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Sample records for lithium 6

  1. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  2. Structure and reactivity of lithium amides. /sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies and colligative measurements of lithium diphenylamide and lithium diphenylamide-lithium bromide complex solvated by tetrahydrofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePue, J.S.; Collum, D.B.

    1988-08-03

    /sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diphenylamide in THF/hydrocarbon solutions (THF = tetrahydrofuran) detected two different species. /sup 6/Li and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of (/sup 6/Li, /sup 15/N)lithium diphenylamide showed the species observed at low THF concentrations to be a cyclic oligomer. Structural analogies provided strong support for a dimer while colligative measurements at 0/degrees/C indicated the dimer to be di- or trisolvated. On the basis of the observed mass action effects, the species appearing at intermediate THF concentrations is assigned as a contact or solvent-separated ion-paired monomer. Lithium diphenylamide forms a 1:1 adduct with lithium bromide at low THF concentrations. A combination of /sup 6/Li-/sup 15/N double labeling studies and colligative measurements supports a trisolvated cyclic mixed dimer structure. Although detailed spectroscopic studies at elevated THF concentrations were precluded by high fluctionality, the similarity of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts of lithium diphenylamide in the presence and absence of lithium bromide provide indirect evidence that the mixed dimer undergoes a THF concentration dependent dissociation to the monomeric amide and free lithium bromide. 24 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Rasid, A.; Wagiran, H.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass system with empirical formula (70–x) B 2 O 3 –30 Li 2 O–(x) Dy 2 O 3 (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 mol%) were prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The dosimetric measurements were performed by irradiating the samples to 6 MV photon beam using linear accelerator (LINAC) over a dose range of 0.5–5.0 Gy. The glass series of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass produced the best thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve with the highest intensity peak from sample with 1.0 mol% Dy 2 O 3 concentration. Minimum detectable dose was detected at 2.24 mGy, good linearity of regression coefficient, high reproducibility and high sensitivity compared to the undoped glass are from 1.0 mol% dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. The results indicated that the series of dysprosium doped lithium glasses have a great potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). - Highlights: • TL response of undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass subjected to 6 MV photons irradiation at low dose range. • TL linear response of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. • The sensitivity of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass is approximately 93 times higher than undoped glass

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photoluminescence of a lithium isothiocyanate compound with 18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shan; Fu, Bo; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Xi [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). Chongqing Key Lab. of Inorganic Functional Materials

    2018-04-01

    The investigation of the supramolecular interactions between the lithium isothiocyanate salt and 18-crown-6 (18C-6) in commercial tetrahydrofuran leads to the formation of a lithium compound, LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) (1). In the crystal structure the asymmetric unit contains two similar LiNCS(H{sub 2}O)(18C-6) molecules. Solid-state photoluminescence experiments have shown that compound 1 emits violet luminescence, and its possible emission mechanism was investigated in detail based on theoretical calculations.

  5. Investigation of the mechanism of interaction of Lithium 6 ions on Beryllium 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Mireille

    1962-01-01

    The objective of this research on the interaction of Lithium 6 and Beryllium 9 ions is to obtain new indications on the mode of interaction of these heavy ions, and on the configuration of target nuclei and projectile nuclei. In a first part, the author presents and describes the experimental conditions which comprise a Van de Graaff accelerator, a source, a stripper, and a target. He reports the study of α particles emitted by the reaction between the Lithium and Beryllium ions: description of the experimental installation (irradiation chamber and method), presentation and interpretation of experimental results. In the next part, he reports the study of Lithium 7 and Beryllium 10 nuclides emitted by disintegration of Beryllium 11: description of experimental conditions, variations of cross sections, variation of the cross section rate, and interpretation. The author then addresses the study of the intervention of the mode of interaction by 15 N compound nucleus in the reactions between lithium and beryllium ions: study of intensities of the different spectrum lines, measurement of the Doppler effect produced of the 479 keV line, interpretation of results. In conclusion, the author analyses the mechanism of interaction between lithium and beryllium ions, and discusses different theories: the Newns and Glendenning theories, and the Leigh theory

  6. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rasid, A.; Wagiran, H.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ali, H.

    2015-07-01

    Undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass system with empirical formula (70-x) B2O3-30 Li2O-(x) Dy2O3 (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 mol%) were prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The dosimetric measurements were performed by irradiating the samples to 6 MV photon beam using linear accelerator (LINAC) over a dose range of 0.5-5.0 Gy. The glass series of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass produced the best thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve with the highest intensity peak from sample with 1.0 mol% Dy2O3 concentration. Minimum detectable dose was detected at 2.24 mGy, good linearity of regression coefficient, high reproducibility and high sensitivity compared to the undoped glass are from 1.0 mol% dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. The results indicated that the series of dysprosium doped lithium glasses have a great potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD).

  7. On the possibility of using lithium-6 deuteride, irradiated with gas discharge plasma in a target with polarized nuclei of deuterium and lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, E.I.; Bubnov, N.N.; Solodovnikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A target with polarized nuclei made on the basis of irradiated lithium-6 deuteride is of great interest for carrying out investigations in elementary particle physics. Up to now high-energy electrons have been used for generation of F-centers in 6 LiD. It is shown that one can, in principle, use ultraviolet irradiation and gas discharge plasma for generation of F-centers in 6 LiD. Both types of irradiation cause electron paramagnetic resonance signals from conductance electrons of lithium and form F-centers in 6 LiD. It seems possible to obtain the necessary samples by exposing 6 LiD to the gas discharge plasma. 9 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Study of cerium diffusion in undoped lithium-6 enriched glass with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Moore, Michael E.; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lukosi, Eric D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, Jason P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Undoped lithium-6 enriched glasses coated with pure cerium (99.9%) with a gold protection layer on top were heated at three different temperatures (500, 550, and 600 °C) for varied durations (1, 2, and 4 h). Diffusion profiles of cerium in such glasses were obtained with the conventional Rutherford backscattering technique. Through fitting the diffusion profiles with the thin-film solution of Fick’s second law, diffusion coefficients of cerium with different annealing temperatures and durations were solved. Then, the activation energy of cerium for the diffusion process in the studied glasses was found to be 114 kJ/mol with the Arrhenius equation.

  9. Study of cerium diffusion in undoped lithium-6 enriched glass with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Moore, Michael E.; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lukosi, Eric D.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Undoped lithium-6 enriched glasses coated with pure cerium (99.9%) with a gold protection layer on top were heated at three different temperatures (500, 550, and 600 °C) for varied durations (1, 2, and 4 h). Diffusion profiles of cerium in such glasses were obtained with the conventional Rutherford backscattering technique. Through fitting the diffusion profiles with the thin-film solution of Fick's second law, diffusion coefficients of cerium with different annealing temperatures and durations were solved. Then, the activation energy of cerium for the diffusion process in the studied glasses was found to be 114 kJ/mol with the Arrhenius equation.

  10. Versatile Coating of Lithium Conductive Li2TiF6 on Over-lithiated Layered Oxide in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchang; Benayard, Anass; Park, Jin-Hwan; Park, Junho; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Mun, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 2 TiF 6 coating was designed to grow surface lithium conductivity and stability. • We conducted an easy and versatile Li 2 TiF 6 lithium conductive coating on cathode. • The coating was performed very simply by ambient-temperature co-precipitation. • After the coating, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability improved. - Abstract: We demonstrate an easy and versatile approach to modify a cathode-surface with a highly lithium–ion conductive layer by coating it with Li 2 TiF 6 . The thin and homogeneous Li 2 TiF 6 coating is introduced onto an over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO, namely Li 1.17 Ni 0.17 Co 0.1 Mn 0.56 O 2 ) surface via simple co-precipitation at ambient temperature by using Li 2 CO 3 and H 2 TiF 6 aqueous solutions. The lithium–conductive fluoride coating is expected to effectively suppress the undesired electrochemical and thermal interfacial reactions involving the OLO, which is critical in improving cycle performance and thermal stability. After Li 2 TiF 6 surface modification, the coated OLO materials showed high rate capability as well as long cyclability and improved thermal stability. The crystalline structure and surface microstructure of the prepared OLOs were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultimately, the performances of the assembled lithium ion batteries were thoroughly investigated by electrochemical methods and thermal analysis

  11. The interstellar lithium abundance and the 7Li/6Li ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet, R.; Dennefeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    The λ 6708 doublet of interstellar Li I has been observed at high spectral resolution (3.km s -1 ) and very good signal to noise ratio (∼ 4000) towards δ Sco and ζ Oph. Using a profile fitting method, we derive for the first time outside the solar system a 7 Li/ 6 Li ratio of 38 for a diffuse cloud in front of ζ Oph. Even the lower limit of the error bar is incompatible with the ratio measured in meteorites and is not explained by recent models of galactic evolution. The existence of a local inhomogeneity is suggested. Finally, as for other alkalis, lithium is depleted on to dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium [fr

  12. The charge form factor and quadrupole moment of lithium-6 and -7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, K.; Susila, S.; Sridhar, R.

    1980-01-01

    The cluster model wave functions for lithium-6 and -7 are constructed from a two oscillator shell model wave function assuming the nucleons belonging to the clusters to be in the 1s- and 1p-shells, respectively. After first finding the range of values of the parameters in the wave function for which acceptable values of the r.m.s. radius are obtained, the range is considerably refined by a study of the form factors of these cluster nuclei. A deformation parameter is introduced in the wave functions, to get a non-spherical charge density. This parameter is uniquely fixed by the quadrupole moment for the nucleus. The model wave functions are considered to be the desirable ones for the study of cluster-knock-out reactions. (author)

  13. Bis[2,6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridine-κN1]{[6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridin-2-yl-κN1](trimethylsilylazanido-κN}lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Rave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Li(C11H22N3Si2(C11H23N3Si22], contains a single lithium cation coordinated to three ligands. This is the first reported example of the ligand 2,6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridine supporting a monometallic complex. One ligand is mono-anionic and forms a four-membered chelate ring with the lithium cation via the pyridine and silylamido N atoms. The other two ligands are neutral and bind via the pyridine nitrogen. The lithium cation is coordinated in a tetrahedral environment. No intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure, likely indicating that weak electrostatic interactions are the dominant feature of the crystal packing.

  14. NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Qiao; Cao, Liyun; Kong, Xingang; Xu, Zhanwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Jiayin; Cheng, Yayi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet was achieved by a simple one-step hydrothermal method. • NaLaTi_2O_6 was reported for the first time as an anode material. • NaLaTi_2O_6 shown a high discharge capacity of about 180 mAh/g at 100 mA/g. - Abstract: NaLaTi_2O_6 nanosheet was achieved by one-step hydrothermal method and was reported for the first time as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The phase structure and morphology analysis reveals that pure pervoskite NaLaTi_2O_6 possesses nanosheet morphology with thickness of about 20 nm and length of several hundred nanometers. The electrochemical performances demonstrate that NaLaTi_2O_6 has a good lithium ion insertion/extraction ability with a discharge capacity of about 180 mAh/g, which is slightly larger than Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 theoretical capacity (175 mAh/g). Even more, after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at 100 mA/g, it still maintains a discharge capacity of 165 mAh/g, suggesting that NaLaTi_2O_6 could be explored as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  15. Deuterium and lithium-6 MAS NMR studies of manganese oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Younkee

    Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used world wide as the cathode materials in both lithium and alkaline primary (non-rechargeable) batteries. We have developed deuterium and lithium MAS NMR techniques to study EMD and related manganese oxides and hydroxides, where diffraction techniques are of limited value due to a highly defective nature of the structures. Deuterons in EMD, manganite, groutite, and deuterium-intercalated pyrolusite and ramsdellite were detected by NMR, for the first time, and their locations and motions in the structures were analyzed by applying variable temperature NMR techniques. Discharge mechanisms of EMD in alkaline (aqueous) electrolytes were studied, in conjunction with step potential electrochemical spectroscopic (SPECS) method, and five distinctive discharge processes were proposed. EMD is usually heat-treated at about 300--400°C to remove water to be used in lithium batteries. Details of the effects of heat-treatment, such as structural and compositional changes as a function of heat-treatment temperature, were studied by a combination of MAS NMR, XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis. Lithium local environments in heat-treated EMD (HEMD) that were discharged in lithium cells, were described in terms of related environments found in model compounds pyrolusite and ramsdellite where specific Li + sites were detected by MAS NMR and the hyperfine shift scale method of Grey et al. Acid-leaching of Li2MnO3 represents an approach for synthesizing new or modified manganese oxide electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. Progressive removal of lithium from specific crystallographic sites, followed by a gradual change of the crystal structure, was monitored by a combination of NMR and XRD techniques.

  16. Lithium ion diffusion measurements on a garnet-type solid conductor Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 by using a pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Matsui, Masaki; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The garnet-type solid conductor Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 is known to have high ionic conductivity. We synthesized a series of compositions of this conductor and found that cubic Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 (LLZO-Ta) has a high ionic conductivity of 3.7×10(-4)Scm(-1) at room temperature. The (7)Li NMR spectrum of LLZO-Ta was composed of narrow and broad components, and the linewidth of the narrow component varied from 0.69kHz (300K) to 0.32kHz (400K). We carried out lithium ion diffusion measurements using pulsed-field spin-echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy and found that echo signals were observed at T≥313K with reasonable sensitivity. The lithium diffusion behavior was measured by varying the observation time and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) strength between 313 and 384K. We found that lithium diffusion depended significantly on the observation time and strength of the PFG, which is quite different from lithium ion diffusion in liquids. It was shown that lithium ion migration in the solid conductor was distributed widely in both time and space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 6Li MAS NMR Study of Lithium Insertion into Hydrothermally Prepared Li-Ti-O Spinel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtil, Petr; Dědeček, Jiří; Kostlánová, Tereza; Brus, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2004), A163-A166 ISSN 1099-0062 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0823 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lithium insertion * spinel * NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.271, year: 2004

  18. Guided Lithium Metal Deposition and Improved Lithium Coulombic Efficiency through Synergistic Effects of LiAsF 6 and Cyclic Carbonate Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaodi [Energy; Zhang, Yaohui [Energy; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental; Li, Qiuyan [Energy; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy; Xu, Wu [Energy

    2017-11-20

    Spatial and morphology control over lithium (Li) metal nucleation/growth, as well as improving Li Coulombic efficiency (CE) are of the most challenging issues for rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report that LiAsF6 and vinylene carbonate (VC) can work synergistically to address these challenges. It is revealed that AsF6- can be reduced to Li3As and LiF, which can act as seeds for Li growth and form a robust solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, respectively. The addition of VC is critical because it not only enables uniform AsF6- reduction by passivating the defect sites on Cu substrate, but also improves the SEI layer flexibility during the reductive polymerization process. As a result, highly compact, uniform and dendrite-free Li film with vertically aligned columns structure can be obtained with greatly increased Li CE, and the Li metal batteries using the electrolyte with both LiAsF6 and VC additives can have much improved cycle life.

  19. Improved the lithium storage capability of BaLi2Ti6O14 by electroless silver coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xiaoting; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Yu, Haoxiang; Qian, Shangshu; Shui, Miao; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Shu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag is fabricated via a facile electroless deposition. • Highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles are successively coated on BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 . • BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag is used as anode material for lithium storage. • BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag exhibits improved lithium storage capability. - Abstract: To form BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag, highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles are successfully deposited on the surface of BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 by a simple chemical deposition method. The morphology, quantity and size of Ag nanoparticles in BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag composites are significantly influenced by the Ag coating contents. Electrochemical results show that Ag nanoparticles play a positive role in reducing redox polarization and improving electrical conductivity of BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 during lithiation/delithiation processes. Among all the as-obtained products, 6 wt.% Ag coated BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 shows the highest initial charge specific capacity of 160 mAh g −1 at the current density of 100 mA g −1 (1C), which is much higher than the 149.1 mAh g −1 for bare BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 . After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the reversible capacity can be maintained at 117.0 mAh g −1 . Moreover, this sample also shows excellent rate performance with high reversible charge capacities of 147.5, 139.7, 132.6, and 126.7 mAh g −1 at the rates of 2C, 3C, 4C and 5C, respectively. Compared with bare BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 , the superior electrochemical performance indicates that BaLi 2 Ti 6 O 14 /Ag can be a good anode material in lithium ion batteries.

  20. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M

    2007-09-15

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  1. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M

    2007-09-15

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  2. Study on a prototype and by simulation of an antineutrino detector based on a lithium 6 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Boubker, S.

    1989-01-01

    A detector based on Lithium-6 loaded liquid scintillator has been developed by the BUGEY collaboration in order to study neutrino's fundamental properties. This thesis reports on a study concerning a prototype cell of size 85x8.5x8.5 cm 3 , of the discrimination properties between neutrons and gammas and thermal neutron identification. Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to precise the light collection features in the cell. The last part of this memorandum deals with a cosmic detector presenting 2.5 m 2 active surface. We have obtained for this detector a very good homogenization of light response [fr

  3. Response distributions of 6LiF and 7LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters in lithium blanket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Kusano, Jyo-ichi; Seki, Yasushi

    1976-11-01

    Measurement of the radiation-heating rate distribution in the fusion blanket is as important as measurement of the fission-rate distribution in a fission reactor. To obtain the information of radiation heating, the response (integral glow value) distributions in pseudo-spherical lithium assemblies with and without a graphite reflector were measured with 6 LiF and 7 LiF TLD's. The measured responses are normalized to values per source neutron. Experimental error is about 35%, and the error in positions of TLD's is about +- 3 mm. The experimental results are compared with those of calculation using RADHEAT code system and ENDF/B-III data file. (auth.)

  4. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, M.

    2007-09-01

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between 6 Li and 7 Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  5. Stability of Routine Biochemical Analytes in Whole Blood and Plasma From Lithium Heparin Gel Tubes During 6-hr Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, Denis; Godmer, Alexandre; Le Guen, Ronan; Bravetti, Clotilde; Emeraud, Cecile; Marteau, Anthony; Alkouri, Rana; Mestari, Fouzi; Dever, Sylvie; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The stability of biochemical analytes has already been investigated, but results strongly differ depending on parameters, methodologies, and sample storage times. We investigated the stability for many biochemical parameters after different storage times of both whole blood and plasma, in order to define acceptable pre- and postcentrifugation delays in hospital laboratories. Twenty-four analytes were measured (Modular® Roche analyzer) in plasma obtained from blood collected into lithium heparin gel tubes, after 2-6 hr of storage at room temperature either before (n = 28: stability in whole blood) or after (n = 21: stability in plasma) centrifugation. Variations in concentrations were expressed as mean bias from baseline, using the analytical change limit (ACL%) or the reference change value (RCV%) as acceptance limit. In tubes stored before centrifugation, mean plasma concentrations significantly decreased after 3 hr for phosphorus (-6.1% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.7%]; ACL 4.62%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; -5.7% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.1%]; ACL 5.17%), and slightly decreased after 6 hr for potassium (-2.9% [95% CI: -5.3 to -0.5%]; ACL 4.13%). In plasma stored after centrifugation, mean concentrations decreased after 6 hr for bicarbonates (-19.7% [95% CI: -22.9 to -16.5%]; ACL 15.4%), and moderately increased after 4 hr for LDH (+6.0% [95% CI: +4.3 to +7.6%]; ACL 5.17%). Based on RCV, all the analytes can be considered stable up to 6 hr, whether before or after centrifugation. This study proposes acceptable delays for most biochemical tests on lithium heparin gel tubes arriving at the laboratory or needing to be reanalyzed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion diffusion in Li4FeSbO6 studied by first principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mingzhen; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Hui; Chen, Yuanzheng; Guo, Chunsheng; Gan, Liyong

    2017-10-01

    Due to the high capacity, Li-rich materials Li2MO3 (M = transition metal) have attracted considerable attention as the next generation of Li-ion batteries. Li4FeSbO6 is a new Li-rich layered oxide material with antiferromagnet honeycomb structure. In this work, the electrochemical behavior, charging process and oxygen stability of LixFeSbO6 (0 ≤ xextracted, the charge compensation is mainly contributed by the oxygen atoms through analyzing the Bader charges of each element. In addition, oxygen evolution reactions will occur in LixFeSbO6 (x ≤ 1.5), which will decay the capacities during cycling process. Finally, we calculated that the lithium ion can diffuse in a three-dimensional pathway with the activation barriers from 0.36 eV to 0.67 eV.

  7. Destabilization of the 6H-SrIrO3 polymorph through partial substitution of zinc and lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Martin; K. Kim, Cindi; Hirai, Daigo

    2012-01-01

    We report on the destabilization of the 6H-SrIrO3 polymorph through partial substitutions of zinc and lithium for iridium to form perovskites. The perovskites crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbnm: SrIr1−xZnxO3 is found for 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.33, while SrIr1−xLixO3 is found only for x = 0...... show Curie–Weiss behavior, with relatively large temperature independent contributions, and that the iridium atoms have low effective moments, 0.52 to 1.08 μB per Ir. The resistivity of SrIr0.67Zn0.33O3, characterized by Mott variable range hopping type semiconducting behavior, indicates...

  8. Much improved capacity and cycling performance of LiVMoO6 cathode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liqun; Liang Yongguang; Hu Ling; Han Xiaoyan; Yi Zonghui; Sun Jutang; Yang Shuijin

    2008-01-01

    Spherical LiVMoO 6 nanocrystals as cathode for lithium ion batteries were synthesized using a solvothermal reaction method. Powder XRD data indicate that a single phase LiVMoO 6 with brannerite-type structure is obtained at 550 deg. C by the thermal treatment of the precursor for 6 h. SEM image shows that the particles are composed of loosely stacked spheres with a uniform particle size about 40 nm. The electrode properties of LiVMoO 6 have also been studied by galvanostatic cycling and ac impedance spectroscopy. LiVMoO 6 nanospheres delivered 172 mAh g -1 capacity in the initial discharge process with a reversible capacity retention of 94.4% after 100 cycles in the range of 3.6-1.80 V versus metallic Li at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . The microstructure developed in the electrodes give evidence that the particle size and morphological properties play an important role in the much improved capacity and cycling stability at large currents than ordinary samples

  9. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Fe-doped V6O13 as Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped V6O13 was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method after preparing precursor in order to improve the discharge capacity and cycle performance of V6O13 cathode material at high-lithium state. XRD, SEM and XPS were employed to characterize the phase, morphology and valence of the Fe-doped V6O13. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance was analyzed and researched. Different morphologies and electrochemical performances of Fe-doped V6O13 were obtained via doping different contents of Fe3+ ion. The sample 0.02 presented the largest thickness of nanosheets (the thickness of 600-900nm and clearance between layers. The Fe-doped V6O13 has a better electrochemical performance than that of pure V6O13. The sample 0.02 exhibits the best electrochemical performance, the initial discharge specific capacity is 433mAh·g-1 and the capacity retention is 47.1% after 100 cycles.

  10. Application of C_6_0, C_7_2 and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    The application of C_6_0, C_7_2, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V_c_e_l_l) and adsorption energy (E_a_d) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH_2 functionalized C_7_2 and CNT (10, 0) have larger V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C_6_0 and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca. • NH_2 functionalization of C_6_0 improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Evaluating cis-2,6-Dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) as a Base Component in Lithium-Mediated Zincation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David R; Garden, Jennifer A; Kennedy, Alan R; Leenhouts, Sarah M; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Keefe, Philip; O'Hara, Charles T; Steven, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Most recent advances in metallation chemistry have centred on the bulky secondary amide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (TMP) within mixed metal, often ate, compositions. However, the precursor amine TMP(H) is rather expensive so a cheaper substitute would be welcome. Thus this study was aimed towards developing cheaper non-TMP based mixed-metal bases and, as cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidide (cis-DMP) was chosen as the alternative amide, developing cis-DMP zincate chemistry which has received meagre attention compared to that of its methyl-rich counterpart TMP. A new lithium diethylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] (TMEDA=N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been synthesised by co-complexation of Li(cis-DMP), Et2Zn and TMEDA, and characterised by NMR (including DOSY) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, which revealed a dinuclear contact ion pair arrangement. By using N,N-diisopropylbenzamide as a test aromatic substrate, the deprotonative reactivity of [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)Et2] has been probed and contrasted with that of the known but previously uninvestigated di-tert-butylzincate, [(TMEDA)LiZn(cis-DMP)tBu2]. The former was found to be the superior base (for example, producing the ortho-deuteriated product in respective yields of 78 % and 48 % following D2O quenching of zincated benzamide intermediates). An 88 % yield of 2-iodo-N,N-diisopropylbenzamide was obtained on reaction of two equivalents of the diethylzincate with the benzamide followed by iodination. Comparisons are also drawn using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazide (HMDS), diisopropylamide and TMP as the amide component in the lithium amide, Et2Zn and TMEDA system. Under certain conditions, the cis-DMP base system was found to give improved results in comparison to HMDS and diisopropylamide (DA), and comparable results to a TMP system. Two novel complexes isolated from reactions of the di-tert-butylzincate and crystallographically characterised, namely the pre-metallation complex [{(iPr)2N

  12. Measurement of the 2H(7Be, 6Li)3He reaction rate and its contribution to the primordial lithium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Er-Tao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yan, Sheng-Quan; Su, Jun; Guo, Bing; Li, Yun-Ju; Wang, You-Bao; Lian, Gang; Zeng, Sheng; Chen, Si-Zhe; Ma, Shao-Bo; Li, Xiang-Qing; He, Cao; Sun, Hui-Bin; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) model, the lithium puzzle has attracted intense interest over the past few decades, but still has not been solved. Conventionally, the approach is to include more reactions flowing into or out of lithium, and study the potential effects of those reactions which were not previously considered. 7Be(d, 3He)6Li is a reaction that not only produces 6Li but also destroys 7Be, which decays to 7Li, thereby affecting 7Li indirectly. Therefore, this reaction could alleviate the lithium discrepancy if its reaction rate is sufficiently high. However, there is not much information available about the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction rate. In this work, the angular distributions of the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction are measured at the center of mass energies E cm = 4.0 MeV and 6.7 MeV with secondary 7Be beams for the first time. The excitation function of the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction is first calculated with the computer code TALYS and then normalized to the experimental data, then its reaction rate is deduced. A SBBN network calculation is performed to investigate its influence on the 6Li and 7Li abundances. The results show that the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction has a minimal effect on 6Li and 7Li because of its small reaction rate. Therefore, the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction is ruled out by this experiment as a means of alleviating the lithium discrepancy. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375269, 11505117, 11490560, 11475264, 11321064), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2015A030310012), 973 program of China (2013CB834406) and National key Research and Development Province (2016YFA0400502)

  13. Role of adenylyl cyclase 6 in the development of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Kristensen, Tina Bøgelund; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2017-01-01

    knockout (AC6(loxloxCre)) mice had approximately 50% lower urine osmolality and doubled water intake under baseline conditions compared with controls. Dietary Li(+) administration increased water intake and reduced urine osmolality in control, AC6(-/-), and AC6(loxloxCre) mice. Consistent with AC6......(-/-) mice, medullary AQP2 and pS256-AQP2 abundances were lower in AC6(loxloxCre) mice compared with controls under standard conditions, and levels were further reduced after Li(+) administration. AC6(loxloxCre) and control mice had a similar increase in the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen......-positive cells in response to Li(+). However, AC6(loxloxCre) mice had a higher number of H(+)-ATPase B1 subunit-positive cells under standard conditions and after Li(+) administration. Collectively, AC6 has a minor role in Li-NDI development but may be important for determining the intercalated cell...

  14. Investigation of the antiprotonic X-ray spectrum of the lithium isotopes 6Li and 7Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigas, R.

    1981-09-01

    Antiprotons of the low-energy separated anti p-beam K 23 at CERN in Geneva have been stopped in thin (0.6 g/cm 2 ) targets of the Lithium isotopes 6 Li and 7 Li. The characteristic X-rays of the formed antiprotonic atoms were measured with four identical high-resolution Si (Li) detectors. Three lines of the N- series, four lines of the M-series and the 3d-2p transition of the Balmer series were observed. The measured relative intensities of the M- and N-series transitions are well described by the simple cascade model of Eisenberg and Kessler. The 3d-2p transition is considerably influenced by the strong interaction between antiproton and nucleus and thus drastically reduced in intensity. The analysis of this transition yields the shift and width of the 2p level, whereas the width of the 3d level is deduced from intensity considerations. (orig./HSI)

  15. Electrodeless, multi-megawatt reactor for room-temperature, lithium-6/deuterium nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a reactor design to facilitate a room-temperature nuclear fusion/fission reaction to generate heat without generating unwanted neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, or other radioactive products. The room-temperature fusion/fission reaction involves the sequential triggering of billions of single-molecule, 6 LiD 'fusion energy pellets' distributed in lattices of a palladium ion accumulator that also acts as a catalyst to produce the molecules of 6 LiD from a solution comprising D 2 O, 6 LiOD with D 2 gas bubbling through it. The D 2 gas is the source of the negative deuterium ions in the 6 LiD molecules. The next step is to trigger a first nuclear fusion/fission reaction of some of the 6 LiD molecules, according to the well-known nuclear reaction: 6 Li + D → 2 4 He + 22.4 MeV. The highly energetic alpha particles ( 4 He nuclei) generated by this nuclear reaction within the palladium will cause shock and vibrations in the palladium lattices, leading to compression of other 6 LiD molecules and thereby triggering a second series of similar fusion/fission reactions, leading to a third series, and so on. The absorption of the kinetic energy in the palladium will, in turn, generate a continuous flow of heat into the heavy water carrier, which would be removed with a heat exchanger. (author)

  16. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  17. A Unique Failure Mechanism in the Nexus 6P Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Saxena; Yinjiao Xing; Michael Pecht

    2018-01-01

    Nexus 6P smartphones have been beset by battery drain issues, which have been causing premature shutdown of the phone even when the charge indicator displays a significant remaining runtime. To investigate the premature battery drain issue, two Nexus 6P smartphones (one new and one used) were disassembled and their batteries were evaluated using computerized tomography (CT) scan analysis, electrical performance (capacity, resistance, and impedance) tests, and cycle life capacity fade tests. T...

  18. The d-α elastic scattering and the lithium-6 in a three-body model with separable interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnomordic, Brigitte.

    1976-01-01

    This work consists in a three-body treatment of the six nucleon system. The model is constructed by considering two identical nucleons and a structureless alpha particle. Such a system can be described by the Faddeev-Lovelace equations. A partial antisymetrization is performed taking into account the identity of the nucleons. Pairwise interacting particles with nonlocal separable forces are introduced. Two-body potentials are chosen in each n-n and n-α partial wave. After an analysis of the existing separable interactions, new n-α and 1S0 parametrization are constructed. The sensitivity to the tensor force and the role of the N-α description are especially studied. The case of d-α elastic scattering is also discussed. The observables: differential cross-section, analyzing powers and transfer polarization coefficients are calculated and compared with experiments. The results show the ability of a three-body model with separable interactions in describing the main properties of the d-α elastic scattering and lithium-6 [fr

  19. SoLid: Search for Oscillations with Lithium-6 Detector at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Buhour, J. M.; Coupé, B.; Cucoanes, A. S.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Fresneau, S.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Guilloux, G.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Moortgat, C.; Pronost, G.; Raes, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Shitov, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2016-04-01

    Sterile neutrinos have been considered as a possible explanation for the recent reactor and Gallium anomalies arising from reanalysis of reactor flux and calibration data of previous neutrino experiments. A way to test this hypothesis is to look for distortions of the anti-neutrino energy caused by oscillation from active to sterile neutrino at close stand-off (˜ 6- 8m) of a compact reactor core. Due to the low rate of anti-neutrino interactions the main challenge in such measurement is to control the high level of gamma rays and neutron background. The SoLid experiment is a proposal to search for active-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillation at very short baseline of the SCK•CEN BR2 research reactor. This experiment uses a novel approach to detect anti-neutrino with a highly segmented detector based on Lithium-6. With the combination of high granularity, high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localization of the Inverse Beta Decay products, a better experimental sensitivity can be achieved compared to other state-of-the-art technology. This compact system requires minimum passive shielding allowing for very close stand off to the reactor. The experimental set up of the SoLid experiment and the BR2 reactor will be presented. The new principle of neutrino detection and the detector design with expected performance will be described. The expected sensitivity to new oscillations of the SoLid detector as well as the first measurements made with the 8 kg prototype detector deployed at the BR2 reactor in 2013-2014 will be reported.

  20. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the Big Ten critical assembly by lithium-6 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leeuw-Gierts, G.; De Leeuw, S.; Hansen, G.E.; Helmick, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The central neutron-flux spectrum of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's critical assembly, Big Ten, was measured with a 6 Li spectrometer and techniques developed at the Centre d'Etude de L'Energie Nucleaire, Mol, as part of an experimental program to establish the characteristics of Big Ten

  1. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the Big Ten critical assembly by lithium-6 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw-Gierts, G. de; Leeuw, S. de

    1980-01-01

    The central neutron-flux spectrum of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's critical assembly, Big Ten, was measured with a 6 Li spectrometer and techniques developed at the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol, as part of an experimental program to establish the characteristics of Big Ten

  2. Novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 platelets: High performance cathode materials for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Wu, Xiaomin; Li, Huan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-02-01

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 is developed via a simple hydrothermal route. It is found that ammonium sodium vanadium bronze displays higher discharge capacity and better rate cyclic stability than ammonium vanadium bronze as lithium-ion battery cathode material because of smaller charge transfer resistance, which would favor superior discharge capacity and rate performance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  4. A Unique Failure Mechanism in the Nexus 6P Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Saxena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nexus 6P smartphones have been beset by battery drain issues, which have been causing premature shutdown of the phone even when the charge indicator displays a significant remaining runtime. To investigate the premature battery drain issue, two Nexus 6P smartphones (one new and one used were disassembled and their batteries were evaluated using computerized tomography (CT scan analysis, electrical performance (capacity, resistance, and impedance tests, and cycle life capacity fade tests. The “used” smartphone battery delivered only 20% of the rated capacity when tested in a first capacity cycle and then 15% of the rated capacity in a second cycle. The new smartphone battery exceeded the rated capacity when first taken out of the box, but exhibited an accelerated capacity fade under C/2 rate cycling and decreased to 10% of its initial capacity in just 50 cycles. The CT scan results revealed the presence of contaminant materials inside the used battery, raising questions about the quality of the manufacturing process.

  5. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  6. Pion inelastic scattering to the first three excited states of lithium-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiziah, R.R.

    1984-10-01

    Using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer system at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility, differential cross sections were measured for π + inelastic scattering to the 3 + , T=0, 2.185-MeV, 0 + , T=1, 3.563-MeV, and 2 + , T=0, 4.25-MeV states of 6 Li at incident pion energies of 120 and 180 MeV and laboratory scattering angles between 15 0 and 47 0 . Excitation functions were measured at a constant momentum transfer of approximately 109 MeV/c for incident pion energies from 100 to 260 MeV. The constant momentum transfer corresponds to the maxima of the angular distributions for π + inelastic scattering to the 3.563-MeV level. Microscopic calculations using the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) agree well with the measured angular distributions and excitation functions for the 2.185- and 4.25-MeV levels. However, microscopic DWIA calculations do not adequately reproduce the measured angular distributions for the 3.563-MeV level and fail to reproduce the observed anomalous excitation function. The shape of the 3.563-MeV excitation function is similar to that previously observed for π +- inelastic scattering to the 1 + , T=1, 15.11-MeV state of 12 C. The same mechanism may be responsible for the observed excitation functions of both ΔS=ΔT=1 transitions. A possible mechanism is the direct excitation of Δ particle-nucleon hole (Δ-h) components in the final state wave functions. Within the Δ-h model interpretation, the peak of the 3.563-MeV excitation function is reproduced with an estimated probability amplitude for the Δ-h component of the 3.563-MeV state with respect to the ground state of 0.01 less than or equal to β less than or equal to 0.13, a range of values of β consistent with the range estimated for the 15.11-MeV level of 12 C (0.026 less than or equal to β less than or equal to 0.096)

  7. Enrichment of lithium isotope .sup.6./sup.Li by ion exchange resin with specific particle size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, J.; Ďurišová, Jana; Jelínek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 1 (2017), s. 13-18 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : lithium * isotope separation * elution chromatography * ion exchange chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  8. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  9. Influence of strontium as additive on corrosive-electrochemical behavior of alloy Al +6% lithium in NaCI electrolyte medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.N.; Norova, M.T.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Nikitin, V.I.; Karieva, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    At various voltages, strontium settles down ahead of hydrogen, and the standard electrode potential equals -2,89B. Thus, in relation to aluminum- lithium an alloy Al-Li (6 % lithium) at electrode potential -1,020B, strontium is the anode. Taking into account anodic properties of strontium as additional and its solubility in aluminum-lithium a firm solution is formed, we have selected the following ratio of concentration of an alloying component, 0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5 (mass %). It has perilously been shown, that potential of free corrosion in time, alloys alloyed by strontium, are exposed a little bit faster passivity, than not alloyed. The similar tendency has been observed in all three investigated medium: with the increase in concentration of strontium, the potential of free corrosion is displaced in positive area. Results potentiodynamic researches of alloys in the medium of electrolyte NaCI of various concentration of chlorines -ions the potential of corrosion is displaced in negative area that testifies to decrease of corrosion stability of allays, with growth of aggression of the corrosion medium. It proves to be true accounting speeds of corrosion of alloys from a catholic branch potentiodynamic curves. (author)

  10. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  11. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  12. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  13. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  14. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  15. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  16. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  17. Hierarchical Mesoporous Lithium-Rich Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Ice Templating for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wu, Chuan; Bai, Ying; Liu, Lu; Wang, Hui; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Na; Zou, Yufeng

    2016-07-27

    Tuning hierarchical micro/nanostructure of electrode materials is a sought-after means to reinforce their electrochemical performance in the energy storage field. Herein, we introduce a type of hierarchical mesoporous Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 microsphere composed of nanoparticles synthesized via an ice templating combined coprecipitation strategy. It is a low-cost, eco-friendly, and easily operated method using ice as a template to control material with homogeneous morphology and rich porous channels. The as-prepared material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, more excellent cycling stability and more superior rate property, compared with the sample prepared by conventional coprecipitation method. It has satisfactory initial discharge capacities of 280.1 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C, 207.1 mAh g(-1) at 2 C, and 152.4 mAh g(-1) at 5 C, as well as good cycle performance. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the stable hierarchical microsized structure and the improved lithium-ion diffusion kinetics from the highly porous structure.

  18. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  19. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  20. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF 6 -Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa [School of; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-15

    The effects Of propylene carbonate (PC) content in CsPF6-containing electrolytes on the performances of graphite electrode in lithium half cells and in graphite parallel to LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells are investigated. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is significantly-affected by PC content in the CsPF6-containing electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the PC solvent and the Cs+ additive. The synergistic effects of Cs+ additive and appropriate amount of PC enable the formation of a robust, ultrathin, and compact solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of graphite electrode, which is only permeable for desolvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it. Therefore, this SEI layer effectively suppresses the PC cointercalation and largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at relatively high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent improves the sustainable operation of graphite parallel to NCA full cells under a wide temperature range. The fundamental findings also shed light On the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in various energy-storage devices.

  1. The tin-rich copper lithium stannides: Li3Cu6Sn4 and Li2CuSn2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Flandorfer, Hans; Effenberger, Herta S.

    2015-01-01

    The Sn rich ternary intermetallic compounds Li 3 Cu 6 Sn 4 (CSD-427097) and Li 2 CuSn 2 (CSD-427098) were synthesized from the pure elements by induction melting and annealing at 400 C. Structural investigations were performed by powder- and single-crystal XRD. Li 3 Cu 6 Sn 4 crystallizes in space group P6/mmm; it is structurally related to but not isotypic with MgFe 6 Ge 6 (a = 5.095(2) Aa, c = 9.524(3) Aa; wR 2 = 0.059; 239 unique F 2 -values, 17 free variables). Li 3 Cu 6 Sn 4 is characterized by two sites with a mixed Cu:Sn occupation. In contrast to all other Cu-Li-Sn compounds known so far, any mixed occupation was found for Cu-Li pairs only. In addition, one Li site is only half occupied. The second Sn rich phase is Li 2 CuSn 2 (space group I4 1 /amd, a = 4.4281(15) Aa, c = 19.416(4) Aa; wR 2 = 0.033; 213 unique F 2 -values, 12 atom free variables); it is the only phase in the Cu-Li-Sn system which is noted for full ordering. Both crystal structures exhibit 3D-networks which host Li atoms in channels. They are important for understanding the lithiation mechanism in Cu-Sn electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

  2. Robust Strategy for Crafting Li5Cr7Ti6O25@CeO2 Composites as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Yi, Ting-Feng; Li, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Chao-Feng

    2017-07-19

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 composites as a high-performance anode material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement results show that the CeO 2 coating does not alter the structure of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 but increases the lattice parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that all samples have similar morphologies with a homogeneous particle distribution in the range of 100-500 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) prove that CeO 2 layer successfully formed a coating layer on a surface of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles and supplied a good conductive connection between the Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles. The electrochemical characterization reveals that Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode shows the highest reversibility of the insertion and deinsertion behavior of Li ion, the smallest electrochemical polarization, the best lithium-ion mobility among all electrodes, and a better electrochemical activity than the pristine one. Therefore, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode indicates the highest delithiation and lithiation capacities at each rate. At 5 C charge-discharge rate, the pristine Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 only delivers an initial delithiation capacity of ∼94.7 mAh g -1 , and the delithiation capacity merely achieves 87.4 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. However, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) delivers an initial delithiation capacity of 107.5 mAh·g -1 , and the delithiation capacity also reaches 100.5 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. The cerium dioxide modification is a direct and efficient approach to improve the delithiation and lithiation capacities and cycle property of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 at large current densities.

  3. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted...... to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. RESULTS: Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non...

  4. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  5. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  6. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  7. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  8. Understanding the thermal instability of fluoroethylene carbonate in LiPF6-based electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koeun; Park, Inbok; Ha, Se-Young; Kim, Yeonkyoung; Woo, Myung-Heuio; Jeong, Myung-Hwan; Shin, Woo Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Hong, Sung You; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The FEC in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes thermally decomposes at elevated temperatures. • Lewis acids in the electrolyte promote de-fluorination of the FEC to form HF. • The HF causes the SEI destruction and severe metal ion dissolution from the cathode. - Abstract: The cycling and storage performances of LiCoO 2 (LCO)-LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 (NCM)/pitch-coated silicon alloy-graphite (Si-C) full cells with ethylene carbonate (EC)–based and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)–based electrolytes are investigated at elevated temperatures. Excess FEC (used as a co-solvent in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes), which is not completely consumed during the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the electrodes, is prone to defluorination in the presence of Lewis acids such as PF 5 ; this reaction can generate unwanted HF and various acids (H 3 OPF 6 , HPO 2 F 2 , H 2 PO 3 F, H 3 PO 4 ) at elevated temperatures. Our investigation reveals that the HF and acid compounds that are formed by FEC decomposition causes significant dissolution of transition metal ions (from the LCO-NCM cathode) into the electrolyte at elevated temperatures; as a result, the reversible capacity of the full cells reduces because of the deposition of the dissolved metal ions onto the anode. Moreover, we demonstrate possible mechanisms that account for the thermal instability of FEC in LiPF 6 -based electrolytes at elevated temperatures using model experiments.

  9. Complex titanates Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (0≤x≤1) as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Peng; Lin, Xiaoting; Wu, Yaoyao; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (0≤x≤1) is prepared by a simple solid state reaction. • Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 exhibits enhanced lithium storage capability. • Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 can deliver a capacity of 141.8 mAh g"−"1 at 700 mA g"−"1. • In-situ XRD is performed to study the reversibility of Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. - Abstract: With the Pb doping content at Sr-site increasing, a series of Sr_1_-_xPb_xLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) are synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction. It is found that the reversible capacity and rate capability experience a parabolic course from SrLi_2Ti_6O_1_4 to PbLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. Among all the as-prepared samples, Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 shows the best cycling and rate properties. It delivers an initial charge capacity of 163.2 mAh g"−"1 at 100 mA g"−"1 with the capacity retention of 96.08% after 100 cycles. In addition, it can also deliver a reversible capacity of 141.8 mAh g"−"1 at 700 mA g"−"1. The superior electrochemical properties of Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 are attributed to the reduced charge transfer resistance and increased lithium-ion diffusion coefficient after doping. Besides, in-situ X-ray diffraction is also performed to investigate the lithium-ion insertion/extraction behaviors of SrLi_2Ti_6O_1_4, Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 and PbLi_2Ti_6O_1_4. The observed results confirm that Sr_0_._5Pb_0_._5Li_2Ti_6O_1_4 has good structural stability and reversibility for repeated lithium storage.

  10. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  11. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6 Li undergoes transmutation by the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7 Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  12. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  13. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  14. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  15. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  16. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  17. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  18. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  19. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid

  20. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  1. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  2. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  3. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  4. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  6. Application of neutron radiography to visualize the distribution of lithium in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Sigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have tried to visualize the motion of lithium ions in lithium ion conductors such as Li 1.33 Ti 1.67 O 4 at high temperatures using neutron radiography (NR) technique and confirmed that NR is very effective to the 6 Li containing systems. This means NR may be used as a non-destructive investigating method to study the electrode reactions and the mass transfer in lithium batteries. Here in this work, it was tried to visualize the distribution of lithium in commercial lithium batteries before and after discharge using NR technique. Obtained NR images will be presented with brief explanation on NR method. Further explanations on the principle of NR and on the NR facilities were presented elsewhere. (J.P.N.)

  7. Electron-stimulated desorption of lithium ions from lithium halide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of positive lithium ions from thin layers of lithium halides deposited onto Si(1 1 1) are investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The determined values of isotope effect of the lithium ( 6 Li + / 7 Li + ) are 1.60 ± 0.04, 1.466 ± 0.007, 1.282 ± 0.004, 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.33 ± 0.01 for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively. The observed most probable kinetic energies of 7 Li + are 1.0, 1.9, 1.1, 0.9 and 0.9 eV for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively, and seem to be independent of the halide component mass. The values of lithium ion emission yield, lithium kinetic energy and lithium isotope effect suggest that the lattice relaxation is only important in the lithium ion desorption process from the LiH system. In view of possible mechanisms and processes involved into lithium ion desorption the obtained results indicate that for LiH, LiCl, LiBr and LiI the ions desorb in a rather classical way. However, for LiF, ion desorption has a more quantum character and the modified wave packet squeezing model has to be taken into account

  8. The structural, microhardness and thermal properties of a semiorganic NLO crystal: Lithium paranitrophenolate trihydrate (NO2-C6H4-OLi.3H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaz, B. Milton; Raman, P. Santhana; Raja, S. Xavier Jesu; Das, S. Jerome

    2005-01-01

    The crystallographic parameters, morphology, microhardness anisotropy and thermal properties including differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of a new nonlinear optical material lithium paranitrophenolate trihydrate (NPLi.3H 2 O) are reported. The single crystals of NPLi.3H 2 O show effective phase matchable second harmonic generation properties for frequency conversion. Optically clear single crystals having dimensions up to 12 mm x 8 mm x 4 mm have been grown successfully within a period of 60 days by isothermal solvent evaporation technique. The title compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group Pa. Microhardness measurement on different planes verifies the hardness anisotropy and thermal studies reveal good thermal stability of the material. The NLO property of the crystal is verified by employing Kurtz powder test. The crystal has a wide range of optical transparency from 400 nm to 1500 nm

  9. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  10. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  11. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  12. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  13. Antagonist targeting microRNA-155 protects against lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxu eCai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155 could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against TLE was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of the LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 Cathode Material Modified by Lithium Tungstate under High Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiale; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Bi, Jiaying; Cui, Hui; Yang, Hao; Wu, Hanfeng; Wu, Feng

    2018-05-31

    An amount (5 wt %) of lithium tungstate (Li 2 WO 4 ) as an additive significantly improves the cycle and rate performances of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 electrode at the cutoff voltage of 4.6 V. The 5 wt % Li 2 WO 4 -mixed LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 199.2 mA h g -1 and keeps 73.1% capacity for 200 cycles at 1 C. It retains 67.4% capacity after 200 cycles at 2 C and delivers a discharge capacity of 167.3 mA h g -1 at 10 C, while those of the pristine electrode are only 44.7% and 87.5 mA h g -1 , respectively. It is shown that the structure of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode material is not affected by mixing Li 2 WO 4 . The introduced Li 2 WO 4 effectively restrains the LiPF 6 and carbonate solvent decomposition by consuming PF 5 at high cutoff voltage, forming a stable cathode/electrolyte interface film with low resistance.

  15. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  16. Growth and characterization of pure and lithium doped strontium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The effect of lithium ion as dopant on the size and transparency of strontium tartrate tetrahydrate. (SrC4H4O6⋅4H2O) crystals are presented in this paper. Growth of single crystals of undoped and lithium doped strontium tartrate tetrahydrate by controlled diffusion of strontium nitrate into the gel charged with.

  17. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  19. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  20. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/sub 11/V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ as high -- capacity cathodes for lithium secondary batteries via a wet chemistry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C.; Binqiang, M.A.; Suhong, L.U.

    2009-01-01

    The cathode material of Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ has been synthesized for the lithium secondary batteries via the wet-chemistry method. The as-prepared powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA) The electrochemical performances were evaluated by the galvanostatic discharge-charge and cyclic voltammetry technique. These results revealed that Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/O/sub 26/ powder could be formed at a temperature as low as 300 degree C, and its particle size was smaller and distributed in a narrower range compared to the other powders synthesized at 400 degree C and 500 degree C. The initial discharge capacity of the powder synthesized at 300 degree C whose D/sub 50/ was only 24.251 macro m was 318.2 mAh/g. It was also found that a severe structure modification of Cu/sub 11/ V/sub 6/ O/sub 26/ powder might take place after the first cycle according to cyclic voltammetry test, which should be responsible for its irreversible capacity. (author)

  2. Isotope analysis of lithium by thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, M.H.; Sarkis, J.E.S.

    1991-04-01

    An analytical mass spectrometric method for the isotope analysis of lithium has been studied. The analysis were carried out by using a single focusing thermoionic mass spectrometer Varian Mat TH5 with 90 sup(0) magnetic sector field and 21.4 cm deflection radius, equipped with a dual Re-filament thermal ionization ion source. The effect of different lithium chemical forms, such as, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and sulfate upon the isotopic ratios sup(6)Li/ sup(7)Li has been studied. Isotopic fractionation of lithium was studied in terms of the time of analysis. The results obtained with lithium carbonate yielded a precision of ±0.1% and an accuracy of ± 0.6%, whereas with other chemical forms yielded precisions of ±0.5% and accuracies of ±2%. A fractionation correction factor, K=1.005, was obtained for different samples of lithium carbonate isotopic standard CBNM IRM 016, which has been considered constant. (author)

  3. Scalable and template-free synthesis of nanostructured Na{sub 1.08}V{sub 6}O{sub 15} as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Shili, E-mail: slzheng@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Xinran; Yan, Hong [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing (China); Du, Hao; Zhang, Yi [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured Na{sub 1.08}V{sub 6}O{sub 15} was synthesized through additive-free sol-gel process. • Prepared Na{sub 1.08}V{sub 6}O{sub 15} demonstrated high capacity and sufficient cycling stability. • The reaction temperature was optimized to allow scalable Na{sub 1.08}V{sub 6}O{sub 15} fabrication. - Abstract: Developing high-capacity cathode material with feasibility and scalability is still challenging for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, a high-capacity ternary sodium vanadate compound, nanostructured NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15}, was template-free synthesized through sol-gel process with high producing efficiency. The as-prepared sample was systematically post-treated at different temperature and the post-annealing temperature was found to determine the cycling stability and capacity of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15}. The well-crystallized one exhibited good electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 302 mAh g{sup −1} when cycled at current density of 0.03 mA g{sup −1}. Its relatively long-term cycling stability was characterized by the cell performance under the current density of 1 A g{sup −1}, delivering a reversible capacity of 118 mAh g{sup −1} after 300 cycles with 79% capacity retention and nearly 100% coulombic efficiency: all demonstrating its significant promise of proposed strategy for large-scale synthesis of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} as cathode with high-capacity and high energy density for LIBs.

  4. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  5. Lithium adsorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxides and gibbsite

    OpenAIRE

    Prodromou, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium (Li) adsorption on both amorphous aluminum hydroxides and gibbsite was studied. For the amorphous Al(OH)3 the adsorption was found to be pH dependent. Generally, 1.6 times more Li was adsorbed at initial pH value 8.0 compared with pH value 6.50. Gibbsite adsorbed 11.6 to 45.5 times less Li quantities compared with amorphous Al(OH)3. Lithium adsorption was not depended on equilibrium times. It remained stable for all equilibrium times used. Lithium quantities extracted with 1N CH3COONH...

  6. Kinetics Tuning the Electrochemistry of Lithium Dendrites Formation in Lithium Batteries through Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ran; Bi, Xuanxuan; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Li, Shu; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Lithium batteries are one of the most advance energy storage devices in the world and have attracted extensive research interests. However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. In this paper, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li"+ salts, LiPF_6, LiAsF_6, LiBF_4 and LiClO_4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. The kinetic parameters of charge transfer step (exchange current density, j_0, transfer coefficient, α) of Li"+/Li redox system, the mass transfer parameters of Li"+ (transfer number of Li"+, t_L_i_+, diffusion coefficient of Li"+, D_L_i_+), and the conductivity (κ) of each electrolyte were studied separately. The results demonstrate that the solvents play a critical role in the measured j_0, t_L_i_+, D_L_i_+, and κ of the electrolyte, while the choice of Li"+ salts only slightly affect the measured parameters. Finally, the understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal.

  7. 3D Interconnected V6O13 Nanosheets Grown on Carbonized Textile via a Seed-Assisted Hydrothermal Process as High-Performance Flexible Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixing; Cen, Dingcheng; Gao, Peibo; Tang, Huang; Bao, Zhihao

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) free-standing nanostructured materials have been proven to be one of the most promising electrodes for energy storage due to their enhanced electrochemical performance. And they are also widely studied for the wearable energy storage systems. In this work, interconnected V6O13 nanosheets were grown on the flexible carbonized textile (c-textile) via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method to form a 3D free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 170 mA h g-1 at a specific current of 300 mA g-1. With carbon nanotube (CNT) coating, its specific capacities further increased 12-40% at the various current rates. It could retain a reversible capacity of 130 mA h g-1, 74% of the initial capacity after 300 cycles at the specific current of 300 mA g-1. It outperformed most of the mixed-valence vanadium oxides. The improved electrochemical performance was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the 3D nanostructure of V6O13 for feasible Li+ diffusion and transport and highly conductive hierarchical conductive network formed by CNT and carbon fiber in c-textile.

  8. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  9. A detailed study of lithium in 107 CHEPS dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.; Ivanyuk, O. M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Kaminsky, B. M.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yakovina, L. A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. We report results from lithium abundance determinations using high resolution spectral analysis of the 107 metal-rich stars from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search programme. Aims: We aim to set out to understand the lithium distribution of the population of stars taken from this survey. Methods: The lithium abundance taking account of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium effects was determined from the fits to the Li I 6708 Å resonance doublet profiles in the observed spectra. Results: We find that a) fast rotators tend to have higher lithium abundances; b) log N(Li) is higher in more massive and hot stars; c) log N(Li) is higher in stars of lower log g; d) stars with the metallicities >0.25 dex do not show the lithium lines in their spectra; e) most of our planet hosts rotate slower; and f) a lower limit of lithium isotopic ratio is 7Li/6Li > 10 in the atmospheres of two stars with planets (SWP) and two non-SWP stars. Conclusions: Measurable lithium abundances were found in the atmospheres of 45 stars located at distances of 20-170 pc from the Sun, for the other 62 stars the upper limits of log N(Li) were computed. We found well defined dependences of lithium abundances on Teff, V sin i, and less pronounced for the log g. In case of V sin i we see two sequences of stars: with measurable lithium and with the upper limit of log N(Li). About 10% of our targets are known to host planets. Only two SWP have notable lithium abundances, so we found a lower proportion of stars with detectable Li among known planet hosts than among stars without planets. However, given the small sample size of our planet-host sample, our analysis does not show any statistically significant differences in the lithium abundance between SWP and stars without known planets.

  10. First direct measurement of the 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section at big bang energies and the primordial lithium problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M; Trezzi, D; Menegazzo, R; Aliotta, M; Bellini, A; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Prati, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T

    2014-07-25

    Recent observations of (6)Li in metal poor stars suggest a large production of this isotope during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In standard BBN calculations, the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li reaction dominates (6)Li production. This reaction has never been measured inside the BBN energy region because its cross section drops exponentially at low energy and because the electric dipole transition is strongly suppressed for the isoscalar particles (2)H and α at energies below the Coulomb barrier. Indirect measurements using the Coulomb dissociation of (6)Li only give upper limits owing to the dominance of nuclear breakup processes. Here, we report on the results of the first measurement of the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li cross section at big bang energies. The experiment was performed deep underground at the LUNA 400 kV accelerator in Gran Sasso, Italy. The primordial (6)Li/(7)Li isotopic abundance ratio has been determined to be (1.5 ± 0.3) × 10(-5), from our experimental data and standard BBN theory. The much higher (6)Li/(7)Li values reported for halo stars will likely require a nonstandard physics explanation, as discussed in the literature.

  11. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  12. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  13. Foamlike porous spinel Mn(x)Co(3-x)O4 material derived from Mn3[Co(CN)6]2⋅nH2O nanocubes: a highly efficient anode material for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Zhang, Ping; Zhong, Hao; Zheng, Xinrui; Yan, Nan; Chen, Qianwang

    2012-11-19

    A new facile strategy has been designed to fabricate spinel Mn(x)Co(3-x)O(4) porous nanocubes, which involves a morphology-conserved and pyrolysis-induced transformation of Prussian Blue Analogue Mn(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2)⋅nH(2)O perfect nanocubes. Owing to the release of CO(2) and N(x)O(y) in the process of interdiffusion, this strategy can overcome to a large extent the disadvantage of the traditional ceramic route for synthesis of spinels, and Mn(x)Co(3-x)O(4) with foamlike porous nanostructure is effectively obtained. Importantly, when evaluated as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries, the foamlike Mn(x)Co(3-x)O(4) porous nanocubes display high specific discharge capacity and excellent rate capability. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the beneficial features of the particular foamlike porous nanostructure and large surface area, which reduce the diffusion length for Li(+) ions and enhance the structural integrity with sufficient void space for buffering the volume variation during the Li(+) insertion/extraction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, Rajesh; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ross, P.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilgen, John B.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  15. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density

  16. Effects of lithium on brain glucose metabolism in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Tomoya; Shiga, Tohru; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kusumi, Ichiro; Matsuyama, Tetsuaki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Katoh, Chietsugu; Koyama, Tsukasa; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-12-01

    Lithium is clinically available for the treatment of mood disorders. However, it has remained unclear how lithium acts on the brain to produce its effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic lithium on human brain activity using positron emission tomography and clarify the correlation between brain activity changes and cognitive functional changes as induced by chronic lithium administration. A total of 20 healthy male subjects (mean age, 32 +/- 6 years) underwent positron emission tomographic scans with F-fluorodeoxyglucose and a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline condition and after 4 weeks of lithium administration. Brain metabolic data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Lithium increased relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased rCMRglc in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus. There was no difference in any of the variables of cognitive functions between the baseline condition and after chronic lithium administration. There was no correlation between rCMRglc changes in any of the brain regions and individual variable changes in any of the neuropsychological tests. The results suggest that the effects of chronic lithium are associated with increased activity in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased activity in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus.

  17. Adsorption of lithium on the (112) face of molybdenum crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, M.S.; Medvedev, V.K.; Palyukh, B.M.; Smereka, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The structure, work function and heat resistance of lithium films on the (112) face of Mo are investigated by the slow electron diffraction method and the contact potential difference technique. The isles of the p(1x4) structure grow in lithium films in the area of coatings 0.6-0.7 14 cm -2 , type one phase transformation between the p(1x4) and p(1x2) structures takes places in the area of 2.1 14 cm -2 , and the phase transformation of the first type between the p(1x2) structure and one-dimensional incoherent structure with n=5.5x10 14 cm -2 occurs in the range of 4.2 14 cm -2 . At n>5.5x10 14 cm -2 the compression of lithium film occurs, which has a one-dimensional incoherent structure, along the direction of atomic lines of the (112) Mo face, leading at n=8.3x10 14 cm -2 to the formation of monolayer coating of the p(1x1) structure. The redistribution of atoms between the first and the second lithium layers is found at the formation of two-layer lithium film. Concentration dependences of work function and absorption heat of lithium are in good agreement with the structural transformations in lithium films taking place with variations in the coating. Investigated are order-disorder transformations in lithium films

  18. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  19. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  20. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  1. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  2. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  3. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times......, respectively, compared to the conventional liquid-electrolyte battery. Through investigations of the conversion reactions of Mg2FeH6, formation of MgH2 as intermediate in the conversion to Mg is discovered the first time. In addition, the effect of mixing procedure for the electrode-electrolyte composite...... on the battery performance is discussed....

  4. K1-xMn1+x/2[Fe(CN)6]·yH2O Prussian blue analogues as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng-Chen; Sun, Yan-Hui; Li, Jie-Qiong; Nan, Jun-Min

    2018-06-01

    Hexacyanoferrate, KMn[Fe(CN)6]·yH2O (KMnHCF), a Prussian blue analogue (PBA), is synthesized by a solution precipitation method under alkaline condition at room temperature. After treated with diluted hydrochloride acid, the KMnHCF is turned into Mn3[Fe(CN)6]2·yH2O (MnHCF). Then both synthesized KMnHCF and MnHCF are applied as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The KMnHCF anode exhibits a super electrochemical performance than MnHCF. It shows a very low discharge voltage plateau of 0.6 V, an initial capacity of 777 mAh g-1, and a reversible capacity of 434 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. Furthermore, it keeps 425 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 215 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles even at 500 mA g-1. It is remarkable that the coulombic efficiency can be maintained larger than 98.4% from the 5th cycle at 50 mA g-1, 99.2% at 100 mA g-1, and 96.8% even at 500 mA g-1. In addition, the original structure of the KMnHCF has no obvious change after lithiation/de-lithiation based on the ex-situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) characterization, indicating large channels and interstitial sites in the open-framework can allow rapid insertion and extraction of Li+ and constrain volume expansion during charge/discharge process.

  5. Impact of lithium on radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmanandam Lingudu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Radioactive Iodine (RAI is a common therapy for hyperthyroidism. However hyperthyroidism recurs or persists in 15-18% of patients after RAI. Studies report variable percentage of failure after RAI therapy depending on several variables including I 1310 . Lithium enhances efficacy of treatment by increasing RAI retention in the thyroid. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Lithium to RAI therapy in terms of cure, reduction of mean thyroid volume, and its safety. Settings and Design: A prospective comparative study. Subjects and Methods: Forty hyperthyroid patients were assigned to two groups, RAI alone and RAI plus lithium and followed for 1 year. Lithium was given in a dose of 900 mg/day in three divided doses for 6 days starting on the day of RAI therapy. Total T3, total T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH were done at baseline, 2,4,6,9, and 12 months. Ultrasound of thyroid was done at baseline and at the end of 1 year. Monitoring was done for side effects of lithium and RAI therapy. Statistical Analysis: Cure rate and time to cure were assessed by Chi-square test. Mean change in thyroid volume was compared by student′s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: RAI combined with lithium had a trend towards better cure rate (90% compared to RAI alone (70% (P 0.11. Mean time taken to cure was 4.69 months in RAI plus lithium and 7.12 months in RAI alone (P 0.001. Mean change in thyroid volume was similar in both the groups (P = 0.75. There were no side effects of Lithium or RAI. Conclusions: RAI therapy combined with lithium showed a trend towards higher cure rate, safe and time to cure was less than RAI alone. Hence RAI combined with lithium is a better option in the management of hyperthyroidism than RAI alone.

  6. Synthesis and Test of 'New' Gel-Type Lithium Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In this 6th two-month period we have continued the characterization of PMMA-based electrolyte membranes by examining the phenomena occurring at the interface between these membranes and the lithium...

  7. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  8. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  10. Raman spectral and electrochemical studies of lithium/electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odziemkowski, M

    1922-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, corrosion potential-time transients and Normal Raman spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the lithium-lithium salt, organic solvent, interfacial region. An in-situ cutting technique was developed to expose lithium metal. In-situ optical and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to examine the morphology of the lithium electrode surface during exposure at open circuit and after anodic polarization. The main reaction product detected by in-situ Raman spectroscopy in the system/lithium/LiAsF[sub 6], tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte was polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). The conditions for the polymerization reaction in the presence of lithium metal have been determined. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) decomposition reaction mechanisms are discussed. Decomposition reaction products have been determined as arsenic (II) oxide, As[sub 2]O[sub 3] (arsenolite) and arsenious oxyfluoride AsF[sub 2]-O-AsF[sub 2]. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed a substantial shift of the corrosion potential towards positive values and only a moderate increase of anodic dissolution current for in-situ cut lithium metal. Corrosion potential-time merits have been measured. The following electrolytes have been investigated: LiAsF[sub 6], LiPF[sub 6], LiClO[sub 4], and Li(CF[sub 3]SO[sub 2])[sub 2]N in THF, 2Me-THF, and propylene carbonate (PC). The transients permit the ranking of the reactivity of the electrolytes. These measurements have shed light on understanding the stability of various stability and and solvents in contact with lithium. Compared to purified electrolytes, small amounts of water shift the corrosion potential towards even more positive values. Intensive anodic cycling of a Li electrode in unpurified LiAsF[sub 6]/THF electrolyte leads to the breakdown of a surface film/films. While at the open circuit potential (OCP), water in this same electrolyte leads to crack formation in the bulk lithium electrode.

  11. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  12. Electrochemical Stability of Li6.5La3Zr1.5M0.5O12 (M = Nb or Ta) against Metallic Lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yunsung; Yoo, Aeri; Schmidt, Robert; Sharafi, Asma; Lee, Heechul; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Sakamoto, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical stability of Li 6.5 La 3 Zr 1.5 Nb 0.5 O 12 (LLZNO) and Li 6.5 La 3 Zr 1.5 Ta 0.5 O 12 (LLZTO) against metallic Li was studied using direct current (DC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Dense polycrystalline LLZNO (ρ = 97%) and LLZTO (ρ = 92%) were made using sol–gel synthesis and rapid induction hot-pressing at 1100°C and 15.8 MPa. During DC cycling tests at room temperature (± 0.01 mA/cm 2 for 36 cycles), LLZNO exhibited an increase in Li–LLZNO interface resistance and eventually short-circuiting while the LLZTO was stable. After DC cycling, LLZNO appeared severely discolored while the LLZTO did not change in appearance. We believe the increase in Li–LLZNO interfacial resistance and discoloration are due to reduction of Nb 5+ to Nb 4+ . The negligible change in interfacial resistance and no color change in LLZTO suggest that Ta 5+ may be more stable against reduction than Nb 5+ in cubic garnet versus Li during cycling.

  13. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by hot trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the method of hot trapping. V-Ti alloy and chromium were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Chromium is known to form ternary nitride with lithium. Gettering experiments were conducted at 823 K for 0.8-2.2 Ms. Under high nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, above 10 -2 mass%, nitrogen gettering effect of chromium was found to be larger than that of V-10at.% Ti alloy. Nitrogen gettering by chromium at 823 K reached a limit at about 6.5x10 -3 mass% of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium. Instability of ternary nitride of chromium and lithium below this nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was considered to be the reason for this limit. The composition of the ternary nitride that was formed in this study was considered to be Li 6 Cr(III) 3 N 5 . In addition, immersion experiments of yttrium with V-10at.% Ti alloy were performed. It was found that nitriding of yttrium in liquid lithium is controlled by nitrogen gettering effect of V-10at.% Ti alloy

  14. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  15. Lithium as an Alternative Option in Graves Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms of Graves thyrotoxicosis. Biochemistry results were as follows: TSH was undetectable; FT4 was >6.99 ng/dL (0.7–1.8; FT3 was 18 pg/mL (3–5; TSI was 658% (0–139. Thyroid uptake and scan showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in the thyroid gland. The patient was started on methimazole 40 mg BID, but her LFTs elevated precipitously with features of fulminant hepatitis. Methimazole was determined to be the cause and was stopped. After weighing pros and cons, lithium was initiated to treat her persistent thyrotoxicosis. Lithium 300 mg was given daily with a goal to maintain between 0.4 and 0.6. High dose Hydrocortisone and propranolol were also administered concomitantly. Free thyroid hormone levels decreased and the patient reached a biochemical and clinical euthyroid state in about 8 days. Though definitive RAI was planned, the patient has been maintained on lithium for more than a month to control her hyperthyroidism. Trial removal of lithium results in reemergence of thyrotoxicosis within 24 hours. Patient was maintained on low dose lithium treatment with lithium level just below therapeutic range which was sufficient to maintain euthyroid state for more than a month. There were no signs of lithium toxicity within this time period. Conclusion. Lithium has a unique physiologic profile and can be used to treat thyrotoxicosis when thionamides cannot be used while awaiting elective radioablation. Lithium levels need to be monitored; however, levels even at subtherapeutic range may be sufficient to treat thyrotoxicosis.

  16. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  17. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  18. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Rev. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std 239.18 298-102 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLASSIRCTIO OF THIS PAGE (Whun Data Entered) Lade Form 296 ledk (Row. 2-49...did not burn spontaneously in water, and the hydrogen formed did not ignite in air. When a pea-sized piece of lithium was dropped into a container of...Lithium metal flowed through the cracks in the coating and started to burn brilliantly. The LiOH coating was initially protective; but, as it became

  19. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li x C 6 vertical bar 1 M LiPF 6 , 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) vert b ar LiMn 2 O 4 cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized

  20. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  1. Complexes of pentavalent plutonium in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.; Zaki, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pu 0 2 ion can form nitrate complexes in concentrated solution of lithium nitrate of PH 3.5. Spectrophotometric and ion exchange studies revealed the existence of two complexes, presumably the mono-and the dinitro. The rate of adsorption of the dinitrato complex, formed in 4 to 6 M-lithium nitrate solutions, on De-Acidite FF has been investigated and suggested to be diffusion controlled. The adsorption isotherm found to obey satisfactorily Freundlich equation

  2. Beryllium and lithium resource requirements for solid blanket designs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The lithium and beryllium requirements are analyzed for an economy of 10 6 MW(e) CTR 3 capacity using solid blanket fusion reactors. The total lithium inventory in fusion reactors is only approximately 0.2 percent of projected U. S. resources. The lithium inventory in the fusion reactors is almost entirely 6 Li, which must be extracted from natural lithium. Approximately 5 percent of natural lithium can be extracted as 6 Li. Thus the total feed of natural lithium required is approximately 20 times that actually used in fusion reactors, or approximately 4 percent of U. S. resources. Almost all of this feed is returned to the U. S. resource base after 6 Li is extracted, however. The beryllium requirements are on the order of 10 percent of projected U. S. resources. Further, the present cost of lithium and the cost of beryllium extraction could both be increased tenfold with only minor effects on CTR capital cost. Such an increase should substantially multiply the economically recoverable resources of lithium and beryllium. It is concluded that there are no lithium or beryllium resource limitations preventing large-scale implementation of solid blanket fusion reactors. (U.S.)

  3. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  4. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J; Orlovs, A; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 deg. C improves phase composition of lithium titanates

  5. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  6. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  7. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  8. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  9. Hydrophobic ionic liquids based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation for lithium/seawater batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    Two hydrophobic ionic liquids (room temperature molten salts) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (BMI +), BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N -, were used in developing a highly efficient lithium anode system for lithium/seawater batteries. The lithium anode system was composed of lithium metal/ionic liquid/Celgard membrane. Both BMI +PF 6-and BMI +Tf 2N - maintained high apparent anodic efficiency (up to 100%) under potentiostatic polarization (at +0.5 V versus open-circuit potential (OCP)) in a 3% NaCl solution. Eventually, traces of water contaminated the ionic liquid and a bilayer film (LiH and LiOH) on the lithium surface was formed, decreasing the rate of lithium anodic reaction and hence the discharge current density. BMI +Tf 2N - prevented traces of water from reaching the lithium metal surface longer than BMI +PF 6- (60 h versus 7 h). However, BMI +PF 6- was better than BMI +Tf 2N - in keeping a constant current density (˜0.2 mA cm -2) before the traces of water contaminated the lithium surface due to the non-reactivity of BMI +PF 6- with the lithium metal that kept the bare lithium surface. During the discharge process, BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - acted as ion transport media of Li +, Cl -, OH - and H 2O, but did not react with them because of the excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, and high hydrophobicity of these two ionic liquids. Both BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - gels were tentative approaches used to delay the traces of water coming in contact with the lithium surface.

  10. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  13. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  14. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  16. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  17. Preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Marie-Hélène; Danel, Mathieu; Gayral, Maud; Bouchu, Alain; Queneau, Yves

    2007-11-05

    The preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose is reported. The synthesis is based on a triple oxidation of a protected sucrose 6,1',6'-triol to the corresponding 6,1',6'-tricarboxylic acid or ester, followed by reduction with lithium aluminium deuteride. This triple oxidation could be achieved either using cat. TEMPO-NaOCl (to the acid) or PDC-Ac(2)O-t-BuOH (to the t-butyl carboxylic ester).

  18. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  19. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  20. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  1. The potential use of lithium as a marker for the assessment of the sources of dietary salt : cooking studies and physiological experiments in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Castillo, C P; Seidell, J; James, W.P.T.

    Lithium was investigated for its possible use as a marker for identifying the various sources of NaCl in the diet. Micromolar concentrations of lithium can be detected in various vegetables, tap water and also in urine specimens of adult volunteers. The lithium content of vegetables varied from 6.1

  2. Quantitative detection of microscopic lithium distributions with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Giulia; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Lichtinger, Josef; Winkler, Sonja; Seiler, Dominik; Bendel, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department (Germany); Kunze-Liebhaeuser, Julia; Brumbarov, Jassen; Portenkirchner, Engelbert [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Renno, Axel; Rugel, Georg [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg fuer Ressourcentechnologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The importance of lithium in the modern industrial society is continuously increasing. Spatially resolved detection of tritium particles from {sup 6}Li(n,α){sup 3}H nuclear reactions is used to reconstruct microscopic lithium distributions. Samples are exposed to a flux of cold neutrons. Emitted charged particles are detected with a PSD. Introducing a pinhole aperture between target and detector, the experimental setup works like a ''camera obscura'', allowing to perform spatially resolved measurements. Tritium detection analysis was successfully used to reconstruct the lithium content in self-organized TiO{sub 2-x}-C and Si/TiO{sub 2-x}-C nanotubes electrochemically lithiated, for the first time. Titanium dioxide nanotubes are a candidate for a safe anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Also lithium distributions in geological samples, so called ''pathfinder-minerals'' containing lithium, like lepidolite from a pegmatite, were analyzed. With this development we present a new precision method using nuclear physics for material science.

  3. Transport of 7Be in a lithium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, H.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Bechtold, R.A.; Brehm, W.F.

    1982-07-01

    Beryllium-7 will be produced in the lithium target of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility by the interaction of the deuteron beam with lithium by the two reactions 7 Li(d,2n) 7 Be and 6 Li(d,n) 7 Be. Recent estimates have shown that an equilibrium concentration of 45,000 curies of 7 Be will be present in FMIT lithium. Although this inventory of 7 Be corresponds to only 0.042 wt ppM in FMIT lithium, the radiation fields created can impose special design and maintenance requirements on the facility. A development program has been started at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to investigate the transport of 7 Be in liquid lithium. Results obtained thus far indicated preferential deposition of 7 Be not only in the cold leg but also in the higher temperature region in a nonisothermal lithium system with a temperature gradient similar to that expected in FMIT. The results showed that 7 Be can diffuse into AISI 304 stainless steel (304) at FMIT operating temperatures; the diffusion coefficient of 7 Be in 304 was also calculated

  4. Plasma interaction with liquid lithium: Measurements of retention and erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.J. E-mail: mbaldwin@ferp.ucsd.edu; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Seraydarian, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Conn, R.W

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports on recent studies of high flux deuterium and helium plasma interaction with liquid lithium in the Pisces-B edge plasma simulator facility. Deuterium retention is explored as a function of plasma ion fluence in the range 6x10{sup 19}-4x10{sup 22} atoms cm{sup -2} and exposure temperatures of 523-673 K. The results are consistent with full uptake of the deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface, independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium. Full uptake continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. Helium retention is not observed for fluences up to 5x10{sup 21} He atoms cm{sup -2}. Measurements of the erosion of lithium are found to be consistent with physical sputtering for the lithium solid phase. However, a mechanism that provides an increased evaporative-like yield and is related to ion impact events on the surface, dominates during the liquid phase leading to an enhanced loss rate for liquid lithium that is greater than the expected loss rate due to evaporation at elevated temperatures. Further, the material loss rate is found to depend linearly on the incident ion flux, even at very high temperature.

  5. The solubility of carbon in low-nitrogen liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonco, R.M.; Homa, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The solubility of carbon in liquid lithium containing 0 C and compared with the solubility in lithium containing proportional 2600 wppm nitrogen in that same temperature range. A direct sampling method was employed in which filtered samples of the saturated solution were taken at randomly selected temperatures. The entire sample was analyzed for carbon by the acetylene evolution method. The analytical method was examined critically and it was found that (1) all of the carbon in solution, including carbon introduced as lithium cyanamide is detected and (2) ethylene and ethane must also be measured and included with the acetylene to get complete recovery of the carbon content of the sample. The solubility of carbon in low-nitrogen lithium can be expressed by the equations ln S=6.731-8617T -1 and log Ssup(*)=7.459-3740T -1 , where S is the mole percent Li 2 C 2 and Ssup(*) is in weight parts per million carbon. The presence of proportional 2600 wppm nitrogen does not affect the solubility of carbon in lithium at temperatures above proportional 350 0 C, but at lower temperatures it increased the solubility by as much as an order of magnitude compared to the solubility in low-nitrogen lithium. (orig.)

  6. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  8. Neuroprotective effect of lithium after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namgue; Choi, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seong Yun; Kim, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium post-treatment on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal neuropathological changes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was induced by administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride (320 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. Lithium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15 minutes after the pilocarpine injection. After the lithium injection, status epilepticus onset time and mortality were recorded. Lithium significantly delayed the onset time of status epilepticus and reduced mortality compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, lithium effectively blocked pilocarpine-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus as estimated by cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B staining. However, lithium did not reduce glial activation following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. These results suggest that lithium has a neuroprotective effect and would be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, in particular status epilepticus.

  9. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  10. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  11. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  12. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  13. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis as Analysis Technique for Battery Electrolytes: (i Monitoring Stability of Anions in Ionic Liquids and (ii Determination of Organophosphate-Based Decomposition Products in LiPF6-Based Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pyschik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method for capillary electrophoresis (CE hyphenated to a high-resolution mass spectrometer was presented for monitoring the stability of anions in ionic liquids (ILs and in commonly used lithium ion battery (LIB electrolytes. The investigated ILs were 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (PYR13TFSI and 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonylimide (PYR13FSI. The method development was conducted by adjusting the following parameters: buffer compositions, buffer concentrations, and the pH value. Also the temperature and the voltage applied on the capillary were optimized. The ILs were aged at room temperature and at 60 °C for 16 months each. At both temperatures, no anionic decomposition products of the FSI− and TFSI− anions were detected. Accordingly, the FSI− and TFSI− anions were thermally stable at these conditions. This method was also applied for the investigation of LIB electrolyte samples, which were aged at 60 °C for one month. The LP30 (50/50 wt. % dimethyl carbonate/ethylene carbonate and 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte was mixed with the additive 1,3-propane sultone (PS and with one of the following organophosphates (OP: dimethyl phosphate (DMP, diethyl phosphate (DEP, and triethyl phosphate (TEP, to investigate the influence of these compounds on the formation of OPs.

  15. Synthesis of lithium ferrites from polymetallic carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA STOLERIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ferrite was prepared by the thermal decomposition of three polynuclear complex compounds containing as ligands the anions of malic, tartaric and gluconic acid: (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O53(OH4(H2O2]×4H2O (I, (NH46[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O63(OH8]×2H2O (II and (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C6H11O73(OH7] (III. The polynuclear complex precursors were characterized by chemical analysis, IR and UV–Vis spectra, magnetic measurements and thermal analysis. The obtained lithium ferrites were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, IR spectra and magnetic measurements. The single α-Li0.5Fe2.5O4 phase was obtained by thermal decomposition of the tartarate complex annealed at 700 °C for 1 h. The magnetization value ≈ 50 emu g-1 is lower than that obtained for the bulk lithium ferrite due to the nanostructural character of the ferrite. The particle size was smaller than 100 nm.

  16. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  17. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  18. Micro- and nanostructuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, Holger

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the application of the ion-beam-enhanced-etching (IBEE) technique for the fabrication of different optical elements, among these photonic crystals, in lithium niobate, was studied. The development of a mask technology fitted to the requirements of the IBEE technique as well as a simulation of the process were performed. Hereby the limitations of the technique in view on minimal structure sizes and structure quality were analyzed. In chapter 1 first the material lithium niobate with its properties and the structuration procedures studied hitherto in the literature is presented. Chapter 2 presents the functionality of the IBEE process and describes the studies on the application of IBEE in lithium niobate performed in the framework of this thesis. In chapter 3 the experimental conditions of all applied processes of the IBEE procedure, the processes used for the mask fabrication, as well all further applied methods and technologies are summarized. Chapter 4 deals with the mask fabrication. The requirements on the masks and the developments necessary for their fulfilment are studied. In chapter 5 the performed simulation of the irradiation, annealing, and etching process is described. This simulation makes the prediciton of the geometry of the components from the process parameters and vice versa the determination of parameters for the reaching of an optimal element geometry possible. In chapter 6 the application of the technique for the fabrication of photonic-crystal membranes and their optical characterization is described. Chapter 7 shows the fabrication of different waveguide and diffractive elements in lithium niobate by means of IBEE.

  19. Lithium in drinking water and incidence of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline N.; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern. High-dose lithium is used to stabilize mood and prevent suicide in patients with affective disorders. Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water worldwide in much lower doses, but with large geographical variation. Several studies conducted at an aggregate...... level have suggested an association between lithium in drinking water and a reduced risk of suicide; however, a causal relation is uncertain. Individual-level register-based data on the entire Danish adult population (3.7 million individuals) from 1991 to 2012 were linked with a moving five-year time......-weighted average (TWA) lithium exposure level from drinking water hypothesizing an inverse relationship. The mean lithium level was 11.6 µg/L ranging from 0.6 to 30.7 µg/L. The suicide rate decreased from 29.7 per 100,000 person-years at risk in 1991 to 18.4 per 100,000 person-years in 2012. We found...

  20. Lithium in Drinking Water and Incidence of Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline N.; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern. High-dose lithium is used to stabilize mood and prevent suicide in patients with affective disorders. Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water worldwide in much lower doses, but with large geographical variation. Several studies conducted at an aggregate...... level have suggested an association between lithium in drinking water and a reduced risk of suicide; however, a causal relation is uncertain. Individual-level register-based data on the entire Danish adult population (3.7 million individuals) from 1991 to 2012 were linked with a moving five-year time......-weighted average (TWA) lithium exposure level from drinking water hypothesizing an inverse relationship. The mean lithium level was 11.6 μg/L ranging from 0.6 to 30.7 μg/L. The suicide rate decreased from 29.7 per 100,000 person-years at risk in 1991 to 18.4 per 100,000 person-years in 2012. We found...

  1. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  2. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  3. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  4. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 6. Following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  5. Lattice vibrations of materials for lithium rechargeable batteries II. Lithium extraction-insertion in spinel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, C.M.; Camacho-Lopez, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lithiated spinel manganese oxides with various amounts of lithium have been prepared through solid-state reaction and electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation. Local structure of the samples are studied using Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We report vibrational spectra of lithiated manganese oxides Li x Mn 2 O 4 as a function of lithium concentration in the range 0.1≤x≤2.0. Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral results indicated multiple-phase reactions when the lithium content is modified in the spinel lattice. Lattice dynamics of lithiated spinel manganese oxides have been interpreted using either a classical factor-group analysis or a local environment model. The structural modifications have been studied on the basis of vibrations of LiO 4 tetrahedral and MnO 6 octahedral units when Li/Mn≤0.5, and LiO 4 , LiO 6 , and MnO 6 structural units when Li/Mn>0.5

  6. Layered lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Horikawa, Kumi; Fujiyosi, Minako; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    We report the approach to overcome the deterrents of the hexagonal Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N as potential insertion anode for lithium ion batteries: the rapid capacity fading upon long cycles and the fully Li-rich state before cycling. Research reveals that the appropriate amount of Co substituted by Cu can greatly improve the cycling performance of Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N. It is attributed to the enhanced electrochemical stability and interfacial comparability. However, doped Cu leads to a slightly decreased capacity. High energy mechanical milling (HEMM) was found to effectively improve the reversible capacity associated with the electrochemical kinetics by modifying the active hosts' morphology characteristics. Moreover, the composite based on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) and Li 2.6 Co 0.4 N was developed under HEMM. The composite demonstrates a high first cycle efficiency at 100% and a large reversible capacity of ca. 450 mAh g -1 , as well as a stable cycling performance. This work may contribute to a development of the lithium transition metal nitrides as novel anodes for lithium ion batteries

  7. Instrinsic defect energies of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the defect structure of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride. A potential model is obtained describing the statics and dynamics of these crystals. Intrinsic defect energies are calculated using the Harwell HADES program which is based on a generalised Mott-Littleton method. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and suggest that the vacancy and interstitial migration mechanisms of anions and cations are all comparable in their contribution to ionic conduction. (author)

  8. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  9. Measurement of lithium ion transference numbers of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. A comparative study with five various methods.; Messung von Lithium-Ionen Ueberfuehrungszahlen an Elektrolyten fuer Lithium-Ionen Batterien. Eine vergleichende Studie mit fuenf verschiedenen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugmann, Sandra

    2011-03-30

    activity coefficients. The new electrolyte lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) was for example fully determined at 25 C in this work. In comparison with other salts (LiPF6 und LiBF4) it proves to be an appropriate electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries. It generates no HF by hydrolysis that avoids the use of environment friendly and cost-effective manganese spinels, and it much better soluble as lithium bis(oxalato)borate LiBOB. In addition LiDFOB protects aluminum from corrosion and is more thermal stable as the standard salt LiPF6.

  10. Measurement of lithium ion transference numbers of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. A comparative study with five various methods.; Messung von Lithium-Ionen Ueberfuehrungszahlen an Elektrolyten fuer Lithium-Ionen Batterien. Eine vergleichende Studie mit fuenf verschiedenen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugmann, Sandra

    2011-03-30

    number and ideally activity coefficients. The new electrolyte lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate LiDFOB in EC/DEC (3/7) was for example fully determined at 25 C in this work. In comparison with other salts (LiPF6 und LiBF4) it proves to be an appropriate electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries. It generates no HF by hydrolysis that avoids the use of environment friendly and cost-effective manganese spinels, and it much better soluble as lithium bis(oxalato)borate LiBOB. In addition LiDFOB protects aluminum from corrosion and is more thermal stable as the standard salt LiPF6.

  11. Polyethylene oxide film coating enhances lithium cycling efficiency of an anode-free lithium-metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegie, Addisu Alemayehu; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Kuo, Li-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-03-29

    The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3. More importantly, the PEO film coating promoted the formation of a thin and robust SEI layer film by hosting lithium and regulating the inevitable reaction of lithium with the electrolyte. The modified electrode exhibited stable cycling of lithium with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼100% over 200 cycles and low voltage hysteresis (∼30 mV) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. Moreover, we tested the anode-free battery experimentally by integrating it with an LiFePO4 cathode into a full-cell configuration (Cu@PEO/LiFePO4). The new cell demonstrated stable cycling with an average coulombic efficiency of 98.6% and capacity retention of 30% in the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C. These impressive enhancements in cycle life and capacity retention result from the synergy of the PEO film coating, high electrode-electrolyte interface compatibility, stable polar oligomer formation from the reduction of 1,3-dioxolane and the generation of SEI-stabilizing nitrite and nitride upon lithium nitrate reduction. Our result opens up a new route to realize anode-free batteries by modifying the copper anode with PEO to achieve ever more demanding yet safe interfacial chemistry and control of dendrite formation.

  12. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  13. The design of a liquid lithium lens for a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.; Geer, S.; Hassanein, A.; Holtkamp, N.; Lebrun, P.; Neuffer, D.; Norem, J.; Palmer, R.; Reed, C.; Silvestrov, G.; Spentzouris, P.; Tollestrup, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The last stage of ionization cooling for the muon collider requires a multistage liquid lithium lens. This system uses a large (approximately0.5 MA) pulsed current through liquid lithium to focus the beam while energy loss in the lithium removes momentum which is replaced by linacs. The beam optics are designed to maximize the 6 dimensional transmission from one lens to the next while minimizing emittance growth. The mechanical design of the lithium vessel is constrained by a pressure pulse due to the sudden ohmic heating, and the stress on the Be window. The authors describe beam optics, the liquid lithium pressure vessel, pumping, power supplies, as well as the overall optimization of the system

  14. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  15. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  16. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  17. FTU cooled liquid lithium upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrati, M., E-mail: matteo.iafrati@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of the liquid lithium limiter experiment in Frascati a new auxiliary system was developed in order to provide a better control of the energy fluid vector. The cooled liquid lithium system (CLL) was installed for the first time at the end of 2013, it uses overheated water to heat the lithium and to extract, at the same time, the heat from the metal surface when it gets wet by the plasma. A first version of the system, developed and presented in previous papers, has been modified to optimize the heat flux measurement on the liquid lithium surface. The changes include a new power supply logic for the heating system, new sensors and new read-out electronics compatible with the implementation of a real time control system. The prototype was updated with the aim of achieving a low cost and versatile control system.

  18. Probing quantum effects in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemyad, Shanti; Zhang, Rong

    2018-05-01

    In periodic table lithium is the first element immediately after helium and the lightest metal. While fascinating quantum nature of condensed helium is suppressed at high densities, lithium is expected to adapt more quantum solid behavior under compression. This is due to the presence of long range interactions in metallic systems for which an increase in the de-Boer parameter (λ/σ, where σ is the minimum interatomic distance and λ is the de-Broglie wavelength) is predicted at higher densities [1,2]. Physics of dense lithium offers a rich playground to look for new emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter and has been subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations. In this article recent progress in studying the quantum nature of dense lithium will be discussed.

  19. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  20. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (Pglass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (Pglass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature effects on lithium-nitrogen reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijams, W.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1985-08-01

    A series of experiments have been run with the aim of measuring the reaction rate of lithium and nitrogen over a wide spectrum of lithium pool temperatures. In these experiments, pure nitrogen was blown at a controlled flow rate over a preheated lithium pool. The pool had a surface area of approximately 4 cm 2 and a total volume of approximately 6 cm 3 . The system pressure varied from 0 to 4 psig. The reaction rate was very small - approximately 0.002 to 0.003 g Li min cm 2 for lithium temperatures below 500 0 C. Above 500 0 C the reaction rate began to increase sharply, and reached a maximum of approximately 0.80 g Li min cm 2 above 700 0 C. It dropped off beyond 1000 0 C and seemed to approach zero at 1150 0 C. The maximum reaction rate observed in these forced convection experiments was higher by 60% than those previously observed in experiments where the nitrogen flowed to the reaction site by means of natural convection. During a reaction, a hard nitride layer built up on the surface of the lithium pool - its effect on the reaction rate was observed. The effect of the nitrogen flow rate on the reaction rate was also observed

  2. Recovery of Lithium From Geothermal Fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo by Adsorption Method

    OpenAIRE

    Noerochim, Lukman; Satriawangsa, Gita Akbar; Widodo, Amien

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of lithium from geothermal fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo, Indonesia was investigated employing an adsorption method with polymer membrane as container. The lithium concentration in geothermal fluid from Lumpur Sidoarjo used in the present study was about 5 mg/l. Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) was selected as a promising adsorbent material due to its non-toxic, topotactical behavior and low cost. In this study, LMO with single Li/Mn mole ratio was prepared, i.e. Li1.6Mn1.6O4. The adsorb...

  3. Determination of tritium generation and release parameters at lithium CPS under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponkratov, Yuriy, E-mail: ponkratov@nnc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Baklanov, Viktor; Skakov, Mazhyn; Kulsartov, Timur; Tazhibayeva, Irina; Gordienko, Yuriy; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Tulubayev, Yevgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Yevgeniy [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC “Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC “Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The main parameters of tritium generation and release from lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) under neutron irradiation at the IVG.1 M research reactor is described in paper. • In the experiments a very small tritium release was fixed likely due to its high solubility in liquid lithium. • If the lithium CPS will be used as a plasma facing material in temperature range up to 773 K under neutron irradiation only helium will release from lithium CPS into a vacuum chamber. - Abstract: This paper describes the main parameters of tritium generation and release from lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) under neutron irradiation at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The experiments were carried out using the method of mass-spectrometric registration of released gases and using a specially constructed ampoule device. Irradiation was carried out at different reactor thermal powers (1, 2 and 6 MW) and sample temperatures from 473 to 773 K. In the experiments a very small tritium release was detected likely due to its high solubility in liquid lithium. It can be caused by formation of lithium tritide during tritium diffusion to the lithium surface.

  4. Renal failure in lithium-treated bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Close

    Full Text Available Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder.This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy.Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0 adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH was 44 (21 to 150.Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small.

  5. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  6. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  7. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  8. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  9. Neutron emission during lithium deuteride hydration in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Kezerashvili, G.Ya.; Muratov, V.V.; Sinitskij, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment on neutron detection during lithium deuteride hydration in heavy water using a system of SNM-17 or SNM-18 gas counters was set up. Signals were simultaneously detected by 6 counters and the data were stored in a computer. At the same time the temperature of the reaction ampule external surface was measured. It was found that the neutron number per 1 gram of lithium deuteride reacted with water in the ampule was equal to several dozens if their initial energy was about 2.5 MeV. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Preparation of Tritium from irradiated lithium compounds (study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the selection of a certain scheme for release, collection, measurement and analysis of Tritium as produced in Lithium compounds (Li 2 O, LiOH, Li 2 CO 3 LiF and some Lithium alloys) in accordance with the 6 Li(n, α)T reaction. Tritium technology is of vital concern to power reactor programmes as well as to fusion technology. Meanwhile the fields of activity include, tritium generation and mangement in fission and fusion reactors; enviromental studies, release modeling HT/HTO conversion and dose assessments, absorption/ deabsorption, monitoring and plant design; research and development, labeling, compatibility and physical chemical properties

  11. Thermophysical properties of solid lithium hydride and its isotopic modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikova, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of the anharmonic lattice is used to calculate the thermophysical properties (thermal expansivity, lattice constant, compressibility, and elastic moduli) of all the isotopic modifications of solid lithium hydride sup(6,7)Li(H,D,T) at temperatures up to the melting point. A general analysis of isotopic effects is carried out; in particular the reverse isotopic effect in the lattice constant is explained and the isotopic effect in melting is discussed. The results of the calculations agree with available experimental data and can be used for those isotopic modifications of lithium hydride for which there exist no experimental results. (author)

  12. Primordial lithium and the standard model(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliyannis, C.P.; Demarque, P.; Kawaler, S.D.; Krauss, L.M.; Romanelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    We present the results of new theoretical work on surface 7 Li and 6 Li evolution in the oldest halo stars along with a new and refined analysis of the predicted primordial lithium abundance resulting from big-bang nucleosynthesis. This allows us to determine the constraints which can be imposed upon cosmology by a consideration of primordial lithium using both standard big-bang and standard stellar-evolution models. Such considerations lead to a constraint on the baryon density today of 0.0044 2 <0.025 (where the Hubble constant is 100h Km sec/sup -1/ Mpc /sup -1/), and impose limitations on alternative nucleosynthesis scenarios

  13. Reduction of impurities and activation of lithium orthosilicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, Regina; Fischer, Ulrich; Herber, Stefan; Adelhelm, Christel

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of lithium orthosilicate pebbles by melt-spraying enables a facile reprocessing of irradiated material by direct remelting. However, the necessary waiting period for the reprocessing is determined by the long-term activation of the material under irradiation that is dominated by the impurities. The activation characteristics for the current composition of lithium orthosilicate pebbles were assessed on the basis of three-dimensional activation calculations for a fusion power reactor. The calculations were used to identify critical amounts of impurities and were compared to the results of a hypothetical, pure material without impurities, as well as to a calculated Li-6 enriched OSi composition.

  14. [Profile of lithium carbonate use in patients with bipolar disorder in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Alzate-Carvajal, Catalina; Zapata-Castañeda, Kevin; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique

    2017-04-01

    Lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. To define lithium therapeutic profile and adverse reactions to its use in patients with bipolar affective disorder in Colombia. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study between January 1 and December 31, 2013, which included patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate in 25 Colombian cities; we evaluated socio-demographic variables, lithium dose, co-medication, drug interactions and adverse reactions. A multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 22.0. The 331 patients had an average age of 44.5 ± 13.9 years; 59.2% were women. The mean dose of lithium was 898 ± 294 mg/day; 22% received doses lower than recommended, and patients had received lithium for 38.0 ± 39.5 months (range: 12-159 months). Lithium levels in blood had been measured only in 13.5% of patients; 71.3% of them had received adjuvant therapy for bipolar disorder with other drugs, especially clozapine (16.6%) and valproic acid (16.6%). The main comorbidities were hypothyroidism (18.1%) and hypertension (12.7%); 390 potentially toxic drug interactions were found, and adverse reactions were reported in 1.2% of patients. A statistically significant association was found between a lower risk of combination therapy and receiving treatment in the cities of Bogotá (OR=0.4, p=0.025), Cartagena (OR=0.3, p=0.015) and Ibagué (OR=0.3, p=0.025). Lithium was generally used at recommended doses and intervals, but a significant percentage of patients received lower doses than those recommended, and it was not possible to compare with lithium levels in blood. Adverse reactions and blood lithium levels reporting should be improved in patients with bipolar disorder in Colombia.

  15. Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth with a Single-Component Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haodong; Zhou, Hongyao; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Xing, Xing; Gonzalez, Matthew; Liu, Ping

    2017-09-13

    A single-component coating was formed on lithium (Li) metal in a lithium iodide/organic carbonate [dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylene carbonate (EC)] electrolyte. LiI chemically reacts with DMC to form lithium methyl carbonate (LMC), which precipitates and forms the chemically homogeneous coating layer on the Li surface. This coating layer is shown to enable dendrite-free Li cycling in a symmetric Li∥Li cell even at a current density of 3 mA cm -2 . Adding EC to DMC modulates the formation of LMC, resulting in a stable coating layer that is essential for long-term Li cycling stability. Furthermore, the coating can enable dendrite-free cycling after being transferred to common LiPF 6 /carbonate electrolytes, which are compatible with metal oxide cathodes.

  16. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  18. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  19. The applicaton of neutron radioscopy to lithium-aluminum alloy target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, J.J.; Marotta, A.S.; Salaymeh, S.R.; Varallo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors show that neutron radioscopy is very useful in locating the position of a Li-A1 alloy core enriched in Lithium-6 in tubular aluminum target elements. The alloy core is displaced during a forming process and its location must be redetermined before processing can be completed. A low-flux mobile neutron radioscopy system was employed in these studies as a model system for possible on-line, in-plant use. A series of core end sections of target tubes containing from 0.1 to 4.6 grams of Lithium-6 per foot of length were examined radioscopically with thermal neutrons. The system was able to determine the extent of lithium alloy core from the highest concentrations down to about 0.2 grams of Lithium-6 per ft within one minute of data collection time

  20. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo by Adsorption Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Noerochim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of lithium from geothermal fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo, Indonesia was investigated employing an adsorption method with polymer membrane as container. The lithium concentration in geothermal fluid from Lumpur Sidoarjo used in the present study was about 5 mg/l. Lithium manganese oxide (LMO was selected as a promising adsorbent material due to its non-toxic, topotactical behavior and low cost. In this study, LMO with single Li/Mn mole ratio was prepared, i.e. Li1.6Mn1.6O4. The adsorbent was synthesized by solid state reaction at 500 °C for 5 hrs. A lithium uptake yield from the geothermal fluid of around 6.6 mg/g was obtained.

  1. Effect of single lithium doses on haemopoiesis regeneration after radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reported experiment failed to demonstrate any effect of single doses of lithium carbonate on haemopoiesis regeneration in experimental haematological syndrome of acute radiation sickness. The effects of gamma radiation on blood formation are shown. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  2. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  3. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  4. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph.; Le Nay, F. [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J.M. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  5. About the safety of lithium batteries with carbon anode; De la securite des accumulateurs au lithium a anode de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biensan, Ph; Le Nay, F [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Simon, B [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Bodet, J M [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The replacement of lithium metal from the negative electrode of lithium batteries by a material allowing the reversible insertion of lithium ions is an undeniable commercial success. Carbon electrodes, generally called Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, are the most common type and allow to increase the service life of the battery, its charging fastness and its safety. The safety of such batteries is well known in normal conditions of use, but it has to be known also in any abusive condition of use, whatever is the charging state. The mastery of the phenomena that can occur requires a good knowledge of the kinetics of the exothermal chemical reactions involved. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  6. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5–1660 μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25 μg/L (range 1.9–145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (−6.1 nmol/L [95%CI −9.5; −2.6] for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30 nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. - Highlights: • Elevated drinking water lithium (Li) concentrations are increasingly reported. • We studied a Li

  7. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, Florencia [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta [Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Casimiro, Esperanza [Atención Primaria de la Salud, Área Operativa XXIX, Hospital Dr. Nicolás Cayetano Pagano, San Antonio de los Cobres, Salta (Argentina); Lu, Ying [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5–1660 μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25 μg/L (range 1.9–145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (−6.1 nmol/L [95%CI −9.5; −2.6] for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30 nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. - Highlights: • Elevated drinking water lithium (Li) concentrations are increasingly reported. • We studied a Li

  8. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  9. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  10. Cosmological cosmic rays: Sharpening the primordial lithium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodanovic, Tijana; Fields, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic structure formation leads to large-scale shocked baryonic flows which are expected to produce a cosmological population of structure-formation cosmic rays (SFCRs). Interactions between SFCRs and ambient baryons will produce lithium isotopes via α+α→ 6,7 Li. This pre-galactic (but nonprimordial) lithium should contribute to the primordial 7 Li measured in halo stars and must be subtracted in order to arrive to the true observed primordial lithium abundance. In this paper we point out that the recent halo star 6 Li measurements can be used to place a strong constraint to the level of such contamination, because the exclusive astrophysical production of 6 Li is from cosmic-ray interactions. We find that the putative 6 Li plateau, if due to pre-galactic cosmic-ray interactions, implies that SFCR-produced lithium represents Li SFCR /Li plateau ≅15% of the observed elemental Li plateau. Taking the remaining plateau Li to be cosmological 7 Li, we find a revised (and slightly worsened) discrepancy between the Li observations and big bang nucleosynthesis predictions by a factor of 7 Li BBN / 7 Li plateau ≅3.7. Moreover, SFCRs would also contribute to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) through neutral pion production. This gamma-ray production is tightly related to the amount of lithium produced by the same cosmic rays; the 6 Li plateau limits the pre-galactic (high-redshift) SFCR contribution to be at the level of I γ π SFCR /I EGRB < or approx. 5% of the currently observed EGRB

  11. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  12. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  13. Synthesis and properties of new carboxyborate lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładka, Dorota; Krajewski, Mariusz; Młynarska, Sandra; Galińska, Justyna; Zygadło-Monikowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Bis(carboxytrifluoroborate lithium) salts [R(CH 2 COOBF 3 Li) 2 ] with oxyethylene groups R of oligomeric molar masses [R = O(CH 2 CH 2 O) n , where n = 3 or 11, BCB3 and BCB11, respectively] were synthesized via reaction of carboxylates salts with boron fluoride. The new salts were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of the salts were determined by oxyethylene chain length. For n = 3 the salt was crystalline with m p = 197 °C and for n = 11 it showed properties of an ionic liquid at ambient temperature. Their thermal stability was at least 250 °C. The values of lithium-ion transference numbers (T + ) of the solutions in polar aprotic solvents, determined by a well established steady-state technique, were in the range of 0.2–0.6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on PEO and studied salts with different concentration (from 24 to 94 wt %) was carried out. The ionic conductivity of SPEs was in the order of 10 −8 –10 −7 S cm −1 at room temperature and 10 −4 S cm −1 at 80 °C. A distinguishing feature of SPEs with the studied new salts is the high immobilization of anions, which causes almost a monoconducting character of charge transport. Lithium transference numbers (T + ) exceed 0.9.

  14. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  15. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  16. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  17. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  18. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  19. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  20. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  1. Synthesis of Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}-coated LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode materials with enhanced high-voltage electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengjie; Wu, Hao; Huang, Ling; Xiang, Mingwu; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Yun, E-mail: y_zhang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-07-25

    Ni-rich ternary layered oxides, (LiNi{sub x} [M]{sub 1−x}O{sub 2}, x ≥ 0.5, M = Co and Mn), have become one of the mainstream cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to their high capacity and cost efficiency compared with LiCoO{sub 2}. However, the high-voltage operation of the Ni-rich oxides (>4.3 V) required for high capacity is inevitably accompanied with a rapid capacity decay over numerous cycles. In this work, we reported a surface coating of LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} with Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}via a facile and efficient synthetic approach, which involves the employment of silicic acid (H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) as remover to react with the surface residual lithium compounds (e.g. Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiOH) of LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} and consequent formation of a robust and complete Li{sup +}-conductive Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5} protective coating layer. The structure and morphology of the coated cathode materials are fully characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with the pristine LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}, coating with the Li{sup +}-conductive Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5} is found to be very effective for improving the rate capability of the LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} when evaluated at a high cut-off voltage up to 4.5 V. Specifically, 1 wt. % H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}-treated LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} electrode exhibits high discharge specific capacities of 213.9 and 121.6 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 and 10 C, respectively, whereas the pristine electrode only shows 196.8 and 92.1 mAh g{sup −1}. Besides, the surface-modified LiNi{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} electrode also manifests an enhanced long-term cycling stability (67% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 5 C), much better than the pristine

  2. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  3. Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Nie, Anmin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhou, Yungang; Lu, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zu, Xiaotao; Xiao, Jie; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Gao, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-01-14

    Voltage and capacity fading of layer structured lithium and manganese rich (LMR) transition metal oxide is directly related to the structural and composition evolution of the material during the cycling of the battery. However, understanding such evolution at atomic level remains elusive. Based on atomic level structural imaging, elemental mapping of the pristine and cycled samples and density functional theory calculations, it is found that accompanying the hoping of Li ions is the simultaneous migration of Ni ions towards the surface from the bulk lattice, leading to the gradual depletion of Ni in the bulk lattice and thickening of a Ni enriched surface reconstruction layer (SRL). Furthermore, Ni and Mn also exhibit concentration partitions within the thin layer of SRL in the cycled samples where Ni is almost depleted at the very surface of the SRL, indicating the preferential dissolution of Ni ions in the electrolyte. Accompanying the elemental composition evolution, significant structural evolution is also observed and identified as a sequential phase transition of C2/m →I41→Spinel. For the first time, it is found that the surface facet terminated with pure cation is more stable than that with a mixture of cation and anion. These findings firmly established how the elemental species in the lattice of LMR cathode transfer from the bulk lattice to surface layer and further into the electrolyte, clarifying the long standing confusion and debate on the structure and chemistry of the surface layer and their correlation with the voltage fading and capacity decaying of LMR cathode. Therefore, this work provides critical insights for designing of cathode materials with both high capacity and voltage stability during cycling.

  4. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  5. Beneficial synergistic effects of microdose lithium with pyrroloquinoline quinone in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gong, Neng; Liu, Meng; Pan, Xiaoli; Sang, Shaoming; Sun, Xiaojing; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Zhao, Na; Fei, Guoqiang; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tianle

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, neurodegenerative disorder involving multifactorial pathogeneses and still lacks effective clinical treatment. Recent studies show that lithium exerts disease-modifying effects against AD. However, the intolerant side effects at conventional effective dosage limit the clinical use of lithium in treating AD. To explore a novel AD treatment strategy with microdose lithium, we designed and synthesized a new chemical, tri-lithium pyrroloquinoline quinone (Li3PQQ), to study the synergistic effects of low-dose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a native compound with powerful antioxidation and mitochondrial amelioration. The results showed that Li3PQQ at a relative low dose (6 and 12 mg/kg) exhibited more powerful effects in restoring the impairment of learning and memory, facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation, and reducing cerebral amyloid deposition and phosphorylated tau level in APP/PS1 transgenic mice than that of lithium chloride at both low and high dose (5 and 100 mg/kg). We further found that Li3PQQ inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and increased the activity of β-amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which might underlie the beneficial effects of Li3PQQ on APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel AD therapeutic strategy targeting at multiple disease-causing mechanisms through the synergistic effects of microdose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [The acute renal and cerebral toxicity of lithium: a cerebro-renal syndrome? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, M; Cicchella, A; Del Giudice, A; Di Giorgio, A; Scarlatella, A; Vergura, M; Aucella, F

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive report describes the case of a 50 year-old woman with bipolar disorder, whose maintenance therapy comprised risperidone, sodium valproato and lithium carbonate without any past occurrence of toxicity. Her past medical history was significant for hypertension, cardiopathy and obesity. She presented with a 1-week history of fever, increasing confusion and slurred speech. At presentation, the patient was somnolent. Laboratory investigations revealed a serum creatinine of 3,6 mg/dl, BUN 45 mg/dl serum lithium 3,0 mEq/L with polyuria defined as more than 3 litres a day. EEG and ECG were abnormal. CT brain scanning and lumbar puncture were negative for brain haemorrage or infection. Lithium toxicity causes impairment of renal concentration and encephalopathy due to lithium recirculation, a mechanism responsible for the so-called cerebro-renal syndrome, where dialysis plays an important role in treatment.The patient was treated with continous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) over 35 hours with gradual improvement of her general condition and efficacy of renal concentration. Our case highlights a few important points. Lithium nefrotoxicity and neurotoxicity can cause a cerebro-renal syndrome even when serum lithium levels are not particularly raised (2,5-3,5 mEq/L). Haemodialysis is the treatment of choice to reduce the molecular mechanisms of lithium-related changes in urinary concentration and reinstate dopaminergic activity in the brain.

  7. Lithium isotope effects in chemical exchange with (2,2,1) cryptand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.; Cairns, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Equilibrium single-stage separation factors were determined for three lithium - (2,2,1) cryptand two-phase chemical exchange systems. The equilibrated phases consisted of an aqueous solution of a lithium salt and a chloroform solution of lithium cryptate salt complex. Lithium-6 concentrated in the organic phase in all cases, and the lithium isotope exchange rate with (2,2,1) cryptand was rapid. The separation factors were α = 1.026 +- 0.006 (LiBr exchange), α = 1.035 +- 0.003 (LiTFA), and α = 1.041 +- 0.006 (LiTFA + HTFA), where TFA represents trifluoroacetate. These values were compared with separation factors of other lithium chemical exchange systems. This work has shown that separation factors are influenced by the choice of chemical species and parameters. It has also demonstrated that significant lithium isotope effects can be obtained without a valence change of the metal exchanging between the aquo and cryptate complexes

  8. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  9. Fabrication of lithium ceramic pellets, rings and single crystals for irradiation in BEATRIX-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagle, O.D.; Noda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    1989-04-01

    BEATRIX-II is an IEA sponsored experiment of lithium ceramic solid breeder materials in the FFTF/MOTA. Li 2 O solid pellets and annular ring specimens were fabricated for in-situ tritium release tests. In addition, a series of single crystal and polycrystalline lithium ceramic samples were fabricated to determine the irradiation behavior and beryllium compatibility. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  11. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  12. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  13. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Fedorov, A.V.; Veen, A. van; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Single crystals of MgO(100) were implanted with 10 16 6 Li ions cm -2 at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical absorption spectroscopy and depth-sensitive Doppler Broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). A strong increase in the S-parameter is observed in the implantation layer at a depth of approximately 100 nm. The high value of the S-parameter is ascribed to positron annihilation in small lithium precipitates. The results of 2D-ACAR and X-TEM analysis show evidence of the presence of lithium precipitates. The depth distribution of the implanted 6 Li atoms was monitored with neutron depth profiling (NDP). It was observed that detrapping and diffusion of 6 Li starts at an annealing temperature of 1200K. (orig.)

  14. Hyperfine structure of muonic lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Martynenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of perturbation theory in fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the ratio of electron to muon masses we calculate recoil corrections of order $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2\\ln(M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2$, $\\alpha^5(m_e/m_\\mu\\ln(m_e/m_\\mu$ to hyperfine splitting of the ground state in muonic lithium ions $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ and $(\\mu e ^7_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$. We obtain total results for the ground state small hyperfine splittings in $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ $\\Delta\

  15. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on serum lithium level and mental state in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Nazar, Zahid; Akhtar, Javaid; Akhter, Javed; Irfan, Muhammad; Irafn, Mohammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ejaz Hassan; Khatak, Ijaz Hassan; Naeem, Farooq

    2010-11-01

    The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder and on prophylactic lithium therapy before, during and after Ramadan. Sixty-two patients meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Research Diagnostic Criteria of bipolar affective disorder receiving lithium treatment for prophylaxis were recruited in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Serum lithium, electrolytes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were assessed at three points, 1 week before Ramadan, midRamadan and 1 week after Ramadan. The side effects and toxicity were measured by a symptoms and signs checklist. There was no significant difference in mean serum lithium levels at three time points (preRamadan=0.45±0.21, midRamadan=0.51±0.20 and postRamadan=0.44±0.23 milli equivalents/litre, P=0.116). The scores on HDRS and YMRS showed significant decrease during Ramadan (F=34.12, P=0.00, for HDRS and F=15.6, P=0.000 for YMRS). The side effects and toxicity also did not differ significantly at three points. In conclusion, the patients who have stable mental state and lithium levels before Ramadan can be maintained on lithium during Ramadan. Fasting in an average temperature of 28°C for up to 12 h per day did not result in elevated serum lithium levels or more side effects and did not have adverse effects on mental state of patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder.

  16. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino, E-mail: gioacchino.micciche@enea.it [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Frisoni, Manuela [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Bologna I-40129, BO Italy (Italy); Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Frascati I-0044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Tincani, Amelia [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Di Maio, PieroAlessandro [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Knaepen, Bernard [Université libre de Bruxelles, I-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far.

  17. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino; Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro; Frisoni, Manuela; Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa; Tincani, Amelia; Di Maio, PieroAlessandro; Knaepen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far

  18. Lithium ferrite: The study on magnetic and complex permittivity characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavaprasad Dasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ferrite (Li0.5Fe2.5O4 powder was prepared by solid state reaction method, which was finally pressed and sintered at 1150 °C. The spinel structure of the lithium ferrite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and grain size estimation was obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of primary and secondary absorption bands characteristic for spinel structure. The force constants were estimated using absorption bands for the lithium ferrite. Magnetization and dielectric studies were carried out for the sintered sample. Saturation magnetization (Ms of 59.6 emu/g was achieved and variation of magnetization with temperature was used to identify the Curie temperature. The complex permittivity (ε∗ for the lithium ferrite sample was obtained for wide frequency range up to 3 GHz and discussed based on available models. The Curie temperature was estimated around 480 °C and verified from both magnetization versus temperature and dielectric constant versus temperature measurements.

  19. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  20. Development of lithium doped radiation resistent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Lithium-doped solar cells have been fabricated with initial lot efficiencies averaging 11.9 percent in an air mass zero (AMO) solar simulator and a maximum observed efficiency of 12.8 percent. The best lithium-doped solar cells are approximately 15 percent higher in maximum power than state-of-the-art n-p cells after moderate to high fluences of 1-MeV electrons and after 6-7 months exposure to low flux irradiation by a Sr-90 beta source, which approximates the electron spectrum and flux associated with near Earth space. Furthermore, lithium-doped cells were found to degrade at a rate only one tenth that of state-of-the-art n-p cells under 28-MeV electron irradiation. Excellent progress has been made in quantitative predictions of post-irradiation current-voltage characteristics as a function of cell design by means of capacitance-voltage measurements, and this information has been used to achieve further improvements in lithium-doped cell design.

  1. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  2. Performance Projections For The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.L.; Berzak, T.; Gray, R.; Kaita, T.; Kozub, F.; Levinton, D.P.; Lundberg, J.; Manickam, G.V.; Pereverzev, K.; Snieckus, V.; Soukhanovskii, J.; Spaleta, D.; Stotler, T.; Strickler, J.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Zakharov, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium limiter in the CDX-U tokamak produced the largest relative increase (an enhancement factor of 5-10) in Ohmic tokamak confinement ever observed. The confinement results from CDX-U do not agree with existing scaling laws, and cannot easily be projected to the new lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). Numerical simulations of CDX-U low recycling discharges have now been performed with the ASTRA-ESC code with a special reference transport model suitable for a diffusion-based confinement regime, incorporating boundary conditions for nonrecycling walls, with fueling via edge gas puffing. This model has been successful at reproducing the experimental values of the energy confinement (4-6 ms), loop voltage (<0.5 V), and density for a typical CDX-U lithium discharge. The same transport model has also been used to project the performance of the LTX, in Ohmic operation, or with modest neutral beam injection (NBI). NBI in LTX, with a low recycling wall of liquid lithium, is predicted to result in core electron and ion temperatures of 1-2 keV, and energy confinement times in excess of 50 ms. Finally, the unique design features of LTX are summarized

  3. Phase transition and hysteresis in a rechargeable lithium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko [Kemijski Institut Ljubljana Slovenija (Slovenia). L10 Lab. for Materials Electrochemistry

    2007-07-01

    We develop a model which describes the evolution of a phase transition that occurs in some part of a rechargeable lithium battery during the process of charging/discharging. The model is capable to simulate hysteretic behavior of the voltage - charge characteristics. During discharging of the battery, the interstitial lattice sites of a small crystalline host system are filled up with lithium atoms and these are released again during charging. We show within the context of a sharp interface model that two mechanical phenomena go along with a phase transition that appears in the host system during supply and removal of lithium. At first the lithium atoms need more space than it is available by the interstitial lattice sites, which leads to a maximal relative change of the crystal volume of about 6%. Furthermore there is an interface between two adjacent phases that has very large curvature of the order of magnitude 100 m, which evoke here a discontinuity of the normal component of the stress. In order to simulate the dynamics of the phase transitions and in particular the observed hysteresis we establish a new initial and boundary value problem for a nonlinear PDE system that can be reduced in some limiting case to an ODE system. (orig.)

  4. Improved capacity retention in rechargeable 4 V lithium/lithium manganese oxide (spinel) cells.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gummow, RJ

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available manganese-ion oxidation state marginally above 3.5. 1. Introduction Over the past decade, the spine1 LiMnzOd has been studied extensively as an electrode for rechargeable lithium cells [l-7]. When O6 8.19. 0...

  5. Strong lithium polysulfide chemisorption on electroactive sites of nitrogen-doped carbon composites for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail L; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; Wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm(-2)) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm(-2), which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  7. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  8. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  9. Lithium target simulation in TECHNOFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, C.; Arino, X.; Reig, J.; Aleman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to build a facility where testing, under neutronic irradiation, the necessary materials for the construction of future fusion reactors. The intention is produced irradiation in a controlled way by deuterons bombing on a high speed lithium surface specially designed for that.

  10. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  11. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-11-01

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  13. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  14. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  15. INTERACTION OF VERAPAMIL AND LITHIUM AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ON RAT ISOLATED MUSCLE-HEMIDIAPHRAGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sadeghipour

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cither lithium or verapamil can potentiate the neuromuscular blocking activity of certain neuromuscular blockers. In the present investigation, possible interaction of verapamil with lithium has been described. The dose ■ response effects of verapamil and lithium on diaphragmatic contractility were assessed in vitro. Mechanical responses of the muscle to indirect (nerve and direct (muscle electrical stimulation were recorded. Verapamil depressed rat diaphragm twitch tensions induced by nerve stimulation in a dose - dependent manner with the 50 percent depression of the original twitch tensions (ICSQ by 5.6 xlO^mmol/l."nThe IC50 of verapamil for direct stimulation of the muscle was LI x W'5 mmol II. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by lithium chloride (0.5, 1.5 and 5 mmol /1 in the medium did not change the depressant effect of verapamil on muscle twitches induced by direct (muscle or indirect (nerve electrical stimulation.

  16. Effect of the addition of lithium carbonate on the properties of low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshimura, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    1992-01-01

    For improvement of the properties of polyethylene (PE), γ-ray was irradiated to the lithium carbonate added PE. An increase in the numbers of OH and C=C bonds was observed from FT-IR measurements. The melting temperature (or the vanishing temperature of crystallinity by X-ray diffraction) of the lithium carbonate added PE after γ-ray irradiation (10 6 Gy) was 20degC higher than that of the PE's with no additives and with quartz added PE. The lamellae of lithium carbonate added PE were not observed in the scanning electron micrographs. This vanishing of lamellae of the lithium carbonate added PE was also suggested by the extinction of the maltese cross with a polarizing microscope. (author)

  17. Interaction between radiation-induced defects and lithium impurity atoms in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.D.; Daluda, Yu.N.; Emtsev, V.V.; Kervalishvili, P.D.; Mashovets, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on germanium doped with lithium in the course of extraction from a melt was studied. 60 Co γ-ray irradiation with the 6.2x10 12 cm -2 x1 -1 intensity was performed at 300 K. The temperature dependences of conductivity and Hall effect was studied in the 4.2-300 K range. It was shown that using this alloying technique lithium atoms in germanium were in a ''free'' state. It was found that on irradiation the lithium atom concentration decreases as a result of production of electrically inactive complexes with participation of lithium atoms. Besides this principal process secondary ones are observed: production of radiation donor-defects with the ionization energy Esub(c) of 80 MeV and compensating acceptors

  18. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L

    2015-01-01

    Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long...... stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium......-term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched...

  19. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies; Separacao isotopica de litio: estudos preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-07-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  20. Density determination in the TEXTOR boundary layer by laser-ablated fast lithium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented which allows a determination of electron density profiles in the plasma boundary of a fusion device up to some 10 13 cm -3 within about 100 μs. For this purpose, the complete attenuation of an injected lithium beam is determined by measuring its optical emission profile. The beam is generated by a ruby laser, which ablates small portions of a LiF coating with a thickness of about 1000 A from the rear side of a glass substrate. The produced lithium atoms have velocities of 1 x 10 6 cm/s and can penetrate into the plasma until n/sub e/ x l ≅1 x 10 13 cm -2 . For the measurement of the optical emission profile of the excited lithium atoms, a silicon photodiode array camera is used. The emission profile is then converted into an electron density profile with the help of the ionization rate for lithium atoms by electron impact

  1. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  2. Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Effects of various process parameters on the recovery of Li-from spent Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were investigated. From the experimental results it was observed that the leaching rate increases with speed of stirring till 450 rpm and then above 450 rpm; the increase in speed of stirring does not have any significant effect on the leaching rate as shown in the following figure. Effects of other parameters on the Li-recovery from spent Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles are discussed in this paper. Abstract: In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li{sup 6}) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, α nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li{sup 6} isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15–17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li{sup 6} isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li{sup 6} and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper.

  3. Lithium adsorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxides and gibbsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos P. Prodromou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li adsorption on both amorphous aluminum hydroxides and gibbsite was studied. For the amorphous Al(OH3 the adsorption was found to be pH dependent. Generally, 1.6 times more Li was adsorbed at initial pH value 8.0 compared with pH value 6.50. Gibbsite adsorbed 11.6 to 45.5 times less Li quantities compared with amorphous Al(OH3. Lithium adsorption was not depended on equilibrium times. It remained stable for all equilibrium times used. Lithium quantities extracted with 1N CH3COONH4 pH 7 , represent the physical adsorption, while the remaining Li that was adsorbed on Al(OH3, represents the chemical adsorption. During the desorption process 19% of Li extracted with NH4+, represents the physical adsorption, while the remaining 81% of Li, which was adsorbed represents the chemical adsorption. In gibbsite, 9.6% of Li represents the physical adsorption and 90.4% the chemical one. The experimental data conformed well to Freundlich isotherm equation.

  4. Early time interaction of lithium ions with the solar wind in the AMPTE mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Goodrich, C.C.; Mankofsky, A.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1986-01-01

    The early time interaction of an artificially injected lithium cloud with the solar wind is simulated with a one-dimensional hybrid code. Simulation results indicate that the lithium cloud presents an obstacle to the solar wind flow, forming a shock-like interaction region. Several notable features are found: (1) The magnetic field is enhanced up to a factor of about 6 followed by a magnetic cavity downstream. (2) Solar wind ions are slowed down inside the lithium cloud, with substantial upstream reflection. (3) Most of the lithium ions gradually pick up the velocity of the solar wind and move downstream. (4) Intense and short-wavelength electric fields exist ahead of the interaction region. (5) Strong electron heating occurs within the lithium clouds. (6) The convection electric field in the in the solar wind is modulated in the interaction region. The simulation results are in remarkable agreement with in situ spacecraft measurements made during lithium releases in the solar wind by the AMPTE (Active magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers) Program

  5. High pressure stability of lithium metatitanate and metazirconate: Insight from experiments & ab-initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Abhishek; Chakraborty, B.; Tripathi, B. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Garg, Nandini

    2018-02-01

    Lithium metatitanate (LTO) and lithium metazirconate (LZO) are lithium rich ceramics which can be used as tritium breeder materials for thermonuclear reactors. In-situ x-ray diffraction and ab-initio studies at high pressure show that LTO has a higher bulk modulus than that of LZO. In fact these studies indicate that they are the least compressible of the known lithium rich ceramics like Li2O or Li4SiO4, which are potential candidates for blanket materials. These studies show that the TiO6 octahedra are responsible for the higher bulk modulus of LTO when compared to that of LZO. It has also been shown that the compressibility and distortion of the softer LiO6 octahedra can be controlled by altering the stacking sequence of the more rigid covalently bonded octahedra. This knowledge can be used by chemists to design new lithium based ceramics with higher bulk modulus. It was observed that LTO was stable upto 34 GPa. Ab initio DFT calculations helped to understand the anisotropy in compressibility of both LZO and LTO. This study also shows, that even though the empirical potentials developed by Vijaykumar et al. successfully determine the ambient pressure structure of lithium metatitanate, they cannot be used at non ambient conditions like high pressure [1].

  6. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tun Tun Moe

    2011-12-01

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  7. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  8. Characterization of positive electrode/electrolyte interphase in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, N.; Martin, J.F.; Soudan, P.; Guyomard, D. [Inst.des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    Lithium batteries appear to be the most viable energy source for portable electronic devices because of their energy density. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the negative electrode and the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery monitors the overall battery behaviour in terms of irreversible capacity loss, charge transfer kinetics and storage properties. This paper reported on a study that examined the influence of the storage atmosphere and the formation of a protective surface layer on the electrochemical performance. The objective was to better understand the interfacial problems controlling the long term life duration and cyclability. The positive/electrolyte interphase evolution was followed upon aging/cycling using 7Li MAS NMR, XPS and impedance spectroscopy. This very novel and uncommon technique was used to characterize the growth and evolution of the surface of some electrode materials for lithium batteries, due to contact with the ambient atmosphere or electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 were chosen for the studies because they are among the most promising candidates for positive electrodes for future lithium batteries. The reaction of LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 with the ambient atmosphere or LiPF6 electrolyte is extremely fast and leads to an important amount of lithium-containing diamagnetic species. The NMR spectra provided valuable structural information on the interaction between the interphase and the active material after contact with electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. MAS NMR was shown to be a very promising tool to monitor phenomena taking place at the interface between electrode and electrolyte in lithium batteries. The study showed the affect of the potential on the strength of the interaction between the surface layer and the active material and the partial removal of this layer along the electrochemical cycling. 11 refs.

  9. Direct tritium measurement in lithium titanate for breeding blanket mock-up experiments with D-T neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klix, A.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Takahashi, A.

    2004-01-01

    At Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI, tritium breeding experiments with blanket mock-ups consisting of advanced fusion reactor materials are in progress. The breeding zones are thin layers of lithium titanate which is one of the candidate tritium breeder materials for the DEMO fusion power reactor. It is anticipated that the application of small pellet-shaped lithium titanate detectors manufactured from the same material as the breeding layer will reduce experimental uncertainties arising from necessary corrections due to different isotopic lithium volume concentrations in breeding material and detector. Therefore, a method was developed to measure the local tritium production by means of lithium titanate pellet detectors and a liquid scintillation counting technique. The lithium titanate pellets were dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid solution and the resulting acidic solution was neutralized. Two ways of further processing were followed: direct incorporation into a liquid scintillation cocktail and distillation of the solution followed by mixing with liquid scintillator. Two types of lithium titanate pellets were investigated with different 6 Li enrichment and manufacturing procedure. It was found that lithium titanate is suitable for tritium production measurements. However some discrepancies in the measurement accuracy remained with one of the investigated pellet detectors when compared with a well-established lithium carbonate measurement technique and this issue needs further investigation

  10. NMR study of thermal decomposition of lithium tetrahydroaluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.P.; Bakum, S.I.; Kuznetsova, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lithium aluminotetrahydrides and deuterides, LiAlH 4 and LiAlD 4 , was studied by 1 H, 7 Li, 27 Al NMR in 20-700 deg C range. 20-30 time constriction of resonance lines of studied nuclei at 170 deg C testifies to melting of the compounds. It is shown that at LiAlD 4 melting point the first stage of pyrolysis is described by two parallel reactions: LiAlD 4 -> LiD + Al + D 2 , LiAlD 4 + LiD -> Li 3 AlD 6 , which proceed with different rates. It was revealed that reactions of lithium hydride (deuteride) with metallic aluminium at temperatures above 400 deg C resulted to formation of intermetallic compounds of LiAl and LiAl 3 composition. LiAl is characterized by higher thermal stability, than LiAl 3 . 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  12. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  13. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  14. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking

  15. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  16. Structural studies on actinides carboxylates. 3. Preparation, properties and crystal structure of lithium glutarate hydrogenglutarate dioxouranate(VI)tetrahydrate UO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 6/O/sub 4/)Li(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 4/). 4H/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetollo, F; Bombieri, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi; Herrero, J A; Rojas, R M

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis, thermal behaviour and crystal structure of lithium glutaratehydrogenglutaratedioxouranate(VI) tetrahydrate is described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2/sub 1//n. The two glutarato ligands behave differently; one is bridging the uranyl groups in infinite chains running approximately in the a axis direction, the second is bridging the uranyl and the lithium ions. The carboxylic groups are chelated on the uranium and monodentate on the lithium. The structure is linked through a network of hydrogen bonding involving water molecules and oxygen atoms from the carboxylato groups. The geometry around the uranium is approximately hexagonal bipyramidal while the lithium is tetrahedrally coordinated with one glutarate oxygen and 3 water oxygens.

  17. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  18. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  19. Abundance of lithium in Pleiades F stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Booth, J.; Hobbs, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of lithium has been determined for 18 stars in the Pleiades cluster with spectral types from A7V to G0V. The pronounced dip in the lithium abundance among the mid-F stars which has been reported for other, older star clusters is not present in the Pleiades. The removal of lithium from the surfaces of middle-F dwarfs therefore occurs principally after about 100 Myr on the main sequence. 25 references

  20. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  1. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li–metal, Li–O2, and Li–S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3–4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable...... combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium–metal (Li–metal), lithium–oxygen (Li–O2......), and lithium–sulfur (Li–S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability....

  2. Clinical investigation of 131I therapy combined with low-dose lithium carbonate for Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiqing; Wu Bian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical curative effects of 131 I therapy combined with low-dose lithium carbonate for Graves disease. Methods: Patients with Graves disease took lithium carbonate (250 mg, once per day) orally for 5 weeks. Then they were treated with 131 I (doses=3.15 MBq(80 uCi)/g, based on 60%-70% of the thyroid size). We kept track from 6 to 24 months (averaging 14 months) and classified the results into three: cured, improved or no effect. Results: After a single cycle of 131 I therapy combined with low-dose lithium carbonate, 106 patients with Graves disease were cured, 28 were improved and 8 saw no effects, respectively 74.6%, 19.7% and 5.6% among the 142 patients. We then treated 23 of them with another 131 I therapy (without lithium carbonate). 10 of such were cured (43.5%), 8 were improved (34.8%) and the other 5 saw no effects. Among all patients, hypothyroidism was observed from 25(17.6%), 6 months after the first 131 I therapy. Conclusions: Notable curative results were observed from 131 I therapy combined with low-dose lithium carbonate for Graves disease. Moreover, the dosage of 131 I was therefore decreased, which also lowered the toxicity response. (authors)

  3. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  4. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  5. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  7. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  8. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Palacios G, O.; Bosch G, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  9. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  10. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba, M. Isabel [Group of Research in Applied Thermal Engineering-CREVER, Mechanical Engineering Dept. (Spain); Larrechi, M. Soledad, E-mail: mariasoledad.larrechi@urv.cat [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Dept., Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Coronas, Alberto [Group of Research in Applied Thermal Engineering-CREVER, Mechanical Engineering Dept. (Spain)

    2016-05-05

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI < LiBr < LiNO{sub 3} < LiCl. The salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5–48.3% for LiCl, 60.4–61.2% for LiI and 60.3–63.7% for LiNO{sub 3}. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water. • The absorption capacity of the electrolytes in function of the salt is evaluated. • The lithium salt concentration is estimated when the crystal formation is favored.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, M. Isabel; Larrechi, M. Soledad; Coronas, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI < LiBr < LiNO_3 < LiCl. The salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5–48.3% for LiCl, 60.4–61.2% for LiI and 60.3–63.7% for LiNO_3. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water. • The absorption capacity of the electrolytes in function of the salt is evaluated. • The lithium salt concentration is estimated when the crystal formation is favored.

  12. Phase space investigation of the lithium amide halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Rosalind A. [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hewett, David R.; Korkiakoski, Emma [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Anderson, Paul A., E-mail: p.a.anderson@bham.ac.uk [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The lower limits of halide incorporation in lithium amide have been investigated. • The only amide iodide stoichiometry observed was Li{sub 3}(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}I. • Solid solutions were observed in both the amide chloride and amide bromide systems. • A 46% reduction in chloride content resulted in a new phase: Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Cl. • New low-chloride phase maintained improved H{sub 2} desorption properties of Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl. - Abstract: An investigation has been carried out into the lower limits of halide incorporation in lithium amide (LiNH{sub 2}). It was found that the lithium amide iodide Li{sub 3}(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}I was unable to accommodate any variation in stoichiometry. In contrast, some variation in stoichiometry was accommodated in Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Br, as shown by a decrease in unit cell volume when the bromide content was reduced. The amide chloride Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl was found to adopt either a rhombohedral or a cubic structure depending on the reaction conditions. Reduction in chloride content generally resulted in a mixture of phases, but a new rhombohedral phase with the stoichiometry Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Cl was observed. In comparison to LiNH{sub 2}, this new low-chloride phase exhibited similar improved hydrogen desorption properties as Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl but with a much reduced weight penalty through addition of chloride. Attempts to dope lithium amide with fluoride ions have so far proved unsuccessful.

  13. Conductivity of liquid lithium electrolytes with dispersed mesoporous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, K.; Roggenbuck, J.; Krawczyk, N.; Buschmann, H.; Luerßen, B.; Fröba, M.; Janek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conductivity of disperse lithium electrolytes with mesoporous fillers is studied. ► In contrast to other investigations in literature, no conductivity enhancement could be observed for standard battery electrolytes and typical mesoporous fillers in various combinations. ► Disperse electrolytes can become relevant in terms of battery safety. ► Dispersions of silicas and electrolyte with LiPF 6 as conducting salt are not stable, although the silicas were dried prior to preparation and the electrolyte water content was controlled. Surface modification of the fillers improved the stability. ► The observed conductivity decrease varied considerably for various fillers. - Abstract: The electrical conductivity of disperse electrolytes was systematically measured as a function of temperature (0 °C to 60 °C) and filler content for different types of fillers with a range of pore geometry, pore structure and specific surface area. As fillers mesoporous silicas SBA-15, MCM-41 and KIT-6 with pore ranges between 3 nm and 15 nm were dispersed in commercially available liquid lithium electrolytes. As electrolytes 1 M of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) at the ratio 3:7 (wt/wt) and the same solvent mixture with 0.96 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imide (LiTFSI) were used. No conductivity enhancement could be observed, but with respect to safety aspects the highly viscous disperse pastes might be useful. The conductivity decrease varied considerably for the different fillers.

  14. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  15. The accomplishments of lithium target and test facility validation activities in the IFMIF/EVEDA phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Frederik; Baluc, Nadine; Favuzza, Paolo; Gröschel, Friedrich; Heidinger, Roland; Ibarra, Angel; Knaster, Juan; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Massaut, Vincent; Saverio Nitti, Francesco; Miccichè, Gioacchino; O'hira, Shigeru; Rapisarda, David; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Wakai, Eiichi; Yokomine, Takehiko

    2018-01-01

    As part of the engineering validation and engineering design activities (EVEDA) phase for the international fusion materials irradiation facility IFMIF, major elements of a lithium target facility and the test facility were designed, prototyped and validated. For the lithium target facility, the EVEDA lithium test loop was built at JAEA and used to test the stability (waves and long term) of the lithium flow in the target, work out the startup procedures, and test lithium purification and analysis. It was confirmed by experiments in the Lifus 6 plant at ENEA that lithium corrosion on ferritic martensitic steels is acceptably low. Furthermore, complex remote handling procedures for the remote maintenance of the target in the test cell environment were successfully practiced. For the test facility, two variants of a high flux test module were prototyped and tested in helium loops, demonstrating their good capabilities of maintaining the material specimens at the desired temperature with a low temperature spread. Irradiation tests were performed for heated specimen capsules and irradiation instrumentation in the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The small specimen test technique, essential for obtaining material test results with limited irradiation volume, was advanced by evaluating specimen shape and test technique influences.

  16. Kinetics that govern the release of tritium from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory requires that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g, bred in both LBM lithium oxide pellets and gram-size lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +/-6%. This thesis reports two satisfactory methods of assaying LBM pellets and one satisfactory method of assaying lithium samples. Results of a fundamental kinetic investigation are also reported. The thermally driven release of tritium from neutron-irradiated lithium oxide pellets is studied between the temperatures of 300 and 400 0 C. The observed release clearly obeys first-order kinetics, and the governing activation energy appears to be 28.4 kcal/mole. Finally, a model is presented that may explain the thermally driven release of tritium from a lithium oxide crystal and assemblies thereof. It predicts that under most circumstances the release is controlled by either the diffusion of a tritiated species through the crystal, or by the desorption of tritiated water from it

  17. Use of acetazolamide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, Ricardo A; da Silva, Tiago Nunes; Silva, Joana Rego; Ferreira, Ana Gonçalves; Bravo, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients. Treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus might be challenging.Vasopressin, amiloride and thiazide diuretics have been used in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus treatment.Acetazolamide might be an option to treat lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus patients who fail to respond to standard treatment.The use of acetazolamide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus must be monitored, including its effects on glomerular filtration rate.

  18. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticles as a Low Cost Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarova, Marzhana; Koishybay, Aibolat; Yesibolati, Nulati; Mentbayeva, Almagul; Umirov, Nurzhan; Ismailov, Kairat; Adair, Desmond; Babaa, Moulay-Rachid; Kurmanbayeva, Indira; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate KNi[Fe(CN) 6 ] (NiHCF) was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and investigated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of pure phase of agglomerated NiHCF nanoparticles of about 20–50 nm in size. The material exhibited stable cycling performance as a cathode in a lithium half-cell within a wide range of current densities, and a working potential around 3.3 V vs. Li + /Li. The lithium ion diffusion coefficient in this system was determined to be in a range of 10 −9 to 10 −8 cm 2 s −1 , which is within the values for the cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high rate capability. Considering promising electrochemical performance and attractive lithium-ion diffusion properties of this material along with its economical benefits and simplified preparation, NiHCF could be considered as a very promising cathode for large scale lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the anisotropic strain effects on lithium diffusion in graphite anodes: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Junqian

    2018-06-01

    The lithium diffusion in graphite anode, which is the most widely used commercial electrode material today, affects the charge/discharge performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, the anisotropic strain effects on lithium diffusion in graphite anodes are systematically investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals corrections. It is found that the effects of external applied strains along various directions of LixC6 (i.e., perpendicular or parallel to the basal planes of the graphite host) on lithium diffusivity are different. Along the direction perpendicular to the graphite planes, the tensile strain facilitates in-plane Li diffusion by reducing the energy barrier, and the compressive strain hinders in-plane Li diffusion by raising the energy barrier. In contrast, the in-plane biaxial tensile strain (parallel to the graphite planes) hinders in-plane Li diffusion, and the in-plane biaxial compressive strain facilitates in-plane Li diffusion. Furthermore, both in-plane and transverse shear strains slightly influence Li diffusion in graphite anodes. A discussion is presented to explain the anisotropic strain dependence of lithium diffusion. This research provides data for the continuum modelling of the electrodes in the lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Solid NMR study of lithium ions accommodated in various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Noriko

    2008-01-01

    Solid NMR was used to elucidate the lithium accommodation/extraction reaction in various transition metal oxides. The first study was the lithium ion exchange reaction of titanium antimonic acid (TiSbA). The effect of hydration on the selectivity of lithium ion in the solid phase was examined using 7 Li NMR. The second study was the irreversible ion exchange behavior of HNbO 3 . The selectivity for the lithium ion and the irreversible behavior were examined using 1 H and 7 Li NMR. The third study was the isotope separation between 6 Li and 7 Li in various inorganic ion exchangers. The high isotope separation coefficient was ascribed to the degree of dehydration during the ion exchange reaction. The degree of dehydration was examined by 1 H and 7 Li NMR studies. The last study was determining the mechanism of the lithium accommodation/extraction reaction of λ-MnO 2 in an aqueous solution. The different paths between the accommodation and extraction and the formation of MnO 4- during the accommodation were determined by chemical analysis. The Knight shift in the 7 Li MAS-NMR spectra of Li 0.5 MnO 2 suggested the localization of the electron density on the lithium nuclei. An XPS study also suggested the presence of an electron density on the lithium nuclei. A pH-independent redox couple was assumed to account for the accommodation/extraction reaction of lithium ions, such as Li(I)/Li(0). (author)

  2. Lithium-rich very metal-poor stars discovered with LAMOST and Subaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Wako; Li, Haining; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Lithium is a unique element that is produced in the Big Bang nucleosynthesis but is destroyed by nuclear reactions inside stars. As a result, almost constant lithium abundance is found in unevolved main-sequence metal-poor stars, although the value is systematically lower than that expected from the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis models, whereas lithium abundances of red giants are more than one order of magnitudes lower than those of unevolved stars. There are, however, a small fraction of metal-poor stars that show extremely high lithium abundances, which is not explained by standard stellar evolution models. We have discovered 12 new very metal-poor stars that have enhancement of lithium by more than 10 times compared with typical metal-poor stars at similar evolutionary stages by the large-scale spectroscopic survey with LAMOST and the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy with the Subaru Telescope. The sample shows a wide distribution of evolutionary stages from subgiants to red giants with the metallicity of -3.3 <[Fe/H]< -1.6. The chemical abundance ratios of other elements have been obtained by our spectroscopic study, and an estimate of the binary frequency by radial velocity monitoring is ongoing. The observational results provide new constraints on the scenarios to explain lithium-rich metal-poor stars, such as extra mixing during the evolution along the red giant branch, mass-transfer from a companion AGB star, and engulfment of planet-like objects. These explanations are very unlikely for at least some of lithium-rich objects in our sample, suggesting a new mechanism that enhances lithium during the low-mass star evolution.

  3. The tin-rich copper lithium stannides: Li{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}CuSn{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Flandorfer, Hans [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry (Materials Chemisrty); Effenberger, Herta S. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    2015-05-01

    The Sn rich ternary intermetallic compounds Li{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4} (CSD-427097) and Li{sub 2}CuSn{sub 2} (CSD-427098) were synthesized from the pure elements by induction melting and annealing at 400 C. Structural investigations were performed by powder- and single-crystal XRD. Li{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4} crystallizes in space group P6/mmm; it is structurally related to but not isotypic with MgFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} (a = 5.095(2) Aa, c = 9.524(3) Aa; wR{sub 2} = 0.059; 239 unique F{sup 2}-values, 17 free variables). Li{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4} is characterized by two sites with a mixed Cu:Sn occupation. In contrast to all other Cu-Li-Sn compounds known so far, any mixed occupation was found for Cu-Li pairs only. In addition, one Li site is only half occupied. The second Sn rich phase is Li{sub 2}CuSn{sub 2} (space group I4{sub 1}/amd, a = 4.4281(15) Aa, c = 19.416(4) Aa; wR{sub 2} = 0.033; 213 unique F{sup 2}-values, 12 atom free variables); it is the only phase in the Cu-Li-Sn system which is noted for full ordering. Both crystal structures exhibit 3D-networks which host Li atoms in channels. They are important for understanding the lithiation mechanism in Cu-Sn electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

  4. Lithium Pharmacogenetics: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Melis, Carla; Squassina, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 0.8-1.2% in the general population. Although lithium is considered the first-line treatment, a large percentage of patients do not respond sufficiently. Moreover, lithium can induce severe side effects and has poor tolerance and a narrow therapeutic index. The genetics of lithium response has been largely investigated, but findings have so far failed to identify reliable biomarkers to predict clinical response. This has been largely determined by the highly complex phenotipic and genetic architecture of lithium response. To this regard, collaborative initiatives hold the promise to provide robust and standardized methods to disantenagle this complexity, as well as the capacity to collect large samples of patietnts, a crucial requirement to study the genetics of complex phenotypes. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently published the largest study so far on lithium response reporting significant associations for two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This result provides relevant insights into the pharmacogenetics of lithium supporting the involvement of the noncoding portion of the genome in modulating clinical response. Although a vast body of research is engaged in dissecting the genetic bases of response to lithium, the several drawbacks of lithium therapy have also stimulated multiple efforts to identify new safer treatments. A drug repurposing approach identified ebselen as a potential lithium mimetic, as it shares with lithium the ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase. Ebselen, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase mimetic, represents a valid and promising example of new potential therapeutic interventions for BD, but the paucity of data warrant further investigation to elucidate its potential efficacy and safety in the management of BPD. Nevertheless, findings provided by the growing field of pharmacogenomic

  5. Preliminary design and analysis of a process for the extraction of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    1975-09-01

    The U.S. demand for lithium by the industrial sector and by a fusion power economy in the future is discussed. For a one million MW(e) CTR (D-T fuel cycle) economy, growing into the beginning of the next century (the years 2000 to 2030), the cumulative demand for lithium is estimated to range from (0.55 to 4.7) x 10 7 to 1.0 x 10 9 kg. Present estimates of the available U.S. supply are 6.9 x 10 8 kg of lithium from mineral resources and 4.0 x 10 9 kg of lithium from concentrated natural brines. There is, however, a vast supply of lithium in seawater: 2.5 x 10 14 kg. A preliminary process design for the extraction of lithium from seawater is presented: seawater is first evaporated by solar energy to increase the concentration of lithium and to decrease the concentration of other cations in the bittern which then passes into a Dowex-50 ion exchange bed for cation adsorption. Lithium ions are then eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid forming an aqueous lithium chloride which is subsequently concentrated and electrolyzed. The energy requirement for lithium extraction varies between 0.08 and 2.46 kWh(e)/gm for a range of production rates varying between 10 4 and 10 8 kg/y; this is small compared to the energy produced from the use of lithium in a CTR having a value of 3400 kWh(e)/g Li. Production cost of the process is estimated to be in the range of 2.2 to 3.2 cents/g Li. As a basis for the process design, it is recommended that a phase equilibria study of the solid--liquid crystallization processes of seawater be conducted. Uncertainties exist in the operation of large solar ponds for concentrating large quantities of seawater. A search for a highly selective adsorbent or extractant for Li from low concentration aqueous solutions should be made. Other physical separation processes such as using membranes should be investigated. 9 tables

  6. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode at high cutoff voltage by modifying electrode/electrolyte interface with lithium metasilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiale; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Bi, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaojiang; Peng, Yiyuan; Li, Yiqing; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrochemical properties of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode are investigated at high voltage of 4.6 V. •The Li 2 SiO 3 suppresses the decomposition of LiPF 6 and carbonate solvents. •Li 2 SiO 3 helpfully retards the transition metal dissolution by consuming HF. •The enhanced electrochemical properties of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode mixed with Li 2 SiO 3 . -- Abstract: Developing high-voltage Li ion batteries (LIBs) is an important trend to meet the requirement of high energy density battery. However, high voltage will cause a series of problems harming the cycle performance of LIBs at the same time. This work is to investigate the effect of inorganic substance Li 2 SiO 3 on the electrochemical performance of LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 (NCM622) cathode at high cutoff voltage of 4.6 V. XRD result shows that the structure of NCM622 cathode material is not affected by mixing Li 2 SiO 3 . However, XPS and EIS tests indicate that Li 2 SiO 3 has an evident influence on suppressing the decomposition of LiPF 6 and carbonate solvents at high voltage, reducing interfacial solid film impedance and modifying electrode/electrolyte interface. In addition, Li 2 SiO 3 retards the transition metal dissolution by consuming HF. Therefore, it enhances the electrochemical properties of the NCM622 cathode significantly. The highest discharge capacity increases to 191.7 mA h g -1 by mixing Li 2 SiO 3 , compared with the value of 180 mA h g -1 in the case of NCM622 cathode. The NCM622 electrode mixed with Li 2 SiO 3 also exhibits a better capacity retention of 73.4% after 200 cycles and a high rate capability at 20C with the value of 89 mA h g -1 , in contrast with 62.2% and 31 mA h g -1 attained in the NCM622 cathode.

  7. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  8. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  9. The text neutral lithium beam edge density diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howald, A.M.; McChesney, J.M.; West, W.P.

    1994-07-01

    A fast neutral lithium beam has been installed on the TEXT tokamak for Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) studies of the edge plasma electron density profile. The diagnostic was recently upgraded from ten to twenty spatial channels, each of which has two detectors, one to measure lithium beam signal and one to monitor plasma background light. The spatial resolution is 6 mm, and the temporal resolution is designed to be as high as 10 ms for studies of transient events including plasma density fluctuations. Initial results are presented from the ten-channel system: Edge electron densities unfolded from the LiI(2 s 2 S - 2 p 2 P) 670.8 nm emission profile have the same general time dependence as the line-averaged density measured by microwave interferometry

  10. Preparation of Tritium from irradiated lithium compounds (study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the selection of a certain scheme for release, collection, measurement and analysis of Tritium as produced in Lithium compounds (Li[sub 2]O, LiOH, Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3] LiF and some Lithium alloys) in accordance with the [sup 6]Li(n, [alpha])T reaction. Tritium technology is of vital concern to power reactor programmes as well as to fusion technology. Meanwhile the fields of activity include, tritium generation and mangement in fission and fusion reactors; enviromental studies, release modeling HT/HTO conversion and dose assessments, absorption/ deabsorption, monitoring and plant design; research and development, labeling, compatibility and physical chemical properties.

  11. Shock-induced luminescence from Z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Shock-induced luminescence from lithium niobate has been studied in the stress range 1.6--21.0 GPa. Both fast-framing photography and five-channel optical pyrometry were used to observe the luminescence. The framing photography showed that the emission pattern is heterogeneous for stresses just above the dynamic yield point. A further increase of the stress resulted in a pattern which was essentially homogeneous to within the experimental spatial resolution of about 30 μm. Narrowband filters and photomultiplier tubes were used in the optical pyrometry experiments. A broadband spectrum with a peak near 700 nm was observed. A plot of the energy dissipated by the shock versus shock stress correlates very well with a plot of the 700-nm intensity versus shock stress. The mechanism for light emission in lithium niobate appears to be closely related to the dynamic yielding process

  12. Mixed-carbon-coated LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 nanopowders with excellent high rate and low temperature performances for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Bang-Kun; Wang, He-Yang; Qiang, Zi-Yue; Shao, Yu; Sun, Xin; Wen, Zhao-Yin; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ascorbic acid acts as both an antioxidant and a surfactant to form organic groups (first carbon source) on the surface of as-solvothermal products, in which the −OH (or H_2O) groups of glucose (second carbon source) are closely bonded to the surface to form a uniform adsorption layer. Uniform mixed-carbon-coated LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 nanopowders are formed after calcination, which demonstrate excellent electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Ascorbic acid acts as both an antioxidant and a first-time carbon coating source. • Reaction mechanisms of the synthesis are carefully studied. • Mixed-carbon-coated LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 nanopowders process excellent high rate and low temperature performances. - Abstract: A novel solvothermal approach with ascorbic acid as both an antioxidant and a first-time carbon coating source is developed to synthesize LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 nano-particles with a uniform particle size distribution around 150 nm. A calcination step for the second-time carbon coating and further crystallization is adopted following the solvothermal step. The structures and electrochemical properties of the obtained samples are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared, Infrared carbon-sulfur analyzer and galvanostatic cell cycling. Ascorbic acid plays a crucial role in the formation of uniform carbon layer and nano-particles. Compared with single-carbon-coated LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 without adding ascorbic acid, the mixed-carbon-coated LiMn_0_._4Fe_0_._6PO_4 shows much better electrochemical performance. It can deliver specific capacities of 154.8 and 128.5 mAh g"−"1 at 1C and 20C, respectively, at 25 °C. Even at −20 °C, its specific capacities are 106.6 and 68.8 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2C and 5C, respectively.

  13. Effect of solvent blending on cycling characteristics of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu

    1987-07-01

    The suitability of electrolytes using mixed solvents has been examined for ambient temperature, rechargeable lithium batteries. Sulfolane (S) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been used as base solvents because of their high permittivity, and ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) have been blended as a low viscosity co-solvent. This blending has been found to yield electrolytes with a high conductivity, and maximum values are observed in solutions with 40-90 mol% ether. The cycling characteristics of lithium are also improved by blending the ethers. The coulombic efficiencies on a nickel substrate are greater than or equal to 80% in S-DME/LiPF/sub 6/ and DMSO-DME/LiPF/sub 6/ solutions. The lithium electrode characteristics are markedly dependent on the type of co-solvent ether, as well as on the electrolytic salt. The results of the conductance behaviour and the electrode characteristics are discussed in terms of ionic structure in the mixed solvent and the state of the electrode/electrolyte interphase.

  14. Hierarchical Li1.2 Ni0.2 Mn0.6 O2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lai; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Li, Ning; Bao, Liying; Li, Weikang; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Meng; Wu, Feng

    2014-10-22

    Hierarchical Li1.2 Ni0.2 Mn0.6 O2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes are designed and synthesized. In combination with the advantages from the hierarchical archi-tecture and the exposed electrochemically active {010} planes of layered materials, this material satisfies both efficient ion and electron transport and thus shows superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tritium release from lithium silicate and lithium aluminate, in-reactor and out-of-reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1976-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the generation and evolution of tritium and helium in lithium aluminate (LiAlO/sub 2/) and lithium silicate (Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/) by the reaction: Li/sup 6/ + n ..-->.. /sup 4/He + T. Targets were irradiated 4.4 days in the K-West Reactor snout facility. (Silicate GVR* approximately 2.0 cc/cc; aluminate GVR approximately 1.4 cc/cc.) Gas release in-reactor was determined by post-irradiation drilling experiments on aluminum ampoules containing silicate and aluminate targets. In-reactor tritium release (at approximately 100/sup 0/C) was found to decrease linearly with increasing target density. Tritium released in-reactor was primarily in the noncondensible form (HT and T/sub 2/), while in laboratory extractions (300-1300/sup 0/C), the tritium appeared primarily in the condensible form (HTO and T/sub 2/O). Concentrations of HT (and presumably HTO) were relatively high, indicating moisture pickup in canning operations or by inleakage of moisture after the capsule was welded. Impurities in extracted gases included H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, NO, SO/sub 2/, SiF/sub 4/ and traces of hydrocarbons.

  16. Tritium release from lithium silicate and lithium aluminate, in-reactor and out-of-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1976-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the generation and evolution of tritium and helium in lithium aluminate (LiAlO 2 ) and lithium silicate (Li 2 SiO 3 ) by the reaction: Li 6 + n → 4 He + T. Targets were irradiated 4.4 days in the K-West Reactor snout facility. (Silicate GVR* approximately 2.0 cc/cc; aluminate GVR approximately 1.4 cc/cc.) Gas release in-reactor was determined by post-irradiation drilling experiments on aluminum ampoules containing silicate and aluminate targets. In-reactor tritium release (at approximately 100 0 C) was found to decrease linearly with increasing target density. Tritium released in-reactor was primarily in the noncondensible form (HT and T 2 ), while in laboratory extractions (300-1300 0 C), the tritium appeared primarily in the condensible form (HTO and T 2 O). Concentrations of HT (and presumably HTO) were relatively high, indicating moisture pickup in canning operations or by inleakage of moisture after the capsule was welded. Impurities in extracted gases included H 2 O, CO 2 , CO, O 2 , H 2 , NO, SO 2 , SiF 4 and traces of hydrocarbons

  17. A consideration of lithium cell safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

  18. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  20. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  1. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  3. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  4. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use

  5. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  6. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  7. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  8. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  9. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  10. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  11. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  12. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  13. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  14. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  15. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  16. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  17. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  18. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  19. Suicide risk in patients treated with lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...

  20. Electronic spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid and in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid have been described. There is a characteristic change in the absorption spectra of Pu v in lithium nitrate solutions. In 2 M-lithium nitrate a new peak at 969 nm and high absorption at 1200 nm are noticed. A decrease in the absorption by about 20% and the appearance of a new shoulder at 1120 nm in 6 M-lithium nitrate are found. There is no change in the spectrum in 4 M-lithium nitrate. The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in the spectral range 200 - 400 nm are interesting. All plutonium ions have an intense band in the region 250 - 260 nm as well as a less intense and rather diffuse band at 320 - 330 nm in lithium nitrate solutions the sharp band at 250 - 260 nm has disappeared. This suggests that this band is very sensitive to the environmental field. The band is probably produced by 5 F q → 5 f q-1 6 d transition as well as electron transfer. It is believed that the spectrum of Pu V at pH 6.5 represents the hydrolysis product Pu O 2 (O H). 9 fig., 4 tab

  1. Lithium alkyl anions of uranium(IV) and uranium(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, E.R.; Wilkinson, G.

    1977-01-01

    Organouranium compounds with six or eight uranium-to-carbon sigma-bonds have been synthesized for the first time. The interaction of uranium tetrachloride with lithium alkyls in diethyl ether leads to the isolation of unstable lithium alkyluranate(IV) compounds of stoicheiometry Li 2 UR 6 .8Et 2 0 (R = Me, CH 2 SiMe 3 . Ph, and o-Me 2 NCH 2 C 6 H 4 ). These lithium salts can also be obtained with other donor solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran or NNN'N'-tetramethylethylenediamine. From uranium pentaethoxide similar lithium salts of stoicheiometry Li 3 UR 8 .3 dioxan (R = Me, CH 2 CMe 3 , and CH 2 SiMe 3 ) can be obtained. The interaction of uranium(VI) hexaisopropoxide with lithium, magnesium, or aluminium alkyls does not give compounds containing U-C bonds, but green oils, e.g. U(OPrsup(i)) 6 (MgMe 2 ) 3 , that appear to be adducts in which the oxygen atom of the isopropoxide group bound to uranium is acting as a donor. I.r. and n.m.r. spectroscopy and analytical data for the new compounds are presented. (author)

  2. Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m 3 low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m 3 . Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li 2 O, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 . HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m 2 of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m 2 at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate

  3. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  4. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  5. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  6. Electrochemical Stability of Li{sub 6.5}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (M = Nb or Ta) against Metallic Lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yoo, Aeri [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Schmidt, Robert; Sharafi, Asma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Heechul [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Wolfenstine, Jeff [Army Research Laboratory, RDRL-SED-C, Adelphi, MD (United States); Sakamoto, Jeff, E-mail: jeffsaka@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The electrochemical stability of Li{sub 6.5}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (LLZNO) and Li{sub 6.5}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (LLZTO) against metallic Li was studied using direct current (DC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Dense polycrystalline LLZNO (ρ = 97%) and LLZTO (ρ = 92%) were made using sol–gel synthesis and rapid induction hot-pressing at 1100°C and 15.8 MPa. During DC cycling tests at room temperature (± 0.01 mA/cm{sup 2} for 36 cycles), LLZNO exhibited an increase in Li–LLZNO interface resistance and eventually short-circuiting while the LLZTO was stable. After DC cycling, LLZNO appeared severely discolored while the LLZTO did not change in appearance. We believe the increase in Li–LLZNO interfacial resistance and discoloration are due to reduction of Nb{sup 5+} to Nb{sup 4+}. The negligible change in interfacial resistance and no color change in LLZTO suggest that Ta{sup 5+} may be more stable against reduction than Nb{sup 5+} in cubic garnet versus Li during cycling.

  7. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Leroux, F.; Sigala, C.; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y. [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (16+{delta}} (0.5<{delta}<1; M` = Mn, Co). These oxides allows the low potential reversible insertion of lithium and can be used as negative electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  8. A study on structure defects in irradiated lithium fluoride (thermal neutrons); Etude des imperfections de structure du fluorure de lithium irradie (neutrons thermiques)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1958-06-19

    A study was made of the behavior of atomic defects, vacancies and interstitials, generated from the Li{sup 6}(n,{alpha})H{sup 3} reaction in Lip crystals. Defects appear as cavities and platelets around ten angstrom in size and increase both with neutron dose and annealing temperature. For longer irradiations, metallic lithium precipitates out, in epitaxy with LiF lattice, and later, lithium salts appear due to the penetration of atmospheric gases through the cracks present in the damaged crystal. Various x-ray experiments followed the formation and evolution of these imperfections when their atomic concentration reached 10{sup -4}. (author)

  9. Vanadium based amorphous mixed oxides used as negative electrodes of lithium batteries; Oxydes mixtes amorphes a base de vanadium comme electrodes negatives de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D; Leroux, F; Sigala, C; Le Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y [Institut des Materiaux de Nantes, 44 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent results concerning the chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the characterization of two new families of amorphous oxides of formula Li{sub x}MVO{sub 4} (16+{delta}} (0.5<{delta}<1; M` = Mn, Co). These oxides allows the low potential reversible insertion of lithium and can be used as negative electrodes in high performance lithium-ion batteries. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  10. Curcumin mitigates lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction by modulating antioxidant status, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Abd El-Twab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an integral drug used in the management of acute mania, unipolar and bipolar depression and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. It has also been shown to reduce suicidal risk and short term mortality. Few experimental studies have demonstrated the thyroid toxicity caused by lithium as well as the possible protective effect of curcumin. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group, group II received lithium carbonate daily for 6 weeks and group III received the same dose of lithium carbonate as group II concomitantly with curcumin for 6 weeks. The specimens were prepared for histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical examination. Lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction evidenced by the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes represented by detached cells and vacuolated cytoplasm of some follicular cells and highly significant increase in positive immunostained of thyroglobulin and caspase-3 respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease in serum free triiodothyonine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 concomitant with significantly increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thyroid lipid peroxidation (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. Curcumin counteracted lithium-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as assessed by restoration of the antioxidant defenses and diminishing of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements in the degenerative changes of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that curcumin exerts thyroprotective effects against lithium carbonate mediated by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect as indicated by caspase-3. This report also confers that the use of this drug should be justified for long treatment under direct medical supervision.

  11. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  12. Corrosion resistance of the niobium-zirconium-oxygen alloys in the molten lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelov, A.G.; Vavilova, V.V.; Gekov, A.F.; Zel'tser, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Phase behaviour of Nb-Zr-O system alloys after thermal treatment at 1500 deg and 500 deg C has been studied in the concentration range up to 6 at.% Zr and 6 at.% O. Alloys annealed at 1500 deg C, so that the ratio Zr:O was 1:2, displayed intercrystalline corrosion in lithium environment, whereas after annealing at 500 deg C the corrosion was largely transcrystalline. Lithium penetration into these alloys which is much slower than that into Nb-O alloys, results, as in the binary system, in lower microhardness and higher specific electrical resistance

  13. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  14. Re-entrant lithium local environments and defect driven electrochemistry of Li- and Mn-rich Li-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fulya; Long, Brandon R; Croy, Jason R; Gallagher, Kevin G; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Key, Baris

    2015-02-18

    Direct observations of structure-electrochemical activity relationships continue to be a key challenge in secondary battery research. (6)Li magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can quantitatively characterize local lithium environments on the subnanometer scale that dominates the free energy for site occupation in lithium-ion (Li-ion) intercalation materials. In the present study, we use this local probe to gain new insights into the complex electrochemical behavior of activated 0.5(6)Li2MnO3·0.5(6)LiMn(0.5)Ni(0.5)O2, lithium- and manganese-rich transition-metal (TM) oxide intercalation electrodes. We show direct evidence of path-dependent lithium site occupation, correlated to structural reorganization of the metal oxide and the electrochemical hysteresis, during lithium insertion and extraction. We report new (6)Li resonances centered at ∼1600 ppm that are assigned to LiMn6-TM(tet) sites, specifically, a hyperfine shift related to a small fraction of re-entrant tetrahedral TMs (Mn(tet)), located above or below lithium layers, coordinated to LiMn6 units. The intensity of the TM layer lithium sites correlated with tetrahedral TMs loses intensity after cycling, indicating limited reversibility of TM migrations upon cycling. These findings reveal that defect sites, even in dilute concentrations, can have a profound effect on the overall electrochemical behavior.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of the Adequacy of Lithium Resources of the World and China for D-T Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican; FDS-Team

    2012-07-01

    This paper studied the adequacy of the World and China lithium resources, considering the most promising uses in the future, involving nuclear fusion and electric-vehicles. The lithium recycle model for D-T fusion power plant and electric-vehicles, and the logistic growth prediction model of the primary energy for the World and China were constructed. Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resources adequacy of the World and China for D-T fusion reactors was presented under certain assumptions. Results show that: a. The world terrestrial reserves of lithium seems too limited to support a significant D-T power program, but the lithium reserves of China are relatively abundant, compared with the world case. b. The lithium resources contained in the oceans can be called the “permanent" energy. c. The change in 6Li enrichment has no obvious effect on the availability period of the lithium resources using FDS-II (Liquid Pb-17Li breeder blanket) type of reactors, but it has a stronger effect when PPCS-B (Solid Li4 SiO4 ceramics breeder blanket) is used.

  16. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    in which we developed an algorithm based on a 2-compartment distribution without elimination. The GFR estimate led to plasma concentrations 3-4 times lower than those anticipated. In contrast, the estimates based on V(d) and the algorithm derived from pharmacokinetic modeling led to comparable loading dose...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  17. Lithium concentration dependence of implanted helium retention in lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szocs, D.E., E-mail: szocsd@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szilagyi, E.; Bogdan, Cs.; Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Helium ions of 500 keV were implanted with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} into various lithium silicates to investigate whether a threshold level of helium retention exists in Li-containing silicate ceramics similar to that found in SiO{sub x} in previous work. The composition and phases of the as prepared lithium silicates were determined by proton backscattering spectrometry (p-BS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods with an average error of {+-}10%. Electrostatic charging of the samples was successfully eliminated by wrapping the samples in Al foil. The amounts of the retained helium within the samples were determined by subtracting the non-implanted spectra from the implanted ones. The experimental results show a threshold in helium retention depending on the Li concentration. Under 20 at.% all He is able to escape from the material; at around 30 at.% nearly half of the He, while over 65 at.% all implanted He is retained. With compositions expressed in SiO{sub 2} volume percentages, a trend similar to those reported of SiO{sub x} previously is found.

  18. Lithium insertion into Fe 2(SO 4) 3 frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, A.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1989-05-01

    The two polymorphs of Fe 2(SO 4) 3 consist of framework structures built up of tetrahedra sharing corners with octahedra and vice versa. One is rhombohedral, the other is monoclinic. Two moles of lithium insert rapidly into both structures at room temperature. However, lithium insertion into the rhombohedral phase is topotactic without any change of symmetry of the framework, whereas the monoclinic modification is converted to an orthorombic Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 phase via a displacement transition; the existence of a two-phase region between Fe 2(SO 4) 3 and Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 results in a flat OCV of 3.6 V versus lithium, which is 600 mV higher than is found for Li xFFe 2(WO 4) 3 or Li xFe 2(MoO 4) 3. This difference is discussed in terms of the influence of the counter cation on the solid-state Fe {3+}/{2+} redox couple.

  19. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  20. Green and efficient extraction strategy to lithium isotope separation with double ionic liquids as the medium and ionic associated agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jingjing; Li Zaijun; Gu Zhiguo; Wang Guangli; Liu Junkang

    2013-01-01

    The paper reported a green and efficient extraction strategy to lithium isotope separation. A 4-methyl-10-hydroxybenzoquinoline (ROH), hydrophobic ionic liquid-1,3-di(isooctyl)imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([D(i-C 8 )IM][PF 6 ]), and hydrophilic ionic liquid-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ILCl) were used as the chelating agent, extraction medium and ionic associated agent. Lithium ion (Li + ) first reacted with ROH in strong alkali solution to produce a lithium complex anion. It then associated with IL + to form the Li(RO) 2 IL complex, which was rapidly extracted into the organic phase. Factors for effect on the lithium isotope separation were examined. To obtain high extraction efficiency, a saturated ROH in the [D(i-C 8 )IM][PF 6 ] (0.3 mol l -1 ), mixed aqueous solution containing 0.3 mol l -1 lithium chloride, 1.6 mol l -1 sodium hydroxide and 0.8 mol l -1 ILCl and 3:1 were selected as the organic phase, aqueous phase and phase ratio (o/a). Under optimized conditions, the single-stage extraction efficiency was found to be 52 %. The saturated lithium concentration in the organic phase was up to 0.15 mol l -1 . The free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) of the extraction process were -0.097 J mol -1 , -14.70 J mol K -1 and -48.17 J mol -1 K -1 , indicating a exothermic process. The partition coefficients of lithium will enhance with decrease of the temperature. Thus, a 25 deg C of operating temperature was employed for total lithium isotope separation process. Lithium in Li(RO) 2 IL was stripped by the sodium chloride of 5 mol l -1 with a phase ratio (o/a) of 4. The lithium isotope exchange reaction in the interface between organic phase and aqueous phase reached the equilibrium within 1 min. The single-stage isotope separation factor of 7 Li- 6 Li was up to 1.023 ± 0.002, indicating that 7 Li was concentrated in organic phase and 6 Li was concentrated in aqueous phase. All chemical reagents used can be well recycled

  1. Intraparticle diffusion coefficient of lithium on granulated adsorbent of manganese oxide in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Feng, Qi; Ooi, Kenta

    1995-01-01

    Five kinds of manganese-oxide adsorbent granulated with different particle sizes were prepared using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a binder. Rates of lithium adsorption on the adsorbents were measured in lithium-enriched seawater ([Li]=3.1 mg·dm -3 ) by a batch method. The intraparticle diffusivities (D p 's) of lithium were evaluated in terms of the model of pore diffusion with a Freundrich-type adsorption isotherm. The D p values were about 2 x 10 -6 cm·s -1 and slightly dependent on particle size. The D p values were also evaluated using column adsorption data. The calculated values (about 4 x 10 -6 cm·s -1 ) agreed comparatively well with those derived from the batch adsorption data. The agreement suggests that the intraparticle diffusion is a rate-determining step in column adsorption at space velocity above 200 h -1 . (author)

  2. Lithium capillary porous system behavior as PFM in FTU Tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apichela, M.L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Lyublinski, I.E.; Lazarev, V.; Mirnov, S.; Vertkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid lithium use on the base of capillary porous systems (CPS) application as plasma facing material (PFM) of tokamaks is advanced way to solve the problems of plasma contamination with high Z impurity, PFM degradation and tritium retention. In frame of joint program between ENEA (Italy) and FSUE 'Red Star' and TRINITI (RF) started at the end of 2005 die test of liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with CPS in a high field, medium size, carbon free tokamak FTU have been performed successfully. The LLL has been inserted in ohmic plasma discharges and at additional heating with LH and ECR at power levels in the MW range without any particular problem (BT = 6 T, Ip = 0.5- 0.9 MA, n e = 0.2 -2.6x10 20 m -3 , t = 1.5 s, P∼ 2-5 MW/m 2 at a normal discharge). The behavior of lithium CPS based on stainless steel wire mesh and its surface modification in normal discharges and at disruptions has been studied. Results of microscopic analyses of CPS structure after experimental campaigns are presented. The possibility to withstand heat load exceeding 5 MW/m 2 without damage, lithium surface renewal, mechanical stabilization of liquid lithium against MHD forces have been confirmed. Application of W, Mo as the base material and possible structure types of CPS have been considered for operating parameters improvement of long-living plasma facing components. (authors)

  3. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  4. Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

  5. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium?sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium?sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  6. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  7. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu.; Kuteev, Boris V.; Bykov, Aleksey S.; Krylov, Sergey V.; Skokov, Viacheslav G.; Timokhin, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 10 21 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 10 21 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  9. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  10. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Enables High-Efficiency Recognition and Trapping Lithium Polysulfides for Stable Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Liu, Xuejun; Xu, Na; You, Yizhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-08-09

    Using molecularly imprinted polymer to recognize various target molecules emerges as a fascinating research field. Herein, we applied this strategy for the first time to efficiently recognize and trap long-chain polysulfides (Li 2 S x , x = 6-8) in lithium sulfur battery to minimize the polysulfide shuttling between anode and cathode, which enables us to achieve remarkable electrochemical performance including a high specific capacity of 1262 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C and superior capacity retention of over 82.5% after 400 cycles at 1 C. The outstanding performance is attributed to the significantly reduced concentration of long-chain polysulfides in electrolyte as evidenced by in situ UV/vis spectroscopy and Li 2 S nucleation tests, which were further confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The molecular imprinting is demonstrated as a promising approach to effectively prevent the free diffusion of long-chain polysulfides, providing a new avenue to efficiently recognize and trap lithium polysulfides for high-performance lithium sulfur battery with greatly suppressed shuttle effect.

  12. CRITIC-I: Instrumented lithium oxide irradiation: Part 1, Lithium oxide fabrication and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, D.S.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1987-06-01

    Fine-grained, sinterable lithium oxide powder was prepared by high-temperature vacuum calcination of molten lithium carbonate. The product was ball milled, cold pressed, and fired in an oxygen atmosphere. The fired density, grain size, and surface roughness varied widely with firing schedule. Most variations were attributed to moisture content. Rings of high-density, sintered lithium oxide will be used in an in-reactor experiment to measure tritium release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  14. Extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium-containing hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Sasao, M.

    1996-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were extracted from a 6-cm-diam 7-cm-long negative hydrogen ion (H - ) source to simulate the condition of Li - extraction from a Li vapor introduced ion source for the neutral beam heating. The amount of the Li - current extracted from a hydrogen plasma with Li vapor was comparable to that extracted from a pure Li plasma. However, the amount of the H - current decreased as the H 2 gas pressure in the source decreased due to a getter-pump effect of Li during the introduction of Li vapor. A heat shield installed to keep a high wall temperature was effective in mitigating the pressure decrease. However, the H - current extracted from the ion source equipped with the heat shield became 20% of the original value, as Li vapor was injected into the ion source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Thermochemical investigation of lithium-vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, S.E.; Kesler, Ya.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Gordeev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical investigation was carried out of lithium-vanadium bronzes. The enthalpies of solution and the standard enthalpies of formation of the bronzes β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5) were determined. Investigated was the dependence of the enthalpy of mixing bronzes on the composition; a linear character of the dependence evidences of negligibly small, as compared to the experimental error, energy variations of the matrix V 2 O 5 on introduction of lithium. The variation was calculated of the partial molar enthalpy of lithium in the formation of β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5)

  16. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  17. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  18. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  19. Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163 544 mg/kg; σ = 62 897; limit 8000), copper (average 98 694 mg/kg; σ = 28 734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11 438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  20. Pilot study of lithium to restore intestinal barrier function in severe graft-versus-host disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Steinbach

    Full Text Available Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3, would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury. We conducted an observational pilot study to provide data for the potential design of a randomized study of lithium. Twenty patients with steroid refractory intestinal GVHD meeting enrollment criteria were given oral lithium carbonate. GVHD was otherwise treated per current practice, including 2 mg/kg per day of prednisone equivalent. Seventeen patients had extensive mucosal denudation (extreme endoscopic grade 3 in the duodenum or colon. We observed that 8 of 12 patients (67% had a complete remission (CR of GVHD and survived more than 1 year (median 5 years when lithium administration was started promptly within 3 days of endoscopic diagnosis of denuded mucosa. When lithium was started promptly and less than 7 days from salvage therapy for refractory GVHD, 8 of 10 patients (80% had a CR and survived more than 1 year. In perspective, a review of 1447 consecutive adult HCT patients in the preceding 6 years at our cancer center showed 0% one-year survival in 27 patients with stage 3-4 intestinal GVHD and grade 3 endoscopic appearance in the duodenum or colon. Toxicities included fatigue, somnolence, confusion or blunted affect in 50% of the patients. The favorable outcomes in patients who received prompt lithium therapy appear to support the future conduct of a randomized study of lithium for management of severe GVHD with

  1. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  3. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  4. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  5. EXOTIC: Development of ceramic tritium breeding materials for fusion reactor blankets. The behaviour of tritium in: lithium aluminate, lithium oxide, lithium silicates, lithium zirconates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwast, H [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Stijkel, H [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Muis, R [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Conrad, R [Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Reseach Centre

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the results of six EXOTIC experiments comprising a total of 48 capsules. Samples of the candidate tritium breeding materials LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6}, Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} have been irradiated at different temperature levels and up to a maximum lithium burnup of about 3%. Tritium residence times of the various breeding materials have been determined from temperature transients performed during irradiation. After irradiation the tritium inventory has been determined from small samples of the various materials. From the out-of-pile tritium release experiments activation energies were determined. These activities have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme on Breeding Blankets. (orig.).

  6. Comparative study of lithium and sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, J.C.; Amri, Z.; Claudy, P.; Letoffe, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Raman and infrared spectra of Lithium and Sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates Li 3 AlH 6 , Na 3 AlH 6 and Li 3 AlD 6 have been investigated in order to study metal-hydrogen interactions. A vibrational analysis has been performed. Several force field models (Urey-Bradley, Orbital Valence force field, Shimanouchi, Murrell) have been used in order to compute the force constants of Al-H bonds. No significative difference is observed between the results obtained from the various models, and the environment of aluminum is thus well determined. AlH 6 3- ions form an almost perfect octahedron in Li 3 AlH 6 and a distorted one in Na 3 AlH 6

  7. Method of concentrating and separating lithium isotopes by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Mikio; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the need for repeating separating operation in many stages and permit concentrated lithium of high purity to be obtained in a short period of time. Constitution: Lithium atom vapor is irradiated by a laser of wavelengths resonant to 6 Li or 7 Li absorption spectra present in the neighborhood of 6,707.84 A or 3,232.61 A (chromatic laser being used for oscillation in the neighborhood of 6,707.84 A and ultraviolet laser used for oscillation in the neighborhood of 6,707.84 A) for selectively exciting 6 Li or 7 Li alone. Then, ionization is brought about by using other types of lasers (ultraviolet Ar ion laser being used as the former wavelength laser and visible Ar ion laser as the latter wavelength laser), and only the ionized isotopes are passed through a mass filter and collected by an ion collector, thereby effecting separation of the ionized isotopes from the non-ionized neutral isotopes and their concentration. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  9. Pengaruh Variasi Temperatur Hidrotermal Pada Sintesis Lithium Mangan Oksida (Limn2o4 Spinel Terhadap Efisiensi Adsorpsi Dan Desorpsi Ion Lithium Dari Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi dalam bidang material menunjukkan perkembangan yang sangat pesat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir.Salah satu material yang sangat dibutuhkan dalam berbagai aplikasi adalah lithium. Lithium sendiri bisa didapatkan dari air laut brines dan geothermal fluid. Salah satunya adalah Lumpur Sidoarjo. Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel digunakan sebagai material absorben karena murah, tidak beracun dan mudah didapatkan. Pada penelitian ini metode hidrotermal digunakan sebagai metode sintesis pada LiMn2O4 karena dapat dilakukan pada temperatur yang relatif rendah dan menghasilkan partikel yang lebih homogen. Metode hidrotermal dilakukan pada temperatur 160 oC, 180 oC dan 200 oC selama 24 jam. Pengujian XRD dilakukan untuk mengetahui struktur kristal. Pengujian SEM dilakukan untuk mengetahui morfologi material setelah proses hidrotermal. Pengujian BET dilakukan untuk mengetahui surface area. Setelah itu metode acid treatment dilakukan untuk proses adsorpsi dan desorpsi. Adsorpsi dilakukan dengan mencelupkan Lithium Mangan Oksida Spinel yang telah disintesis kedalam Lumpur Sidoarjo.Pengujian ICP dilakukan untuk mengetahui kandungan lithium yang terdapat pada Lumpur Sidoarjo sebelum dan sesudah adsorpsi untuk mengetahui jumlah lithium yang terserap.Pengujian desorpsi dilakukan dengan mencelupkan LiMn2O4 kedalam larutan HCL. Pada uji XRD menunjukkan bahwa LiMn2O4 berstruktur kristal cubic. Dari hasil uji SEM terlihat bahwa tidak banyak perbedaan morfologi pada ketiga variasi.Partikel cenderung membentuk aglomerasi. Pada hasil uji ICP menunjukkan bahwa LiMn2O4 dengan temperatur hidrotermal 160oC memiliki efisiensi adsorpsi paling tinggi dengan 6,775 ppm. Sementara untuk desorpsi yang paling tinggi adalah 200oC sebesar 0.081 ppm

  10. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  11. An approach to beneficiation of spent lithium-ion batteries for recovery of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Danai

    Lithium ion batteries are one of the most commonly used batteries. A large amount of these have been used over the past 25 years and the use is expected to rise more due to their use in automotive batteries. Lithium ion batteries cannot be disposed into landfill due to safety reasons and cost. Thus, over the last years, there has been a lot of effort to find ways to recycle lithium ion batteries. A lot of valuable materials are present in a lithium ion battery making their recycling favorable. Many attempts, including pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods, have been researched and some of them are already used by the industry. However, further improvements are needed to the already existing processes, to win more valuable materials, use less energy and be more environmentally benign. The goal of this thesis is to find a low-temperature, low-energy method of recovering lithium from the electrolyte and to develop pathways for complete recycling of the battery. The research consists of the following parts: Pure LiPF6 powder, which is the electrolyte material, was characterized using x- ray diffraction analysis and DSC/TGA analysis. The LiPF6 powder was titrated using acid (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4), bases (NH4 OH) and distilled water. It was concluded that distilled water was the best solvent to selectively leach lithium from lithium-ion batteries. Leaching conditions were optimized including time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio and stirring velocity. All the samples were tested using ICP for chemical composition. Because leaching could be performed at room temperature, leaching was conducted in a flotation machine that was able to separate plastics by creating bubbles with no excess reagents use. The solution that contained lithium had to be concentrated more in order for lithium to be able to precipitate and it was shown that the solution could be concentrated by using the same solution over and over again. The next set of experiments was composed of battery

  12. Thermal Aging of Anions in Ionic Liquids containing Lithium Salts by IC/ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyschik, Marcelina; Kraft, Vadim; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal aging investigation of TFSI- and FSI- based ionic liquids and their mixtures with Li salts. • PYR 13 FSI shows thermal decomposition when mixed with LiPF 6 and LiClO 4 . • PYR 13 TFSI does not show any decomposition products with the electrolyte salts. • LiPF 6 dissolved in ionic liquids suffers of thermal aging as in conventional Li-ion battery electrolytes. - Abstract: The stability of 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 13 TFSI) and 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR 13 FSI) ionic liquids at elevated temperatures (60 °C) is investigated by ion chromatography. Additionally, the influence of the electrolyte salts, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ), on the decomposition of both the ionic liquids was analysed over a long term stability study. It has been found out that TFSI has a much higher thermal stability than FSI. The addition of LiTFSI did not show any effect on the aging of both ionic liquid anions. However, PYR 13 FSI degraded when mixed with the electrolyte salts LiPF 6 and LiClO 4 , while PYR 13 TFSI did not. Finally, LiPF 6 forms the same hydrolysis products in the investigated ionic liquids as in the commonly used electrolytes based on organic solvents in lithium-ion batteries

  13. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted ...

  14. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  15. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  16. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  17. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  18. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  19. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  20. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  1. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  2. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  3. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  5. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  6. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Yamamura, Hideki; Nakano, Atsuhiro.

    1995-01-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 μmol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 μg/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 μg/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositide-mediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis. (author)

  7. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, M; Yamamura, H; Nakano, A

    1995-09-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 mumol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 micrograms/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 micrograms/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositidemediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis.

  8. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minoru; Yamamura, Hideki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Nakano, Atsuhiro

    1995-09-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 {mu}mol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 {mu}g/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 {mu}g/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositide-mediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis. (author).

  9. Hot filament technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Perry, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Molten salts, such as lithium fluoride, are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage in solar dynamic space power systems because of their high latent heat of fusion. However, these same salts have poor thermal conductivities which inhibit the transfer of heat into the solid phase and out of the liquid phase. One concept for improving the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage system is to add a conductive filler material to the molten salt. High thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers are being considered for this application. Although there is some information available on the thermal conductivity of lithium fluoride solid, there is very little information on lithium fluoride liquid, and no information on molten salt graphite fiber composites. This paper describes a hot filament technique for determining the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The hot filament technique was used to find the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride at 930 C, and the thermal conductivity values ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 W/mK. These values are comparable to the slightly larger value of 5.0 W/mK for lithium fluoride solid. In addition, two molten salt graphite fiber composites were characterized with the hot filament technique and these results are also presented.

  10. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2009-10-01

    Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952) or lithium (n=6693) from 1995-2001 who also purchased antipsychotics at least once (to select out nonpsychiatric anticonvulsant use). Poisson regression of suicides by medication purchased (anticonvulsants or lithium) was conducted, controlling for age, sex, and calendar year. Confounding by indication was addressed by restricting the comparison to individuals prescribed the same medication: individuals with minimal medication exposure (e.g., who purchased only a single prescription of anticonvulsants) were compared to those individuals with more consistent medication exposure (i.e., purchasing > or = 6 prescriptions of anticonvulsants). Demographics and frequency of anticonvulsant, lithium, or antipsychotic use were similar between lithium and anticonvulsant purchasers. Among patients who also purchased antipsychotic at least once during the study period, purchasing anticonvulsants more consistently (> or = 6 prescriptions) was associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of suicide (RR=0.22, 95% CI=0.11-0.42, panticonvulsant and consistent lithium purchasers were similar. Lack of information about diagnoses and potential confounders, as well as other covariates that may differ between minimal and consistent medication purchasers, are limitations to this study. In this longitudinal study of anticonvulsant purchasers likely to have psychiatric disorders, consistent anticonvulsant treatment was associated with decreased risk of completed suicide.

  12. Use of the anion gap and intermittent hemodialysis following continuous hemodiafiltration in extremely high dose acute-on-chronic lithium poisoning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaru, Yohei; Inokuchi, Ryota; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Doi, Kent

    2018-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman intentionally took 40,000 mg of lithium carbonate, and she was transferred to our hospital with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She was diagnosed as having bipolar disorder 10 years ago and was receiving oral lithium therapy. Blood test results on arrival were remarkable for a negative anion gap of -2.1 and later, the serum lithium level turned out to be as high as 15.4 mEq/L. Intubation was required because of disrupted consciousness, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was immediately started in the intensive care unit to obtain constant removal of lithium. After adding intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) twice during the daytime to accelerate the lithium clearance, CHDF became unnecessary on day 4, and she was extubated on day 6 with complete recovery of consciousness. Close monitoring of the patient data showed recovery of the decreased anion gap as indicator of the serum lithium level reduction. On day 36, she was discharged without any complication and sequela. The current case highlighted the effective use of CHDF between IHD sessions to prevent the rebound elevation of lithium and the role of the anion gap as a surrogate marker of serum lithium concentration during the treatment. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  14. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  15. Multiphoton Ionization of Laser Cooled Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmann, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    Reaction microscopes enable kinematically complete measurements of atomic and molecular fragmentation. An ultracold atomic target is usually provided by a supersonic gas jet. The apparatus developed in the course of this thesis for the first time combines the principle of the reaction microscope with a magneto-optical trap. This allows for the preparation of lithium atoms in the sub-mK range. Being a three-electron system, its simple atomic structure makes lithium a model system of great topi...

  16. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline wastewater * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metal s * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  17. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  19. Theoretical studies of the global minima and polarizabilities of small lithium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Li, Jun; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-01-16

    Lithium clusters Lin (n=1-20) have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and coupled—cluster (CC) methods. The global-minimum structures are located via an improved basin---hopping algorithm and the lowest energy Lin isomers are confirmed with DFT geometry optimizations, CCSD(T) energy calculations, and by comparing simulated and experimental polarizabilities. The tetrahedral Li4 structure is found to be the basic building block of lithium clusters Lin (n=6-20). Simulated polarizabilities, including thermal effects at room temperature, are in good agreement with measured isotropic polarizabilities.

  20. Density functional theory prediction for diffusion of lithium on boron-doped graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shuanghong; Ren Zhaoyu; Wan Lijuan; Zheng Jiming; Guo Ping; Zhou Yixuan

    2011-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) investigation shows that graphene has changed from semimetal to semiconductor with the increasing number of doped boron atoms. Lithium and boron atoms acted as charge contributors and recipients, which attracted to each other. Further investigations show that, the potential barrier for lithium diffusion on boron-doped graphene is higher than that of intrinsic graphene. The potential barrier is up to 0.22 eV when six boron atoms doped (B 6 C 26 ), which is the lowest potential barrier in all the doped graphene. The potential barrier is dramatically affected by the surface structure of graphene.

  1. Gamma ray degradation of electrolytes containing alkylcarbonate solvents and a lithium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillon-Caravanier, Magaly; Jones, Jennifer; Anouti, Meriem; Lemordant, Daniel [Laboratoire CIME/PCMB (EA4244), Universite F. Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Montigny, Frederic [Plateau d' Analyse Chimique, Universite F. Rabelais, Faculte de Pharmacie, 31 avenue Monge 37200 Tours (France); Willmann, Patrick [CNES, 18 avenue E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); David, Jean-Pierre; Soonckindt, Sabine [Departement Environnement Spatial DSEP/ONERA, 2, avenue E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2010-01-15

    Lithium-ion batteries for space applications, such as satellites, are subjected to cosmic radiations, in particular, {gamma}-irradiation. In this study, the effects of this radiation on electrolytes and their components used in the lithium-ion batteries are investigated. The conductivity and viscosity of the samples have been measured before and after the irradiation. The modifications are evaluated by spectral analyses such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR), solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The experimental results show that only the samples containing vinylene carbonate and/or the lithium salt LiPF{sub 6} are degraded by {gamma}-radiation. (author)

  2. Combined gettering and molten salt process for tritium recovery from lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Finn, P.A.; Bartlit, J.; Tanaka, S.; Teria, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    1988-02-01

    A new tritium recovery concept from lithium has been developed as part of the US/Japan collaboration on Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor Design Studies. This concept combines the γ-gettering process as the front end to recover tritium from the coolant, and a molten salt recovery process to extract tritium for fuel processing. A secondary lithium is used to regenerate the tritium from the gettering bed and, in the process, increases the tritium concentration by a factor of about 20. That way, the required size of the molten salt process becomes very small. A potential problem is the possible poisoning of the gettering bed by the salt dissolved in lithium. 16 refs., 6 figs

  3. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  4. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  5. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  6. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  7. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  8. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: akram@comp.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Shubhchintak, E-mail: shub.shubhchintak@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  9. Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Ishii, Y.; Fukai, K.; Watanabe, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Matsui, H.; Vollath, D.

    1993-11-01

    Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate (Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4]) and Al-doped Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] (Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4]) irradiated with oxygen ions was studied with ionic conductivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR PAS) and transmission electron microscopy. It was seen from the ionic conductivity measurements that lithium-ion vacancies were introduced as irradiation defects for Li-ions sites in both materials due to the irradiation. By the Raman spectroscopy, oxygen atoms in SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra were considered to be preferentially displaced due to the irradiation for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4], although only a decrease of the number of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra occurred for Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by displacement of both silicon and oxygen atoms. Decomposition of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra and formation of some new phases having Si-O-Si and Si-O bonds were found to take place for both Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] and Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by FT-IR PAS. In the electron microscopy, damage microstructure consisting of many voids or cavities and amorphization were observed for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] irradiated with oxygen ions. The recovery behavior of radiation damage mentioned above was also investigated. (author).

  10. Test Program For Alumina Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Geinesse, D.

    2011-01-01

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  11. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  12. In situ neutron depth profiling: A powerful method to probe lithium transport in micro-batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Labohm, F.; Mulder, M.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Mulder, F.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    In situ neutron depth profiling (NDP) offers the possibility to observe lithium transport inside micro-batteries during battery operation. It is demonstrated that NDP results are consistent with the results of electrochemical measurements, and that the use of an enriched6LiCoO2 cathode offers more

  13. Symmetric lithium-ion cell based on lithium vanadium fluorophosphate with ionic liquid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plashnitsa, Larisa S.; Kobayashi, Eiji; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium vanadium fluorophosphate, LiVPO 4 F, was utilized as both cathode and anode for fabrication of a symmetric lithium-ion LiVPO 4 F//LiVPO 4 F cell. The electrochemical evolution of the LiVPO 4 F//LiVPO 4 F cell with the commonly used organic electrolyte LiPF 6 /EC-DMC has shown that this cell works as a secondary battery, but exhibits poor durability at room temperature and absolutely does not work at increased operating temperatures. To improve the performance and safety of this symmetric battery, we substituted a non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) LiBF 4 /EMIBF 4 electrolyte for the organic electrolyte. The symmetric battery using the IL electrolyte was examined galvanostatically at different rates and operating temperatures within the voltage range of 0.01-2.8 V. It was demonstrated that the IL-based symmetric cell worked as a secondary battery with a Coulombic efficiency of 77% at 0.1 mA cm -2 and 25 o C. It was also found that the use of the IL electrolyte instead of the organic one resulted in the general reduction of the first discharge capacity by about 20-25% but provided much more stable behavior and a longer cycle life. Moreover, an increase of the discharge capacity of the IL-based symmetric battery up to 120 mA h g -1 was observed when the operating temperature was increased up to 80 o C at 0.1 mA cm -2 . The obtained electrochemical behavior of both symmetric batteries was confirmed by complex-impedance measurements at different temperatures and cycling states. The thermal stability of LiVPO 4 F with both the IL and organic electrolytes was also examined.

  14. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    1982-08-01

    A compact, disc shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed by Altus Corporation. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data is presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 Amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20/sup 0/C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  15. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    A compact, disk shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data are presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40 C to +70 C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20 C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  16. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  17. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 224 0 C and 843 0 C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 327 0 C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 350 0 C and 600 0 C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  18. In 2015 Lithium Price Tripled,Lithium Battery is In a Draught of the Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    According to'Report on Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategy Analysis of China Power Lithium Battery Industry'of the Qianzhan Industry Institute,currently lithium demand is mainly concentrated in mobile battery and glass,lubricating oil markets,whose percentage is up to 85%,market share of electric vehicle and ESS energy backup system

  19. An improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  20. Improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-01-15

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  1. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  2. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  3. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge to perform a harmful action), and certain mental illnesses in children. Talk to your doctor ... for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  4. Effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W P; Hampson, N A; Packer, R K

    1988-09-01

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 C and at 70 C at a rate of 50 mA/sq cm. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples. 25 references.

  5. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, C.; Hirota, E.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental and hot bands of the vibration--rotation transitions of 6 LiH, 7 LiH, 6 LiD, and 7 LiD were observed by infrared diode laser spectroscopy at Doppler-limited resolution. Lithium hydride molecules were produced by the reaction of the Li vapor with hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Some 40 transitions were observed and, after combined with submillimeter-wave spectra reported by G. M. Plummer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 4893 (1984)], were analyzed to yield Dunham-type constants with accuracies more than an order of magnitude higher than those published in the literature. It was clearly demonstrated that the Born--Oppenheimer approximation did not hold, and some parameters representing the breakdown were evaluated. The Born--Oppenheimer internuclear distance r/sup BO//sub e/ was derived to be 1.594 914 26 (59) A, where a new value of Planck's constant recommended by CODATA was employed. The relative intensity of absorption lines was measured to determine the ratio of the permanent dipole moment to its first derivative with respect to the internuclear distance: μ/sub e/ [(partialμpartialr)/sub e/ r/sub e/ ] = 1.743(86). The pressure broadening parameter Δν/sub p/ P was determined to be 6.40 (22) MHzTorr by measuring the linewidth dependence on the pressure of hydrogen, which was about four times larger than the value for the dipole--quadrupole interaction estimated by Kiefer and Bushkovitch's theory

  6. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  7. Neutron dosimetry using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovan, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal neutron dosimetry system using the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction and liquid scintillation counting of tritium was developed. Lithium acetate was chosen to supply the 6 Li in the aqueous dosimetry solutions. Neutron irradiations were completed using The Ohio State University Research Reactor. After two sets of samples were irradiated, variables in the system such as the mass of lithium acetate in the solutions and the counting window of the liquid scintillation counter used to analyze the sample were chosen. The system was evaluated by completing two sets of 23 minute irradiations with the reactor at 500 kW, 50 kW, 5 kW, and one irradiation at 500 W. The samples irradiated at 500 W were below the threshold of the system, and could not be used. Prompt analysis was essential due to loss of detectable emissions in the dosimetry solutions over time. The thermal neutron fluences calculated with the data from the samples were compared to the fluences determined from gold wire irradiations. The fluence values differed at most by 6%. The fluence values calculated from the samples were consistently less than those determined from the gold wires

  8. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huis, M.A. van; Fedorov, A.V.; Veen, A. van; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; Mijnarends, P.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Materials Science Centre

    2001-07-01

    Single crystals of MgO(100) were implanted with 10{sup 16} {sup 6}Li ions cm{sup -2} at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical absorption spectroscopy and depth-sensitive Doppler Broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). A strong increase in the S-parameter is observed in the implantation layer at a depth of approximately 100 nm. The high value of the S-parameter is ascribed to positron annihilation in small lithium precipitates. The results of 2D-ACAR and X-TEM analysis show evidence of the presence of lithium precipitates. The depth distribution of the implanted {sup 6}Li atoms was monitored with neutron depth profiling (NDP). It was observed that detrapping and diffusion of {sup 6}Li starts at an annealing temperature of 1200K. (orig.)

  9. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  10. Lithium- an update on the mechanisms of action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    rons depending on the level of their activity.4 Lithium thus seems to .... clear that MARCKS is crucial in neuronal growth and brain ... lithium's activity is predominantly confined to the left fron- ... This ranges from neurotransmitter production right.

  11. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a

  12. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise

  13. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  14. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  15. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  16. High-efficiency technology for lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. New lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes (Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs) have been developed. Lithium ions are able to move by electrodialysis through certain Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. In this report, the effects of protection cover and membrane thickness on the durability of membrane and the efficiency of isotope separation were evaluated. In order to improve the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM, we developed highly-durable Ionic-Liquid-i-OM. Both surfaces of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat or a cation exchange membrane (SELEMION TM CMD) to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. It was observed that the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM was improved by a nafion 324 overcoat. On the other hand, the organic membrane selected was 1, 2 or 3 mm highly-porous Teflon film, in order to efficiently impregnate the ionic liquid. The 6 Li isotope separation factor by electrodialysis using highly-porous Teflon film of 3 mm thickness was larger than using that of 1 or 2 mm thickness.

  17. Transparent conducting polymer electrolyte by addition of lithium to the molecular complex chitosane-poly(aminopropyl siloxane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2003-06-30

    Transparent lithium-ion conducting films were prepared by adding lithium perchlorate to a mixture of chitosane (CHI) and poly(aminopropylsiloxane) (pAPS) in a molar ratio 0.6:1 by sol-gel methods. The morphological and molecular properties, determined by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR, respectively, depend on the lithium salt concentration. The same techniques were also used for performing a 'titration' of the capacity of the film for incorporating lithium salt. Results show that about 0.8 mol lithium salt per mol chitosane can be added before the product losses the transparence and molecular compatibility characteristic of the pristine CHI/pAPS polymer complex. When lithium salt addition reaches the tolerance limit, anisotropically oriented patterns are observed in the hybrid films. Both transparence and ionic conductivity of the product appear to be related to the layered nature of formed nanocomposites. The properties of obtained films may be furthermore rationalized considering the chemical functionality and the Lewis donor-acceptor affinity of the components.

  18. Preliminary design and analysis of recovery of lithium from brine with the use of a selective extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-05-01

    Lithium requirements for battery and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor uses in the next few decades may exceed the current availability of the mineral and brine reserves. It is thus prudent to search for new reserves and resources to satisfy these and other lithium applications in the future. It has been reported that the lithium content of Smackover oilfield waters ranges in order of 100--500 mg/l, and thus could represent a substantial reserve. A method is proposed to extract lithium from this source. Experimental evidence in the literature indicates that a specific chelating agent of the diketone type, dipivaloylmethane, has a specific selectivity toward lithium in the presence of other metal ions in aqueous solutions. Based in part on this unique property of dipivaloylmethane, a conceptual design of a full size plant is performed to extract lithium from the Smackover brine. The study includes alternate flow sheet development, design information on the major units of the process, energy requirement and an economic analysis of a 10 6 kg Li/yr production facility. The economics of three different process concepts depends on the amount of water evaporated from the initial oilfield feed waters to concentrate the brine. Results as a function of production rates are indicated in a general manner

  19. Lithium as an adjunct to radioactive iodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Lynn; Palla, Jyothsna; Baru, Joshua S; Onyenwenyi, Chioma; George, Amrutha M; Lucas, Brian P

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) is commonly used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism but is not uniformly successful. Lithium increases thyroidal iodine retention without reducing iodide uptake, increasing the radiation dose to the thyroid when administered with RAI. Although these actions suggest that adjuvant lithium may increase the efficacy of RAI, its role as an adjunct to RAI remains contentious. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding lithium to RAI to treat hyperthyroidism. Relevant studies were identified by a search of Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. To be included, a study had to be a controlled trial comparing the effect of RAI alone to RAI with lithium in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Relevant data were extracted and meta-analyses were performed. Of the 75 identified studies, 6 met the inclusion criteria; 4 of these studies were interventional and 2 were observational trials. Meta-analysis of the observational trials (N = 851), both of which were retrospective cohort studies, showed significant improvement in the primary outcome (i.e., cure rate) with adjunctive lithium (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 2.96). The combined interventional trials (N = 485) also showed an improvement in cure rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.91). Adjunctive lithium reduced time to cure and blunted thyroid hormone excursions after RAI. Lithium-related side effects were infrequent and usually mild. The observational trials demonstrated significant improvement in the cure rate of hyperthyroidism when lithium is added to RAI. The improvements shown in the interventional trials did not reach statistical significance due to the effect of a single, large negative trial.

  20. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  1. Lithium for future technologies. Demand and supply with special regard to electro-mobility; Lithium fuer Zukunftstechnologien. Nachfrage und Angebot unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, Gerhard; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Wendl, Matthias; Wietschel, Martin

    2009-12-15

    The availability of the necessary commodities for electric vehicles with regard to their high market growth predictions is currently a frequent theme of controversial discussions. At this the mineral Lithium, which is used in vehicle batteries, is in the point of interest. An estimation of the worldwide Lithium (Li)-consumption and -supply to the year 2050 was established in this study with the goal of analysing whether significant resource shortages are in fact to be expected. A calculation model was therefore developed, which estimates the future Li-demand using the 2008 consumption of the main Li-consumers such as the glass- und ceramics- industry or lubricants and their respective industry growth rate predictions. As the vehicle battery market can dominate the future Li-demand its development was examined in detail using two market penetration scenarios. Moreover the amount of secondary Lithium which can be recovered through recycling was determined via collection and recycling-quotas. In the, concerning the future number of electric vehicles, moderate Pluralismus-scenario about 51 % of the world Lithium-reserves will be consumed in 2050 under consideration of the employment of recycled material. At this a rather low assumption of the Li-reserves was applied. The gained amount of secondary Lithium covers about 25 % of the total Li-demand which underlines the importance of recycling. In the second scenario which displays a quick and thorough market penetration of electric vehicles the Lithium-reserves are already exhausted in 2045 in spite of the recirculation of secondary-material. The reserves comprise the Li-supplies within the lithosphere which can be recovered under current commodity prices and state-of-the-art technical possibilities. Based on a (USGS, 2009) estimation they amount to 6 Mio. t. Lithium. The resources on the other hand also contain known sources which can't be economically exploited at the moment. They amount to approx. 14 Mio. t

  2. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jia, Yongzhong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Liu, Hong [Qinghai Salt Chemical Products Supervision and Inspection Center, 816000 Golmud (China); Jing, Yan, E-mail: 1580707906@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO{sub 4} and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO{sub 4}{sup −})/n(Li{sup +}) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising.

  3. Lithium in Drinking Water and Incidence of Suicide: A Nationwide Individual-Level Cohort Study with 22 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Nikoline N; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza D; Gerds, Thomas A; Andersen, Per K; Bihrmann, Kristine; Grønbæk, Morten; Kessing, Lars V; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-06-10

    Suicide is a major public health concern. High-dose lithium is used to stabilize mood and prevent suicide in patients with affective disorders. Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water worldwide in much lower doses, but with large geographical variation. Several studies conducted at an aggregate level have suggested an association between lithium in drinking water and a reduced risk of suicide; however, a causal relation is uncertain. Individual-level register-based data on the entire Danish adult population (3.7 million individuals) from 1991 to 2012 were linked with a moving five-year time-weighted average (TWA) lithium exposure level from drinking water hypothesizing an inverse relationship. The mean lithium level was 11.6 μg/L ranging from 0.6 to 30.7 μg/L. The suicide rate decreased from 29.7 per 100,000 person-years at risk in 1991 to 18.4 per 100,000 person-years in 2012. We found no significant indication of an association between increasing five-year TWA lithium exposure level and decreasing suicide rate. The comprehensiveness of using individual-level data and spatial analyses with 22 years of follow-up makes a pronounced contribution to previous findings. Our findings demonstrate that there does not seem to be a protective effect of exposure to lithium on the incidence of suicide with levels below 31 μg/L in drinking water.

  4. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, A. M., E-mail: capecea@tcnj.edu [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey 08628 (United States); Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koel, B. E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ{sub e}, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ{sub e} = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  5. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ e , approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O 2 and H 2 O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ e  = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  6. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  7. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  8. Obtainment of lithium metal by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Costa, M.A.Z. da.

    1988-04-01

    The obtainment metallic lithium through KCL + LiCl, using a stainless steel cathode and a graphite anode is studied. The applications of lithium on nuclear energy, aerospatial program, metalurgy and as refining and degassing agent are also presented. The purification of lithium is still mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide

  10. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with [email protected] , with a subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

  11. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  12. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  13. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  14. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  15. 131I therapy of Graves' disease using lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenshi

    1983-01-01

    Lithium is known to cause goiter and hypothyroidism. In the mechanism of goitrogenesis, there is general agreement that lithium inhibits the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland without significantly impairing other thyroid functions. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate the usefulness of lithium in the radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. Nine patients with Graves' disease who were all, except one, previously treated with antithyroid drugs were studied. 600 mg of lithium carbonate were administered daily to investigate the effects on thyroidal 131 I uptake, disappearance rate of 131 I from the prelabeled thyroid and the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Lithium showed no significant effect on the thyroidal 131 I uptake when the 24 hour thyroidal 131 I uptakes were determined both before and during lithium treatment in the five cases. On the other hand, lithium clearly prolonged the mean value of effective half-lives of 131 I to approximately 8 days vs. 5.1 days before lithium treatment (p 4 and T 3 levels significantly decreased during lithium treatment, from 21.3 to 12.4μg/dl (n=9, p 131 I for the Graves' disease can be reduced by using lithium, the radiation exposure to the total body is decreased. Moreover, it is possible to perform the 131 I therapy while improving the thyrotoxicosis with lithium. Finally, it is concluded that lithium is a very useful drug to be combined with the 131 I therapy of Graves' disease. (author)

  16. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascon, J. M.; Murphy, D. W.

    1986-02-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo15Se19, which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In3Mo15Se19 and In2Mo15Se19, respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula LixMo15Se19. This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both LixMo15Se19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo15Se19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both LixMo15Se19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo15Se19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In2Mo15Se19 and In3Mo15Se19. We found that In2Mo15Se19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In3Mo15Se19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations.

  17. Lithium insertion in the two crystallographic forms of the binary-phase Mo15Se19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Murphy, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Compounds which can undergo topotactic insertion of lithium are of potential technological importance in secondary lithium batteries. In this paper we present the chemical and electrochemical insertion of lithium into the binary-phase Mo 15 Se 19 , which can exist in two crystallographic forms, denoted AA and BB, when prepared from In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 and In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 , respectively. We show that both forms can reversibly accommodate up to eight lithium atoms, yielding two new series of compounds of formula Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 . This behavior is consistent with the electronic structure of the host material predicted from band-structure calculations. The room-temperature phase diagram of both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems as a function of x has been established using electrochemical test cells (based on Mo 15 Se 19 as the cathode), and in situ x-ray measurements as the cells discharge. Both Li/sub x/Mo 15 Se 19 systems contain three single-phase domains as a function of x: two hexagonal phases and an orthorhombic phase. The nature of the transitions between these single phases and the variation of the lattice parameters within a single-phase domain are reported. While the mechanism of intercalation of lithium is similar for both Mo 15 Se 19 forms, there is a drastic difference in Li intercalation behavior for the parent indium phases In''Mo 15 Se 19 and In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 . We found that In 2 Mo 15 Se 19 can reversibly incorporate 6.4 lithium atoms while In 3 Mo 15 Se 19 does not react. This behavior is explained on the basis of structural considerations

  18. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  19. Safety assessment of a lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Roberta, Ferri; Barbara, Giannone

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation

  20. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.