable cycle life as the conventional LIB electrolyte at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 60 °C.

  9. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  10. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  11. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  12. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries...... electrolyte, typical for polymer electrolytes. Cycling tests (more than 900 cycles) proved that the unplasticized electrolyte can act as binder in composite cathodes of lithium secondary batteries [2]. Charge/discharge cycles of complete batteries like (Cu/active carbon/ORMOCER(R)/LiCoO2/Al) with an ORMOCER......(R) as separator electrolyte were measured. The voltage drop of these batteries is very similar to cells with standard liquid electrolytes and the efficiency is close to 100%. Cycling the batteries with a current density of 0.25 mA cm(-2) between the voltage limits of 3.1 and 4.1 V results in a charge...

  13. Methodology for Assessing the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Degradation for Practical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    -S batteries are driven by different electrochemical processes than commonly used Lithium-ion batteries, which often results in their very different behavior. Therefore, the modelling and testing have to be adjusted to reflect this unique behavior to prevent possible biases. A methodology for a reference......Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery is an emerging battery technology receiving growing amount of attention due to its potential high contributions of gravimetric energy density, safety and low production cost. However, there are still some obstacles preventing their swift commercialization. Li...... performance test for the Li-S batteries is proposed in this study to point out the Li-S battery features and provide guidance to users how to deal with them and possible results into standardization....

  14. Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries for balancing wind power forecast error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    is considered. In this paper, the economic feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for balancing the wind power forecast error is analysed. In order to perform a reliable assessment, an ageing model of lithium-ion battery was developed considering both cycling and calendar life. The economic analysis considers two......, it was found that for total elimination of the wind power forecast error, it is required to have a 25-MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system for the considered 2 MW WT....

  15. Infinite-Dimensional Boundary Observer for Lithium-Ion Battery State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Agus; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents boundary observer design for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion battery dynamics are governed by thermal-electrochemical principles, which mathematically modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs). In general, the model is a reaction......-diffusion equation with time-dependent coefficients. A Luenberger observer is developed using infinite-dimensional backstepping method and uses only a single measurement at the boundary of the battery. The observer gains are computed by solving the observer kernel equation. A numerical example is performed to show...

  16. Recovery concept of value metals from automotive lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeger, Thomas; Friedrich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A recycling process for automotive lithium-ion batteries was developed. The process combines a mechanical pretreatment with pyrometallurgical recycling process step to recover all battery components, and realize cost-neutral and sustainable recycling. The focus of the research work is the development of a pyrometallurgical process step to recover especially Li out of electrode mass powder which is the fine fraction extracted mechanically from spent Li-ion batteries. Two metallurgical treatment technologies were investigated: direct vacuum evaporation of Li and recovery of metallic Li by distillation, and a selective entraining gas evaporation of Li and recovery of lithium oxide.

  17. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  19. Novel Solid Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolyte to Enable Lithium Metal Safely Cycling for Next Generation High Energy Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA future missions demand safe, high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) batteries. Current state-of-the-art (SOA) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can only provide...

  20. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na 2 CO 3 and Na 3 PO 4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li 2 CO 3 and pure Li 3 PO 4 , respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na 2 CO 3 and Li 3 PO 4 vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li 2 CO 3 containing the impurity of Na 2 CO 3 is used to prepare LiMn 2 O 4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na 2 CO 3 in raw Li 2 CO 3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn 2 O 4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g -1 . The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li 2 CO 3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation into key interfacial reactions within lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Daniel Richard

    Given the concern of global climate change and the understanding that carbon dioxide emissions are driving this change, much effort has been invested into lowering carbon dioxide emissions. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles through the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. Today, lithium cobalt oxide materials are widely used in consumer electronic applications, yet these materials are cost prohibitive for larger scale vehicle applications. As a result, alternative materials with higher energy densities and lower costs are being investigated. One key alternative to cobalt that has received much attention is manganese. Manganese is of interest for its lower cost and favorable environmental friendliness. The use of manganese has led to numerous cathode materials such as Li 1-deltaMn2O4 (4V spinel), Li1-deltaMn 1.5Ni0.25O4 (5V spinel), Li1-(Mn 1-x-yNiyCox)O2 (layered), Li2MnO 3-Li1-delta(Mn1-x-yNiyCox)O 2 (layered-layered), and Li2MnO3-Li1-delta (Mn1-x-yNiyCox)1O2 -Li1-deltaMn2O4 (layered-layered-spinel). The work disclosed in the dissertation focuses on two topics associated with these manganese based cathodes. The first topic is the exceptional cyclic-ability of a high power, high energy density, 5V spinel cathode material (Li 1-deltaMn1.5Ni0.25O4) with a core-shell architecture, and the second is the severe capacity fade associated with manganese dissolution from cathodes at elevated operating temperatures. Both topics are of interest to the Li-ion battery industry. For instance, a 5V spinel cathode represents a viable path to increase both the power and energy density of Li-ion batteries. As its name implies, the 5V spinel operates at 5V that is higher than the conventional 4V lithium ion batteries. Since power and energy are directly proportional to the potential, moving from an operating potential of 4V to 5V represents an increase

  2. Understanding Conversion-Type Electrodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Feng, Xinran; Zhang, Na; Seok, Jeesoo; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-02-20

    The need/desire to lower the consumption of fossil fuels and its environmental consequences has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. A global effort has been undertaken to develop advanced renewable energy generation and especially energy storage technologies, as they would enable a dramatic increase in the effective and efficient use of renewable (and often intermittent) energy sources. The development of electrical energy storage (EES) technologies with high energy and power densities, long life, low cost, and safe use represents a challenge from both the fundamental science and technological application points of view. While the advent and broad deployment of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has dramatically changed the EES landscape, their performance metrics need to be greatly enhanced to keep pace with the ever-increasing demands imposed by modern consumer electronics and especially the emerging automotive markets. Current battery technologies are mostly based on the use of a transition metal oxide cathode (e.g., LiCoO 2 , LiFePO 4 , or LiNiMnCoO 2 ) and a graphite anode, both of which depend on intercalation/insertion of lithium ions for operation. While the cathode material currently limits the battery capacity and overall energy density, there is a great deal of interest in the development of high-capacity cathode materials as well as anode materials. Conversion reaction materials have been identified/proposed as potentially high-energy-density alternatives to intercalation-based materials. However, conversion reaction materials react during lithiation to form entirely new products, often with dramatically changed structure and chemistry, by reaction mechanisms that are still not completely understood. This makes it difficult to clearly distinguish the limitations imposed by the mechanism and practical losses from initial particle morphology, synthetic approaches, and electrode preparations. Transition metal compounds such as transition metal oxides

  3. Thin films of lithium manganese oxide spinel as cathode materials for secondary lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shui, J.L.; Jiang, G.S.; Xie, S.; Chen, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    The miniaturization of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries requires high quality thin-film electrodes. Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used to fabricate LiMn 2 O 4 thin-film electrodes with three different morphologies: sponge-like porous, fractal-like porous, and dense structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the structures of the electrodes. These electrodes were made into coin cells against metallic lithium for electrochemical characterization. Galvanostatic cycling of the cells revealed different rate capability for the cells with LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes of different morphologies. It is found that the cells with LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes of porous, especially the sponge-like porous, morphology better rate capability than those with dense LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study indicates that the large surface area of the porous electrodes should be attributed to the smaller interfacial resistance and better rate capability

  4. Copper-substituted, lithium rich iron phosphate as cathode material for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.B.; Cho, S.H.; Heo, J.B.; Aravindan, V.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-free, copper-doped, lithium rich iron phosphates, Li 1+x Fe 1-y Cu y PO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.005), have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the optimization, the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 phase showed superior performances in terms of phase purity and high discharge capacity. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared to LiFePO 4 , Li 1.05 FePO 4 , LiFe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 , and materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted to ensure copper doping. Only smooth surface morphologies were observed for lithium rich iron phosphates, namely Li 1.05 FePO 4 and Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 . The Li/Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 cell delivered an initial discharge capacity of 145 mAh/g and was 18 mAh/g higher than the Li/LiFePO 4 cell without any carbon coating effect. Cyclic voltammetry revealed excellent reversibility of the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 material. High rate capability studies were also performed and showed a capacity retention over 95% during the cycling. We concluded that substituted Li and Cu ions play an important role in enhancing battery performance of the LiFePO 4 material through improving the kinetics of the lithium insertion/extraction reaction on the electrode.

  5. Transition metal alloy-modulated lithium manganese oxide nanosystem for energy storage in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the synergistic and catalytic properties of a newly developed lithium ion battery (LIB) composite cathode of LiMn(sub2)O(Sub4) modified with bimetallic (Au–Fe) nanoparticle. Spinel phase LiMn(sub)2O(sub4) was doped...

  6. Chemical Stability Investigations of Polyisobutylene as New Binder for Application in Lithium Air-Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, Jennifer; Rodehorst, Uta; Badillo, Juan Pablo; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The side reactions of LiO 2 , Li 2 O 2 and Li 2 O, formed during the discharge process at the cathode/electrolyte interphase, are still a main challenge of lithium-air batteries. During these reactions, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), as the commonly used cathode binder material, is decomposing, leading to a shorter lifetime of the battery. In this paper, we introduced and investigated polyisobutylene (PIB), a chemically and electrochemically inert polymeric material, to substitute PVdF as binder for lithium-air batteries. Results obtained by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods showed, that PIB is far more stable in the presence of O 2 − , O 2 2− as well as O 2− species compared to PVdF. This distinct inertness makes PIB a promising binder for lithium-air batteries

  7. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene butadiene rubber and acrylic acid copolymer as binder to figure out lithium-ion battery with 2.5Ah, which is testified to present better performance on cold temperature & cycle life plus having a little bit swelling compared with the lithium-ion battery using only styrene butadiene rubber as binder.

  8. An improved charging/discharging strategy of lithium batteries considering depreciation cost in day-ahead microgrid scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Jianxue; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries. • A practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to battery management. • The depth of discharge of the battery storage is scheduled more rationally. • The proposed strategy improves the cost efficiency of lithium batteries in MGs. - Abstract: An energy storage system is critical for the safe and stable operation of a microgrid (MG) and has a promising prospect in future power system. Economical and safe operation of storage system is of great significance to MGs. This paper presents an improved management strategy for lithium battery storage by establishing a battery depreciation cost model and employing a practical charging/discharging strategy. Firstly, experimental data of lithium battery cycle lives, which are functions of the depth of discharge, are investigated and synthesized. A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries from the perspective of cycle life. Secondly, a practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to the lithium battery management in MGs. Then, an optimal scheduling model is developed to minimize MG operational cost including battery depreciation cost. Finally, numerical tests are conducted on a typical grid-connected MG. Results show that the depth of discharge of storage is scheduled more rationally, and operational cost is simultaneously saved for MG under the proposed management strategy. This study helps to improve the cost efficiency and alleviate the aging process for lithium batteries.

  9. Lithium-Ion Battery Management System: A Lifecycle Evaluation Model for the Use in the Development of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisodia Ayush

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Lithium-ion batteries in the automobile sector has expanded drastically in the recent years. The foreseen increment of lithium to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles has provoked specialists to analyze the long term credibility of lithium as a transportation asset. To give a better picture of future accessibility, this paper exhibits a life cycle model for the key procedures and materials associated with the electric vehicle lithium-ion battery life cycle, on a worldwide scale. This model tracks the flow of lithium and energy sources from extraction, to generation, to on road utilization, and the role of reusing and scrapping. This life cycle evaluation model is the initial phase in building up an examination model for the lithium ion battery production that would enable the policymakers to survey the future importance of lithium battery recycling, and when in time setting up a reusing foundation be made necessary.

  10. Power capability evaluation for lithium iron phosphate batteries based on multi-parameter constraints estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.

  11. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  12. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage.

  13. Optimization of Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Julien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the literature on recent progress in lithium-ion batteries, with the active sub-micron-sized particles of the positive electrode chosen in the family of lamellar compounds LiMO2, where M stands for a mixture of Ni, Mn, Co elements, and in the family of yLi2MnO3•(1 − yLiNi½Mn½O2 layered-layered integrated materials. The structural, physical, and chemical properties of these cathode elements are reported and discussed as a function of all the synthesis parameters, which include the choice of the precursors and of the chelating agent, and as a function of the relative concentrations of the M cations and composition y. Their electrochemical properties are also reported and discussed to determine the optimum compositions in order to obtain the best electrochemical performance while maintaining the structural integrity of the electrode lattice during cycling.

  14. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  15. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  16. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO 2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO 2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cathode refunctionalization as a lithium ion battery recycling alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew J.; Landi, Brian J.; Babbitt, Callie W.; Anctil, Annick; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2014-06-01

    An approach to battery end-of-life (EOL) management is developed involving cathode refunctionalization, which enables remanufacturing of the cathode from EOL materials to regain the electrochemical performance. To date, the optimal end-of-life management of cathode materials is based on economic value and environmental impact which can influence the methods and stage of recycling. Traditional recycling methods can recover high value metal elements (e.g. Li, Co, Ni), but still require synthesis of new cathode from a mix of virgin and recovered materials. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) has been selected for study as a representative cathode material due to recent mass adoption and limited economic recycling drivers due to the low inherent cost of iron. Refunctionalization of EOL LiFePO4 cathode was demonstrated through electrochemical and chemical lithiation methods where the re-lithiated LiFePO4 regained the original capacity of 150-155 mAh g-1. The environmental impact of the new recycling technique was determined by comparing the embodied energy of cathode material originating from virgin, recycled, and refunctionalized materials. The results demonstrate that the LiFePO4 refunctionalization process, through chemical lithiation, decreases the embodied energy by 50% compared to cathode production from virgin materials.

  18. Polyethylene oxide film coating enhances lithium cycling efficiency of an anode-free lithium-metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegie, Addisu Alemayehu; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Kuo, Li-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-03-29

    The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3. More importantly, the PEO film coating promoted the formation of a thin and robust SEI layer film by hosting lithium and regulating the inevitable reaction of lithium with the electrolyte. The modified electrode exhibited stable cycling of lithium with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼100% over 200 cycles and low voltage hysteresis (∼30 mV) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. Moreover, we tested the anode-free battery experimentally by integrating it with an LiFePO4 cathode into a full-cell configuration (Cu@PEO/LiFePO4). The new cell demonstrated stable cycling with an average coulombic efficiency of 98.6% and capacity retention of 30% in the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C. These impressive enhancements in cycle life and capacity retention result from the synergy of the PEO film coating, high electrode-electrolyte interface compatibility, stable polar oligomer formation from the reduction of 1,3-dioxolane and the generation of SEI-stabilizing nitrite and nitride upon lithium nitrate reduction. Our result opens up a new route to realize anode-free batteries by modifying the copper anode with PEO to achieve ever more demanding yet safe interfacial chemistry and control of dendrite formation.

  19. Superior lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); National Key Laboratory of Power Sources, Tianjin Institute of Power Sources, Tianjin 300381 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Minsi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Dong, Lei; Xiong, Dongbin [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers showed much enhanced lithium storage performance. • Kinetics process of electrospinning V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers was studied by means of EIS for the first time. • Strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode were concluded. - Abstract: The hierarchical V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers cathode materials with diameter of 200–400 nm are successfully synthesized via an electrospinning followed by annealing. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of phase-pure product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obviously display the hierarchical porous nanofibers constructed by attached tiny vanadium oxide nanoplates. Electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared product is systematically studied using galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It turns out that in comparison to the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other unique nanostructured materials in the literature, our V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers show much enhanced lithium storage capacity, improved cyclic stability, and higher rate capability. After 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1}, the specific capacity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers retain 133.9 mAh g{sup −1}, corresponding to high capacity retention of 96.05%. More importantly, the EIS at various discharge depths clearly reveal the kinetics process of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode reaction with lithium. Based on our results, the possible approach to improve the specific capacity and rate capability of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode material is proposed. It is expected that this study could accelerate the development of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  20. On the reliability of thionyl chloride/lithium batteries. [Li/SOCl sub 2 -battery]. Ueber die Zuverlaessigkeit der Thionylchlorid-Lithium-Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenescu, T.I.

    1991-10-10

    Lithium batteries must be mentioned as the most sophisticated system for back-up functions, whose great advantage is the very low, self-discharge, ie: the stored energy is only consumed by the battery to a very small extent and is largely available for use. The normal working temperature is between -55 and +75deg C. Higher working temperatures are possible if one accepts a shorter service life, as the self-discharge rises more than proportionally. Some ideas are given on possible causes of failure, reliability tests, a complete qualification test, design test and final inspection. A specific failure definition, the concept of 'total quality' and non-destructive test methods are proposed in order to be able to check the reliability of the thionyl chloride/lithium battery in a better way. (orig./MM).