WorldWideScience

Sample records for lithium 3

  1. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  2. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li 2 CO 3 did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P 3 production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li 2 CO 3 on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li 2 CO 3 significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity

  3. Lithium insertion into Fe 2(SO 4) 3 frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, A.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1989-05-01

    The two polymorphs of Fe 2(SO 4) 3 consist of framework structures built up of tetrahedra sharing corners with octahedra and vice versa. One is rhombohedral, the other is monoclinic. Two moles of lithium insert rapidly into both structures at room temperature. However, lithium insertion into the rhombohedral phase is topotactic without any change of symmetry of the framework, whereas the monoclinic modification is converted to an orthorombic Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 phase via a displacement transition; the existence of a two-phase region between Fe 2(SO 4) 3 and Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 results in a flat OCV of 3.6 V versus lithium, which is 600 mV higher than is found for Li xFFe 2(WO 4) 3 or Li xFe 2(MoO 4) 3. This difference is discussed in terms of the influence of the counter cation on the solid-state Fe {3+}/{2+} redox couple.

  4. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  5. Influence of Lithium Carbonate on C3A Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium salts, known to ameliorate the effects of alkali-silica reaction, can make significant effects on cement setting. However, the mechanism of effects on cement hydration, especially the hydration of C3A which is critical for initial setting time of cement, is rarely reported. In this study, the development of pH value of pore solution, conductivity, thermodynamics, and mineralogical composition during hydration of C3A with or without Li2CO3 are investigated. The results demonstrate that Li2CO3 promotes C3A hydration through high alkalinity, due to higher activity of lithium ion than that of calcium ion in the solution and carbonation of C3A hydration products resulted from Li2CO3. Li2CO3 favors the C3A hydration in C3A-CaSO4·2H2O-Ca(OH2-H2O hydration system and affects the mineralogical variation of the ettringite phase(s.

  6. Absorption and emission analysis of RE3+(Sm3+ and Dy3+): lithium boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraj Hussain, N; Hungerford, G; El-Mallawany, R; Gomes, M J M; Lopes, M A; Ali, Nasar; Santos, J D; Buddhudu, S

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on the development and spectral analysis of Sm3+ (1.0%) and Dy3+ (1.0%) doped lithium-boro-tellurite glasses. A bright orange (4G5/2-->6H7/2) along with a red (4G5/2-->6H9/2) and a yellow (4G5/2-->6H5/2) emission transition have been measured from Sm3+ doped lithium-boro-tellurite glass. Both blue (4F9/2-->6H15/2) and yellow (4F9/2-->6H13/2) emission bands have been obtained from Dy3+ glass. From the measured decay profiles, the lifetimes of the emissions of the Sm3+ glass (4G5/2-->6H5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) at an excitation of 401 nm have been found to be in the range 0.47-0.81 ms, and with respect to the Dy3+ emissions (4F9/2-->6H15/2 and 13/2), with excitation at 450 nm, are measured to be in the range of 0.302-0.307 ms. Stimulated emission cross-sections (sigmapE) of the measured emission transitions have also been computed and the values are in the range of (0.38-1.20) x 10(-20) cm2 for Sm3+ and for Dy3+ doped lithium-boro-tellurite glass the values are (0.66-1.39) x 10(-20) cm2.

  7. Stability of the Gel Electrolyte PAN : EC : PC : LICF3SO3 towards Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the gel electrolyte consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF) towards metallic lithium was investigated using the time evolution of impedance plots. Symmetric cells of the form Li...... / PAN : EC : PC: LiTF / Li were assembled and impedance data were collected at room temperature for one week. A clear indication of growth of a resistive layer could be seen. The electrolyte resistance remained constant. The growth of the passivation layer became constant after first two days...

  8. Hydrophobic ionic liquids based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation for lithium/seawater batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    Two hydrophobic ionic liquids (room temperature molten salts) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (BMI +), BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N -, were used in developing a highly efficient lithium anode system for lithium/seawater batteries. The lithium anode system was composed of lithium metal/ionic liquid/Celgard membrane. Both BMI +PF 6-and BMI +Tf 2N - maintained high apparent anodic efficiency (up to 100%) under potentiostatic polarization (at +0.5 V versus open-circuit potential (OCP)) in a 3% NaCl solution. Eventually, traces of water contaminated the ionic liquid and a bilayer film (LiH and LiOH) on the lithium surface was formed, decreasing the rate of lithium anodic reaction and hence the discharge current density. BMI +Tf 2N - prevented traces of water from reaching the lithium metal surface longer than BMI +PF 6- (60 h versus 7 h). However, BMI +PF 6- was better than BMI +Tf 2N - in keeping a constant current density (˜0.2 mA cm -2) before the traces of water contaminated the lithium surface due to the non-reactivity of BMI +PF 6- with the lithium metal that kept the bare lithium surface. During the discharge process, BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - acted as ion transport media of Li +, Cl -, OH - and H 2O, but did not react with them because of the excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, and high hydrophobicity of these two ionic liquids. Both BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - gels were tentative approaches used to delay the traces of water coming in contact with the lithium surface.

  9. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria, E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. - Highlights: • LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} are bioactive ferroelectrics. • Cauliflower apatite type structures indicative of in-vitro bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3.} • Negative surface charges anchor Ca{sup 2+} to which PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} attracts forming apatite structure nuclei. • Use of ferroelectrics as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ is new and holds great promise.

  10. Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Effects of various process parameters on the recovery of Li-from spent Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were investigated. From the experimental results it was observed that the leaching rate increases with speed of stirring till 450 rpm and then above 450 rpm; the increase in speed of stirring does not have any significant effect on the leaching rate as shown in the following figure. Effects of other parameters on the Li-recovery from spent Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles are discussed in this paper. Abstract: In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li{sup 6}) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, α nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li{sup 6} isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15–17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li{sup 6} isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li{sup 6} and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper.

  11. Reduction of Al2O3 in niobium--lithium systems at 10000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.; DeVan, J.H.

    1977-07-01

    Various grades of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) were sealed inside capsules of niobium and niobium-1% zirconium alloy which were then exposed to liquid lithium for 3000 hr at 1000 0 C. Similar unsealed capsules were exposed to a high vacuum. Reduction of the Al 2 O 3 occurred in the lithium-treated capsules, but no reaction occurred in the vacuum-treated capsules. Metallography and electron-microprobe analysis showed that reaction products in the form of compounds of niobium, aluminum, and zirconium were formed. Lithium acted as a sink for oxygen

  12. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  13. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  14. Properties of lithium disilicate reinforced with ZrO_2 (3mol%Y_2O_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.F.R.P.; Cossu, C.M.F.A.; Santos, C.; Simba, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of dental ceramics based on lithium disilicate, Li_2Si_2O_5, allows the production of restorative prosthetic with reduced times compared to alumina and / or zirconia (Y-TZP). A great limitation of their use is related low fracture strength of such glass-ceramics, which reduces their use in unit fixed prosthesis. In this work, lithium disilicate reinforced with 10% ZrO_2 (3-mol% Y_2O_3) is characterized by relative density, crystalline phase, hardness, fracture toughness and microstructural aspects. Lithium metasilicate and tetragonal zirconia, prior to heat treatment. After thermal treatment under vacuum at 840 deg C-8min the lithium metasilicate is converted to lithium disilicate as the ZrO_2 phase remains in the tetragonal structure. This maintenance of the tetragonal phase ensures the material a good fracture toughness, reaching average values near 2MPam"1"/"2, while the average hardness of 600HV. Morphological analysis of the samples indicates that ZrO_2 particles are uniformly dispersed in the matrix composed of high aspect ratio lithium disilicate grains, which contributes to the results presented.. A critical analysis of the performance of toughening mechanisms such as cracks deflection, phase transformation of ZrO_2 (T-M), residual stress between the matrix and the reinforcement are presented, discussed and compared with other ceramic materials used in dentistry restorer. (author)

  15. Compatibility of yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuyama, Takaaki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Terai, Takayuki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintered specimens with liquid lithium was tested at 773K. No configuration change was observed with a slight increase of thickness for 1419 hr. Lithium-yttrium complex oxide (LiYO{sub 2}) was formed on the surface, and the inner part changed to gray or black nonstoichiometric Y{sub 2}O{sub 3-X} with lower electrical resistibility. It is concluded that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a possibility as a ceramic coating material for liquid blankets if it can be made into a dense coating on the surface of piping materials. (author)

  16. Structural Injury after Lithium Treatment in Human and Rat Kidney involves Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Positive Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glyco....... Lithium causes proliferation, structural injury and increases inactive pGSK-3β abundance in these segments. The data are compatible with epithelial entry of lithium and a causal role for GSK-3β in postnatal developing cortical collecting duct epithelium....

  17. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    plasma lithium concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. Kidneys from lithium-treated rat pups exhibited dilated distal nephron segments with microcysts. Stereological analysis showed reduced cortex and outer medullary volumes. Lithium increased pGSK-3β and the proliferation marker PCNA protein abundances in cortex...... concentration capacity and diminished outer medullary volume. Histological sections of nephrectomy samples and a biopsy from 3 long-term lithium-treated patients showed multiple cortical microcysts that originated from normally appearing tubules. Microcysts were lined by a cuboidal PCNA-, GSK-3β- and pGSK-3β......It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...

  18. Polyaniline coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres (h-Fe3O4@ PANI) have been successfully synthesized and investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The structure and composition analyses have been performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy...

  19. Robust Pinhole-free Li3N Solid Electrolyte Grown from Molten Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium metal is the ultimate anode choice for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. However, it suffers from inferior electrochemical performance and safety issues due to its high reactivity and the growth of lithium dendrites. It has long been desired to develop a materials coating on Li metal, which is pinhole-free, mechanically robust without fracture during Li metal deposition and stripping, and chemically stable against Li metal and liquid electrolytes, all while maintaining adequate ionic conductivity. However, such an ideal material coating has yet to be found. Here we report a novel synthesis method by reacting clean molten lithium foil directly with pure nitrogen gas to generate instantaneously a pinhole-free and ionically conductive α-Li3N film directly bonded onto Li metal foil. The film consists of highly textured large Li3N grains (tens of μm with (001 crystalline planes parallel to the Li metal surface. The bonding between textured grains is strong, resulting in a mechanically robust film which does not crack even when bent to a 0.8 cm curvature radius and is found to maintain pinhole-free coverage during Li metal deposition and stripping. The measured ionic conductivity is up to 5.2 × 10–4 S cm–1, sufficient for maintaining regular current densities for controllable film thicknesses ranging from 2 to 30 μm. This Li3N coating is chemically stable, isolating the reactive metallic lithium from liquid electrolyte, prevents continuous electrolyte consumption during battery cycling, and promotes dendrite-free uniform lithium plating/stripping underneath. We demonstrated Li|Li4Ti5O12 cells with stable and flat potential profiles for 500 cycles without capacity decay or an increase in potential hysteresis.

  20. Flame Photometric Determination of Lithium Contents Down to 10{sup -3} ppm in Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Guenther

    1963-04-15

    A flame photometric method has been developed for determination of submicro contents of lithium in water. The intensity of the emission from lithium increases about three times if 20 % of a mixture of acetone - amyl alcohol (4:1) is added to the sample. Interferences by stray light from sodium present is eliminated with a special absorption filter. Interferences from oxide bands of the alkaline earth metals are completely suppressed after adding aluminium to the sample. With the development of this routine method it is possible by flame photometry to directly determine 0.01 ppm lithium with an error of analysis less than 10 %. Furthermore the investigation shows that, after concentration of the sample by evaporation, contents down to 10{sup -3} ppm can be determined without any difficulty. One person can run up to 50 determinations per day.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Porous ZnMnO3 Spherulites with a High Lithium Storage Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinru; Zhao, Chenhao; Zhang, He; Shen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Porous ZnMnO 3 spherulites show an enhanced high lithium storage capability when potentially applied as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. - Highlights: • Composite Zn 0.5 Mn 0.5 CO 3 microspheres are facilely co-precipitated. • Porous ZnMnO 3 spherulites can be used as a lithium-ion battery anode. • Porous ZnMnO 3 spherulites show superior electrochemical properties. • A synergistic effect of Zn-O and Mn-O components in cubic ZnMnO 3 is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, pure-phase ZnMnO 3 porous spherulites are uniquely synthesized through the thermal decomposition of Zn-Mn binary carbonate precursors facilely co-precipitated at room temperature, possessing an average diameter of 1.2 ± 0.3 μm and acquiring porosity with a specific surface area of 24.3 m 2 g −1 . When tentatively applied as lithium-ion battery anodes for the first time, these porous spherulites deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1294 mAh g −1 at 500 mA g −1 and retain an reversible value of 879 mAh g −1 over 150 cycles. By comparison, the equimolar powder mixture of nano-sized ZnO and MnO 2 synergistically shows a higher lithium storage capability than the two unary transition metal oxides, but lower than anode material ZnMnO 3 . Aside from its nanostructured characteristics, an inner atomic synergistic effect within the cubic lattices may account for the superior electrochemical performance of well-crystallized ZnMnO 3

  2. Building better lithium-sulfur batteries: from LiNO3 to solid oxide catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Changwei; Geng, Dongsheng; Yang, Jin; Chien, Sheau Wei; Liu, Zhaolin; Ng, Man-Fai; Yu, Aishui; Hor, T. S. Andy; Sullivan, Michael B.; Zong, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Lithium nitrate (LiNO3) is known as an important electrolyte additive in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The prevailing understanding is that LiNO3 reacts with metallic lithium anode to form a passivation layer which suppresses redox shuttles of lithium polysulfides, enabling good rechargeability of Li-S batteries. However, this view is seeing more challenges in the recent studies, and above all, the inability of inhibiting polysulfide reduction on Li anode. A closely related issue is the progressive reduction of LiNO3 on Li anode which elevates internal resistance of the cell and compromises its cycling stability. Herein, we systematically investigated the function of LiNO3 in redox-shuttle suppression, and propose the suppression as a result of catalyzed oxidation of polysulfides to sulfur by nitrate anions on or in the proximity of the electrode surface upon cell charging. This hypothesis is supported by both density functional theory calculations and the nitrate anions-suppressed self-discharge rate in Li-S cells. The catalytic mechanism is further validated by the use of ruthenium oxide (RuO2, a good oxygen evolution catalyst) on cathode, which equips the LiNO3-free cell with higher capacity and improved capacity retention over 400 cycles.

  3. Dielectric properties of piezoelectric 3–0 composites of lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piezoelectric 3–0 composite ceramics are prepared from a mixture of barium titanate and lithium ferrite phase constituents. Dielectric properties of composites are affected by a number of parameters that include electrical properties, size, shape and amount of constituent phases. The frequency dependent measurements ...

  4. Dielectric properties of piezoelectric 3–0 composites of lithium ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Piezoelectric 3–0 composite ceramics are prepared from a mixture of barium titanate and lithium ferrite phase constituents. Dielectric properties of composites are affected by a number of parameters that include electrical properties, size, shape and amount of constituent phases. The frequency dependent measure-.

  5. Designing new lithium-excess cathode materials from percolation theory: nanohighways in Li(x)Ni(2-4x/3)Sb(x/3)O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Nancy; Li, Xin; Urban, Alexander; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Lee, Jinhyuk; Liu, Lei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-01-14

    Increasing lithium content is shown to be a successful strategy for designing new cathode materials. In layered Li(x)Ni(2-4x/3)Sb(x/3)O2 (x = 1.00-1.15), lithium excess improves both discharge capacity and capacity retention at 1C. Structural studies reveal a complex nanostructure pattern of Li-Sb and Ni-Sb ordering where the interface between these domains forms the correct local configuration for good lithium mobility. The <1 nm Li-Sb stripe domains and their interfaces thereby effectively act as nanohighways for lithium diffusion.

  6. Effect of lithium doping in BaTiO3 ceramics for vibration sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, E.; Murugan, S.; Jayakumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Phase pure undoped and Lithium doped BaTiO3 particles have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method. Substitution of Lithium at the Ba2+ site in BaTiO3 lattice has been investigated. The structural, vibrational, electrical and mechanical characterization have been carried out. The poled samples were used as a sensing element for the detection of mechanical oscillations and the presence of 80 Hz pulse in the output spectrum manifest the response of the sensor element to the applied mechanical stress. In comparison with pure BaTiO3 the sensitivity of Li doped BaTiO3 is 14 times greater than the pure BaTiO3. This confirms that Li doped BaTiO3 could be an efficient candidate for the functionalization of vibration sensors in space application.

  7. Sonochemical synthesis and high lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui; Xia, Zhaokang; Liu, Yanhua; Cui, Rongrong; Fei, Yaqian; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu; Yao, Qingxia; Qiao, Qiquan

    2017-04-01

    A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. The ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis techniques. The lithium storage properties shows that the Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity and good cycle stability with the capacity of 720 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at a current rate of 50 mA g-1, much higher than that of original CMK-3 electrode. The Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites also demonstrates an excellent rate capability with capacity of 479 mAh g-1 even at a current density of 1000 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The improved lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites can be attributed to the CMK-3 could restrain the aggregation of Co nanoparticles, the large surface area of the mesopores in which the Co nanoparticles are formed, as well as presence of Co which played the role of catalyst could promote the lithium storage reaction.

  8. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: yxq-886@163.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Hong [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu, Dingcai [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fu, Ruowen, E-mail: cesfrw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g{sup −1} for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g{sup −1}). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite.

  9. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  10. Optical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy3+ and Sm3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasser Saleh Mustafa Alajerami; Suhairul Hashim; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan; Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Azman Kasim

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed the interesting properties of trivalent lanthanide ions when doped in various types of glasses. Optical and physical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy 3+ then with Sm 3+ ions were determined by measuring their absorption and luminescence spectra in the visible region. The absorption spectra of Dy 3+ showed eight absorption bands with hypersensitive transition at 1265 nm ( 6 H 15/2 → 6 F 11/2 - 6 H 9/2 ) and three PL emission bands at 588 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 ), 660 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 ) and 775 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 ). Regarding the Sm3 + , nine absorption bands were observed with hypersensitive transition at 1237 nm ( 6 H 5/2 - 6 F 7/2 ); the PL spectrum showed four prominent peaks at 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 5/2 (yellow color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 (bright orange color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 9/2 (orange reddish color) and 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 11/2 (red color), respectively. Finally, a series of physical parameters such as the oscillator strengths, refractive index, ions concentration, Polaron radius and other parameters were calculated for each dopant.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis and high lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hui, E-mail: huiqiaoz@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Xia, Zhaokang; Liu, Yanhua [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cui, Rongrong, E-mail: cuirong3243@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fei, Yaqian; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Yao, Qingxia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, 252000 (China); Qiao, Qiquan, E-mail: qiquan.qiao@sdstate.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. The lithium storage properties demonstrated that ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites possessed high reversible capacity and cycling stability. Moreover, the ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites electrode also exhibits high capacity at higher charge/discharge rate. - Highlights: • A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. • The lithium storage properties shows that the ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity and good cycle stability with the capacity of 720 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. • The ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites also showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. - Abstract: A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. The ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption analysis techniques. The lithium storage properties shows that the Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity and good cycle stability with the capacity of 720 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current rate of 50 mA g{sup −1}, much higher than that of original CMK-3 electrode. The Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites also demonstrates an excellent rate capability with capacity of 479 mAh g{sup −1} even at a current density of 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The improved lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites can be attributed to the CMK-3 could restrain the aggregation of Co nanoparticles, the large surface area of the mesopores in which the Co nanoparticles are formed, as well as presence of Co which played the role of catalyst could promote the lithium storage reaction.

  12. Sonochemical synthesis and high lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Hui; Xia, Zhaokang; Liu, Yanhua; Cui, Rongrong; Fei, Yaqian; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu; Yao, Qingxia; Qiao, Qiquan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. The lithium storage properties demonstrated that ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites possessed high reversible capacity and cycling stability. Moreover, the ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites electrode also exhibits high capacity at higher charge/discharge rate. - Highlights: • A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. • The lithium storage properties shows that the ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity and good cycle stability with the capacity of 720 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles. • The ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites also showed high capacity at higher discharge and charge rate. - Abstract: A novel ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the sonochemical method followed by carbonization process. The ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N_2 adsorption–desorption analysis techniques. The lithium storage properties shows that the Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity and good cycle stability with the capacity of 720 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles at a current rate of 50 mA g"−"1, much higher than that of original CMK-3 electrode. The Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites also demonstrates an excellent rate capability with capacity of 479 mAh g"−"1 even at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 after 50 cycles. The improved lithium storage properties of ordered Co/CMK-3 nanocomposites can be attributed to the CMK-3 could restrain the aggregation of Co nanoparticles, the large surface area of the mesopores in which the Co nanoparticles are formed, as well as presence of Co which played the role of catalyst could promote the lithium storage reaction.

  13. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Risky raw materials for the future? Case study and scenarios lithium in Bolivia (Report 3.3); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Risikoreiche Zukunftsrohstoffe? Fallstudie und Szenarien zu Lithium in Bolivien (Teilbericht 3.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In Bolivia's western highlands, at an altitude of some 3,600 metres, lie the largest identified reserves of lithium in the world. According to the latest estimates by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), beneath the 10,000 square kilometres of what are the world's most extensive salt flats, the Salar de Uyuni, there are some 6 to 9 million tonnes of lithium (Roskill 2008 nach Angerer, Marscheider-Weidemann, Wendl et al. 2009, Jaskula 2010a). Exploitation of those reserves has not yet begun, though the Bolivian government has constructed a small 6 million US Dollar pilot plant on the edge of the Salar de Uyuni, and has some ambitious plans: ''Lithium is the hope not just for Bolivia but for all inhabitants of the planet'', stated Bolivia's President Evo Morales in February 2009 (Bajak/Valdez 2009). Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The production of lithium, and the revenues it can generate, represents a major development opportunity for the country. Lithium is a key constituent of lithium ion batteries. Already in widespread use in mobile phones, camcorders and laptops, they are also increasingly needed to power hybrid and electric vehicles, which is why many analysts regard lithium as one of the key raw materials in the move towards sustainable mobility in the post-oil era (National Research Council (U.S.) 2008, Angerer et al. 2009, Tahil 2007; Chameides 2009). As the demand for lithium rises and its importance grows, the question arises as to the risks and opportunities associated with it. The resource booms of the past did little to promote Bolivia's development and improve the standard of living of its population. Indeed, Bolivia has a long history of resource-related conflict and political instability. This report (3.3) therefore investigates the risks and opportunities associated with the establishment of industrial-scale lithium production in Bolivia. Its analysis follows on from reports 1 and 2, illustrating and expanding upon

  14. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Risky raw materials for the future? Case study and scenarios lithium in Bolivia (Report 3.3); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Risikoreiche Zukunftsrohstoffe? Fallstudie und Szenarien zu Lithium in Bolivien (Teilbericht 3.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In Bolivia's western highlands, at an altitude of some 3,600 metres, lie the largest identified reserves of lithium in the world. According to the latest estimates by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), beneath the 10,000 square kilometres of what are the world's most extensive salt flats, the Salar de Uyuni, there are some 6 to 9 million tonnes of lithium (Roskill 2008 nach Angerer, Marscheider-Weidemann, Wendl et al. 2009, Jaskula 2010a). Exploitation of those reserves has not yet begun, though the Bolivian government has constructed a small 6 million US Dollar pilot plant on the edge of the Salar de Uyuni, and has some ambitious plans: ''Lithium is the hope not just for Bolivia but for all inhabitants of the planet'', stated Bolivia's President Evo Morales in February 2009 (Bajak/Valdez 2009). Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The production of lithium, and the revenues it can generate, represents a major development opportunity for the country. Lithium is a key constituent of lithium ion batteries. Already in widespread use in mobile phones, camcorders and laptops, they are also increasingly needed to power hybrid and electric vehicles, which is why many analysts regard lithium as one of the key raw materials in the move towards sustainable mobility in the post-oil era (National Research Council (U.S.) 2008, Angerer et al. 2009, Tahil 2007; Chameides 2009). As the demand for lithium rises and its importance grows, the question arises as to the risks and opportunities associated with it. The resource booms of the past did little to promote Bolivia's development and improve the standard of living of its population. Indeed, Bolivia has a long history of resource-related conflict and political instability. This report (3.3) therefore investigates the risks and opportunities associated with the establishment of industrial-scale lithium production in Bolivia. Its analysis follows on from reports

  15. Synthesis and performances of Li-Rich@AlF3@Graphene as cathode of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongrui; Tu, Wenqiang; Chen, Min; Hong, Pengbo; Zhong, Xiaoxin; Zhu, Yunmin; Yu, Qipeng; Li, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene was developed as cathode of lithium ion battery. • Coating of 2 nm AlF 3 does not cause capacity loss but is beneficial to rate capability. • Concurrent AlF 3 coating and graphene wrapping significantly improve Li-Rich performance. - Abstract: A novel composite of layered lithium-rich oxide with AlF 3 and graphene, Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene, is synthesized as high performance cathode of lithium ion battery in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability. Physical characterizations from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, demonstrate that the layered lithium-rich oxide in Li-Rich@AlF 3 @Graphene is composed of uniform nanoparticles of 100 nm, which are coated with a layer of 2 nm AlF 3 and wrapped with graphene sheets. Charge/discharge tests indicate that the naked lithium-rich oxide exhibits poor cyclic stability and rate capability as cathode of lithium ion battery, which can be improved to some extent by the only contribution of AlF 3 but significantly by the concurrent contribution of AlF 3 and graphene.

  16. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Internal Friction of Li7La3Zr2O12 Based Lithium Ionic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion mechanisms of lithium ions in tetragonal phase as well as in Al and Nb stabilized cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 compounds were investigated by low-frequency internal friction technique. In the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase, a remarkable relaxation-type internal friction peak PC with a peak height up to 0.12 was observed in the temperature range from 15°C to 60°C. In the tetragonal phase however, the height of the PT peak dropped to 0.01. The obvious difference of the relaxation strength between the cubic and tetragonal phases is due to the different distribution of lithium ions in lattice, ordered in the tetragonal phase and disordered in the cubic phase. Based on the crystalline structure of the cubic garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 compound, it is suggested that the high internal friction peak in the cubic phase may be attributed to two diffusion processes of lithium ions: 96h↔96h and 96h↔24d.

  18. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  19. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. 3D Printing of Flexible Electrodes Towards Wearable Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi-bo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to fabricate flexible free-standing electrodes with textile structure for lithium-ion batteries was provided by applying extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D printing technology. Meanwhile, highly concentrated poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF is used as viscosity modifier, carbon nanotube (CNT as conducting additive, and lithium iron phosphate (LFP or lithium titanium oxide (LTO as cathode or anode active materials respectively to develop printable inks with obvious shear-thinning behavior, and with the apparent viscosity and storage modulus platform value of over 105Pa·s, which is beneficial to the printability and enable complex 3D structures solidification. The electrochemical test shows that both printed electrodes have similar charge and discharge specific capacities under current density of 50mA·g-1. To explore the feasibility of the printed electrodes, a pouch cell with as-printed LFP and LTO electrode as cathode and anode respectively is assembled. The pouch cell without deformation delivers discharge specific capacities of approximately 108mAh·g-1, and there is a tiny increase in discharge specific capacities of around 111mAh·g-1 for bended pouch cell.

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S Y; Lee, H

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  2. Carbon nanotube-wrapped Fe2O3 anode with improved performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metall oxides have been proven to be potential candidates for the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs because they offer high theoretical capacities, and are environmentally friendly and widely available. However, the low electronic conductivity and severe irreversible lithium storage have hindered a practical application. Herein, we employed ethanolamine as precursor to prepare Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composites through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. When these composites were used as electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, a reversible capacity of 711.2 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 500 mA·g−1 after 400 cycles was obtained. The result indicated that Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composite is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  4. Diffusion of Lithium Ions in Amorphous and Crystalline Poly(ethylene oxide)_3:LiCF_3SO_3 Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Sha; Liu, Yingdi; Li, Yaping; Teeters, Dale; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Wang, Sanwu

    2017-01-01

    The PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 polymer electrolyte has attracted significant research due to high conductivity and enhanced stability in lithium polymer batteries. Most experimental studies have shown that amorphous PEO lithium salt electrolytes have higher conductivity than the crystalline ones. Other studies, however, have shown that crystalline PEO salt complexes can conduct ions. As a result, further theoretical investigations are warranted to help clarify the issue. In this work, we use density functional theory with the climbing image nudged elastic band method to investigate the atomic-scale mechanism of lithium ion transport in the polymer electrolytes. We also use density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the amorphous structure of PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3. The diffusion pathways and activation energies of lithium ions in both crystalline and amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 are determined. In crystalline PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3, the activation energy for the low-barrier diffusion pathway is approximately 1.0 eV. In the amorphous phase, the value is 0.6 eV. This result would support the experimental observation that amorphous PEO_3:LiCF_3SO_3 has higher ionic conductivity than the crystalline phase.

  5. Al2O3-coated porous separator for enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al2O3-coated separator with developed porous channels is prepared by coating Al2O3 polymer solution on routine separator. The batteries with Al2O3-coated separator exhibited a reversible capacity of as high as 593 mAh g-1 at the rate of 0.2 C after 50th charge/discharge cycle. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the reduced charge transfer resistance after the introduction of Al2O3 coating layer. Besides, the Al2O3 coating layer, acting as a physical barrier for polysulfides, can effectively prevent polysulfides shuttling between the cathode and the anode. We believe that the Al2O3-coated separator is promising in the lithium sulfur battery applications. - Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 -coated separator is used as the separator of lithium sulfur battery. • The cell with Al 2 O 3 -coated separator exhibits excellent cycling stability and high rate capability. • Al 2 O 3 -coated separator is promising in the lithium sulfur battery applications. - Abstract: In this paper, Al 2 O 3 -coated separator with developed porous channels is prepared to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur batteries. It is demonstrated that the Al 2 O 3 -coating layer is quite effective in reducing shuttle effect and enhancing the stability of the sulfur electrode. The initial discharge capacity of the cell with Al 2 O 3 -coated separator can reach 967 mAh g −1 at the rate of 0.2 C. After 50th charge/discharge cycle, this cell can also deliver a reversible capacity of as high as 593.4 mAh g −1 . Significantly, the charge-transfer resistance of the electrode tends to be reducing after using Al 2 O 3 -coated separator. The improved cell performance is attributed to the porous architecture of the Al 2 O 3 -coating layer, which serves as an ion-conducting skeleton for trapping and depositing dissolved sulfur-containing active materials, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X

  6. High-performance lithium storage of Co3O4 achieved by constructing porous nanotube structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhentao; Wang, Shuguang; Zhang, Yihe; Cao, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The porous Co 3 O 4 nanotubes (P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs) are prepared by coaxial electrospinning method followed by a fine annealing treatment. The resultant P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability when used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs). - Abstract: Co 3 O 4 has been investigated intensively for its high specific capacity which makes it a promising candidate anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, rational design of Co 3 O 4 electrode that is beneficial for its electrochemical performance is still a great challenge. Herein, we designed and fabricated porous Co 3 O 4 nanotubes (P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs) by coaxial electrospinning method followed by a fine annealing treatment, which display one dimensional tubular structure with porous wall and hollow interior. The uniqueness of this strategy is that the morphologies of the P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs could be tuned by adjusting the mass ratio of reactants. The resultant P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability, when used as an anode material for rechargeable LIBs. This unique structure endows a high reversible specific capacity of 1826.2 mA g −1 at a current density of 0.3 A g −1 after 100 cycles. Even at high current densities of 2 and 5 A g −1 , the P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs electrode still could deliver remarkable discharge capacities of 1506.2 and 1145.1 mAh g −1 , respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique tubular and porous structure of P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs, which not only can accommodate the large volume change but also can provide an excellent ion diffusion and electronic conduction pathway. Therefore, the P-Co 3 O 4 -NTs have the potential for use as a high performance anode material in LIBs.

  7. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2013-03-26

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of lithium diffusion in tetragonal Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriyevsky, B., E-mail: bohdan.andriyevskyy@tu.koszalin.pl [Faculty of Electronics and Computer Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich Str., PL-75-453, Koszalin (Poland); Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069, Ulm (Germany); Doll, K. [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069, Ulm (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569, Stuttgart (Germany); Jacob, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069, Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Ulm (HIU) for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081, Ulm (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Using ab initio density functional theory the thermally-stimulated migration of lithium ions in the garnet-type material Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} is investigated. The methods of ab initio molecular dynamics have been applied to calculate the lithium ion self-diffusion coefficient and the diffusion barriers as function of lithium ion concentration. The concentration of lithium in the initial Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} crystal unit cell is varied from 53 to 59 atoms, where 56 lithium atoms represent the stoichiometric concentration. Almost monotonous dependencies of the main characteristics on the number of lithium atoms N{sup (Li)} have been found, except for a non-monotonous peculiarity of the stoichiometric compound (N{sup (Li)} = 56). Finally, the influence of the unit cell volume change on lithium ion diffusion parameters as well as lithium ion hopping rates has been studied. - Highlights: • Partial lithium atoms subtraction from LLZO increases diffusion coefficient D{sup (Li)}. • Partial subtraction of lithium atoms from LLZO decreases activation energy E{sub a}{sup (Li)}. • Activation energy E{sub a}{sup (Li)} is the smallest for tetrahedral oxygen surrounding. • Compression of LLZO leads to a decrease of lithium ion diffusion coefficient D{sup (Li)}.

  9. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  10. Combustion synthesized nanocrystalline Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathiya, K.; Bhuvaneswari, D.; Gangulibabu; Kalaiselvi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C compound has been synthesized using a novel corn assisted combustion (CAC) method, wherein the composite prepared at 850 °C is found to exhibit superior physical and electrochemical properties than the one synthesized at 800 °C (Fig. 1). Despite the charge disproportionation of V 4+ and a possible solid solution behavior of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode upon insertion and de-insertion of Li + ions, the structural stability of the same is appreciable, even with the extraction of third lithium at 4.6 V (Fig. 2). An appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g −1 with an excellent columbic efficiency (99%) and better capacity retention upon high rate applications have been exhibited by Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathode, thus demonstrating the feasibility of CAC method in preparing the title compound to best suit with the needs of lithium battery applications. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel corn assisted combustion method has been used to synthesize Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C. ► Corn is a cheap and eco benign combustible fuel to facilitate CAC synthesis. ► Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C exhibits an appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g −1 (C/10 rate). ► Currently observed columbic efficiency of 99% is better than the reported behavior. ► Suitability of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathode up to 10C rate is demonstrated. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite synthesized using a novel corn assisted combustion method at 850 °C exhibits superior physical and electrochemical properties than the one synthesized at 800 °C. Despite the charge disproportionation of V 4+ and a possible solid solution behavior of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode upon insertion and extraction of Li + ions, the structural stability of the same is appreciable, even with the extraction of third lithium at 4.6 V. An appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g −1 and better capacity retention upon high rate applications have been

  11. Electrochemical performance of Fe3O4 micro flower as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Anggara, Dika; Susanti, Diah; Subhan, Achmad; Sudaryanto

    2018-04-01

    Graphite is generally employed in commercial lithium ion batteries which has a specific capacity of 372 mAh/g. In this study, graphite is replaced with carbon-coated magnetite (Fe3O4/C) which has large theoretical specific capacity of 926 mAh/g, environmental friendly, and low cost production. The synthesis of Fe3O4/C is carried out by hydrothermal method with reacting FeCl3 and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at temperature variation of 160, 170 and 180°C. The following process is heated by calcination at temperature variations 450, 500 and 550°C. XRD and SEM results show that the as-prepared Fe3O4/C powder has a single phase of Fe3O4 and morphology micro-flowers like with size between 700 nm - 3 µm. CV test results show redox reaction occurs in the voltage range between 0.21-0.85 V and 1.68-1.81 V. The highest specific discharge capacity is obtained 644 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal of 170°C and temperature calcination of 550°C. This result shows that Fe3O4/C has a high potential as anode material for lithium ion battery.

  12. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  13. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides ... work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. ..... On the other hand, Nb/Ta compounds show a higher conductivity.

  14. Porous Fe2O3 Microspheres as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, L.; Indra, M. A. T.; Purwaningsih, H.; Subhan, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, Fe2O3 was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal process at low temperature. FeCl3.6H2O as precursor and variation of lysine as hydrolyzing agent were used to preparing Fe2O3. SEM images show that the morphology of Fe2O3 is porous microsphere with sizes in the range of (1 to 5) µm in diameter. The as-prepared Fe2O3 with the 2 M of lysine exhibits excellent cycling performance when used as the anode for lithium ion batteries, obtaining reversible discharge capacity of 172.33 mA·h·g‑1 at 0.5 C after 50 cycles. It is attributed to the unique structure of porous microspheres providing a large surface area which maintains good electronic contact between particles during charge-discharge process. This result demonstrates that Fe2O3 porous microsphere has a high potential as anode material for application of lithium-ion battery.

  15. Synthesis of a new selective borotritide: [3H]lithium 9-boratabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane. Some applications to the preparation of secondary and primary [3H] alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasset, C.; Rousseau, B.

    1994-01-01

    [ 3 H]lithium 9-boratabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, at specific activity of 52-55 Ci/mmol, was synthesized by reduction of B-OMe-9-BBN with lithium tritide. Its reducing characteristics were illustrated by the synthesis of [17- 3 H] estradiol, [2- 3 H] dihydrotetrabenazine and 1-(hydroxy[ 3 H]methyl)naphtalene, with good radiochemical yields and high specific activities. (Author)

  16. Gsk3 Signalling and Redox Status in Bipolar Disorder: Evidence from Lithium Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Luca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To discuss the link between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and the main biological alterations demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD, with special attention to the redox status and the evidence supporting the efficacy of lithium (a GSK3 inhibitor in the treatment of BD. Methods. A literature research on the discussed topics, using Pubmed and Google Scholar, has been conducted. Moreover, a manual selection of interesting references from the identified articles has been performed. Results. The main biological alterations of BD, pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, membrane ion channels, and circadian system, seem to be intertwined. The dysfunction of the GSK3 signalling pathway is involved in all the aforementioned “biological causes” of BD. In a complex scenario, it can be seen as the common denominator linking them all. Lithium inhibition of GSK3 could, at least in part, explain its positive effect on these biological dysfunctions and its superiority in terms of clinical efficacy. Conclusions. Deepening the knowledge on the molecular bases of BD is fundamental to identifying the biochemical pathways that must be targeted in order to provide patients with increasingly effective therapeutic tools against an invalidating disorder such as BD.

  17. Fe_3C@carbon nanocapsules/expanded graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, You-Guo; Lin, Xi-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Qi-Chang; Yan, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fe_3C@carbonnanocapsules(*)/expanded graphite composite was successfully prepared by a new and facile method, including mix of starting materials and heat treatment of the precursor. It is featured by unique 3-D structure, where expanded graphite acts as scaffold to ensure a continuous entity, and Fe_3C particles coated by carbon nanocapsules are embedded intimately. The Fe_3C nanoparticles encased in carbon nanocapsules act as catalyst in the modification of SEI film during the cycles. The interesting 3-D architecture which aligns the conductivity paths in the planar direction with expanded graphite and in the axial direction with carbon nanocapsules minimizes the resistance and enhances the reversible capacity. The prepared composite exhibits a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite maintains a reversible capacity of 1226.2 mAh/g after 75 cycles at 66 mA/g. When the current density increases to 200 mA/g, the reversible capacity maintains 451.5 mAh/g. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performances make the composite expected to be one of the most potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Super high energy density of Li3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Amin, Mochammad Karim Al; Susanti, Diah; Triwibowo, Joko

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries have many advantages such as high energy density, no memory effect, long time cycleability and friendly environment. One type of cathode material that can be developed is Li3V2(PO4)3. In this study has been carried out the synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 with a hydrothermal temperature variation of 140, 160 and 180 °C and calcination temperature at 800 °C. SEM images show that the morphology of Li3V2(PO4)3 has irregular flakes with a size between 1-10 µm. CV results show redox reaction occurs in the range between 3 V to 4.8 V with the highest specific discharge capacity of 136 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal and calcination are 180 °C and 800 °C. This result demonstrates that Li3V2(PO4)3 has a great potential as cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  19. Lithium Impairs Kidney Development and Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Collecting Duct Principal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    level significantly whereas total GSK-3β abundance was unaltered. Li+ treatment increased α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) protein level significantly whereas E-cadherin expression was unaltered. In summary, Li+ treatment impairs postnatal development of the kidney cortex and outer medulla and increases pGSK......The postnatal rat kidney is highly susceptible to Lithium (Li+), which leads to significant tissue injury. We hypothesized that Li+ impairs development of the kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron, inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) through phosphorylation...... on serine9 (pGSK-3β)and subsequent epithelial to mesenchymal dedifferentiation (EMT). GSK-3β immunoreactive protein was associated with collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. Total GSK-3β protein abundance was stable in medulla while it decreased in cortex in the postnatal period...

  20. Carbon-Encapsulated Co3O4 Nanoparticles as Anode Materials with Super Lithium Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xuning; Wei, Sufeng; Jiang, Zhonghao; Lian, Jianshe; Wang, Guoyong; Jiang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A high-performance anode material for lithium storage was successfully synthesized by glucose as carbon source and cobalt nitrate as Co3O4 precursor with the assistance of sodium chloride surface as a template to reduce the carbon sheet thickness. Ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles were homogeneously embedded in ultrathin porous graphitic carbon in this material. The carbon sheets, which have large specific surface area, high electronic conductivity, and outstanding mechanical flexibility, are very effective to keep the stability of Co3O4 nanoparticales which has a large capacity. As a consequence, a very high reversible capacity of up to 1413 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 after 100 cycles, a high rate capability (845, 560, 461 and 345 mA h g-1 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 C, respectively, 1 C = 1 A g-1), and a superior cycling performance at an ultrahigh rate (760 mA h g-1 at 5 C after 1000 cycles) are achieved by this lithium-ion-battery anode material.

  1. High-Performance Ga2O3 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xun; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yongmin; Gou, Yong; Pastore, James; Yang, Yao; Xiong, Yin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Brock, Joel D; Lu, Juntao; Xiao, Li; Abruña, Héctor D; Zhuang, Lin

    2018-02-14

    There is a great deal of interest in developing battery systems that can exhibit self-healing behavior, thus enhancing cyclability and stability. Given that gallium (Ga) is a metal that melts near room temperature, we wanted to test if it could be employed as a self-healing anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, Ga nanoparticles (NPs), when directly applied, tended to aggregate upon charge/discharge cycling. To address this issue, we employed carbon-coated Ga 2 O 3 NPs as an alternative. By controlling the pH of the precursor solution, highly dispersed and ultrafine Ga 2 O 3 NPs, embedded in carbon shells, could be synthesized through a hydrothermal carbonization method. The particle size of the Ga 2 O 3 NPs was 2.6 nm, with an extremely narrow size distribution, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. A lithium-ion battery anode based on this material exhibited stable charging and discharging, with a capacity of 721 mAh/g after 200 cycles. The high cyclability is due to not only the protective effects of the carbon shell but also the formation of Ga 0 during the lithiation process, as indicated by operando X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  2. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Fabrication of 3-Dimensional Porous Graphene Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Cheng, Shuang; Liu, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure involving hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination has been employed to synthesis porous graphene material, which exhibits significantly high electrochemical performance when used as the anode in lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A PGM been synthesized by a simple two-step process involving hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination. • The PGM exhibits exhibit a significantly high specific surface area. • The PGM can deliver large capacities and excellent cycling performance when used in LIBs. • The high electrochemical performance of the PGM is attributed to its unique porous structure with more disordered carbon atoms. - Abstract: A 3-dimensional porous graphene material (PGM) has been synthesized using a simple two-step process: hydrothermal reaction and calcination. Hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of resorcinol and glutaraldehyde leads to covalent grafting of partially reduced GO with glutaraldehyde and the deposition of phenolic resin. Subsequent calcination of the composite consisting of phenolic resin deposited on partially reduced GO in the presence of KOH produces structurally stable, highly porous graphene material with a specific surface area of ∼1,066 ± 2 m 2 g −1 . When used as an active electrode material in a lithium battery, the PGM exhibits an initial discharge capacity of ∼1,538 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher than those of graphite and other carbonaceous materials reported previously. More importantly, when cycled at higher discharge/charge rates, the PGM-based electrodes still deliver large capacities and excellent cycling performance, demonstrating great potential for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The attractive electrochemical performance of the PGM is attributed to its unique porous structure with large specific surface area and the presence of more disordered carbon atoms produced by the KOH activation

  4. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries...

  5. Effect of sintering temperature on microstructure and transport properties of Li3xLa2/3-xTiO3 with different lithium contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Hongxia; Lan Jinle; Mei Ao; Lin Yuanhua; Nan, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    Li 3x La 2/3-x TiO 3 (LLTO) powder with different lithium contents (nominal 3x = 0.03-0.75) was synthesized via a simple sol-gel route and then calcination of gel-derived precursor at 900 o C which was much below the calcination temperature required for synthesizing the LLTO powder via solid state reaction route. The LLTO powder of sub-micron sized particles, derived from such sol-gel method, showed almost no aggregation. Starting from the sol-gel-derived powder, the LLTO ceramics with different lithium contents were prepared at different sintering temperatures of 1250 and 1350 o C. It demonstrated that our sol-gel route is quite simple and convenient compared to the previous sol-gel method and requires lower temperature for the LLTO. Our results also illustrated that lithium content significantly affects the structure and ionic conductivity of the LLTO ceramics. The dependence of the ionic conductivity on the lithium content, lattice structure, microstructure and sintering temperature was investigated systematically.

  6. Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 (0≤x≤3): Possible anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Shao, Lianyi; Qian, Shangshu; Yi, Ting-Feng; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Peng; Lin, Xiaoting; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) series are firstly evaluated as anode materials. • Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anodes show lithium storage activity in 1.0–3.0 V. • The lithium storage capability of different Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is compared. • Structural reversibility of Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is studied by in-situ XRD. - Abstract: In this paper, a series of Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) are prepared by a solid state reaction and systematically evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Structural analysis shows that the phase structure of Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 changes along with the evolution of Na content. Charge-discharge tests exhibit that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 shows the highest initial charge specific capacity as high as 88.3 mAh g −1 among all the seven samples, and the reversible capacity is kept at 68.3 mAh g −1 after 45 cycles, corresponding to 77.3% of the initial charge capacity. With increasing of Na content in Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , the as-obtained sample show poorer lithium storage capability than Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . As a result, Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 shows the inferior cycling performance than other Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . It can only deliver a reversible capacity of 20.9 mAh g −1 after 45 cycles, corresponding to 45.9% of the initial charge capacity. In-situ X-ray diffraction observations demonstrate that the poor electrochemical property of Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anode is due to the irreversible structural evolution during charge-discharge process. Therefore, reducing the Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 phase in as-obtained sample is a feasible route to improve the lithium storage capability of Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 .

  7. Lithium storage study on MoO3-grafted TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Anwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNAs were fabricated via anodic ionization. Porous MoO3 was grafted on TNAs with the help of hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction was utilized for the confirmation of one dimensional morphology and phase identification. The porous MoO3 nanoflake-grafted TNAs (MoO3/TNAs electrode was used as anode material in lithium ion battery (LIB and it was found that the areal specific capacity of MoO3/TNAs (~797 µAh cm−2 was three times higher than those of anatase TNAs (~287 µAh cm−2 and porous MoO3 (~234 µAh cm−2 at 50 µA cm−2.

  8. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li2TiO3, by the modified combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.; Pfeiffer, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li 2 TiO 3 it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li 2 TiO 3 were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and urea (CO(NH 2 ) 2 ), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li 2 TiO 3 . The particle size and the morphology found in the Li 2 TiO 3 , showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO 2 used as precursor. (Author)

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) as a dosemeter for gamma-radiation dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoca, R; Ureña-Núñez, F

    2009-06-01

    This work reports the possibility of using lithium carbonate as a dosimetric material for gamma-radiation measurements. Carboxi-radical ions, CO(2)(-) and CO(3)(-), arise from the gamma irradiation of Li(2)CO(3), and these radical ions can be quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. The EPR-signal response of gamma-irradiated lithium carbonate has been investigated to determine some dosimetric characteristics such as: peak-to-peak signal intensity versus gamma dose received, zero-dose response, signal fading, signal repeatability, batch homogeneity, dose rate effect and stability at different environmental conditions. Using the conventional peak-to-peak method of stable ion radicals, it is concluded that lithium carbonate could be used as a gamma dosemeter in the range of 3-100 Gy.

  10. Porous Co3O4 nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Haoxin

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co 3 O 4 nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance

  11. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO3 and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukeun; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Song, Huesup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 . - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO 3 was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO 3 nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li + /Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO 3 after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li 5.5 WO 3 ) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO 3 particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries

  12. GSK-3β inhibition by lithium confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through the repression of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurel, Eleonore; Kornprobst, Michel; Blivet-Van Eggelpoel, Marie-Jose; Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen; Cadoret, Axelle; Capeau, Jacqueline; Desbois-Mouthon, Christele

    2004-01-01

    Lithium exerts neuroprotective actions that involve the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Otherwise, recent studies suggest that sustained GSK-3β inhibition is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. In this context, the present study was undertaken to examine whether lithium modulated cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis induced by chemotherapy agents. We observed that, in different human cancer cell lines, lithium significantly reduced etoposide- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis. In HepG2 cells, lithium repressed drug induction of CD95 expression and clustering at the cell surface as well as caspase-8 activation. Lithium acted through deregulation of GSK-3β signaling since (1) it provoked a rapid and sustained phosphorylation of GSK-3β on the inhibitory serine 9 residue; (2) the GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 mimicked lithium effects by repressing drug-induced apoptosis and CD95 membrane expression; and (3) lithium promoted the disruption of nuclear GSK-3β/p53 complexes. Moreover, the overexpression of an inactivated GSK-3β mutant counteracted the stimulatory effects of etoposide and camptothecin on a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by a p53-responsive sequence from the CD95 gene. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that lithium confers resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells through GSK-3β inhibition and subsequent repression of CD95 gene expression. Our study also highlights the concerted action of GSK-3β and p53 on CD95 gene expression

  13. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of high pressure synthesized lithium and calcium double-filled CoSb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium and calcium are inefficient filling elements of CoSb3 at ambient pressure, but show nice filling behavior under high pressure. In this work, we synthesized Li/Ca double-filled CoSb3 with high pressure synthesis method. The products show the skutterudite structure of Im3¯ symmetry. Thermoelectric properties were effectively enhanced through Li and Ca co-filling. For the optimal Li0.08Ca0.18Co4Sb12 sample, the power factor maintains a relatively high value over the whole measurement temperature range and peaks at 4700μWm−1K−2, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is greatly suppressed, leading to a maximal ZT of 1.18 at 700 K. Current work demonstrates high pressure synthesis as an effective method to produce multiple elemental filled CoSb3 skutterudites.

  15. HxMoO3 nanobelts with better performance as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Xiaokang; Ning, Peigong; Tong, Xiaobing; Lin, Xiaoping; Pan, Xi; Li, Qiuhong; Duan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Taihong

    2016-01-01

    We first report the pure H x MoO 3 nanobelts as anode for lithium-ion batteries by a facile hydrothermal with ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH 4 )6Mo 7 O 24 ∙4H 2 O) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Owing to hydrogen-doping, Mo 5+ exists in the H x MoO 3 nanobelt, which may release extra electrons. Therefore, the electric conductance of H x MoO 3 nanobelt is enhanced greatly. Moreover, the content of hydrogen can’t be high, since the ordered structure deteriorates when amount of hydrogen increasing. The H 0.28 MoO 3 nanobelts we designed exhibit outstanding specific capacity and rate performance. The stable capacity of 920 mAh g −1 is obtained after 25 charge/discharge cycles at 100 mA g −1 . At high current densities such as 1, 2, 5 and 10 A g −1 , the H 0.28 MoO 3 electrode delivers specific capacities of about 600, 500, 420, 300 mAh g −1 , respectively. Even after 450 charge discharge cycles at 1 A g −1 , the performance of our materials can maintain the capacity of about 550 mAh g −1 . Furthermore, we provide more discussion about the lithium storage mechanism of H x MoO 3 nanobelts through ex situ XRD and FESEM. By comparing H x MoO 3 with different X, we find that low content of hydrogen can greatly improve the performance of α-MoO 3 electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

  16. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  18. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang; Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Liang, Yongye; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free

  19. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2011-01-01

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering

  20. Bismuth oxyfluoride @ CMK-3 nanocomposite as cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dan; Sun, Wang; Xie, Liqiang; Fan, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Kening

    2018-01-01

    Bismuth oxyfluoride impregnated CMK-3 nanocomposite is synthesized by a facile nanocasting approach. Mesoporous carbon CMK-3 can suppress the aggregation and growth of bismuth oxyfluoride particles and offer rapid electron and Li ion passageways. Bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles are embedded in the mesoporous channels with particle size less than 20 nm. The bismuth oxyfluoride@CMK-3 nanocomposite maintains 148 mA h g-1 after 40 cycles with the capacity from both the bismuth oxyfluoride and the functional groups on the mesoporous carbon. The hybrid with confined bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles, conductive carbon network, and oxygen functional groups on the carbon matrix exhibits higher capacity and cycling stability than bulk bismuth oxyfluoride particles when used as lithium ion batteries cathode.

  1. Exploring Genetic Variability at PI, GSK3, HPA, and Glutamatergic Pathways in Lithium Response: Association With IMPA2, INPP1, and GSK3B Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, Marina; Arias, Bárbara; Jiménez, Esther; Goikolea, Jose M; Sáiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, M Paz; Burón, Patricia; Bobes, Julio; Vieta, Eduard; Benabarre, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Lithium is considered the first-line treatment in bipolar disorder, although response could range from an excellent response to a complete lack of response. Response to lithium is a complex phenotype in which different factors, part of them genetics, are involved. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential association of genetic variability at genes related to phosphoinositide, glycogen synthetase kinase-3 (GSK3), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, and glutamatergic pathways with lithium response. A sample of 131 bipolar patients (99 type I, 32 type II) were grouped and compared according to their level of response: excellent responders (ER), partial responders (PR), and nonresponders (NR). Genotype and allele distributions of the rs669838 (IMPA2), rs909270 (INNP1), rs11921360 (GSK3B), and rs28522620 (GRIK2) polymorphisms significantly differed between ER, PR, and NR. When we compared the ER versus PR+NR, the logistic regression showed significant association for rs669838-C (IMPA2; P = 0.021), rs909270-G (INPP1; P = 0.009), and rs11921360-A (GSK3B; P = 0.004) with lithium nonresponse. Haplotype analysis showed significant association for the haplotypes rs3791809-rs4853694-rs909270 (INPP1) and rs1732170-rs11921360-rs334558 (GSK3B) and lithium response. Our study is in line with previous studies reporting association between genetic variability at these genes and lithium response, pointing to an effect of IMPA2, INPP1, and GSK3B genes to lithium response in bipolar disorder patients. Further studies with larger samples are warranted to assess the strength of the reported associations.

  2. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation of H2TiO3-lithium adsorbent by the sol–gel process and its adsorption performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Zhou, Dali; Yao, Qianqian; Zhou, Jiabei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-Li 2 TiO 3 was synthesized with CH 3 COOLi and Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 by the sol–gel process. • H 2 TiO 3 -lithium adsorbent was obtained by treating Li 2 TiO 3 with HCl. • Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the adsorption process. • The adsorption performance of the obtained adsorbent was studied. - Abstract: CH 3 COOLi and Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 were employed as lithium and titanium sources, respectively to synthesize Li 2 TiO 3 by the sol–gel process, followed by treating with hydrochloric acid to yield H 2 TiO 3 -lithium adsorbent. Various concentrations of LiOH and lithium sources were used as adsorption liquid to carry out adsorption experiment, the data from which were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results indicate that the optimal calcination temperature is 650 °C, and Li 2 TiO 3 with particle size 60–80 nm is observed. The Li + drawn out ratio from Li 2 TiO 3 reaches 78.9%, and the dissolution of titanium ions can be as low as 0.07%. The protonated sample obtained has a lower basal spacing, while the crystal morphology is retained. The main factors affecting the adsorptive capacity are the Li + concentration and pH in the liquid. The adsorption process of H 2 TiO 3 -lithium adsorbent can be seen as a process including surface adsorption and ion exchange. Compared with Langmuir model, Freundlich model is more suitable for describing the actual adsorption process.

  4. Effect of lithium tetrafluoroborate on the solubility of carbon dioxide in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durano Arno, S.; Lucas, S.; Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the phase behavior of the ternary system of carbon dioxide +1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate + lithium tetrafluoroborate has been investigated. Mixtures of known concentrations of the salt, ionic liquid and carbon dioxide were prepared and their bubble point pressures were

  5. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  6. A system for remote dosimetry audit of 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT based on lithium formate dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolfsson, Emelie; Gustafsson, Håkan; Lund, Eva; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Olsson, Sara; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The aim of this work was to develop and test a remote end-to-end audit system using lithium formate EPR dosimeters. Four clinics were included in a pilot study, absorbed doses determined in the PTV agreed with TPS calculated doses within ±5% for 3D-CRT and ±7% (k = 1) for IMRT/VMAT dose plans

  7. Effect of concentration on the photoluminescence properties of Sm3+ and Dy3+: cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Vemasevana; Sailaja, S; Reddy, M Bhushana; Giridhar, P; Raju, C Nageswara; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    Rare-earth (Sm3+ or Dy3+) ions doped cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses have been prepared by melt quenching method for their spectral studies. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns the glass amorphous nature has been confirmed. Vis-NIR absorption, excitation and emission spectra of these glasses have been analyzed systematically and also rare earth ion concentration is optimised Sm3+: CLiBT glasses have shown strong orange-reddish emission at 598 nm (4G5/2-->6H7/2) with an excitation wavelength lambda(exci) = 401 nm and Dy3+: CLiBT glasses have shown strong yellow emission at 574 nm (6F9/2-->6H13/2) with lambda(exci) = 451 nm.

  8. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of hollow Fe3O4 microspheres assembled with nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanguo; Wang, Xiaoliang; Ma, Wuming

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Fe3O4 microspheres assembled with nanoparticles were successfully synthesized without the addition of any templates or subsequent treatments. When used as the anode materials for lithium-ion battery (LIB), the products showed good lithium storage properties, demonstrating their promising...

  9. Lithium Diffusion and Magnetism in Battery Cathode Material LixNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Månsson, M; Prša, K; Nozaki, H; Sugiyama, J; Wikberg, J M; Sassa, Y; Dahbi, M; Kamazawa, K; Sedlak, K; Watanabe, I

    2014-01-01

    We have studied low-temperature magnetic properties as well as high-temperature lithium ion diffusion in the battery cathode materials Li x Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by the use of muon spin rotation/relaxation. Our data reveal that the samples enter into a 2D spin-glass state below T SG ≈ 12 K. We further show that lithium diffusion channels become active for T ≥ T diff ∼ 125 K where the Li-ion hopping-rate [v(T)] starts to increase exponentially. Further, v(T) is found to fit very well to an Arrhenius type equation and the activation energy for the diffusion process is extracted as E a ≈ 100 meV

  10. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  11. A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jiangqiu; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model is built for a large format lithium ion battery module. The 3D TR propagation model is built based on the energy balance equation. Empirical equations are utilized to simplify the calculation of the chemical kinetics for TR, whereas equivalent thermal resistant layer is employed to simplify the heat transfer through the thin thermal layer. The 3D TR propagation model is validated by experiment and can provide beneficial discussions on the mechanisms of TR propagation. According to the modeling analysis of the 3D model, the TR propagation can be delayed or prevented through: 1) increasing the TR triggering temperature; 2) reducing the total electric energy released during TR; 3) enhancing the heat dissipation level; 4) adding extra thermal resistant layer between adjacent batteries. The TR propagation is successfully prevented in the model and validated by experiment. The model with 3D temperature distribution provides a beneficial tool for researchers to study the TR propagation mechanisms and for engineers to design a safer battery pack. - Highlights: • A 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model for Li-ion battery pack is built. • The 3D TR propagation model can fit experimental results well. • Temperature distributions during TR propagation are presented using the 3D model. • Modeling analysis provides solutions for the prevention of TR propagation. • Quantified solutions to prevent TR propagation in battery pack are discussed.

  12. Electrochemical reactivity of ilmenite FeTiO3, its nanostructures and oxide-carbon nanocomposites with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Tao; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical reactivity of the ball-milled ilmenite FeTiO 3 and ilmenite nanoflowers with lithium has been investigated. The electrode assembled with the ilmenite nanoflowers delivers better electrochemical performance than that of the milled material during charging and discharging in the potential range of 0.01 and 3 V vs. Li/Li + . The ilmenite nanoflowers demonstrate the capacity of ca. 650 mAh g −1 during the first discharge, and a reversible capacity of approximately 200 mAh g −1 in the course of the first 50 cycles. The possible reaction mechanism between ilmenite and lithium was studied using cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy. The first discharge involves the formation of an irreversible phase, which is either LiTiO 2 or LiFeO 2 . Subsequently, the extraction–insertion of lithium happens in a reversible manner. It was also observed that the lithium storage might be significantly improved if the electrode was prepared in the form of a nanocomposite of FeTiO 3 with carbon

  13. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  14. Anion exchange removal of Al3+ from Li+-Al3+ aqueous solution (originating from lithium recovery from brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Somrani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to separate aluminum(III ion from an aqueous solution containing Li+ at 25°C. Al3+ was transferred into [Al(C2O43]3- by means of complexation and removed by an anion exchange resin. This resin was anionic type Amberlite IRA 402 regenerated by sodium chloride. Hence, a theoretical study based on speciation diagrams was carried out to determine the best pH domain for separation. The complexation of aluminum ions by ammonium oxalate was studied. The motar ratio of Ox/Al and pH was investigated. Optimum values of these factors were found to be 3 and 4 respectively. In this case, the remaining lithium is 98.5%.

  15. Lithium Suppresses Hedgehog Signaling via Promoting ITCH E3 Ligase Activity and Gli1–SUFU Interaction in PDA Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is one of the hallmarks of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA. Lithium, a clinical mood stabilizer for the treatment of mental disorders, is known to suppress tumorigenic potential of PDA cells by targeting the Hh/Gli signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of lithium induced down-regulation of Hh/Gli1. Our data show that lithium promotes the poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of Gli1 through activating E3 ligase ITCH. Additionally, lithium enhances interaction between Gli1 and SUFU via suppressing GSK3β, which phosphorylates SUFU and destabilizes the SUFU-Gli1 inhibitory complex. Our studies illustrate a novel mechanism by which lithium suppresses Hh signaling via simultaneously promoting ITCH-dependent Gli1 ubiquitination/degradation and SUFU-mediated Gli1 inhibition.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Pr{sup 3+} ions embedded in lithium borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramteke, D.D. [Department of Applied Physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India); Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Gedam, R.S., E-mail: rupesh_gedam@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India)

    2016-01-01

    A series of lithium borate glasses with different Pr{sup 3+} contents were prepared by the melt quench technique to explore the new material for solid state light applications. We found that the addition of Pr{sup 3+} ions in the glass matrix has a profound effect on the properties of the glasses. The presence of Pr{sup 3+} ions in the glass matrix created various absorption bands compared to the base glass. These bands were due to the ground state ({sup 3}H{sub 4}) of the Pr{sup 3+} to the various excited states. Optical energy band gap was calculated by Tauc's method which showed a decreasing trend with an increase in the Pr{sup 3+} content. This might be due to structural changes when the glass structure became rigid due to the Pr{sup 3+} ions and this was confirmed by the density results. Rigidity of the glass structure was further confirmed by the Fourier transformed infrared results. The excitation spectra showed bands at {sup 3}H{sub 4}→{sup 3}P{sub 2}, {sup 3}P{sub 1} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} nm. The {sup 3}H{sub 4}→{sup 3}P{sub 2} band was used to study the unresolved {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} and {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 6} transitions of the Pr{sup 3+} ions.

  17. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Yanga, Dennis A.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration

  18. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical band gap and spectroscopic study of lithium alumino silicate glass containing Y3+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M S; Rezvani, M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different amounts of Y2O3 dopant on lithium alumino silicate (LAS) glass has been studied in this work. Glasses having 14.8Li2O-20Al2O3-65.2SiO2 (wt%) composition accompanied with Y2O3 dopant were prepared by normal melting process. In order to calculate the absorption coefficient of samples, transmittance and reflectance spectra of polished samples were measured in the room temperature. Optical properties i.e. Fermi energy level, direct and indirect optical band gaps and Urbach energy were calculated using functionality of extinction coefficient from Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Tauc's plot and the exponential part of absorption coefficient diagram, respectively. It has been clarified that variation in mentioned optical parameters is associated with the changes in physical properties of samples i.e. density or molar mass. On the other hand, increasing of Y3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to LAS glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 1.97 to 1.67 and 3.46 to 2.1 (eV), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Y3+ ions as the network former in the track of SiO4 tetrahedrals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Latest advances in the manufacturing of 3D rechargeable lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Loveridge, Melanie; Beattie, Shane D.; Jahn, Marcus; Dashwood, Richard J.; Bhagat, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) technology have led to a niche industry of diverse small-scale devices that include microsensors, micromachines and drug-delivery systems. For these devices, there is an urgent need to develop Micro Lithium Ion Batteries (MLIBs) with dimensions on the scale 1-10 mm3 enabling on-board power delivery. Unfortunately, power limitations are inherent in planar 2D cells and only the advent of 3D designs and microarchitectures will lead to a real breakthrough in the microbattery technology. During the last few years, many efforts to optimise MLIBs were discussed in literature, both in the planar and 3D configurations. This review highlights the importance of 3D microarchitectured electrodes to fabricate batteries that can be device-integrated with exceptionally high specific power density coupled with exquisite miniaturisation. A wide literature overview is provided and recent advances in manufacturing routes to 3D-MLIBs comprising materials synthesis, device formulation, device testing are herein discussed. The advent of simple, economic and easily scalable fabrication processes such as 3D printing will have a decisive role in the growing field of micropower sources and microdevices.

  1. Selective extraction of lithium with a macrocyclic trinuclear complex of (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)ruthenium(II) bridged by 2,3-dioxopyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Imoto, Takahiro; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuyuki

    2008-10-01

    A macrocyclic trinuclear complex of (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)ruthenium(II) bridged by 2,3-dioxopyridine was synthesized, and the extraction properties for lithium and sodium picrates were investigated in a dichloromethane/water system at 25 degrees C. The complex was found to have extremely high extractability and selectivity for lithium picrate; the logarithmic values of the extraction constants are 5.86 and 2.63 for Li(+) and Na(+), respectively. By using this complex as an extractant, nearly quantitative extraction and separation of Li(+) from Na(+) could be achieved by a single extraction.

  2. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong; Mølhave, Kristian; Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Xun; Xu, Shengming; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg−1), good cycling stability and rate capability. PMID:26846434

  3. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Gil [Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam [Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Huesup, E-mail: hssong@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3} with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO{sub 3} nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3} was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li{sub 5.5}WO{sub 3}) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO{sub 3} particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Liang; Wang Yanli; Qiao Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Yang Shubin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized. As anode materials for lithium ion battery, the reversible capacity of obtained electrode is as high as 732 mAh g −1 at 74 mA g −1 and 500 mAh g −1 at 744 mA g −1 . - Abstract: Based on the high theoretical capacity of Co 3 O 4 for lithium storage, a noval type of monodisperse hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (HCSE-Co 3 O 4 ) were designed and synthesized. The monodisperse hollow carbon spheres not only can provide enough void volume to accommodate the volume change of encapsulated Co 3 O 4 nanoparicles, but also can prevent the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on the surface of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and following direct contact of Co and SEI films upon lithium extraction. The HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode exhibit highly reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance and rate capability attributed to the unique structure. The reversible capacity of HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode is as high as 500 mAh g −1 at a current density of 744 mA g −1 , while that of bare Co 3 O 4 electrode is only around 80 mAh g −1 .

  5. 3D Self-Supported Nanoarchitectured Arrays Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional self-supported nanoarchitectured arrays electrodes (3DSNAEs consisting of a direct growth of nanoarchitectured arrays on the conductive current collector, including homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoarchitectured arrays structures, have been currently studied as the most promising electrodes owing to their synergies resulting from the multistructure hybrid and integrating heterocomponents to address the requirements (high energy and power density of superperformance lithium ion batteries (LIBs applied in portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, large-scale electricity storage, and so on. In the paper, recent advances in the strategies for the fabrication, selection of the different current collector substrates, and structural configuration of 3DSNAEs with different cathode and anode materials are investigated in detail. The intrinsic relationship of the unique structural characters, the conductive substrates, and electrochemical kinetic properties of 3DSNAEs is minutely analyzed. Finally, the future design trends and directions of 3DSNAEs are highlighted, which may open a new avenue of developing ideal multifunctional 3DSNAEs for further advanced LIBs.

  6. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jaidass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Dy3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x B2O3 - 25 SiO2 -10 Al2O3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy2O3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6. The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (AR, total transition probability rate (AT, radiative lifetime (τR and branching ratios (βR for the excited 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram. Keywords: Condensed matter physics, Engineering, Materials science

  7. Role of LiNO3 in rechargeable lithium/sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of LiNO 3 on the Li anode and cathode of Li/S battery is studied, respectively. ► LiNO 3 participates in the formation of a stable passivation film on the Li anode surface. ► LiNO 3 may be reduced irreversibly on the cathode, affecting Li/S battery performance. ► Discharge mechanism of Li/S battery is explained from the viewpoint of phase transition. - Abstract: In this work we study the effect of LiNO 3 on the Li anode and sulfur cathode, respectively, of Li/S battery by using a Li/Li symmetric cell and a liquid Li/Li 2 S 9 cell. On the Li anode, LiNO 3 participates in the formation of a stable passivation film, and the resulting passivation film grows infinitely with the consumption of LiNO 3 . The passivation film formed with LiNO 3 is known to effectively suppress the redox shuttle of the dissolved lithium polysulfides on Li anode. On the cathode, LiNO 3 undergoes a large and irreversible reduction starting at 1.6 V in the first discharge, and the irreversible reduction disappears in the subsequent cycles. Moreover, the insoluble reduction products of LiNO 3 on the cathode adversely affect the redox reversibility of sulfur cathode. These results indicate that both the Li anode and sulfur cathode consume LiNO 3 , and that the best benefit of LiNO 3 to Li/S battery occurs at the potentials higher than 1.6 V. By limiting the irreversible reduction of LiNO 3 on the cathode, we have shown that the Li/S cell with a 0.2 m LiNO 3 as the co-salt can provide a stable capacity of ∼500 mAh g −1 .

  8. Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous 3D-nanostructure as anode material for the lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Su, Danyang; Yang, Jinping; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    3d transition-metal oxides, especially Fe3O4, as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries have been attracting intensive attentions in recent years due to their high energy capacity and low toxicity. A new Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure, which was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and porous spongy carbon as raw materials. The specific surface area and microstructures of composite were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. A homogeneous distribution of hollow Fe3O4 spheres (diameter ranges from 120 nm to 150 nm) in the spongy carbon (pore size > 200 nm) conductive 3D-network significantly reduced the lithium-ion diffusion length and increased the electrochemical reaction area, and further more enhanced the lithium ion battery performance, such as discharge capacity and cycle life. As an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, the title composite exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. The Fe3O4/C composite electrode achieved a relatively high reversible specific capacity of 1450.1 mA h g-1 in the first cycle at 100 mA g-1, and excellent rate capability (69% retention at 1000 mA g-1) with good cycle stability (only 10% loss after 100 cycles).

  9. Tribological Behavior of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 Contacts Lubricated by Lithium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of Si3N4 ball sliding against Ti3SiC2 disc lubricated by lithium-based ionic liquids (ILs was investigated using an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at room temperature (RT and elevated temperature (100°C. Glycerol and the conventional imidazolium-based IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (L-F106 were used as references under the same experimental conditions. The results show that the lithium-based ILs had higher thermal stabilities than glycerol and lower costs associated with IL preparation than L-F106. The tribotest results show that the lithium-based ILs were effective in reducing the friction and wear of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 contacts. [Li(urea]TFSI even produced better tribological properties than glycerol and L-F106 both at RT and 100°C. The SEM/EDS and XPS results reveal that the excellent tribological endurance of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 contacts lubricated by lithium-based ILs was mainly attributed to the formation of surface protective films composed of various tribochemical products.

  10. Crystal structure and lithium ion conductivity of A-site deficient perovskites La1/3-xLi3xTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Hayashi, Shinsuke

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure and lithium ion conductivity of La 1/3-x Li 3x TaO 3 solid solutions with the A-site deficient perovskite structure have been studied. Single phase solid solutions were obtained in the range of x=0 to 1/6. Change from tetragonal to cubic structure and decrease in the lattice volume were observed with increasing the x value. The maximum conductivity obtained was 7 x 10 -3 S·m -1 at x=0.06. The composition-dependence on the carrier concentration was calculated and compared with conductivity data. (author)

  11. Graphene-Embedded Co3O4 Rose-Spheres for Enhanced Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Mingjun; Zhou, Minjie; Li, Gangyong; Chen, Zhengu; Xu, Wenyuan; Chen, Xiaobo; Hou, Zhaohui

    2017-03-22

    Co 3 O 4 has been widely studied as a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, the huge volume change and structural strain associated with the Li + insertion and extraction process leads to the pulverization and deterioration of the electrode, resulting in a poor performance in lithium ion batteries. In this paper, Co 3 O 4 rose-spheres obtained via hydrothermal technique are successfully embedded in graphene through an electrostatic self-assembly process. Graphene-embedded Co 3 O 4 rose-spheres (G-Co 3 O 4 ) show a high reversible capacity, a good cyclic performance, and an excellent rate capability, e.g., a stable capacity of 1110.8 mAh g -1 at 90 mA g -1 (0.1 C), and a reversible capacity of 462.3 mAh g -1 at 1800 mA g -1 (2 C), benefitted from the novel architecture of graphene-embedded Co 3 O 4 rose-spheres. This work has demonstrated a feasible strategy to improve the performance of Co 3 O 4 for lithium-ion battery application.

  12. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped barium lithium fluoroborate glasses for near-infrared (NIR) emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Suresh, K.

    2018-04-01

    The neodymium doped barium lithium fluoroborate (Nd3+: BLFB) glasses with the chemical composition (70-x) H3BO3 - 10 Li2CO3 - 10 BaCO3- 5 CaF2-5 ZnO - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 in wt %) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and characterised through optical absorption, near infrared emission and decay-time measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The optical absorption spectra and emission spectra were recorded in the wavelength ranges of 190-1100 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined from the systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium ions in the prepared glasses. The emission spectra exhibited three prominent peaks at 874, 1057, 1331 nm corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 11/2, 13/2 transitions levels respectively in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition increases with the increase in neodymium concentration up to 0.5 wt% and the concentration quenching mechanism was observed for 1 wt% and 2 wt% concentrations. The lifetime of the 4F3/2 level was found to decrease with increasing Nd3+ ion concentration. The nature of energy transfer process was a single exponential curve which was studied for all the glasses and analysed.

  13. Tritium trapping states induced by lithium-depletion in Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Makoto, E-mail: kobayashi.makoto@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Identifications of tritium trapping states in neutron-irradiated Li{sub 1.8}TiO{sub 2.9} (lithium-depleted Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) were carried out by the out-of-pile tritium release behavior. Tritium release behaviors for neutron-irradiated Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and tritium gas-exposed TiO{sub 2} were also measured for comparison. Among the tritium release spectra for these samples, three tritium release peaks were appeared. By the kinetic analyses of tritium release behaviors, the Arrhenius parameters for three peaks were evaluated. Especially for Li{sub 1.8}TiO{sub 2.9}, there were two tritium release peaks, and the peak in lower temperature region was assigned to the tritium release controlled by the diffusion process in Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} structure. The other tritium release peak, which was hardly appeared for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, was assigned to the release of tritium trapped as hydroxyl groups in Li{sub 1.8}TiO{sub 2.9}, indicating that lithium-depletion would result in the formation of hydroxyl groups in Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. Lithium vacancies existed in Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} crystal structure would promote the tritium trapping as hydroxyl groups due to the decreased charge repulsion between lithium ions and tritium ion, resulting in the difficulty of recovering tritium from Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} effectively.

  14. Studies on the recovery of lithium from wash effluent generated during preparation of Li2TiO3 (Lithium Titanate) microspheres for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamankar, Y.R.; Vittal Rao, T.V.; Pius, I.C.; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Methods are being developed for the recovery of lithium from wash effluent generated during the preparation of lithium titanate microspheres which are to be used for breeding tritium in ITER Program. Thermal decomposition of the wash effluent in a furnace at 600°C, resulted in decomposition of the impurities such as ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, HMTA, and Urea etc., yielding pure lithium salt. Thermal decomposition of wash effluent containing nitrate was carried out in a controlled manner to avoid explosive decomposition of HMTA and ammonium nitrate. Preliminary investigations were also carried out for the separation of lithium as lithium hydroxide from wash effluent using ion exchange membrane coupled with an electrolytic cell. (author)

  15. Behavior of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO2)4(WO3)2m (m = 7 and 8) in the course of electrochemical lithium insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-de la Cruz, A.; Longoria Rodriguez, F.E.; Gonzalez, Lucy T.; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical lithium insertion process has been studied in the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m , where m = 7 and 8. Structural changes in the pristine oxides were followed as lithium insertion proceeded. Through potentiostatic intermittent technique the different processes which take place in the cathode during the discharge of the cell were analyzed. The nature of the bronzes Li x (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m formed was determined by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. These results have allowed establishing a correlation with the reversible/irreversible processes detected during the electrochemical lithium insertion

  16. First-principles study on lithium removal from Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Yukinori; Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nagao, Miki; Kanno, Ryoji [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    A systematic first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to discuss the redox mechanism of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}. The lattices of structural models having C2/m- and C2/c-type stacking sequences can be regarded as hexagonal, while their symmetry is monoclinic. Different stacking sequences of [Mn{sub 2/3}Li{sub 1/3}] layers do not cause differences in the energy or crystallographic structure, suggesting a disordered stacking sequence. A calculation for Li{sub 2-x}MnO{sub 3} assuming topotactic lithium removal indicates that lithium removal can occur at a potential of about 4.6 V with a wide potential plateau. The electronic structure of Li{sub 2-x}MnO{sub 3} shows that the manganese ions remain in the charge state of Mn{sup 4+} and the charge of the removed lithium ions is compensated by the oxidation of oxygen. (author)

  17. One Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of FeCO3 Cubes for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Congcong; Liu, Weijian; Chen, Dongyang; Huang, Jiayi; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xueyan; Fang, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FeCO 3 nanocubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared. • A reversible capacity of 761 mAh g −1 was achieved at 200 mA g −1 after 130 cycles. • Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were employed to understand the cell performances. - Abstract: Uniform FeCO 3 cubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction and studied as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Interestingly, the FeCO 3 anode has an extremely high initial specific capacity of 1796 mAh g −1 . After cycling at a current rate of 200 mA g −1 for 130 cycles, an excellent discharge capacity of 761 mAh g −1 is still maintained. Moreover, the FeCO 3 anode exhibits significant high-rate capability, e.g., ∼430 mAh g −1 is obtained at a current rate of 1200 mA g −1 . The observation of the FeCO 3 cubes represents an important development of realizing both high capacity and good cycleability in conversion type anode materials for lithium-ion battery at the same time. Such cheap, easy-to-make, and environmentally benign material is promising for practical deployment for lithium ion batteries anode.

  18. Studying effect of MoO{sub 3} on elastic and crystallization behavior of lithium diborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaaban, KH.S.; Abd Elnaeim, A.M. [El-Azhar University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt); Abo-naf, S.M. [National Research Centre, Glass Research Department, Cairo (Egypt); Hassouna, M.E.M. [Beni-Suef University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni Suef (Egypt)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of MoO{sub 3} addition on the crystallization characteristics of 2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-23Li{sub 2}O-(75 - x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass (where x MoO{sub 3} = 0, 10, 20, and 40 mol %) has been investigated. The compositional dependence of the glass transition (T{sub g}), and crystallization (T{sub c}) temperatures was determined by the differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that both the T{sub g} and T{sub c} decrease with increasing MoO{sub 3} content. The amorphous nature of the as-quenched glass and crystallinity of the produced glass-ceramics were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Glass-ceramics embedded with diomignite (lithium diborate, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) were produced from all investigated glasses by heat-treating the as-quenched glasses at the appropriate temperatures obtained from the DTA traces. Addition of MoO{sub 3} to the glass composition at 10% MoO{sub 3}, causes the formation of lithium molybdenum oxide (Li{sub 4}MoO{sub 5}) crystalline phase in addition to the diomignite phase. Increasing MoO{sub 3} content to 20% causes a phase transformation of lithium molybdenum oxide from the (Li{sub 4}MoO{sub 5}) to the (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) phase and the formation of another lithium borate (Li{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase in addition to the diomignite. Further increase of MoO{sub 3} content to 40% results in another phase transformation to the lithium aluminum molybdenum oxide [LiAl(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}], and, in this case, the molybdenum content was excess enough to crystallize the molybdate (MoO{sub 3}) itself. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the formed solid solution phases. The values of the T{sub g} decrease with increasing the MoO{sub 3} content. The ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli were determined using the pulse-echo method. Both velocities (v{sub L} and v{sub T}) were increased as the MoO{sub 3} content, this increase can be

  19. Stable silicon/3D porous N-doped graphene composite for lithium-ion battery anodes with self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofu; Wen, Guangwu; Song, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We fabricate a novel 3D N-doped graphene/silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes, with Si nanoparticles uniformly dispersed and thoroughly embedded in the N-doped graphene matrix. The favorable structure of the composite results in a BET surface area and an average mesopore diameter of 189.2 m2 g-1 and 3.82 nm, respectively. The composite delivers reversible capacities as high as 1132 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles under a current of 5 A g-1 and 1017 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 A g-1, and exhibits an improved rate capability. The present approach shows promise for the preparation of other high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4 by Lithium Sensitive Glycogen Synthase Kinase GSK3ß

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cellular uptake of glutamate by the excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs decreases excitation and thus participates in the regulation of neuroexcitability. Kinases impacting on neuronal function include Lithium-sensitive glycogen synthase kinase GSK3ß. The present study thus explored whether the activities of EAAT3 and/or EAAT4 isoforms are sensitive to GSK3ß. Methods: cRNA encoding wild type EAAT3 (SLC1A1 or EAAT4 (SLC1A6 was injected into Xenopus oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild type GSK3ß or the inactive mutant K85AGSK3ß. Dual electrode voltage clamp was performed in order to determine glutamate-induced current (IEAAT. Results: Appreciable IEAAT was observed in EAAT3 or EAAT4 expressing but not in water injected oocytes. IEAAT was significantly increased by coexpression of GSK3ß but not by coexpression of K85AGSK3ß. Coexpression of GSK3ß increased significantly the maximal IEAAT in EAAT3 or EAAT4 expressing oocytes, without significantly modifying apparent affinity of the carriers. Lithium (1 mM exposure for 24 hours decreased IEAAT in EAAT3 and GSK3ß expressing oocytes to values similar to IEAAT in oocytes expressing EAAT3 alone. Lithium did not significantly modify IEAAT in oocytes expressing EAAT3 without GSK3ß. Conclusions: Lithium-sensitive GSK3ß is a powerful regulator of excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4.

  1. α-Fe2O3 lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lupo, F.; Gerbaldi, C.; Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G.; Tuel, A.; Penazzi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g −1 ) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe 2 O 3 active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour

  2. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Vemasevana; Sailaja, S; Raju, C Nageswara; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2011-06-01

    This article reports on the development and spectral results of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite (CLiAFBT) glasses in the following composition. 40TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3 (Hostglass) (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xEu2O3 (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xTb4O7 where x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mol%. Glass amorphous nature and thermal properties have been studied using the XRD and DSC profiles. From the emission spectra of Eu(3+):glasses, five emission transitions have been observed at 578 nm, 592 nm, 612 nm, 653 nm, 701 nm and are assigned to the transitions (5)D(0)→(7)F(0), (7)F(1,)(7)F(2), (7)F(3) and (7)F(4), respectively, with λ(exci)=392 nm ((7)F(0)→(5)L(6)). In case of Tb(3+):glasses, four emission transitions ((5)D(4)→(7)F(6,)(7)F(5), (7)F(4) and (7)F(3)) are observed at 488 nm, 543 nm, 584 nm and 614 nm, respectively, with λ(exci)=376 nm. Decay curves and energy level diagrams have been plotted to evaluate the life times and to analyze the emission mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO 3 with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO 3 . Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO 3 . This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [de

  4. Lithium chloride ameliorates learning and memory ability and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqiang Chen; Xuegang Luo; Quan Yang; Weiwen Sun; Kaiyi Cao; Xi Chen; Yueling Huang; Lijun Dai; Yonghong Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, Fmr1 knockout mice (KO mice) were used as the model for fragile X syndrome. The results of step-through and step-down tests demonstrated that Fmr1 KO mice had shorter latencies and more error counts, indicating a learning and memory disorder. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, or 200 mg/kg lithium chloride, the learning and memory abilities of the Fmr1 KO mice were significantly ameliorated, in particular, the 200 mg/kg lithium chloride treatment had the most significant effect. Western blot analysis showed that lithium chloride significantly enhanced the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, an inactive form of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Fmr1 KO mice. These results indicated that lithium chloride improved learning and memory in the Fmr1 KO mice, possibly by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity.

  5. Recovery of Boron and Separation of Lithium from Uyuni Salar Brine using 2, 2, 4-Trimethyl -1, 3-Pentanediol (TPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Kim, Chul-Joo; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Lee, Jin-Young; Kang, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, extraction and separation possibilities have been established for boron and lithium from Uyuni salar brine. Diols were shown to be effective extraction reagents for boron. The present scientific study was developed with 2, 2, 4-trimethyl-1, 3-pentanediol (TPD) as an extractant system. For fixing the diluent system, various diluents were tested and it was found that chloroform is a better diluent for boron extraction. Further, experimental studies on the extraction equilibrium time, pH influence, and phase ratio effects on boron extraction were conducted and the conditions for boron recovery and lithium separation were optimized. The McCabe Thiele diagram was established to optimize the number of extraction stages for boron extraction. Finally, stripping studies of boron from the loaded organic phase using various salts were performed.

  6. Linker-free 3D assembly of nanocrystals with tunable unit size for reversible lithium ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang, E-mail: cheleejy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, 119260 (Singapore)

    2011-09-02

    A simple and scalable procedure combining hydrothermal synthesis with post-synthesis calcination was developed to produce a linker-free, thermally stable, mesoscale 3D ordered assembly of spinel-type ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The mesoscale assembly with distinctively sharp edges was formed by close-packing the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystal building blocks with a unit size changeable by the synthesis temperature. A self-templating mechanism based on the topotactic transformation of an oxalato-bridged precursor coordination compound was proposed for the assembly. The packaging of crystalline ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, an active lithium ion storage compound, into a dense organized structure is an effective way to increase the volumetric capacity of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for reversible lithium ion storage. The highly ordered 3D assembly of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} demonstrated excellent reversible lithium ion storage properties and a specific capacity ({approx}800 mAh g{sup -1}) much higher than that of carbon (typically {approx} 350 mAh g{sup -1}).

  7. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  8. Linker-free 3D assembly of nanocrystals with tunable unit size for reversible lithium ion storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang

    2011-01-01

    A simple and scalable procedure combining hydrothermal synthesis with post-synthesis calcination was developed to produce a linker-free, thermally stable, mesoscale 3D ordered assembly of spinel-type ZnCo 2 O 4 nanocrystals. The mesoscale assembly with distinctively sharp edges was formed by close-packing the ZnCo 2 O 4 nanocrystal building blocks with a unit size changeable by the synthesis temperature. A self-templating mechanism based on the topotactic transformation of an oxalato-bridged precursor coordination compound was proposed for the assembly. The packaging of crystalline ZnCo 2 O 4 nanoparticles, an active lithium ion storage compound, into a dense organized structure is an effective way to increase the volumetric capacity of ZnCo 2 O 4 nanoparticles for reversible lithium ion storage. The highly ordered 3D assembly of ZnCo 2 O 4 demonstrated excellent reversible lithium ion storage properties and a specific capacity (∼800 mAh g -1 ) much higher than that of carbon (typically ∼ 350 mAh g -1 ).

  9. An Extremely Lithium-rich Bright Red Giant in the Globular Cluster M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert P.; Peterson, Ruth C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sneden, Christopher; Fulbright, Jon P.; Langer, G. Edward

    1999-06-01

    We have serendipitously discovered an extremely lithium-rich star on the red giant branch of the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). An echelle spectrum obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph reveals a Li I λ6707 resonance doublet of 520 mÅ equivalent width, and our analysis places the star among the most Li-rich giants known: logε(Li)~=+3.0. We determine the elemental abundances of this star, IV-101, and three other cluster members of similar luminosity and color and conclude that IV-101 has abundance ratios typical of giants in M3 and M13 that have undergone significant mixing. We discuss mechanisms by which a low-mass star may be so enriched in Li, focusing on the mixing of material processed by the hydrogen-burning shell just below the convective envelope. While such enrichment could conceivably happen only rarely, it may in fact regularly occur during giant-branch evolution but be rarely detected because of rapid subsequent Li depletion. Based on observations obtained with the Keck I Telescope of the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), Inc., on behalf of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of our beloved colleague Ed Langer, who died after a brief illness on February 16, 1999. Ed brought a unique theoretical perspective to our globular cluster abundance studies. His career truly embodied the academic ideals of inspiration in both teaching and research. He made friends wherever he traveled, and was an inspiration to students. We will miss him greatly.

  10. Effect of lithium carbonate on leukocyte number after influence of ionizing radiation. 3. Influence of lithium carbonate on peripheral leukocytes after fractionated caudal half-body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, H.; Saul, G.; Kehrberg, G. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated half-body irradiation of rats resulted in leukopenia of the peripheral blood. The decrease of leukocytes was smaller in animals pretreated with an orally administered dose of lithium carbonate for 14 days.

  11. Elevated neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5 levels in unmedicated bipolar depression and the effects of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre A; Zanetti, Marcus V; de Sousa, Rafael T; Chaim, Tiffany M; Serpa, Mauricio H; Gattaz, Wagner F; Teixeira, Antonio L; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2015-01-02

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with diverse abnormalities in neural plasticity and cellular resilience. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) support synaptic neuronal survival and differentiation. NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels were found to be altered in BD, potentially representing a physiological response against cellular stress. However, the use of psychopharmacological agents and heterogeneous mood states may constitute important biases in such studies. Thus, we aimed to assess NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels in medication-free BD type I or II individuals in a current depressive episode, before and after 6 weeks of lithium monotherapy and matched with healthy controls. Twenty-three patients with BD type I or II during a depressive episode and 28 healthy controls were studied. Patients were required to have a 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥18 and had not undergone any psychopharmacological treatment for at least 6 weeks prior to study entry. Patients were treated with lithium for 6 weeks and plasma NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels were determined at baseline and endpoint using ELISA method. Baseline plasma levels of both NT-3 and NT-4/5 were significantly increased in acutely depressed BD subjects in comparison to healthy controls (p=0.040 and 0.039, respectively). The NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels did not significantly change after lithium treatment. NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels were positively correlated to illness duration in BD (p=0.032 and 0.034, respectively). Our findings suggest that NT-3 and NT-4/5 levels are increased in the depressive phase of BD, which seems directly associated with illness duration. The increased levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 may underlie a biological response to cellular stress associated with the course of BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Lithium Ion Transport by Superionic Pathways Formed on the Surface of Two-dimensional Structured Li0.85Na0.15V3O8 for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xuena; Shang, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet with superionic conductive layer was constructed. • Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer provides facile pathways for lithium migration. • Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability. - Abstract: Poor ion transport and rate capability are the main challenges for LiV 3 O 8 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we report a novel strategy for enhancing lithium ion transport by building superionic pathways on the surface of Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet. The two-dimensional Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanoparticle with an ion conductive layer of Li x V 2 O 5 on its surface is constructed by a modified sol–gel strategy with carefully controlled sodium incorporation and elements stoichiometry. Ultrathin Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer not only provides facile pathways for lithium migration, but also increases the structure stability during cycling. The Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability of 172.3 mAh g −1 at 5C and excellent cycling stability of 98.9% over fifty cycles. This superior electrochemical property is attributed to the occupation of lithium site by Na + in LiV 3 O 8 host crystals and the surface superionic pathways of Li x V 2 O 5 phase. Therefore, the advantages of both high ion transport and the structure stabilization in present study put forward a new strategy for achieving high-performance LiV 3 O 8 electrode material with tailored nanoarchitecture

  13. In situ synthesis of α-MoO3/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiao-Shan; Dong, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites (MoO 3 /G) were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The composites were characterized using various characterization techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the electrochemical performance test. The results show that these MoO 3 /G composites exhibit high capacity and good cycle stability when used as the lithium-ion battery anode. Among all the samples, the MoO 3 /G-27 reveals the best electrochemical performance with an initial charge capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , the first coulombic efficiency of 69.5%. After eighty cycles the electrode still maintains a capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 , giving high capacity retention of 88.9%. The good electrochemical performance of the composite anode is close related to its structure, in which the MoO 3 nanobelts are not only homogeneously anchored on the surface but also embedded in the interlayer of the graphene sheets; hence the volume change and aggregation of the MoO 3 nanobelts during lithium ion insertion/extraction process can be effectively hindered. On the other hand, graphene itself is an electronic conductor; the graphene and MoO 3 nanobelts connect closely, which offers large electrode/electrolyte contacting area, short path length for Li + transporting during lithium insertion and extraction. - Highlights: • The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. • The MoO 3 /G-27 anode delivers an initial reversible capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 . • After 80 cycles it has a reversible capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1

  14. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  15. Self-assembly synthesis of 3D graphene-encapsulated hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flower architecture with high lithium storage capacity and excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yating; Huang, Jian; Lin, Liang; Xie, Qingshui; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-encapsulated hierarchical metal oxides architectures can efficiently combine the merits of graphene and hierarchical metal oxides, which are deemed as the potential anode material candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to the synergistic effect between them. Herein, a cationic surfactant induced self-assembly method is developed to construct 3D Fe3O4@reduction graphene oxide (H-Fe3O4@RGO) hybrid architecture in which hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flowers (H-Fe3O4) are intimately encapsulated by 3D graphene network. Each H-Fe3O4 particle is constituted of rod-shaped skeletons surrounded by petal-like nano-flakes that are made up of enormous nanoparticles. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 2270 mA h g-1 after 460 cycles is achieved under a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More impressively, even tested at a large current density of 10 A g-1, a decent reversible capacity of 490 mA h g-1 can be retained, which is still higher than the theoretical capacity of traditional graphite anode, demonstrating the remarkable lithium storage properties. The reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of H-Fe3O4@RGO electrode have been discussed in detail.

  16. Self-assembled 3D ZnSnO3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yankun; Li, Dan; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reducedgrapheneoxideaerogels(ZGAs) were fabricated. • The electrochemical properties of ZGAs were investigated for LIBs. • ZGAs demonstrated superior lithium storage performance. - Abstract: 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels (ZGAs) were fabricated via a colloid electrostatic self-assembly method between the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes colloid, followed by hydrothermal and freeze-drying treatments. The unique porous architecture of ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes encapsulated by flexible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets not only effectively retarded the huge volume expansion during repeated charge-discharge cycles, but also facilitated fast lithium ion and electron transport through 3D networks. The ZGAs exhibited significantly enhanced cycling stability (745.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current of 100 mA g −1 ) and superior rate capability (as high as 552.6 mAh g −1 at 1200 mA g −1 ). The results indicate that the ZGAs are promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  18. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  19. Effects of Residual Lithium in the precursors of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 on their lithium-ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Minsang; Ku, Heesuk; Park, Sanghyuk; Song, Junho; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2018-07-01

    Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 cathode active materials are synthesized from co-precipitated hydroxide precursors Lix[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]1-x(OH)2, and the effect of residual Li in the precursors on the lithium-ion battery (LIB) performance of their corresponding cathode active materials is investigated. Three kinds of precursors that contain different amounts of Li are selected depending on different conditions of the solution composition for the co-precipitation and washing process. It is confirmed that the introduction of Li to the precursors reduces the degree of structural perfection by X-ray diffraction analysis. Undesirable cation mixing occurs with the increasing Li content of the precursors, which is inferred from a decline in lattice parameters and the calculated intensity ratio of (003) and (104) peaks. In the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, the initial charge/discharge capacities and the rate capability of the cathode active materials are aggravated when Li exists in the precursors. Therefore, it could be concluded that the strict control of Li in a solution for co-precipitation of precursors is necessary in the resynthesis of cathode active materials from spent LIBs.

  20. In situ synthesis of Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite material for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with high capacity and supercapacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Wang Ying; Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang Guoxiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ solution-based preparation of Co 3 O 4 /graphene composite material. → Well dispersed Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. → Co 3 O 4 /graphene exhibits highly reversible lithium storage capacity. → Co 3 O 4 /graphene delivers superior supercapacitance up to 478 F g -1 . → Functional groups make contributions to the overall supercapacitance. - Abstract: Co 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposite material was prepared by an in situ solution-based method under reflux conditions. In this reaction progress, Co 2+ salts were converted to Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers, upon the reduction of graphite oxide to graphene. The prepared material consists of uniform Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (15-25 nm), which are well dispersed on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This has been confirmed through observations by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The prepared composite material exhibits an initial reversible lithium storage capacity of 722 mAh g -1 in lithium-ion cells and a specific supercapacitance of 478 F g -1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte for supercapacitors, which were higher than that of the previously reported pure graphene nanosheets and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Co 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposite material demonstrated an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for reversible lithium storage in lithium ion cells and as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  1. Silver-incorporated composites of Fe2O3 carbon nanofibers as anodes for high-performance lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhong; Li, Jiaxin; Wen, WeiWei; Chen, Luzhuo; Guan, Lunhui; Lai, Heng; Huang, Zhigao

    2014-12-01

    Composites of Ag-incorporated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) confined with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs) have been synthesized through an electrospinning method and evaluated as anodes for lithium batteries (LIBs). The obtained Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes show good LIB performance with a capacity of 630 mAh g-1 tested at 800 mA g-1 after 150 cycles with almost no capacity loss and superb rate performance. The obtained properties for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes are much better than Fe2O3/CNF anodes without Ag-incorporating. In addition, the low-temperature LIB performances for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes have been investigated for revealing the enhanced mechanism of Ag-incorporating. The superior electrochemical performances of the Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs are associated with a synergistic effect of the CNF matrix and the highly conducting Ag incorporating. This unique configuration not only facilitates electron conduction especially at a relative temperature, but also maintains the structural integrity of active materials. Meanwhile, the related analysis of the AC impedance spectroscopy and the corresponding hypothesis for DC impedance confirm that such configuration can effectively enhance the charge-transfer efficiency and the lithium diffusion coefficient. Therefore, CNF-supported coupled with Ag incorporating synthesis supplied a promising route to obtain Fe2O3 based anodes with high-performance LIBs especially at low temperature.

  2. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  3. Lithium chloride increases the production of amyloid-beta peptide independently from its inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyt, Christine; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Leroy, Karelle; N'Kuli, Francisca; Courtoy, Pierre J; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Octave, Jean-Noël

    2005-09-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is able to phosphorylate tau at many sites that are found to be phosphorylated in paired helical filaments in Alzheimer disease. Lithium chloride (LiCl) efficiently inhibits GSK3 and was recently reported to also decrease the production of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) from its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, lithium has been proposed as a combined therapeutic agent, inhibiting both the hyperphosphorylation of tau and the production of Abeta. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibition of GSK3 by LiCl induced the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in Chinese hamster ovary cells and rat cultured neurons, in which a decrease in tau phosphorylation was observed. In both cellular models, a nontoxic concentration of LiCl increased the production of Abeta by increasing the beta-cleavage of amyloid precursor protein, generating more substrate for an unmodified gamma-secretase activity. SB415286, another GSK3 inhibitor, induced the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and slightly decreased Abeta production. It is concluded that the LiCl-mediated increase in Abeta production is not related to GSK3 inhibition.

  4. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Thermal formation of mesoporous single-crystal Co3O4 nano-needles and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen; Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report the simple solid-state formation of mesoporous Co3O4 nano-needles with a 3D single-crystalline framework. The synthesis is based on controlled thermal oxidative decomposition and re-crystallization of precursor β-Co(OH)2 nano-needles. Importantly, after thermal treatment, the needle-like morphology can be completely preserved, despite the fact that there is a large volume contraction accompanying the process: β-Co(OH)2 → Co3O 4. Because of the intrinsic crystal contraction, a highly mesoporous structure with high specific surface area has been simultaneously created. The textual properties can be easily tailored by varying the annealing temperature between 200-400 °C. Interestingly, thermal re-crystallization at higher temperatures leads to the formation of a perfect 3D single-crystalline framework. Thus derived mesoporous Co3O4 nano-needles serve as a good model system for the study of lithium storage properties. The optimized sample manifests very low initial irreversible loss (21%), ultrahigh capacity, and excellent cycling performance. For example, a reversible capacity of 1079 mA h g-1 can be maintained after 50 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance and ease of synthesis may suggest their practical use in lithium-ion batteries. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  6. Capturing Lithium from Wastewater Using a Fixed Bed Packed with 3-D MnO2 Ion Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xubiao; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Jinming; Luo, Shenglian; Crittenden, John

    2016-12-06

    3-D MnO 2 ion cages (CMO) were fabricated and shown to have a high capacity for lithium removal from wastewater. CMO had a maximum Li(I) adsorption capacity of 56.87 mg/g, which is 1.38 times greater than the highest reported value (41.36 mg/g). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the stability of the -Mn-O-Mn-O- skeleton played an essential role in Li adsorption. The lattice clearance had a high charge density, forming a strong electrostatic field. The Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) site energy distribution model based on Polanyi theory described the linear increase of Li adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) with increasing temperature (Q 0 = k 3 × E m + d 3 = k 3 × (a × T) + d 3 ). Furthermore, the pore diffusion model (PDM) accurately predicted the lithium breakthrough (R 2 ≈ 0.99). The maximum number of bed volumes (BVs) treated was 1374, 1972, and 2493 for 200 μg/L at 20, 30, and 40 °C, respectively. Higher temperatures increased the number of BVs that may be treated, which implies that CMO will be useful in treating industrial Li(I) wastewater in regions with different climates (e.g., Northern or Southern China).

  7. 3D hollow framework of GeOx with ultrathin shell for improved anode performance in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen; Qiang, Tingting; Fang, Jiaxin; Song, Yixuan; Ma, Qiuyang; Ye, Ming; Qiang, Feiqiang; Geng, Baoyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D hollow framework of GeO x was synthesized using hydrothermal procedure. • The obtained GeO x 3D hollow framework has large surface area and porous thin shell. • The structure improved the cycle and rate performances. - Abstract: In this paper, 3D hollow framework of GeO x is synthesized using a bubble-template hydrothermal procedure. The as-obtained hollow structure exhibits excellent cycling performance and rate capability in comparison with GeO x nanoparticles when used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. The GeO x 3D hollow framework shows a high capacity of up to 1480 mAh·g −1 and 1109 mAh·g −1 at 80 mA·g −1 and 1600 mA·g −1 current density, respectively. The excellent lithium storage performance can be attributed to the unique 3D hollow framework. The framework not only acts as the buffer layer to alleviate the strain during lithiation, but also facilitates the electron transfer during the charge/discharge processes

  8. High Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors Employing Fe3O4-Graphene Composite Anode and Activated Carbon Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijia; Li, Chen; Zhang, Xiong; Sun, Xianzhong; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-05-24

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are considered as promising energy storage devices to realize excellent electrochemical performance, with high energy-power output. In this work, we employed a simple method to synthesize a composite electrode material consisting of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites mechanically anchored among the layers of three-dimensional arrays of graphene (Fe 3 O 4 -G), which exhibits several advantages compared with other traditional electrode materials, such as high Li storage capacity (820 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), high electrical conductivity, and improved electrochemical stability. Furthermore, on the basis of the appropriated charge balance between cathode and anode, we successfully fabricated Fe 3 O 4 -G//activated carbon (AC) soft-packaging LICs with a high energy density of 120.0 Wh kg -1 , an outstanding power density of 45.4 kW kg -1 (achieved at 60.5 Wh kg -1 ), and an excellent capacity retention of up to 94.1% after 1000 cycles and 81.4% after 10 000 cycles. The energy density of the Fe 3 O 4 -G//AC hybrid device is comparable with Ni-metal hydride batteries, and its capacitive power capability and cycle life is on par with supercapacitors (SCs). Therefore, this lithium-ion hybrid capacitor is expected to bridge the gap between Li-ion battery and SCs and gain bright prospects in next-generation energy storage fields.

  9. Interconnected α-Fe2O3 nanosheet arrays as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials with structure stability and binder-free are urgently required for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays directly grown on Ti foil were fabricated via a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method followed by thermal treatment. The as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 has an open network structure constituted of interconnected nanosheets and can be directly used as integrated electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays exhibit a high reversible capacity of 986.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Moreover, a reversible capacity of ca. 425.9 mAh g −1 is achieved even at a superhigh current density of 10 A g −1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of commercially used graphite. The excellent performance could be attributed to the efficient electron transport, the large electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the good accommodations for volume expansion from the interconnected nanosheet arrays structure.

  10. Lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses activated with Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ for green laser medium, reddish-orange and white phosphor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco-Rodriguez, H. I.; Lira, A.; Soriano-Romero, O.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Bordignon, S.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2018-05-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ doped lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses is performed through their absorbance and photoluminescence spectra, and decay time profiles. Laser parameter values (stimulated emission cross section, effective bandwidth, gain bandwidth and optical gain) were obtained for the terbium 5D4 → 7F5 green emission from the Tb3+ singly-doped glass (LAZT) excited at 350 nm to judge the suitability of the glass phosphor for fiber lasers. A quantum yield of (47.68 ± 0.49)% was measured for the 5D4 level luminescence. Upon 350 nm excitation the LAZT glass phosphor emits green light with a color purity of 65.6% and chromaticity coordinates (0.285, 0.585) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. The Tb3+/Eu3+codoped glass emission color can be tuned from reddish-orange of 1865 K upon 318 nm excitation to warm white of 3599 K and neutral white of 4049 K upon 359 and 340 nm excitations, respectively. Upon Tb3+ excitation at 340 nm Eu3+ is sensitized by Tb3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer with an efficiency of 0.23-0.26. An electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the Tb3+ to Eu3+ energy transfer taking place into Tb3+ - Eu3+ clusters.

  11. Unusual beta,beta'-coupling and beta-alkylation of methyl 2,3,3-trifluoropropenoate by lithium diorganocuprates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajduch, Jan; Paleta, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 2 (2011), s. 143-146 ISSN 0022-1139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : trifluoropropenoate * lithium diorganocuprates * stereoselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2011

  12. A Lithium-Ion Battery using a 3 D-Array Nanostructured Graphene-Sulfur Cathode and a Silicon Oxide-Based Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Almudena; Di Lecce, Daniele; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2018-05-09

    An efficient lithium-ion battery was assembled by using an enhanced sulfur-based cathode and a silicon oxide-based anode and proposed as an innovative energy-storage system. The sulfur-carbon composite, which exploits graphene carbon with a 3 D array (3DG-S), was synthesized by a reduction step through a microwave-assisted solvothermal technique and was fully characterized in terms of structure and morphology, thereby revealing suitable features for lithium-cell application. Electrochemical tests of the 3DG-S electrode in a lithium half-cell indicated a capacity ranging from 1200 to 1000 mAh g -1 at currents of C/10 and 1 C, respectively. Remarkably, the Li-alloyed anode, namely, Li y SiO x -C prepared by the sol-gel method and lithiated by surface treatment, showed suitable performance in a lithium half-cell by using an electrolyte designed for lithium-sulfur batteries. The Li y SiO x -C/3DG-S battery was found to exhibit very promising properties with a capacity of approximately 460 mAh g S -1 delivered at an average voltage of approximately 1.5 V over 200 cycles, suggesting that the characterized materials would be suitable candidates for low-cost and high-energy-storage applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sol-Gel Synthesis and in Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of Li3Nd3W2O12 as a Lithium Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minghe; Yu, Haoxiang; Cheng, Xing; Ye, Wuquan; Zhu, Haojie; Liu, Tingting; Peng, Na; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2018-04-18

    In this work, garnet-framework Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 as a novel insertion-type anode material has been prepared via a facile sol-gel method and examined as a lithium container for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 shows a charge capacity of 225 mA h g -1 at 50 mA g -1 , and with the current density increasing up to 500 mA g -1 , the charge capacity can still be maintained at 186 mA h g -1 . After cycling at 500 mA g -1 for 500 cycles, Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 retains about 85% of its first charge capacity changed from 190.2 to 161 mA h g -1 . Furthermore, in situ X-ray diffraction technique is adopted for the understanding of the insertion/extraction mechanism of Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 . The full-cell configuration LiFePO 4 /Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 is also assembled to evaluate the potential of Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 for practical application. These results show that Li 3 Nd 3 W 2 O 12 is such a promising anode material for LIBs with excellent electrochemical performance and stable structure.

  14. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  15. Lithium ion conduction in sol-gel synthesized LiZr2(PO4)3 polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Milind; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Anita, Sen, Somaditya; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    Safety issue associated with the high flammability and volatility of organic electrolytes used in commercial rechargeable lithium ion batteries has led to significant attention to ceramic-based solid electrolytes. In the present study, lithium ion conduction in two polymorphs of LiZr2(PO4)3 synthesized via the sol-gel route has been investigated. Rietveld refinement of room temperature X-ray diffraction data of LiZr2(PO4)3 powders calcined at 900 °C and 1300 °C confirmed these to be the monoclinic phase with P21/n structure and rhombohedral phase with R3¯c structure, respectively. Increase in calcination temperature and resultant phase transformation improved the room temperature conductivity from 2.27×10-6 ohm-1m-1 for the monoclinic phase to 1.41×10-4 ohm-1m-1 for rhombohedral phase. Temperature dependence of conductivity was modeled using Arrhenius law and activation energy of ˜ 0.59 eV (for monoclinic phase) and ˜0.50 eV (for rhombohedral phase) were obtained.

  16. Study of the lithium insertion-deinsertion mechanism in nanocrystalline γ-Fe2O3 electrodes by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintin, M.; Devos, O.; Delville, M.H.; Campet, G.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium intercalation hosts are a key point to the energy density of the largely used LiCoO 2 (even if of high cost and toxicity) as well as of manganese oxides which have been investigated most extensively. Iron oxides are attractive electrode materials for low-voltage rechargeable lithium batteries from both cost and environmental standpoints. However, search for iron oxides of conventional crystalline structures and micrometer particle sizes as lithium intercalation cathodes, has been greeted with disappointing results. Here we report on the synthesis, characterizations, electrochemical study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of a nanocrystalline γ-Fe 2 O 3 that simultaneously exhibits high lithium insertion capacity and good capacity retention upon cycling. These properties reveal thermodynamics of the nanocrystalline material inherently different from those of its microcrystalline counterpart. Moreover, EIS showed that the intercalation process of the lithium ion occurs according to two processes involving first the reduction of the surface Fe 3+ with concomitant charge neutralization by Li + ions onto the surface defects of the nanoparticle followed by the reduction of the core Fe 3+ with insertion of the Li + deeper in the particle

  17. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. The balance of TCF7L2 variants with differential activities in Wnt-signaling is regulated by lithium in a GSK3β-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struewing, Ian; Boyechko, Tania; Barnett, Corey; Beildeck, Marcy; Byers, Stephen W.; Mao, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Identification of a novel effect of lithium on the expression of TCF7L2 RNA isoforms and protein variants. → The extent of lithium-induced TCF7L2 form switch mirrors cell responsiveness to Wnt/β-catenin signaling. → Demonstration that lithium has dual GSK3β-dependent and -independent effects on TCF7L2 expression. → Demonstration that TCF7L2 expression is repressed by the transcriptionally active TCF7L2E form. → Evidence for a lithium-induced de-repression mechanism of TCF7L2 expression via TCF7L2 variant switch. -- Abstract: TCF7L2 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which controls cell fate and homeostasis. However, the complexity of TCF7L2 expression with numerous mRNA isoforms coding for proteins with distinct N- and C-termini allows variability in TCF7L2 functions and regulations. Here, we show that although TCF7L2 mRNA isoforms distinguish fetal, immortalized and adult differentiated endothelial cells (EC), they cannot explain the lack of significant β-catenin/TCF7 activities in ECs. Lithium, a Wnt-signaling activator, increases TCF7L2 mRNA levels and induces an RNA isoform switch favoring the expression of TCF7L2-short forms lacking the C-termini domains. Although the latter occurs in different cell types, its extent depends on the overall increase of TCF7L2 transcription, which correlates with cell responsiveness to Wnt/β-catenin signaling. While GSK3β down-regulation increases TCF7L2 expression, there is no concomitant change in TCF7L2 mRNA isoforms, which demonstrate the dual effects of lithium on TCF7L2 expression via a GSK3β-dependent up-regulation and a GSK3β-independent modulation of RNA splicing. TCF7L2E-long forms display a repressor activity on TCF7L2-promoter reporters and lithium induces a decrease of the endogenous TCF7L2 forms bound to native TCF7L2-promoter chromatin at two novel distal TCF7-binding sites. Altogether our data reveal a lithium

  19. Marginal and internal fit of pressed lithium disilicate inlays fabricated with milling, 3D printing, and conventional technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, Foudda R; Özcan, Mutlu; Khoury, Marwan; Majzoub, Zeina A K

    2017-09-29

    The subtractive and additive computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of lithium disilicate partial coverage restorations is poorly documented. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal and internal fit accuracy of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic inlays fabricated with conventional, milled, and 3-dimensional (3D) printed wax patterns. A dentoform mandibular first molar was prepared for a mesio-occlusal ceramic inlay. Five groups of 15 inlays were obtained through conventional impression and manual wax pattern (group CICW); conventional impression, laboratory scanning of the stone die, CAD-CAM milled wax blanks (group CIDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group CI3DW); and scanning of the master preparation with intraoral scanner and CAD-CAM milled (group DIDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group DI3DW). The same design was used to produce the wax patterns in the last 4 groups. The replica technique was used to measure marginal and internal adaptation by using stereomicroscopy. Mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess differences according to the groups and discrepancy location (α=.05). Group DIDW showed the smallest marginal discrepancy (24.3 μm) compared with those of groups CICW (45.1 μm), CIDW (33.7 μm), CI3DW (39.8 μm), and DI3DW (39.7 μm) (Pimpressions and subtractive milling of wax patterns resulted in better marginal and internal fit accuracy than either conventional impression/fabrication or additive 3D manufacturing. Three-dimensional printed wax patterns yielded fit values similar to those of the conventionally waxed inlays. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Structural and Interfacial Synergistic Effects of 3D Graphene@Ni Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Keyu; Wei, Wenfei; Yuan, Kai; Lu, Wei; Guo, Min; Li, Zhihua; Song, Qiang; Liu, Xingrui; Wang, Jian-Gan; Shen, Chao

    2016-10-05

    Owing to its ultrahigh specific capacity and low electrochemical potential, lithium (Li) metal is regarded as one of the most attractive anode materials for next-generation lithium batteries. Nevertheless, the commercialization of Li-metal-based rechargeable batteries (LiMBs) has been retarded by the uncontrollable growth of Li dendrites, as well as the resulting poor cycle stability and safety hazards. In this work, a 3D graphene@Ni scaffold has been proposed to accomplish dendrite-free Li deposition via structural and interfacial synergistic effects. Due to the intrinsic high surface area used to reduce the effective electrode current density and the surface-coated graphene working as an artificial protection layer to provide high cycle stability as well as suppress the growth of Li dendrites, the Coulombic efficiencies of Li deposition on 3D graphene@Ni foam after 100 cycles can be sustained as high as 96, 98, and 92% at the current densities of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mA cm -2 , respectively, which shows more excellent cycle stability than that of its planar Cu foil and bare Ni foam counterparts. The results obtained here demonstrate that the comprehensive consideration of multiaspect factors could be more help to enhance the performance of Li metal anode so as to achieve its real application in next-generation LiMBs.

  1. Facile fabrication of composited Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with high electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are successfully prepared through one step dealloying of Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 alloy at room temperature. This hierarchical flower-like structure with consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Combined with the specific hierarchical flower-like architecture and the synergistic effect exerted by Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits enhanced performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anode. - Highlights: • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are easily prepared by one step dealloying method. • The nanoflowers consist of packed regular nanoslices with interconnected voids. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers deliver higher discharge capacity than Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers show lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. - Abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with controllable components are simply fabricated through one step etching of the Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 ternary alloy. The as-made hierarchical flower-like structure with interconnected voids consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Based on the simple dealloying strategy the target metals are directly converted to uniform nanocomposite composed of Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 species. With the unique hierarchical flower-like structure and the synergistic effects between Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits higher performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than that of pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anodes. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposite deliver much higher discharge capacity and lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 anode material also shows an excellent cycling stability at the high rate of 1500 mA g"−"1 with outstanding rate capability. With the advantages of simple preparation and excellent electrochemical performance, Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers manifest great application potential as

  2. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  3. Li+ transport properties of W substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 cubic lithium garnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dhivya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ sintered at 1230 °C has received considerable importance in recent times as result of its high total (bulk + grain boundary ionic conductivity of 5 × 10−4 S cm−1 at room temperature. In this work we report Li+ transport process of Li7−2xLa3Zr2−xWxO12 (x = 0.3, 0.5 cubic lithium garnets. Among the investigated compounds, Li6.4La3Zr1.7W0.3O12 sintered relatively at lower temperature 1100 °C exhibits highest room temperature (30 °C total (bulk + grain boundary ionic conductivity of 7.89 × 10−4 S cm−1. The temperature dependencies of the bulk conductivity and relaxation frequency in the bulk are governed by the same activation energy. Scaling the conductivity spectra for both Li6.4La3Zr1.7W0.3O12 and Li6La3Zr1.5W0.5O12 sample at different temperatures merges on a single curve, which implies that the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers is independent of temperature. The shape of the imaginary part of the modulus spectra suggests that the relaxation processes are non-Debye in nature. The present studies supports the prediction of optimum Li+ concentration required for the highest room temperature Li+ conductivity in LixLa3M2O12 is around x = 6.4 ± 0.1.

  4. Destabilization of the 6H-SrIrO3 polymorph through partial substitution of zinc and lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Martin; K. Kim, Cindi; Hirai, Daigo

    2012-01-01

    We report on the destabilization of the 6H-SrIrO3 polymorph through partial substitutions of zinc and lithium for iridium to form perovskites. The perovskites crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbnm: SrIr1−xZnxO3 is found for 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.33, while SrIr1−xLixO3 is found only for x = 0...... show Curie–Weiss behavior, with relatively large temperature independent contributions, and that the iridium atoms have low effective moments, 0.52 to 1.08 μB per Ir. The resistivity of SrIr0.67Zn0.33O3, characterized by Mott variable range hopping type semiconducting behavior, indicates...

  5. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  6. Uniform Fe3O4 microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Arandiyan, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe3O4 microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe3O4 microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture...

  7. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Characterization and electrochemical performance of lithium-active titanium dioxide inlaid LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 material prepared by lithium residue-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingjun; Chen, Zhaoyong; Song, Liubin; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Huali; Gong, Li; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTiO 2 -inlaid LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 is prepared by lithium residue-assisted method. • The unique inlaid architecture inherits the advantages of coating and doping. • LiTiO 2 inlaying enhances the pristine at high cyclability and rate properties. • Excess LiTiO 2 modification results in low Li + diffusion coefficient. • The 3 mol% LiTiO 2 inlaid sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance. - Abstract: The lithium residues are consumed as raw materials to in-situ synthesize the LiTiO 2 -inlaid LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 composites. The effects of various LiTiO 2 contents on the morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 materials are investigated in detail. Energy dispersive spectrometer mapping, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis confirm that the spherical particles of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 are completely coated by crystalline LiTiO 2 phase; X-ray diffraction, cross-section SEM and corresponding EDS results indicate that Ti ions are also doped into the bulk LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 with gradient distribution. Electrochemical tests show that the LiTiO 2 -inlaid samples exhibit excellent reversible capacity, enhanced cyclability, superior lithium diffusion coefficient and rate properties. Specially, the 3 mol% LiTiO 2 inlaid sample maintains 153.7 mA h g −1 with 94.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles between 2.7–4.4 V at 1 C, take 30% advantage than that of the pristine one (118.2 mA h g −1 ). This improvement can be attributed to the removal of lithium residues and suitable LiTiO 2 inlaying. The absence of lithium residue is helpful to retard the decomposition of LiPF 6 . While, suitable LiTiO 2 inlaying can protect the bulk from directly contacting the electrolyte, buffer the volume change of core and shell during cycles, increase the surface electronic conductivity and offer a 3D path for Li + diffusion from the bulk to

  9. Recent Developments in Synthesis of xLi2MnO3 · (1 − x)LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) Cathode Powders for High-Energy Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, The Nam Long; Yoo, Kimoon; Hoang, Tuan K. A.; Chen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-rich layered powders, Li 2 MnO 3 -stabilized LiMO 2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn), are attractive cathode candidates for the next generations of high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, most of the state-of-the-art preparation procedures are complicated and require multiple energy-intensive reaction steps. Thus, elucidating a low-cost synthetic protocol is important for the application of these materials in future lithium-ion batteries. Recent developments in the synthesis procedures of lithium-rich layered powders are discussed and future directions are pointed out in this review.

  10. Lithium-induced neuroprotection in stroke involves increased miR-124 expression, reduced RE1-silencing transcription factor abundance and decreased protein deubiquitination by GSK3β inhibition-independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Sanchez-Mendoza, Eduardo H; Caglayan, Ahmet B; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M

    2017-03-01

    Lithium promotes acute poststroke neuronal survival, which includes mechanisms that are not limited to GSK3β inhibition. However, whether lithium induces long-term neuroprotection and enhanced brain remodeling is unclear. Therefore, mice were exposed to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and lithium (1 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/day over up to 7 days) was intraperitoneally administered starting 0-9 h after reperfusion onset. Delivery of lithium no later than 6 h reduced infarct volume on day 2 and decreased brain edema, leukocyte infiltration, and microglial activation, as shown by histochemistry and flow cytometry. Lithium-induced neuroprotection persisted throughout the observation period of 56 days and was associated with enhanced neurological recovery. Poststroke angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity were also enhanced by lithium. On the molecular level, lithium increased miR-124 expression, reduced RE1-silencing transcription factor abundance, and decreased protein deubiquitination in cultivated cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and in brains of mice exposed to cerebral ischemia. Notably, this effect was not mimicked by pharmacological GSK3β inhibition. This study for the first time provides efficacy data for lithium in the postacute ischemic phase, reporting a novel mechanism of action, i.e. increased miR-124 expression facilitating REST degradation by which lithium promotes postischemic neuroplasticity and angiogenesis.

  11. N-Doped Dual Carbon-Confined 3D Architecture rGO/Fe3O4/AC Nanocomposite for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ranran; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Jie; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming

    2018-04-25

    To address the issues of low electrical conductivity, sluggish lithiation kinetics and dramatic volume variation in Fe 3 O 4 anodes of lithium ion battery, herein, a double carbon-confined three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite architecture was synthesized by an electrostatically assisted self-assembly strategy. In the constructed architecture, the ultrafine Fe 3 O 4 subunits (∼10 nm) self-organize to form nanospheres (NSs) that are fully coated by amorphous carbon (AC), formatting core-shell structural Fe 3 O 4 /AC NSs. By further encapsulation by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers, a constructed 3D architecture was built as dual carbon-confined rGO/Fe 3 O 4 /AC. Such structure restrains the adverse reaction of the electrolyte, improves the electronic conductivity and buffers the mechanical stress of the entire electrode, thus performing excellent long-term cycling stability (99.4% capacity retention after 465 cycles relevant to the second cycle at 5 A g -1 ). Kinetic analysis reveals that a dual lithium storage mechanism including a diffusion reaction mechanism and a surface capacitive behavior mechanism coexists in the composites. Consequently, the resulting rGO/Fe 3 O 4 /AC nanocomposite delivers a high reversible capacity (835.8 mA h g -1 for 300 cycles at 1 A g -1 ), as well as remarkable rate capability (436.7 mA h g -1 at 10 A g -1 ).

  12. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOZHONG ZHOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Uniform hierarchical Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles were synthesised successfully by L-cysteine hydrochloride-assisted solvothermal treatment, and were then characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the synthesised Sb2S3 nanorod-bundles was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge−discharge technique, respectively. This material was found to exhibit a high initial charge specific capacity of 803 mA h g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1, a good cyclability of 614 mA h g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1 after 30 cycles, and a good rate capability of 400 mA h g-1 at a rate of 500 mA g-1 when evaluated as an electrode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. In situ synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with high capacity and supercapacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bei, E-mail: Bei.Wang-1@student.uts.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wang Ying [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwa-dong Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Wang Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-07-21

    Highlights: > In situ solution-based preparation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene composite material. > Well dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene exhibits highly reversible lithium storage capacity. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene delivers superior supercapacitance up to 478 F g{sup -1}. > Functional groups make contributions to the overall supercapacitance. - Abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material was prepared by an in situ solution-based method under reflux conditions. In this reaction progress, Co{sup 2+} salts were converted to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers, upon the reduction of graphite oxide to graphene. The prepared material consists of uniform Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (15-25 nm), which are well dispersed on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This has been confirmed through observations by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The prepared composite material exhibits an initial reversible lithium storage capacity of 722 mAh g{sup -1} in lithium-ion cells and a specific supercapacitance of 478 F g{sup -1} in 2 M KOH electrolyte for supercapacitors, which were higher than that of the previously reported pure graphene nanosheets and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material demonstrated an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for reversible lithium storage in lithium ion cells and as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  15. High ion conductive Sb2O5-doped β-Li3PS4 with excellent stability against Li for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Chen, Shaojie; Zhang, Zhihua; Ren, Jie; Yao, Lili; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-06-01

    The combination of high conductivity and good stability against Li is not easy to achieve for solid electrolytes, hindering the development of high energy solid-state batteries. In this study, doped electrolytes of Li3P1-xSbxS4-2.5xO2.5x are successfully prepared via the high energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. Plenty of techniques like XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS and TEM are utilized to characterize the crystal structures, particle sizes, and morphologies of the glass-ceramic electrolytes. Among them, the Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 (x = 0.02) exhibits the highest ionic conductivity (∼1.08 mS cm-1) at room temperature with an excellent stability against lithium. In addition, all-solid-state lithium batteries are assembled with LiCoO2 as cathode, Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 as the bi-layer electrolyte, and lithium as anode. The constructed solid-state batteries delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 133 mAh g-1 at 0.1C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature, and shows a capacity retention of 78.6% after 50 cycles. Most importantly, the all-solid-state lithium batteries with the Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 electrolyte can be workable even at -10 °C. This study provides a promising electrolyte with the improved conductivity and stability against Li for the application of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  16. Electrochemical investigation of electrochromic devices based on NiO and WO3 films using different lithium salts electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Youxiu; Chen, Mu; Liu, Weiming; Li, Lei; Yan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •ECDs based on NiO and WO 3 films using different electrolytes were fabricated. •Effect of different electrolytes on films and ECDs was investigated. •Applied voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 electrodes in an ECD was studied. •Voltage distribution on films was unbalanced and associated with electrolyte. •Films have different impedance behavior in different states and electrolytes. -- Abstract: Electrochromic devices (ECDs) with different liquid electrolytes were fabricated using NiO film as counter electrode, WO 3 film as working electrode. The effect of liquid electrolytes containing different lithium salts (LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 , LiTFSI) on films and ECDs was investigated, such as transmittance change, charge density, memory effect and cyclic stability. Films or ECDs using LiPF 6 electrolyte have excellent electrochromic properties but low cyclic stability, compared with LiClO 4 and LiTFSI electrolytes. In order to deeply understand the effect of electrolyte on films and devices, the voltage distribution of films based on an analog cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured and analyzed in different lithium salts electrolytes. Results show that voltage distribution and EIS characteristics of films have obvious difference in liquid LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 and LiTFSI electrolytes. Voltage distribution on NiO and WO 3 films is unbalanced and the impedance of films in bleached and colored states is different in the same electrolyte.

  17. Facile synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hierarchical microspheres with improved lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaojuan, E-mail: houxiaojuan@nuc.edu.cn; He, Jian; An, Kun; Mu, Jiliang; Chou, Xiujian; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres were first fabricated without any surfactant. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres present excellent electrochemical performances. • The excellent performances result from porous nanosheets assembled architectures. • The microspheres exhibit a high specific capacity of 1000 mA h g at 100 mA g. - Abstract: Porous nanosheets-assembled Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres have been first successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal method without any surfactant followed by a relatively low annealing temperature (400 °C) with a higher specific surface area compared to the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The nanosheets-assembled microspheres exhibit a high discharge capacity of 1000 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles and 850 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 500 mA g{sup −1} after 80 cycles, even at a high current density of 1.6 A g{sup −1} the cycling reversible capacity can still keep 750 mA h g{sup −1}, the representative capacities are relatively higher than most of reports about pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We attribute the excellent electrochemical performances to the porous nanosheets structure and architectures, which can provide more effective electrode/electrolyte contact area and direct ion transmission path, then lead to faster lithium-ion diffusion, confirmed by EIS measurements. The high specific capacity, excellent cycling and rate performances demonstrate that the porous nanosheets assembled microspheres present promising application in lithium storage.

  18. Judd-Ofelt analysis and photoluminescence properties of RE3+ (RE = Er & Nd): Cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. Vemasevana; Raju, C. Nageswara; Sailaja, S.; Reddy, B. Sudhakar

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth (Er3+ and Nd3+) ions doped cadmium lithium boro tellurite (CLiBT) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method. The vis-NIR absorption spectra of these glasses have been analyzed systematically. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, 6) have been evaluated and used to compute the radiative properties of emission transitions of Er3+ and Nd3+: CLiBT glasses. From the NIR emission spectra of Er3+: CLiBT glasses a broad emission band centered at 1538 nm (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) is observed and from Nd3+: CLiBT glasses, three NIR emission bands at 898 nm (4F3/2 → 4I9/2), 1070 nm (4F3/2 → 4I11/2) and 1338 nm (4F3/2 → 4I13/2) are observed with an excitation wavelength λexci = 514.5 nm (Ar+ Laser). The FWHM and stimulated emission cross-section values are calculated for Er3+ and Nd3+: CLiBT glasses. FWHM × σeP values are also calculated for Er3+: CLiBT glasses.

  19. One-step synthesis Fe{sub 3}N surface-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with excellent lithium storage ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yabin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yan, Yuerong [Department of Science and Technology, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Ming, Hai, E-mail: lunaticmh@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zheng, Junwei, E-mail: jwzheng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The Fe{sub 3}N modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries were prepared via a one-step and an efficient method. The layer of Fe{sub 3}N could significantly decrease the variation of volume and enhance the conductivity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} simultaneously during the reaction of lithium ions in the charge-discharge process. There are two main advantages of this material: (1) their size distribution, ranging from 100 to 500 nm and (2) the fact that these particles are connected with each other by the Fe{sub 3}N layer. These two features allow such material to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 739 and 620 mA h g{sup −1} after each 60 cycles at the current density of 50 and 200 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. More importantly, since its introduction, this new concept of coating metal oxides with a layer of metal nitride to form core-shell structured metal oxide@metal nitride can be widely applied in the fields of catalysis, electrochemistry, energy, environmental and materials science with improved performance.

  20. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  1. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li + -ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li 6.25 Al 0.25 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZ) with Li + -ion conductivity of ~10 –4 S ⋅cm −1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO 2 /LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO 2 –LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li 3 BO 3 , which is a mechanically soft solid electrolyte with a low melting point at around 700

  2. Lithium conductivity in glasses of the Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sebastian; Welsch, Anna-Maria; Behrens, Harald

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of Li-dynamics in oxide glasses, i.e. the effect of [AlO4](-) tetrahedra and non-bridging oxygens on the potential landscape, electrical conductivity of seven fully polymerized and partly depolymerized lithium aluminosilicate glasses was investigated using impedance spectroscopy (IS). Lithium is the only mobile particle in these materials. Data derived from IS, i.e. activation energies, pre-exponential factors and diffusivities for lithium, are interpreted in light of Raman spectroscopic analyses of local structures in order to identify building units, which are crucial for lithium dynamics and migration. In polymerized glasses (compositional join LiAlSiO4-LiAlSi4O10) the direct current (DC) electrical conductivity continuously increases with increasing lithium content while lithium diffusivity is not affected by the Al/Si ratio in the glasses. Hence, the increase in electrical conductivity can be solely assigned to lithium concentration in the glasses. An excess of Li with respect to Al, i.e. the introduction of non-bridging oxygen into the network, causes a decrease in lithium mobility in the glasses. Activation energies in polymerized glasses (66 to 70 kJ mol(-1)) are significantly lower than those in depolymerized networks (76 to 78 kJ mol(-1)) while pre-exponential factors are nearly constant across all compositions. Comparison of the data with results for lithium silicates from the literature indicates a minimum in lithium diffusivity for glasses containing both aluminium tetrahedra and non-bridging oxygens. The findings allow a prediction of DC conductivity for a large variety of lithium aluminosilicate glass compositions.

  3. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li 3 VO 4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li 3 VO 4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 532 W kg -1 , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lithium ameliorates open-field and elevated plus maze behaviors, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta expression in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Sun, Weiwen; Pan, Ying; Yang, Quan; Cao, Kaiyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yizhi; Chen, Mincong; Chen, Feidi; Huang, Yueling; Dai, Lijun; Chen, Shengqiang

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether lithium modifies open-field and elevated plus maze behavior, and brain phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (P-GSK3beta) expression in Fmr1 knockout mice. One hundred and eighty FVB mice, including knockout and wild type, with an age of 30 days were used. An open-field and elevated plus maze was utilized to test behavior, while western blot was used to measure the P-GSK3beta expression. Six groups were formed: control (saline), lithium chloride 30, 60, 90, 120, and 200 mg/kg. The experiments were carried out in the Institute of Neuroscience, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China between January and June 2012. Lithium significantly decreased total distance, crossing, central area time, and center entry in the open-field test (popen-arm tracking, open-arm entry, and open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (popen-field and elevated plus maze behaviors of Fmr1 knockout mice. This effect may be related to its enhancement of P-GSK3beta expression. Our findings suggest that lithium might have a therapeutic effect in fragile X syndrome.

  5. Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanorods assembled into a mesoporous hybrid composite used as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of new anode materials and engineering their fine structures are the core elements in the development of new-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, we herein report a novel nanostructured composite consisting of approximately 75% Fe3O4 nanorods and 25% reduced graphene...

  6. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  7. Self-assembly of nano/micro-structured Fe3O4 microspheres among 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks with superior lithium storage performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinlong; Feng, Haibo; Wang, Xipeng; Qian, Dong; Jiang, Jianbo; Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun; Deng, Miao; Liu, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Nano/micro-structured Fe 3 O 4 microspheres among three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hierarchical networks (the ternary composite is denoted as rGCFs) have been synthesized using a facile, self-assembled and one-pot hydrothermal approach. The rGCFs composite exhibits superior lithium storage performances: initial discharge and charge capacities of 1452 and 1036 mAh g −1 , respectively, remarkable rate capability at current densities from 100 mA g −1 to 10 A g −1 and outstanding cycling performance up to 200 cycles. The highly enhanced electrochemical performances of rGCFs depend heavily on the robust 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks, the stable nano/microstructures of active Fe 3 O 4 microspheres and the positive synergistic effects of building components. The systematic structure characterizations and electrochemical investigations provide insightful understanding towards the relationship between structure/morphology and lithium storage performances, which may pave the way for the rational design of composite materials with desirable goals. (papers)

  8. Lithium Insertion in LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 at Room Temperature and at 125°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koksbang, R.; Fauteux, D.; Norby, P.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium insertion and deinsertion reactions have been carried out with LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 chemically andelectrochemically at room temperature and at 125°C. The electrochemical experiments were performed with a nonaqueousliquid electrolyte at room temperature and with a polymer electroly...... is close to 4Li/NaCr3O8 and 1.3Li/KCr3O8.Lithium ion diffusion coefficients are similar for the two compounds in the comparable composition range.Thermally, the fully lithiated compounds appear to be as stable as the pristine materials.......Lithium insertion and deinsertion reactions have been carried out with LiCr3O8, NaCr3O8, and KCr3O8 chemically andelectrochemically at room temperature and at 125°C. The electrochemical experiments were performed with a nonaqueousliquid electrolyte at room temperature and with a polymer electrolyte....... At elevated temperatures, the isostructural compounds NaCr3O8 and KCr3O8 are able to accommodate morethan 4Li/MCr3O8. During this process, minor structural changes are observed. At room temperature, NaCr3O8 and KCr3O8also accommodate Li topotactically, but the maximum number of Li inserted per formula...

  9. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  11. The effect of Li2CO3 substitution on synthesis of LiBOB compounds as salt of electrolyte battery lithium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariningsih, Titik; Wigayati, Etty Marty; Sabrina, Qolby; Prihandoko, Bambang; Priyono, Slamet

    2018-04-01

    Development of the synthesis of LiB(C2O4)2 compounds continues to evolve along with the need for electrolyte salts to support the research of the manufacture of lithium ion batteries. A study had been conducted on the effect of Li2CO3 substitution on the synthesis of LiB(C2O4)2 or LiBOB compounds. LiBOB was a major candidate to replace LiPF6 as a highly toxic lithium battery electrolyte and harmful to human health. Synthesis of Lithium bis(oxalato) borate used powder metallurgy method. The raw materials used are H2C2O4.2H2O, Li2CO3 or LiOH and H2BO3 from Merck Germany products. The materials are mixed with 2: 1: 1 mol ratio until homogeneous. The synthesis of LiBOB refers to previous research, where the heating process was done gradually. The first stage heating is carried out at 120°C for 4 hours, then the next stage heating is carried out at 240°C for 7 hours. The sample variation in this study was to distinguish the lithium source from Li2CO3 and LiOH. Characterization was done by XRD to know the phase formed, FTIR to confirm that functional group of LiB(C2O4)2 compound, SEM to know the morphological structure, and TG/DTA to know the thermal properties. The results of the analysis shows that LiBOB synthesis using Lithium source from Li2CO3 has succeeded to form LiBOB compound with more LiBOB phase composition is 59.1% and 40.9% LiBOB hydrate phase, SEM morphology shows powder consist of elongated round particle porous and similar to LiBOB commercial and show higher thermal stability.

  12. NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhijie; Xiang, Junxiang; Zhao, Benliang [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qu, Yan [The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213145 (China); Xiang, Bin, E-mail: binxiang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A core-shell structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by rGO is synthesized by a PDDA assisted method. • Cushion effect of the rGO coating enhances the structure integrity. • Performance of the composites during cycling are improved remarkably compared to the pure nanobelts. - Abstract: Recently, layered transition metal chalcogenides (LTMCs) have attracted great attention as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, the volume expansion and structure instability of LTMCs during the lithiation and delithiation process still remains challenging. Herein, we report NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced-graphene oxide (NbSe{sub 3}@rGO) utilized as buffer layers with enhanced electrochemical performance. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to probe features of the NbSe{sub 3}@rGO. The NbSe{sub 3}@rGO nanobelts as anode exhibit a discharge capacity of 300 mAh/g at the current density of 100 mAh/g after 250 cycles, several times higher than pure NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts. The improved electrochemical performance of NbSe{sub 3}@rGO is attributed to a buffer effect from the rGO, cushioning the volume-change-induced strain effect on the structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts during cycling.

  13. 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with nanosheet constituents as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shiqiang [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Wang, Jiazhao; Wang, Jun [University of Wollongong, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (Australia); Li, Lin; Yang, Yun; Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Sun, Ziqi, E-mail: ziqi.sun@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with ultrathin nanosheet constituents are first synthesized as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery. It is interesting that the single-crystalline nanosheets allow rapid electron/ion transport on the inside, and the high porosity ensures fast diffusion of liquid electrolyte in energy storage applications. The electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres deliver an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Particularly, when the current density is increased to 800 mA/g, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} anode still arrived at 456 mAh/g over 50 cycles. The large and reversible capacities and stable charge–discharge cycling performance indicate that Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a promising anode material for lithium battery applications.Graphical abstractThe electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres delivered an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. When the current density was increased to 800 mA/g, the Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} still behaved high reversible capacity and good cycle performance.

  14. Partially etched Ti3AlC2 as a promising high capacity Lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xifan; Zhu, Yuanzhi; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Peng, Wenchao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2018-06-25

    MXenes, a family of two-dimensional transition-metal carbide and nitride materials, are supposed to be the promising materials in energy storage because of the high electronic conductivity, hydrophilic surfaces and low diffusion barriers. MXenes are generally prepared by removing the "A" elements (A = Al, Si, Sn, etc.) from their corresponding MAX phases by using hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the other etching agents, despite the fact that these "A" elements usually have great volumetric and gravimetric capacities. Herein, we studied the etching progress of Ti3AlC2 and evaluated their anode performance in Lithium-ion batteries. We found that a partially etched sample (0.5h-peTi3C2Tx) showed much higher capacity (160 mA h g-1, 331.6 mA h cm-3 at 1C) when compared with the fully etched Ti3C2Tx (110 mA h g-1, 190.3 mA h cm-3 at 1C). Besides, a 99% capacity retention was observed even after 1000 cycles in the 0.5h-peTi3C2Tx anode. This interesting result can be explained, at least in part, by the alloying of the residue Al element during lithiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Lithium in the active sub-giant HD123351. A quantitative analysis with 3D and 1D model atmospheres using different observed spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, A.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    Current 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere simulations together with non-LTE spectrum synthesis calculations permit to determine reliable atomic and in particular isotopic chemical abundances. Although this approach is computationally time demanding, it became feasible in studying lithium in stellar spectra. In the literature not much is known about the presence of the more fragile {6Li} isotope in evolved metal-rich objects. In this case the analysis is complicated by the lack of a suitable list of atomic and molecular lines in the spectral region of the lithium resonance line at 670.8 nm. Here we present a spectroscopic comparative analysis of the Li doublet region of HD 123351, an active sub-giant star of solar metallicity. We fit the Li profile in three observed spectra characterized by different qualities: two very-high resolution spectra (Gecko@CFHT, R=120 000, SNR=400 and PEPSI@LBT, R=150 000, SNR=663) and a high-resolution SOPHIE@OHP spectrum (R=40 000, SNR=300). We adopt a set of model atmospheres, both 3D and 1D, having different stellar parameters (T_{eff} and log g). The 3D models are taken from the CIFIST grid of COBOLD model atmospheres and departures from LTE are considered for the lithium components. For the blends other than the lithium in this wavelength region we adopt the linelist of \\citet{melendez12}. We find consistent results for all three observations and an overall good fit with the selected list of atomic and molecular lines, indicating a high {6Li} content. The presence of {6Li} is not expected in cool stellar atmospheres. Its detection is of crucial importance for understanding mixing processes in stars and external lithium production mechanisms, possibly related to stellar activity or planetray accretion of {6Li}-rich material.

  16. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV 3 O 8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g -1 at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g -1 , respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V 4+ ) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV 3 O 8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV 3 O 8 without detectable V 4+ (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  17. Electrochemical performance of high specific capacity of lithium-ion cell LiV3O8//LiMn2O4 with LiNO3 aqueous solution electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingshu; Zheng Qingyang; Wang Fei; Dai Weimin; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, the electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. → The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. → In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. The results indicate that these two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and no hydrogen or oxygen produced, moreover, intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions occurred within the range of electrochemical stability of water. The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries.

  18. Hollow Amorphous MnSnO3 Nanohybrid with Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for High-Performance Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Hao, Qingli; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Xia, Hui; Chen, Ziyang; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hybrid of hollow amorphous MnSnO 3 nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide was fabricated. The unique structure and well-combination of both components account for the ultra long-term cyclic life with high reversible capacity of 610 mAh g −1 over 1000 cycles at 400 mA g −1 . - Highlights: • Novel hybrid of MnSnO 3 and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide was fabricated. • The MnSnO 3 nanoparticles possess amorphous and hollow structure in the composite. • The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from unique nanostructure. • The reversible capacity of as-prepared hybrid is 610 mAh g −1 after 1000 cycles. • A long-term life with 97.3% capacity retention over 1000 cycles was obtained. - Abstract: Tin-based metal oxides usually suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from aggregation and considerable volume variation during the charge/discharge process in lithium ion batteries. In this work, a novel nanocomposite (MTO/N-RGO) of hollow amorphous MnSnO 3 (MTO) nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) has been designed and synthesized by a two-step method. Firstly, the nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite (MTO/N-RGO-P) with MnSn(OH) 6 crystal nanoparticles was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. Subsequently, the MTO/N-RGO nanocomposite was obtained through the post heat treatment of MTO/N-RGO-P. The designed heterostructure and well-combination of the hollow amorphous MTO and N-RGO matrix can accelerate the ionic and electronic transport, and simultaneously accommodate the aggregation and volume variation of MTO nanoparticles during the lithiation–delithiation cycles. The as-prepared hybrid of MTO and N-RGO (MTO/N-RGO) exhibits a high reversible capacity of 707 mAh g −1 after 110 cycles at 200 mA g −1 , superior rate capability, and long-term cyclic life with high capacity of 610 mAh g −1 over 1000 cycles at 400 mA g −1 . Superior capacity retention of

  19. The preparation and graphene surface coating NaTi_2(PO_4)_3 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yanping; Rao, Richuan; Dong, Xiongzi; Zhang, Xianwen; Zhu, Sane

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The NaTi_2(PO_4)_3/graphene composite is used directly as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion battery by using metal lithium as an anode electrode. Meanwhile, the electrochemical properties of the composite in this system is firstly studied in detail. The NaTi_2(PO_4)_3/graphene composite exhibits the better rate and cyclic performance than NaTi_2(PO_4)_3, which is ascribed to its stable 3-D framework and the enhanced electronic conduction resulting from the graphene sheets surface modification. - Highlights: • The graphene coated NaTi_2(PO_4)_3 was prepared by a simple sol-gel method followed by calcination. • The electrochemical properties of the NaTi_2(PO_4)_3/graphene composite was firstly studied in detail when used as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of NaTi_2(PO_4)_3/graphene composite was investigated by ex situ XRD. - Abstract: The graphene coated NaTi_2(PO_4)_3 has been fabricated via a simple sol-gel process followed by calcination. The NaTi_2(PO_4)_3/graphene (NTP/G) composite is used directly as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion battery and the electrochemical properties of the composite in this system is firstly studied in detail. In the charge-discharge process, two Li"+ can occupy octahedral M (2) site and be reversibly intercalated into the 3D framework of NTP through the ion conduction channel where almost all of Na"+ are immobilized to sustain the framework. At 5C rate, the capacity retention of the NTP/G composite after 800 cycles is still up to 82.7%. The superior electrochemical properties of NTP/G is ascribed to its stable 3-D framework and the enhanced electronic conduction resulting from the graphene sheets surface modification.

  20. Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Yanguo [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Arandiyan, Hamidreza [Particles and Catalysis Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Yang, Hongping; Bai, Lu; Mujtaba, Jawayria [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qingguo; Liu, Shanghe [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Sun, Hongyu, E-mail: hyltsun@gmail.com [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures were successfully prepared. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers are assembled with porous nanoplates. • Hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit better lithium storage properties than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The good lithium storage properties are attributed to the special structural nature. - Abstract: Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers assembled with porous nanoplates were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal method and subsequent annealing process. The structural and compositional analysis of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Bruauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area was calculated by the nitrogen isotherm curve and pore size distribution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers was determined by the Barret–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) method. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture and the porous sheet structural nature.

  1. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe_2O_3@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe_2O_3 nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe_2O_3@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe_2O_3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe_2O_3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe_2O_3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  2. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, A.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, R.V.; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved in the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3

  3. Bio-assisted synthesis of mesoporous Li3V2(PO4)3 for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Du, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Shen, Jianxing; Li, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a biomimetic way for obtaining mesoporous biocarbon coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (MBC-LVP). • This method is to apply yeasts as a structural template and a biocarbon source. • The MBC-LVP has uniform particles and fine biocarbon coating network structure. • The MBC-LVP exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances. - Abstract: The mesoporous biocarbon coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (MBC-LVP) cathode material is synthesized by a biotemplate-assisted sol–gel reaction process using low-cost beer waste brewing yeasts (BWBYs) as both structural template and biocarbon source. The structure and electrochemical performances of MBC-LVP were investigated using Raman spectra, thermogravimetric measurements (TGA), adsorption–desorption isotherms and pore-size-distribution curves, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM and HRTEM), and electrochemical methods. The results show that the MBC-LVP synthesized at 750 °C has a hierarchical nanostructure, which consist of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 crystal nanoparticles and amorphous biocarbons network (11.5%) with hierarchical mesoporous structures (slit shape mesopores, open wormlike mesopores and plugged mesopores). This hierarchical nanostructure facilitates electron and lithium ion diffusion. The MBC-LVP electrode has high discharge capacity (about 205 mAh g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 C in the voltage region of 3.0–4.8 V and the diffusion coefficient of Li + -ions determined by CV and EIS is higher than those of olivine LiFePO 4 . We have revealed the formation mechanism of MBC-LVP, the possible lithium pathways in the MBC-LVP and established a relation between the structure and the ionic and electronic transport properties

  4. Positive electrode for lithium secondary battery of the next generation. Part 3. Positive electrode active material synthesized by soft chemistry; 3 sofutokemisutori de gosei sareru seikyoku katsubusshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Jo, A [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-05

    Synthesis of high performance positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery using soft chemistry methods such as sol-gel method, precipitation method, and ion exchange method as well as the electrochemical properties and the positive electrode material for the metal oxides synthesized by soft chemistry methods are introduced. V2O5 gel is obtained by acidifying aqueous solution of vanadate such as NaVO3. MnO2 exists in various crystalline forms, and the characteristics of the electrode depend strongly on the crystal structure, chemical composition, water content, conditions of powder, and density, which can be controlled by the methods of synthesis and heat treatment. Sol-gel method is applied to the synthesis of MnO2 related compounds. LiCoO2 is synthesized by the precipitation method of the aqueous solution of the mixture of lithium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Tungsten trioxide hydrate and molybdenum trioxide hydrate are obtained as precipitation by adding strong acid for acidification to tungstate or molybdate A2MO4 aqueous solution. 31 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Synchrotron radiation-based 61Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segi, Takashi; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Takayuki; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the 61Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni3+ with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni2+ ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  6. Solvent-Directed Sol-Gel Assembly of 3-Dimensional Graphene-Tented Metal Oxides and Strong Synergistic Disparities in Lithium Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jianchao; An, Yonghao; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Tran, Ich C.; Liu, Yuanyue; Wood, Brandon C.; Biener, Juergen; Jiang, Hanqing; Tang, Ming; Wang, Y. Morris

    2016-03-21

    Graphene/metal oxide (GMO) nanocomposites promise a broad range of utilities for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), pseudocapacitors, catalysts, and sensors. When applied as anodes for LIBs, GMOs often exhibit high capacity, improved rate capability and cycling performance. Numerous studies have attributed these favorable properties to a passive role played by the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of graphene in enabling metal oxides (MOs) to achieve near-theoretical capacities. In contrast, the effects of MOs on the active lithium storage mechanisms of graphene remain enigmatic. Via a unique two-step solvent-directed sol-gel process, we have synthesized and directly compared the electrochemical performance of several representative GMOs, namely Fe2O3/graphene, SnO2/graphene, and TiO2/graphene. We observe that MOs can play an equally important role in empowering graphene to achieve large reversible lithium storage capacity. The magnitude of capacity improvement is found to scale roughly with the surface coverage of MOs, and depend sensitively on the type of MOs. We define a synergistic factor based on the capacity contributions. Our quantitative assessments indicate that the synergistic effect is most achievable in conversion-reaction GMOs (Fe2O3/graphene and SnO2/graphene) but not in intercalation-based TiO2/graphene. However, a long cycle stability up to 2000 cycles was observed in TiO2/graphene nanocomposites. We propose a surface coverage model to qualitatively rationalize the beneficial roles of MOs to graphene. Our first-principles calculations further suggest that the extra lithium storage sites could result from the formation of Li2O at the interface with graphene during the conversion-reaction. These results suggest an effective pathway for reversible lithium storage in graphene and shift design paradigms for graphene-based electrodes.

  7. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 (China); Liu, Zengxun [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 China (China); Sun, Jinhao, E-mail: sunjinhao@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway.

  8. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

  9. Improved electrochemical performance of natural honeycomb templated LiSbO3 as an anode in lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Mahanty, S.; Basu, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LiSbO 3 powders are synthesized by using honeycomb from natural beehive as template. → Agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped 40-80 nm particles. → Electrochemically active anode in lithium-ion coin cells. → Improved capacity retention and rate performance in templated LiSbO 3 . - Abstract: LiSbO 3 has been synthesized by wet-chemical route using natural honeycomb as template, followed by thermal treatment at 850 deg. C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirms a single phase material having an orthorhombic crystal structure with lattice parameters of a = 4.912 A, b = 8.679 A and c = 5.089 A. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that while conventional LiSbO 3 synthesized without using any template (C-LiSbO 3 ) consists of softly agglomerated clusters of bar-shaped multifaceted micrometer-sized grains (0.5-4.0 μm long and 0.5-1.0 μm wide), templated LiSbO 3 (T-LiSbO 3 ) consists of an agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped particles of sizes 40-80 nm. Electrochemical investigation in 2032 type coin cells vs Li/Li + shows that Li insertion in LiSbO 3 takes place at 0.78 V while Li extraction occurs in two stages at 1.1 and 1.4 V with initial capacities of 178 and 196 mAh g -1 for C-LiSbO 3 and T-LiSbO 3 respectively. While C-LiSbO 3 shows a drastic capacity fading retaining only 28% of initial capacity after 100 cycles, T-LiSbO 3 retains ∼48% of the initial capacity due to the faceted morphology of the nanoparticles.

  10. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  11. A 3.5 V lithium-iodine hybrid redox battery with vertically aligned carbon nanotube current collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Hong, Misun; Bonnet Mercier, Nadège; Yu, Guihua; Choi, Hee Cheul; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2014-02-12

    A lithium-iodine (Li-I2) cell using the triiodide/iodide (I3(-)/I(-)) redox couple in an aqueous cathode has superior gravimetric and volumetric energy densities (∼ 330 W h kg(-1) and ∼ 650 W h L(-1), respectively, from saturated I2 in an aqueous cathode) to the reported aqueous Li-ion batteries and aqueous cathode-type batteries, which provides an opportunity to construct cost-effective and high-performance energy storage. To apply this I3(-)/I(-) aqueous cathode for a portable and compact 3.5 V battery, unlike for grid-scale storage as general target of redox flow batteries, we use a three-dimensional and millimeter thick carbon nanotube current collector for the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction, which can shorten the diffusion length of the redox couple and provide rapid electron transport. These endeavors allow the Li-I2 battery to enlarge its specific capacity, cycling retention, and maintain a stable potential, thereby demonstrating a promising candidate for an environmentally benign and reusable portable battery.

  12. Oxidation reaction of polyether-based material and its suppression in lithium rechargeable battery using 4 V class cathode, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yo; Tabuchi, Masato; Shono, Kumi; Ohno, Yasutaka; Mita, Yuichi; Miyashiro, Hajime

    2013-12-11

    The all solid-state lithium battery with polyether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is regarded as one of next-generation lithium batteries, and has potential for sufficient safety because of the flammable-electrolyte-free system. It has been believed that polyether-based SPE is oxidized at the polymer/electrode interface with 4 V class cathodes. Therefore, it has been used for electric devices such as organic transistor, and lithium battery under 3 V. We estimated decomposition reaction of polyether used as SPE of all solid-state lithium battery. We first identified the decomposed parts of polyether-based SPE and the conservation of most main chain framework, considering the results of SPE analysis after long cycle operations. The oxidation reaction was found to occur slightly at the ether bond in the main chain with the branched side chain. Moreover, we resolved the issue by introducing a self-sacrificing buffer layer at the interface. The introduction of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to the 4 V class cathode surface led to the suppression of SPE decomposition at the interface as a result of the preformation of a buffer layer from CMC, which was confirmed by the irreversible exothermic reaction during the first charge, using electrochemical calorimetry. The attained 1500 cycle operation is 1 order of magnitude longer than those of previously reported polymer systems, and compatible with those of reported commercial liquid systems. The above results indicate to proceed to an intensive research toward the realization of 4 V class "safe" lithium polymer batteries without flammable liquid electrolyte.

  13. Self-supported formation of needlelike Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanotubes and their application as lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, X.W. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-5201 (United States); Deng, D.; Lee, J.Y. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Feng, J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Archer, L.A.

    2008-01-18

    A one-step, self-supported topotactic transformation approach for synthesizing electrochemically active Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} needlelike nanotubes is reported. Used as the active material in the negative electrode of a rechargeable lithium ion battery, the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanotubes manifest ultrahigh Li storage capacity with improved cycle life and rate capability. These features are discussed in terms of the unique structure of the materials. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Potentiometric and Conductometric Study of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium and Sodium Salts of Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Jiří, Vohlídal; Cerar, Janez

    2012-09-01

    The title polymer, PTAA, practically free of ester groups was obtained by oxidative polymerization of methyl thiophen-3-ylacetate and subsequent basic hydrolysis of primary polymer. Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) has been thoroughly characterized by NMR, IR, Raman, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The polyacid behavior during neutralization titrations with lithium and sodium hydroxides, carried out under nitrogen atmosphere, has been studied by conductometry and potentiometry. Henderson-Hasselbach plots of potentiometric titration curves show a break point at pH around 6, where the curve slope drops from 1.8 (at lower pH) to a value from 1.05 to 1.3 (at higher pH values). The UV/Vis spectra monitored during back titration show: (i) monotonous decrease of both λmax and εmax as pH decreases, (ii) the presence of the isosbestic point at 401 nm that can be ascribed to conformational transition of PTAA chains, and (iii) absence of the isosbestic point at 392 nm reported previously by other authors.

  15. Electrochemical performance of LiV3O8 micro-rod at various calcination temperatures as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Ginanjar, Edith Setia; Susanti, Diah; Prihandoko, Bambang

    2018-04-01

    Lithium vanadium oxide (LiV3O8) has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method followed by calcination via the reaction of Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and ammonium metavanade (NH4VO3). The precursors were heated at hydrothermal at 200 °C and then calcined at different calcination temperature in 400, 450, and 500 °C. The characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) is indicated that LiV3O8 micro-rod have been obtained by this method. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) result showed that redox reaction occur in potential range between 2.42 - 3.57 V for the reduction reaction and oxidation reaction in potential range between 2.01 V-3.69 V. The highest result was obtained for sample 450 °C with specific discharge capacity of 138 mA/g. The result showed that LiV3O8 has a promising candidate as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  16. Hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuena; Niu, Feier; Zhang, Dapeng; Chu, Chenxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2018-04-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors, as a hybrid electrochemical energy storage device, realize high specific energy and power density within one device, thus attracting extensive attention. Here, hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite is prepared by a solvo-thermal reaction, followed with a post-annealing process. This composite has macropores at the center and mesopores in the wall, thus effectively promoting electrolyte penetration and structure stability upon cycling simultaneously. Compared to mesoporous Li3VO4, the enhanced rate capability and specific capacity of hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C indicate the synergistic effect of mesopores and macropores. Inspired by these results, this composite is coupled with mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) for lithium-ion capacitors, generating a specific energy density of 105 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188 W kg-1. Even if the power density increases to 9.3 kW kg-1, the energy density still remains 62 Wh kg-1. All these results demonstrate the promising potential of hierarchically porous Li3VO4 in lithium ion capacitors.

  17. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  18. Advanced LiTi2(PO4)3@N-doped carbon anode for aqueous lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode was prepared by in-situ coating approach for aqueous lithium ion batteries. • The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon demonstrates excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode has been synthesized by in situ carbon coating approach. The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained by using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon as anode demonstrates much better rate capability than LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon in ALIBs. The optimized anode delivers the discharge capacity of 93.7 mAh g −1 and 74.2 mAh g −1 at rates of 10C and 20C, 22.5 mAh g −1 and 50.0 mAh g −1 larger than that of LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon. Moreover, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon exhibits excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of 84.3% at 5C after 1000 cycles. As verified, the well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer could reduce charge transfer resistance and improve electrical conductivity. The loose nanoporous structure could shorten pathway and facilitate diffusion for Li ion. Therefore, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon gets the superior electrochemical properties benefiting from those two characteristics.

  19. Hierarchical micro-lamella-structured 3D porous copper current collector coated with tin for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeji [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Ji Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyelim [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won-Sub [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yung-Eun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Heeman, E-mail: heeman@kookmin.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Cellmotive Co. Ltd., #518, Engineering Building, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Sn-Cu scaffold anode fabricated by freeze-casting and electroless plating. • Sn-Cu scaffold architecture shows superior capacity and cyclic stability at high current density. • Sn-Cu scaffold electrode is commercially promising. - Abstract: A Novel 3D porous Sn-Cu architecture is prepared as an anode material for use in an advanced lithium-ion battery. Micro-lamellar-structured 3D porous Cu foam, which is electroless-plated with Sn as an active material, is used as anode current collector. Compared to Sn-coated Cu foil, the 3D Sn-Cu foam exhibits superior Li-ion capacity and stable capacity retention, demonstrating the advantage of 3D porous architecture by preserving its structural integrity. In addition, the effect of heat-treatment after Sn plating is investigated. Sn/Sn{sub 6}Cu{sub 5} and SnO{sub 2}/Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} were formed on and in the 3D Sn-Cu foam under the heat-treatment at 150 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The development of Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} in the 3D Sn-Cu foam heat-treated at 500 °C can be a key factor for the enhanced cyclic stability because the Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} inactively reacts with Li-ion and alleviates the volume expansion of SnO{sub 2} as an inactive matrix.

  20. Template-Free Synthesis of Hollow-Structured Co 3 O 4 Nanoparticles as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; He, Huan; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Weidong; Abruña, Hector D.

    2015-02-24

    We have developed a template-free procedure to synthesize Co3O4 hollow-structured nanoparticles on a Vulcan XC-72 carbon support. The material was synthesized via an impregnation–reduction method followed by air oxidation. In contrast to spherical particles, the hollow-structured Co3O4 nanoparticles exhibited excellent lithium storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability when used as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical testing showed that the hollow-structured Co3O4 particles delivered a stable reversible capacity of about 880 mAh/g (near the theoretical capacity of 890 mAh/g) at a current density of 50 mA/g after 50 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is attributed to its unique hollow structure, which combines nano- and microscale properties that facilitate electron transfer and enhance structural robustness.

  1. Enhanced lithium-ion storage performance by structural phase transition from two-dimensional rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 to cubic Fe_3O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 transforms to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment. • Phase structure of anodes has great influences on their electrochemical performances. • Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide shows a high capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of a material varies with its structural phase transition. It is found that the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 can transform to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere, and lithium-ion storage performances of Fe_3O_4 get an obvious improvement due to its structural advantages. On the basis of data calculated by X-ray diffraction, the larger unit cell volume as well as the higher void fraction of cubic Fe_3O_4 provides lithium-ions with more transport channels for Li ions diffusion and storage without serious volume change, and thus the cubic Fe_3O_4 delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 921.1 mAh g"−"1 after 15 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than 328.3 mAh g"−"1 for the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3. To further enhance the structural stability of electrodes, reduced graphene oxide is introduced. The Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide show an excellent specific capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 after 40 cycles and impressive rate performance of 600 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which are much higher than that of Fe_3O_4 (417 and 300 mAh g"−"1), Fe_2O_3 (137.4 and 95 mAh g"−"1) and Fe_2O_3/reduced graphene oxide (390.1 and 480 mAh g"−"1). These results demonstrate that the structural phase transition and reduced graphene oxide of Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide composites offer unique characteristics suitable for high-performance energy storage application.

  2. Li3V2(PO4)3/LiFePO4 composite hollow microspheres for wide voltage lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wen; Wei, Chuanliang; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Yaoyao; Liu, Qinze; Shen, Jianxing; Wang, Lianzhou; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Using yeast cells to control the in-situ growth of crystal particle. • Heterogeneous isomorphism nanocomposite hollow microspheres are synthesized. • The cathode exhibits a higher discharge capacity and energy density. - Abstract: Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LVP)/LiFePO 4 (LVP) composite hollow microspheres (LVP/LFP-CHMs) for lithium-ion batteries have been synthesized by a combination method, using yeast cells as both structure templates and biocarbon source. The stable heterogeneous isomorphism solid solution with superlattice structure is formed in the joint of LVP and LFP particles. A detailed analysis of the formation mechanism of solid solution with superlattice structure and the influences of different Fe:V mole ratios on the structure and electrochemical properties of composites are presented. When the LVP/LFP-CHMs with a Fe:V mole ratio of 1:3 were used as cathode material in coin cells with metallic Li as anode, the cell exhibits a discharge capacity of 221.5 mAh g −1 for 5 cycles and discharge specific energy of 682 Wh kg −1 at 0.1C in a wide voltage range (1.5–4.3 V). Its capacity is far higher than the capacity of unsubstituted LFP and LVP in the same wide voltage range. The energy density of this cell is about 4 times higher than that of modern commercial lithium-ion batteries (157 Wh kg −1 ). The wide voltage range not only increases the discharge capacity and energy density of cathode materials, but also could expand the range of its applications in electronic equipment.

  3. Measurement of the 2H(7Be, 6Li)3He reaction rate and its contribution to the primordial lithium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Er-Tao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yan, Sheng-Quan; Su, Jun; Guo, Bing; Li, Yun-Ju; Wang, You-Bao; Lian, Gang; Zeng, Sheng; Chen, Si-Zhe; Ma, Shao-Bo; Li, Xiang-Qing; He, Cao; Sun, Hui-Bin; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) model, the lithium puzzle has attracted intense interest over the past few decades, but still has not been solved. Conventionally, the approach is to include more reactions flowing into or out of lithium, and study the potential effects of those reactions which were not previously considered. 7Be(d, 3He)6Li is a reaction that not only produces 6Li but also destroys 7Be, which decays to 7Li, thereby affecting 7Li indirectly. Therefore, this reaction could alleviate the lithium discrepancy if its reaction rate is sufficiently high. However, there is not much information available about the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction rate. In this work, the angular distributions of the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction are measured at the center of mass energies E cm = 4.0 MeV and 6.7 MeV with secondary 7Be beams for the first time. The excitation function of the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction is first calculated with the computer code TALYS and then normalized to the experimental data, then its reaction rate is deduced. A SBBN network calculation is performed to investigate its influence on the 6Li and 7Li abundances. The results show that the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction has a minimal effect on 6Li and 7Li because of its small reaction rate. Therefore, the 7Be(d, 3He)6Li reaction is ruled out by this experiment as a means of alleviating the lithium discrepancy. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375269, 11505117, 11490560, 11475264, 11321064), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2015A030310012), 973 program of China (2013CB834406) and National key Research and Development Province (2016YFA0400502)

  4. Environmental-Friendly and Facile Synthesis of Co3O4 Nanowires and Their Promising Application with Graphene in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Yuanyi; Sun, Lijuan; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we developed an eco-friendly strategy for preparing Co3O4 nanowires. The process consisted of two steps: controllable synthesis of metal cobalt nanowires followed by a facile air-oxidization step. The 1D nanowire structure with a high aspect ratio was easily achieved via a magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of cobalt ion complexes during reduction. After air-calcinations, the Co3O4 nanowires were prepared in large scale and ready to be used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The Co3O4 nanowires, which possessed a length ranging from 3 to 8 μm with the aspect ratio more than 15, exhibited a reversible lithium storage capacity up to 790 mAh/g when using a small amount of defect-free graphene flakes as conductive additives. The superior electrochemical performances were ascribable to the synergistic "flat-on" effect between the 1D nanowires and the 2D graphene. Therefore, the Co3O4 nanowire/graphene composite holds promising application for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Ultra-small Fe3O4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Qiao, Congde; Wu, Xianbin; Ma, Houyi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries Manman Ren, Mingzhi Yang, Weiliang Liu, Mei Li, Liwei Su, Congde Qiao, Xianbin Wu, Houyi Ma Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals/graphene nanosheets composites demonstrate excellent long-term cycling stability at high-rate. - Abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals (NCs)/garphene nanosheets (GNSs) composites have been synthesized through a facile gel-like film (GF) assisted method in this work. Fe 3 O 4 NCs with particle size ∼10 nm homogeneously dispersed on 2D GNSs. Profiting from the ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 NCs and GNSs, the composites demonstrate superior long-term and high-rate performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Even at the current density of 5 A g −1 , the reversible capacity still maintains 323.4 mAh g −1 after 700 cycles. This work might enlighten us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced metal oxides NCs/GNSs composites anode materials for lithium ion batteries or other energy storage devices.

  6. Studies on electrochemical lithium insertion in isostructural titanium niobate and tantalate phases with shear ReO3 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritha, D.; Varadaraju, U.V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical lithium insertion into ReO 3 type phases TiNb 2 O 7 , TiTa 2 O 7 is feasible. • TiNb 2 O 7 exhibits good cycling behavior and high reversible capacity of 212 mAh g −1 . • TiTa 2 O 7 exhibits reversible capacity of 100 mAh g −1 . - Abstract: TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases are synthesized by solid-state reaction method and are investigated for electrochemical Li insertion/extraction. The electrochemical insertion of Li in these phases is characterized by both solid solution and two-phase regimes. The structure is stable toward Li insertion/extraction. The first cycle discharge capacity values are 307 mAh g −1 and 215 mAh g −1 in the voltage range of 3.0–1.0 V for TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases, respectively. The discharge capacities of TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 are 212 mAh g −1 and 100 mAh g −1 , respectively, after 20 cycles

  7. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd2O3 doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algradee, M. A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O. M.; Alwany, A. Elwhab B.

    2017-08-01

    The Nd3+-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd2O3 content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system.

  8. Phelan-McDermid syndrome due to SHANK3 mutation in an intellectually disabled adult male: successful treatment with lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Willem M A; Groenendijk-Reijenga, Renske; Kant, Sarina G

    2017-09-28

    For 30 years, Phelan and co-workers described a syndrome characterised by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, strongly impaired speech, sleep disturbances and hyperreactivity to sensory stimuli. This Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), also presenting with symptoms from the autism spectrum and a higher risk of developing seizure disorders, may be caused by a deletion of chromosome 22q13 or by a mutation in the SHANK3 gene. Its core psychopathological phenotype comprises symptoms from the bipolar spectrum for which generally treatment with a mood-stabilising anticonvulsant in combination with an atypical antipsychotic seems to be most effective. In addition to two elsewhere published adolescent patients, we here describe in detail the history of an adult male patient with PMS caused by a SHANK3 mutation in whom successive treatment regimens with antipsychotics and mood-stabilising anticonvulsants were all ineffective. Ultimately, addition of lithium to existing olanzapine therapy led to enduring stabilisation of mood and behaviour. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. 3D Flower-Like Hierarchitectures Constructed by SnS/SnS2 Heterostructure Nanosheets for High-Performance Anode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sn chalcogenides, including SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2, have been extensively studied as anode materials for lithium batteries. In order to obtain one kind of high capacity, long cycle life lithium batteries anode materials, three-dimensional (3D flower-like hierarchitectures constructed by SnS/SnS2 heterostructure nanosheets with thickness of ~20 nm have been synthesized via a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The obtained samples exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode for Li-ion batteries (LIBs, which deliver a first discharge capacity of 1277 mAhg−1 and remain a reversible capacity up to 500 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a current of 100 mAg−1.

  10. New In Situ Synthesis Method for Fe3O4/Flake Graphite Nanosheet Composite Structure and Its Application in Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure torsion (HPT, a severe plastic deformation (SPD method, is rarely used in the manufacturing process of functional materials. In the present work, the authors creatively proposed using HPT as an alternative method an approach for high energy ball-milling in the preparation of an Fe3O4 and lamellar graphite nanosheet (GNS composite material. The corresponding electrochemical experiments verified that the in situ synthesized Fe3O4/GNS composite material has good lithium-storage performance and that it can retain good capacity (548.2 mA h g−1 even after several hundred cycles with high current density (8 C. Meanwhile, this performance has directly confirmed that SPD technique has great potential for the preparation of anode materials of lithium-ion batteries, especially in manufacturing metallic functional nanomaterials.

  11. Electrospun hierarchical LiV3O8 nanofibers assembled from nanosheets with exposed {100} facets and their enhanced performance in aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin; Zhou, Min; Xie, Yi

    2012-03-05

    Hierarchical LiV(3)O(8) nanofibers, assembled from nanosheets that have exposed {100} facets, have been fabricated by using electrospinning combined with calcination. The formation mechanism of hierarchical nanofibers was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) played a dual role in the formation of the nanofibers: besides acting as the template for forming the fibers, it effectively prevented the aggregation of LiV(3)O(8) nanoparticles, thereby allowing them to grow into small nanosheets with exposed {100} facets owing to the self-limitation property of LiV(3)O(8). This nanostructure is beneficial for the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the {100} facets have fewer and smaller channels, which may effectively alleviate proton co-intercalation into the electrode materials. Hence, the hierarchical LiV(3)O(8) nanofibers exhibit higher discharge capacities and better cycling stabilities as the anode electrode material for aqueous lithium-ion batteries than those reported previously. We demonstrate that these hierarchical nanofibers have promising potential applications in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Marginal and Internal Gap of Handmade, Milled and 3D Printed Additive Manufactured Patterns for Pressed Lithium Disilicate Onlay Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, M; Olea-Vielba, M; Esteso-Saiz, A; Martínez-Klemm, I; Özcan, M

    2018-03-01

    On a pressed lithium disilicate restoration, the building up of a wax pattern of the future restoration is a necessary step on the fabrication process. Conventionally, a wax pattern can be produced by handmade or milled procedures; however, the development of additive manufacturing technologies allows a new fabrication method. The present study measured the marginal and internal gap of handmade, milled and additive manufactured patterns for an onlay restoration. A preparation of an onlay restoration was made on an extracted mandibular tooth. A definitive cast was fabricated from a conventional silicone impression of the prepared tooth. Three groups were established: handmade (HM), milled (ML) and additive manufactured (AM); 4 specimens per group were obtained. The marginal and internal gap of each pattern was measured on the extracted molar through a computed tomography test. Sixty measurements were done to measure the marginal gap and another 60 measurements were calculated to analyze the internal gap on each pattern on the prepared tooth. A total of 1.440 measurements were completed. Mann-Whitney and Turkey statistical tests were used for pairwise comparison. The mean of the marginal and internal gap was of 67.56 ± 6.08 μm and 80.62 ± 3.26 μm for the HM group, 85.28 ± 2.17 μm and 96 ± 1.97 μm for the ML group and 86.49 ± 1.74 μm and 91.86 ± 2.88 μm for the AM group, respectively. The HM group presented significantly lower marginal (p=0.029) and internal (p=0.029) gap compared to the ML and AM groups. There was no statistical significant difference (p=0.486) on the marginal gap between the ML and the AM groups, but the AM group, showed significantly (p=0.029) smaller internal gap than the ML group. All the groups presented less than 100 μm marginal and internal gap, which is a considered clinically acceptable. The three fabrication processes are viable option for manufacturing patterns for lithium disilicate onlay restorations, but the best marginal

  13. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J

    2008-05-01

    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing.

  14. Template-Free Synthesis of Sb2S3 Hollow Microspheres as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Min; Ouyang, Yan; Nie, Su; Wang, Xianyou

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical Sb2S3 hollow microspheres assembled by nanowires have been successfully synthesized by a simple and practical hydrothermal reaction. The possible formation process of this architecture was investigated by X-ray diffraction, focused-ion beam-scanning electron microscopy dual-beam system, and transmission electron microscopy. When used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, Sb2S3 hollow microspheres manifest excellent rate property and enhanced lithium-storage capability and can deliver a discharge capacity of 674 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 5000 mA g-1, a discharge capacity of 541 mAh g-1 is achieved. Sb2S3 hollow microspheres also display a prominent sodium-storage capacity and maintain a reversible discharge capacity of 384 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The remarkable lithium/sodium-storage property may be attributed to the synergetic effect of its nanometer size and three-dimensional hierarchical architecture, and the outstanding stability property is attributed to the sufficient interior void space, which can buffer the volume expansion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Synthesis and structure of novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yuki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Kota [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Matsui, Naoki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirayama, Masaaki [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kanno, Ryoji, E-mail: kanno@echem.titech.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    The novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was synthesized by slow cooling from the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system, and was shown to exhibit a cubic argyrodite-type structure. The phase composition was determined by varying the ratio of starting materials; the observed monophasic properties were close to those for the Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} composition. The lattice parameter (a =9.80192(3) Å) of Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was slightly smaller than that of Li{sub 7}PS{sub 6} (a =9.993 Å), indicating that substitution of a Li cation by the smaller Ge cation contracted the cubic lattice. In addition, the novel structure consisted of a framework composed of four isolated (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra. Li{sup +} ions occupied tetrahedral sites within the framework, forming a three-dimensional conduction pathway. Finally, Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C and an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: A novel Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} solid lithium ion conductor, with cubic argyrodite strucuture, shows high ion conductivity of 1.1×10{sup –4} S cm{sup –1} with an activation energy of 25 kJ mol{sup –1}. The argyrodite structure consists of (Ge/P)S{sub 4} tetrahedra units along with partial occupation of lithium and germanium at 48 h site. - Highlights: • A novel lithium-ion conductor Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} was detected. • This was achieved through slow cooling of the ternary Li{sub 2}S–GeS{sub 2}–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} system. • This novel conductor revealed a cubic argyrodite-type structure. • Li{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}PS{sub 12} exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C. • These properties will aid in the design of superior lithium-ion conductors.

  16. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  17. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Position of coordination of the lithium ion determines the regioselectivity of demethylations of 3,4-dimethoxymorphinans with L-selectride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifang; Thatcher, Linn N; Bernard, Denzil; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rice, Kenner C; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] L-Selectride is an efficient agent for the 3-O-demethylation of opioids and is known to cleave the least hindered methoxyl group in a molecule. The treatment of a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan containing a 6-ketal with L-Selectride gave selective 4-O-demethylation, rather than cleavage of the less hindered 3-methoxyl. In contrast, a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan lacking a 6-ketal gave selective 3-O-demethylation, suggesting that the regiochemistry of L-Selectride-mediated O-demethylation can be manipulated through altering the position of coordination of the lithium ion.

  19. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Co3O4 porous nanostructures for the application as lithium-ion battery electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongyu; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Zhu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Porous Co 3 O 4 nanostructures with morphologies including hierarchical nanoflowers and hyperbranched nano bundles have been successfully synthesized by a controlled hydrothermal method and subsequent calcinations at higher temperature. Microscopic characterizations have been performed to confirm that mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanostructures are built-up by numerous nanoparticles with random attachment. The specific surface area and pore size of the nanoflowers have been found ∼51.2 m 2 g −1 and 12.6 nm respectively. The nanoflowers as an anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) demonstrate the higher initial discharge capacity of 1849 mAh g −1 with a Columbic efficiency 64.7% at a rate of 50 mAh g −1 between 0.01 and 3.0 V. In addition, a significantly enhanced reversible capacity ∼980 mAh g −1 is retained after 30 cycles. More interestingly, excellent high rate capabilities (∼ 960 mAh g −1 at 250 mA g −1 and ∼875 mAh g −1 at 500 mA g −1 ) are observed for porous flower-like structure. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the large specific surface area and porous nature of the flower-like Co 3 O 4 structure which is more convenient and accessible for electrolyte diffusion and intercalation of Li + ions into the active phases. Therefore, this structure can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an anode material for LIBs

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and rate capacity studies of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanorods as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haowen; Cheng Cuixia; Huang Xintang; Li Jinlin

    2010-01-01

    It is an effective method by synthesizing one-dimensional nanostructure to improve the rate performances of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In this paper, Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanorods were successfully prepared by hydrothermal reaction method. The structure, composition and shape of the prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scan electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The data indicate the as-synthesis powders are defect-rich nanorods and the sizes are the length of several hundreds of nanometers to 1 μm and the diameter of about 60 nm. The preferential growth direction of the prepared material was the [1 2 0]. The electrodes consisting of the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanorods show the better discharge capacities at high rates over a potential range of 3.0-4.6 V. These results can be attributed to the shorter distance of electron transport and the fact that ion diffusion in the electrode material is limited by the nanorod radius. All these results indicate that the resulting Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanorods are promising cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Battery Derived from Nori-Based Nitrogen and Oxygen Dual-Doped 3D Hierarchical Biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Fan, Lishuang; Wang, Maoxu; Cheng, Junhan; Wu, Hexian; Guan, Bin; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2017-06-07

    Due to restrictions on the low conductivity of sulfur and soluble polysulfides during discharge, lithium sulfur batteries are unsuitable for further large scale applications. The current carbon based cathodes suffer from poor cycle stability and high cost. Recently, heteroatom doped carbons have been considered as a settlement to enhance the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. With this strategy, we report the low cost activated nori based N,O-doped 3D hierarchical carbon material (ANC) as a sulfur host. The N,O dual-doped ANC reveals an elevated electrochemical performance, which exhibits not only a good rate performance over 5 C, but also a high sulfur content of 81.2%. Further importantly, the ANC represents an excellent cycling stability, the cathode reserves a capacity of 618 mAh/g at 2 C after 1000 cycles, which shows a 0.022% capacity decay per cycle.

  2. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  3. Synthesis and properties of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}-based cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Shu; Li, Shuli; Lu, Yao; Toprakci, Ozan [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Xia, Xin [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); College of Textile and Clothing, Xinjiang University, Xinjiang, Urumchi 830046 (China); Chen, Chen [College of Textile and Clothing, Xinjiang University, Xinjiang, Urumchi 830046 (China); Hu, Yi [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Zhang, Xiangwu, E-mail: xiangwu_zhang@ncsu.edu [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·0.5LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}·0.2LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized by a co-precipitation method. •The preparation method is simple and this material is inexpensive due to the high contents of Mn and Ni. •The material could be charged to a high potential to extract more lithium without structural damage. •A relatively high capacity of 178 mAh g{sup −1} is delivered between 2.0 and 4.6 V with excellent cycling performance. -- Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been wildly used in various portable electronic devices and the application targets are currently moving from small-sized mobile devices to large-scale electric vehicles and grid energy storage. Therefore, lithium-ion batteries with higher energy densities are in urgent need. For high-energy cathodes, Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–LiMO{sub 2} layered–layered (M = Mn, Co, Ni) materials are of significant interest due to their high specific capacities over wide operating potential windows. Here, three Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}-based cathode materials with α-NaFeO{sub 2} structure were prepared by a facile co-precipitation method and subsequent heat treatment. Among these three materials, 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·0.5LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}·0.2LiCoO{sub 2} shows the best lithium storage capability. This cathode material is composed of uniform nanosized particles with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm, and it could be charged to a high cutoff potential to extract more lithium, resulting in a high capacity of 178 mAh g{sup −1} between 2.0 and 4.6 V with almost no capacity loss over 100 cycles.

  4. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  5. Drastic decrease of Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3O3 sintering temperature by lithium salts and glass phase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel, S.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The complex perovskite oxide Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3O3 (BZT has been studied for its attractive dielectric properties which make this material interesting for applications such as multilayer ceramics capacitors or hyperfrequency resonators. Nevertheless, BZT ceramic requires high temperature to be correctly sintered (≅1450°C, that is too high to envisage a silver co-sintering (Tf(Ag = 961°C. For this reason, the lowering of the sintering temperature of BZT by glass phase’s additions has been investigated. This material is sinterable at low temperature with combined glass phase –lithium salt additions, and exhibits, at 1MHz very low dielectric losses combined with relatively high dielectric constant and a good stability of this later versus temperature. The 5 wt% of ZnO-SiO2-B2O3 glass phase and 1 wt% of LiF added BZT sample sintered at 900°C exhibits a relative density higher than 95% and attractive dielectric properties: a dielectric constant εr of 32, low dielectrics losses (tan (δ-3 and a temperature coefficient of permittivity τε of -10ppm/°C. Their good dielectric properties and their compatibility with silver electrodes, make these ceramics suitable for L.T.C.C applications.Se ha estudiado el óxido complejo con estructura tipo perovskita Ba (Zn1/3Ta2/3 O3 (BZT. Sus atractivas propiedades dieléctricas le hacen muy interesante para aplicaciones como condensadores cerámicos multicapa o resonadores de microondas. No obstante, los cerámicos de BZT requieren temperaturas de sinterización superiores a 1450 ° C, que es muy alta para abordar un proceso de co-sinterización con electrodos de plata (Tf (Ag = 961 ° C. Para ello, se ha estudiado la bajada de la temperatura de sinterización del BZT mediante la adición de una fase vítrea. La suma combinada de la fase vítrea y la sal de litio lleva la sinterización de este material a temperaturas bajas. Las propiedades dieléctricas presentan pérdidas muy bajas, constante diel

  6. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  7. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy 3+ doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy 3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K gl ), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy 2 O 3 with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  8. Properties of lithium disilicate reinforced with ZrO{sub 2} (3mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Propriedades de dissilicato de litio reforcado com ZrO{sub 2} (3mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M.F.R.P.; Cossu, C.M.F.A.; Santos, C., E-mail: manuelfellipealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia; Silva, C.L.M. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Simba, B.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Fernandes, M.H.F. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    The new generation of dental ceramics based on lithium disilicate, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}, allows the production of restorative prosthetic with reduced times compared to alumina and / or zirconia (Y-TZP). A great limitation of their use is related low fracture strength of such glass-ceramics, which reduces their use in unit fixed prosthesis. In this work, lithium disilicate reinforced with 10% ZrO{sub 2} (3-mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is characterized by relative density, crystalline phase, hardness, fracture toughness and microstructural aspects. Lithium metasilicate and tetragonal zirconia, prior to heat treatment. After thermal treatment under vacuum at 840 deg C-8min the lithium metasilicate is converted to lithium disilicate as the ZrO{sub 2} phase remains in the tetragonal structure. This maintenance of the tetragonal phase ensures the material a good fracture toughness, reaching average values near 2MPam{sup 1/2}, while the average hardness of 600HV. Morphological analysis of the samples indicates that ZrO{sub 2} particles are uniformly dispersed in the matrix composed of high aspect ratio lithium disilicate grains, which contributes to the results presented.. A critical analysis of the performance of toughening mechanisms such as cracks deflection, phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2} (T-M), residual stress between the matrix and the reinforcement are presented, discussed and compared with other ceramic materials used in dentistry restorer. (author)

  9. CRYSTALLIZATION AND THERMAL EXPANSION CHARACTERISTICS OF In2O3-CONTAINING LITHIUM IRON SILICATE-DIOPSIDE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. SALMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of glasses based on lithium iron silicate (LiFeSi2O6-diopside (CaMgSi2O6 composition with addition of Al2O3 at the expense of Fe2O3 were described. The effect of LiInSi2O6/CaMgSi2O6 replacements was also investigated. The thermal treatment, the crystal phases, and the micro-structural properties of (LiFeSi2O6–CaMgSi2O6 glasses, replacing partial Fe2O3 with Al2O3 and partial CaMgSi2O6 with LiInSi2O6, have been studied by a differential thermal analysis, an X-ray diffraction, and a scanning electron microscopy. The glasses show the intense uniform bulkcrystallization with the fine grained microstructure by increasing the replacement of Al2O3/Fe2O3 and LiInSi2O6/CaMgSi2O6. The crystallizing phases of Ca(Fe,Mg(SiO32, a-LiFe5O8, Li2SiO3, a-SiO2 and CaMgSi2O6 are mostly formed together, in most case, with Li0.6Al0.6Si2.4O6, β-eucryptite solid solution, LiInSi2O6, In2Si2O7, and LiFeSi2O6. The Al2O3 partial replacement increases the transformation temperature (Tg and softening one (Ts for the glasses and the glass-ceramics, and decreases the thermal expansion coefficient (a-value for the glasses. The LiInSi2O6 partial replacement decreases Tg and Ts and increases the a-value for the glasses, while the Al2O3 and LiInSi2O6 partial replacements decrease the a-value for the glassceramics. The crystallization characters of the glasses are correlated to the internal structure, as well as role played by the glass-forming cations. However, the one of the glass-ceramics are mainly attributed to the crystalline phases formed in the material.

  10. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lupo, F. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Tuel, A. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, IRC-CNRS (UPR 5401), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Penazzi, N. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g{sup −1}) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour.

  11. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  12. Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of Ti3C2 MXene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of Li and Na ion adsorption on the electronic transport in Ti 3 C 2 MXene is studied. • Fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered. • Enhanced charge transport is obtained for fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. • Electronic transmission is reduced in the oxidized sample. • The pristine and oxidized MXene samples are found to be sensitive to the ions adsorption. - Abstract: MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of the MXene, Ti 3 C 2 . Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced electronic transport in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, transport properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the electronic transport is less affected by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced electronic transport as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system.

  13. In Situ Synthesis of Mn3 O4 Nanoparticles on Hollow Carbon Nanofiber as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-26

    The practical applications of Mn 3 O 4 in lithium-ion batteries are greatly hindered by fast capacity decay and poor rate performance as a result of significant volume changes and low electrical conductivity. It is believed that the synthesis of nanoscale Mn 3 O 4 combined with carbonaceous matrix will lead to a better electrochemical performance. Herein, a convenient route for the synthesis of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles grown in situ on hollow carbon nanofiber (denoted as HCF/Mn 3 O 4 ) is reported. The small size of Mn 3 O 4 particles combined with HCF can significantly alleviate volume changes and electrical conductivity; the strong chemical interactions between HCF and Mn 3 O 4 would improve the reversibility of the conversion reaction for MnO into Mn 3 O 4 and accelerate charge transfer. These features endow the HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite with superior cycling stability and rate performance if used as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite delivers a high discharge capacity of 835 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g -1 , and 652 mA h g -1 after 240 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . Even at 2000 mA g -1 , it still shows a high capacity of 528 mA h g -1 . The facile synthetic method and outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-prepared HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite make it a promising candidate for a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  15. Elastic Properties of Lithium Disilicate Versus Feldspathic Inlays: Effect on the Bonding by 3D Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Flávia Zardo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Jager, Niek; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Kleverlaan, Cornelis Johannes

    2016-10-03

    To determine the elastic properties of five ceramic systems with different compositions (lithium disilicate vs. feldspathic ceramics) and processing methods and compare the stress distribution in premolars in the interface with inlays made with these systems loaded with the maximum normal bite force (665 N) using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The elastic properties of five ceramic restoration materials (IPS e.max Press, IPS e.max CAD, Vita PM9, Vita Mark II, Vita VM7) were obtained using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method. Three-dimensional FEA simplified models of maxillary premolars restored with these ceramic materials were created. The models were loaded with a load at the two nodes on the occlusal surface in the middle of the tooth, 2 mm from the outside of the tooth, simulating a loading ball with a radius of 6 mm. The means values of density (g/cm³), Young's modulus (GPa), and Poison's ratio was 2.6 ± 0.3, 82.3 ± 18.3, and 0.22 ± 0.01 for IPS e.max Press; 2.3 ± 0.1, 83.5 ± 15.0, and 0.21 ± 0.01 for IPS e.max CAD; 2.5 ± 0.1, 44.4 ± 11.5, and 0.26 ± 0.08 for PM9; 2.4 ± 0.1, 70.6 ± 4.9, and 0.22 ± 0.01 for Vitamark II; 2.4 ± 0.1, 63.3 ± 3.9, and 0.23 ± 0.01 for VM7, respectively. The 3D FEA showed the tensile stress at the interface between the tooth and the inlay was dependent on the elastic properties of the materials, since the Vita PM9 and IPS e.max CAD ceramics presented the lowest and the highest stress concentration in the interface, respectively. The elastic properties of ceramic materials were influenced by composition and processing methods, and these differences influenced the stress concentration at the bonding interface between tooth and restoration. The lower the elastic modulus of inlays, the lower is the stress concentration at the bonding interfaces. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Peichao, E-mail: lianpeichao@126.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jingyi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Cai, Dandan; Liu, Guoxue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yingying [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g{sup −1}. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes.

  17. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of polyaniline/MoO3 nanobelt composite for lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Varishetty Madhu; Chen, Wen; Murakami, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal method was introduced for the synthesis of MoO 3 nanobelts and polyaniline (PANI)/MoO 3 nanobelt composites. The structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. We can see the presence of polyaniline on the MoO 3 nanobelts surface in the TEM pictures as shown in Fig. (a). The pure MoO 3 nanobelts exhibit the initial specific capacity 276 mAhg −1 , whereas PANI/MoO 3 nanobelt composite shows little low initially 228 mAhg −1 after that it has more stabilized specific capacity with increasing cycle numbers as shown in Fig. (b). The cyclic voltammograms of the PANI/MoO 3 nanobelt composite show better cyclic performance compared to pure MoO 3 nanobelts. The electrochemical impedance spectres were studied for both the pure and PANI/MoO 3 samples at 2.0 and 3.5 potentials. The role of the PANI polymeric component of the composite material seems to be the stabilization of the specific capacity due to probable homogeneous distribution of the induced stress during cycling. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Hydrothermal synthesis of MoO 3 , PANI/MoO 3 nanobelts. ► Samples were characterised by XRD, FTIR, DSC, SEM, TEM, CV and impedance. ► MoO 3 nanobelts cathode battery shows initial specific capacity 276 mAhg −1 . ► PANI/MoO 3 nanobelts show initial specific capacity 228 mAhg −1 but high stability. ► PANI/MoO 3 sample studies by impedance at the potentials of 2.0 and 3.5 V. -- Abstract: The MoO 3 nanobelts and polyaniline (PANI)/MoO 3 nanobelt composite were synthesized using hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermo

  18. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  19. Characterization of lithium niobate monocrystals doped with iron (Li Nb O3:Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastelaro, V.R.; Terrile, N.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Nicolo, I.

    1988-01-01

    LiNbO 3 :Fe Crystals were analised using EPR Optical absorption spectroscopy and holographic techniques. The site occupied by Fe 3+ is discused and the effect of thermal treatments on Fe 2+ and OH - concentration is studied. The high diffraction efficiency, measure by holographic techniques shows that crystals are particularly good for holographic applications. (author) [pt

  20. Synthesis, characterization and application of Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles as cathode of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hassan; Taala, Foroozandeh

    2011-08-01

    This work introduces a new method to synthesize Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles in the nanopowder form and study its electrochemical performance by cyclic voltammetry and battery tests. Li3Fe2(PO4)3 is synthesized by the gel combustion method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as gel making agent. The optimum conditions of the synthesis include 8 wt% PVA, 0.34 wt% lithium slat, 1 wt% iron salt, 0.57 wt% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ethanol-water 50:50 as solvent, 675 °C combustion temperature and 4 h combustion time. Characterization of the samples is performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), EDX analysis, XRD patterns, BET specific surface area and DSL size distribution. In the optimum conditions, a nanopowder is obtained that consisting of uniform nanoparticles with an average diameter of 70 nm. The optimized sample shows 12.5 m2 g-1 specific surface areas. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that the synthesized compound has good reversibility and high cyclic stability. The CV results are confirmed by the battery tests. The obtained results show that the synthesized cathodic material has high practical discharge capacity (average 125.5 mAh g-1 approximately same with its theoretical capacity 128.2 mA h-1) and long cycle life.

  1. Lithium, phenserine, memantine and pioglitazone reverse memory deficit and restore phospho-GSK3β decreased in hippocampus in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced memory deficit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo; Hong, Enrique; Meneses, Alfredo

    2011-12-02

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat has been described as a suitable model for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Central application of STZ has demonstrated behavioral and neurochemical features that resembled those found in human AD. Chronic treatments with antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, or improving glucose utilization drugs have reported a beneficial effect in ICV STZ-treated rats. In the present study the post-training administration of a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) inhibitor, lithium; antidementia drugs: phenserine and memantine, and insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone on memory function of ICV STZ-rats was assessed. In these same animals the phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β) and total GSK3β levels were determined, and importantly GSK3β regulates the tau phosphorylation responsible for neurofibrillary tangle formation in AD. Wistar rats received ICV STZ application (3mg/kg twice) and 2 weeks later short- (STM) and long-term memories (LTM) were assessed in an autoshaping learning task. Animals were sacrificed immediately following the last autoshaping session, their brains removed and dissected. The enzymes were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) by western blot. ICV STZ-treated rats showed a memory deficit and significantly decreased p-GSK3β levels, while total GSK3β did not change, in both the hippocampus and PFC. Memory impairment was reversed by lithium (100mg/kg), phenserine (1mg/kg), memantine (5mg/kg) and pioglitazone (30 mg/kg). The p-GSK3β levels were restored by lithium, phenserine and pioglitazone in the hippocampus, and restored by lithium in the PFC. Memantine produced no changes in p-GSK3β levels in neither the hippocampus nor PFC. Total GSK3β levels did not change with either drug. Altogether these results show the beneficial effects of drugs with different mechanisms of actions on memory impairment induced by ICV STZ, and restored p-GSK3β levels, a kinase key of

  2. Physical and optical properties of lithium borosilicate glasses doped with Dy3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Gedam, R. S.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The borosilicate glasses with Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quench technique with varying concentration of Dy2O3. The glasses were characterized by the density calculation, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements. Density and molar volume of the glasses increases with increase in Dy3+ ions in the glass matrix. This behavior is correlated with the higher molecular weight and larger ionic radius of Dy3+ ion compared to the other constituents of glass matrix. Emission of Dy3+ doped glasses showed three bands at 482, 573 and at 665 nm which correspond to 6H15/2 (blue), 6H13/2 (yellow) and 6H11/2 (red) transitions. The emission spectra of glasses with different concentration of Dy3+ ions shows that, glasses with 0.5 mol% of Dy2O3 shows highest emission and decreases with further doping. CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showed that the emission of these glasses was in the white region. Photographs of these glasses under 349 nm Light emitting diode excitation also confirmed the white light emission from these glasses.

  3. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  4. The preparation and graphene surface coating NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} as cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yanping; Rao, Richuan; Dong, Xiongzi [Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei normal University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Zhang, Xianwen, E-mail: 18326056237@163.com [Institute of Advanced Energy Technology & Equipment, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhu, Sane, E-mail: sdjnlina@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Graphical abstract: The NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/graphene composite is used directly as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion battery by using metal lithium as an anode electrode. Meanwhile, the electrochemical properties of the composite in this system is firstly studied in detail. The NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/graphene composite exhibits the better rate and cyclic performance than NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, which is ascribed to its stable 3-D framework and the enhanced electronic conduction resulting from the graphene sheets surface modification. - Highlights: • The graphene coated NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was prepared by a simple sol-gel method followed by calcination. • The electrochemical properties of the NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/graphene composite was firstly studied in detail when used as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/graphene composite was investigated by ex situ XRD. - Abstract: The graphene coated NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} has been fabricated via a simple sol-gel process followed by calcination. The NaTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/graphene (NTP/G) composite is used directly as cathode electrode material for lithium-ion battery and the electrochemical properties of the composite in this system is firstly studied in detail. In the charge-discharge process, two Li{sup +} can occupy octahedral M (2) site and be reversibly intercalated into the 3D framework of NTP through the ion conduction channel where almost all of Na{sup +} are immobilized to sustain the framework. At 5C rate, the capacity retention of the NTP/G composite after 800 cycles is still up to 82.7%. The superior electrochemical properties of NTP/G is ascribed to its stable 3-D framework and the enhanced electronic conduction resulting from the graphene sheets surface modification.

  5. Protective film formation on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy by leaching of lithium carbonate from an organic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Visser, P.; Zhou, X.; Lyon, S.B.; Hashimoto, T.; Curioni, M.; Gholinia, A.; Thompson, G.E.; Smyth, G.; Gibbon, S.R.; Graham, D.; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation into corrosion inhibition properties of a primer coating containing lithium carbonate as corrosion inhibitive pigment for AA2024 aluminum alloy was conducted. It was found that, during neutral salt spray exposure, a protective film of about 0.2 to 1.5 ?m thickness formed within the

  6. New MOF based on lithium tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate: Its structure and conductivity behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Vítězslav; Patil, D. S.; Raja, D. S.; Chang, T.-G.; Lin, Ch.-H.; Shimakawa, K.; Wágner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, September (2014), s. 150-158 ISSN 0022-4596 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501202 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : metal -organic framework * lithium * carboxylate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2014

  7. Tunable emission and concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} in magnesium phosphate lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Mingming; Zhang, Dongyun, E-mail: dyz@sit.edu.cn; Chang, Chengkang

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • It is very likely the first time to realize tunable emission using Tb{sup 3+} as emitting centers. • Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4} with colorful emissions are obtained by simply adjusting the Tb concentration. • The energy transfer method is implied by calculating the index of electric multipole interaction. • Either the dipole–dipole or exchange interaction method is proposed for each emission. - Abstract: Tunable photoluminescence of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LiMgPO{sub 4} (Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4}) phosphors with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations are successfully synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction routine. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectroscope (PLS) are employed to characterize the phosphors. It is found that a suitable firing temperature is important for the synthesis of the phosphors, and pure phase material can only be obtained around 900 °C. PL spectra reveals typical {sup 5}D{sub 4} to {sup 7}F{sub j} energy transition of Tb{sup 3+} ions, and the emission colors varied from red to green with Tb{sup 3+} concentration increasing, which is caused by the concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} emission centers in the LiMgPO{sub 4} matrix. The emissions peaking at 591, 619 and 695 nm are quenched at concentration of 1.5%, while the emissions at 489 nm and 543 nm are quenched at concentration of 8%. Further analysis of the data reveals two different energy transfer mechanisms for the five emission bands. The dipole–dipole model is proposed for the energy transfer of the red bands peaking at 694 nm, 619 nm and 591 nm, while the exchange interaction model is suggested for that of the green bands (543 nm and 489 nm), due to the different ion separations caused by different Tb concentrations.

  8. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  9. Influence of samarium ions (Sm3+) on the optical properties of lithium zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    New glass samples with composition xSm2O3-(15-x) Li2O-45ZnO-40P2O5, where x= 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol % are prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. X-ray Diffraction measurements were performed to confirm their amorphous nature. Densities of these glasses were measured by Archimedes method. Optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectra which was recorded at room temperature in the UV-Vis region. Electronic transitions specific to the rare earth ion were observed from the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Optical direct band gap and indirect band gap energies were measured and their values were found to be between 4.23-4.74 eV and 3.02-3.67 eV, respectively. Refractive index has been measured with respect to different concentrations of Sm2O3. Polaron radius, inter-nuclear distance, field strength, dielectric constant and polarizability of oxide ions have been calculated. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements have been performed by excitation in the UV-Visible range, which resulted in the significant fluorescence peaks. The luminescence color of the glass system has been characterized using Commission International de l'Eclairage de France 1931 chromaticity diagram.

  10. A superconducting battery material: Lithium gold boride (LiAu3B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sezgin; Şimşek, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    The superconducting and potential cathode material properties of ternary boride of LiAu3B have been investigated by density functional first principles. The Li-concentration effects on the actual electronic and structural properties, namely the properties of LixAu9B3 (x = 0, 1, 2) sub-systems are studied. It is remarkably shown that the existence of Li-atoms has no considerable effect on the structural properties of Au-B skeleton in LiAu3B. Then, it can be offered as a potential cathode material for Li-ion batteries with the very small volume deviation of 0.42%, and the suitable average open circuit voltage of ∼1.30 V. Furthermore, the vibrational and superconducting properties such as electron-phonon coupling constant (λ) and critical temperature (Tc) of LiAu3B are studied. The calculated results suggest that LiAu3B should be a superconductor with Tc ∼5.8 K, also.

  11. A 3D conductive carbon interlayer with ultrahigh adsorption capability for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Qizhen; An, Yabin; Chen, Renjie; Sun, Ning; Wu, Feng; Xu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    To improve the cycling performance of the Li-S batteries, a 3D interwoven hollow interlayer with extremely high electrolyte adsorption capability up to 9.64 g g-1 was simply prepared by carbonization of cotton fabric (CCF). For comparison, an interlayer coated on separator was obtained by the slurry-coating method of powdery CCF. The key role of the adsorption capability is confirmed by comparing the electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries with these two interlayers. In the Li-S batteries with 3D CCF interlayer, massive dissolved polysulfides, together with the electrolyte, can be adsorbed and confined in the 3D CCF interlayer, providing substantial extra active sites and alleviating the shuttle effect effectively. As a result, the Li-S batteries with 3D CCF interlayer show much enhanced utilization of active materials (1346.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1C), prolonged cycle life (capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles), and improved rate performance (553.2 mAh g-1 at 4C). Even for cathodes with high sulfur loading of 5 mg cm-2, the cells with 3D CCF interlayer perform a high capacity of 1085 mAh g-1 and retain 870.6 mAh g-1 after 75 cycles at 0.5 mA cm-2. These results not only provide a sustainable, low cost and easy-prepared 3D CCF interlayer, but also offer a promising strategy based on interlayer with high adsorption capability in designing high-performance Li-S batteries.

  12. Binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 quantum dots core-shell nanorod array anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsiang; Cho, Hsun-Wei; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-06-01

    In this work, ZnSnO3 quantum dots (QDs), instead of commonly used conductive carbon, are grown on the ZnO nanorod (NR) array to construct the binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode on carbon cloth for lithium-ion battery. The ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with an improved cycling performance and superior rate capability compared to the ZnO NR array electrode. At a current density of 200 mAg-1, 15.8% capacity loss is acquired in the ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode after 110 cycles with capacity retention of 1073 mAhg-1. Significant increases in reversible capacities from 340 to 545 mAhg-1 and from 95 to 390 mAhg-1 at current densities of 1000 and 2000 mAg-1, respectively, are achieved as the ZnO NR arrays are coated with the ZnSnO3 QD shells. The remarkably improved electrochemical performances result from that the configuration of binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode not only facilitates the charge transfer through the solid electrolyte interface and the electronic/ionic conduction boundary as well as lithium ion diffusion but also effectively accommodates the volume change during repeated charge/discharge processes.

  13. Lithium ions in the van der Waals gap of Bi2Se3 single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bludská, Jana; Jakubec, Ivo; Karamazov, S.; Horák, Jaromír; Uher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 12 (2010), s. 2813-2817 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : intercalation * van Der Waals gap * Bi2Se3 crystals Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  14. Infrared luminescence and thermoluminescence of lithium borate glasses doped with Sm3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaiah J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL characteristics of X-ray irradiated pure and doped with Sm3+ ions Li2O-MO-B2O3 (where MO=ZnO, CaO, CdO glasses have been studied in the temperature range of 303 to 573 K. All the pure glasses exhibited single TL peaks at 382 K, 424 K and 466 K. When these glasses were doped with Sm3+ ions no additional peaks have been observed but the glow peak temperature of the existing glow peak shifted gradually towards higher temperatures with gain in intensity of TL light output. The area under the glow curve was found to be maximum for Sm3+ doped glasses mixed with cadmium oxide as a modifier. The trap depth parameters associated with the observed TL peaks have been evaluated using Chen’s formulae. The possible use of these glasses in radiation dosimetry has been described. The results clearly showed that samarium doped cadmium borate glass has a potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimeter.

  15. Photoluminescence properties and energy-transfer of thermal-stable Ce3+, Mn2+-codoped barium strontium lithium silicate red phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Gong Menglian

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Excited by UV, strong red luminescence is observed from Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS), while violet-blue emission from Ce 3+ sole doped BSLS. → These results indicate the Mn 2+ -derived red emission is originated by an efficient Ce 3+ → Mn 2+ energy transfer. → The red emission becomes stronger with increased Sr content, and shows red-shift. → These phosphors demonstrate good thermal stability even in 180 o C, which is suitable for NUV LED application. - Abstract: A series of thermal-stable Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS) phosphors was synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. The XRD patterns of this phosphor seem to be a new phase that has not been reported before. BSLS:Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ showed two emission bands under 365 nm excitation: one observed at 421 nm was attributed to Ce 3+ emission, and the other found in red region was assigned to Mn 2+ emission through Ce 3+ -Mn 2+ efficient energy transfer. The Mn 2+ emission shifted red along with the replacement of barium by strontium, which was due to the change of crystal field. A composition-optimized phosphor, BSLS:0.10Ce 3+ , 0.05Mn 2+ (Ba = 65), exhibited strong and broad red-emitting and supreme thermal stability. The results suggest that this phosphor is suitable as a red component for NUV LED or high pressure Hg vapor (HPMV) lamp.

  16. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  17. 3D Porous Sponge-Inspired Electrode for Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Zheng; Zhou, Guangmin; Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Liu, Chong; Yao, Hongbin; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2016-05-01

    A stretchable Li4 Ti5 O12 anode and a LiFePO4 cathode with 80% stretchability are prepared using a 3D interconnected porous polydimethylsiloxane sponge based on sugar cubes. 82% and 91% capacity retention for anode and cathode are achieved after 500 stretch-release cycles. Slight capacity decay of 6% in the battery using the electrode in stretched state is observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres: facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiren; Su, Liwei; Yang, Mei; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-11-13

    Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres were prepared via a facile and economic one-step hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology evolution mechanism was disclosed through time-dependent experiments. After undergoing the symmetric inside-out Ostwald ripening, the resultants formed microporous/nanoporous constructions composed of numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanofiber building blocks. Tested as anode materials of Li-ion batteries, FeCO3 hollow microspheres presented attractive electrochemical performances. The capacities were over 1000 mAh g(-1) for initial charge, ~880 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1), and ~710 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The 1D nanofiber assembly and hollow interior endow this material efficient contact with electrolyte, short Li(+) diffusion paths, and sufficient void spaces to accommodate large volume variation. The cost-efficient FeCO3 with rationally designed nanostructures is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  19. Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks hybrid materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongyu; Liu, Yanguo; Yu, Yanlong; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Nan, Ding; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks have been found to display better LIB performance as compare with Co 3 O 4 /CNT and Co 3 O 4 structures. • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the addition of 3DGN largely enhanced the electrochemical activity of Co 3 O 4 during the cycling processes. • The large specific surface area and porous nature of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are very convenient and accessible for electrolyte diffusion and intercalation of Li + ions into the active phases. - Abstract: Mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks (3DGN) hybrid materials have been synthesized by combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and hydrothermal method and investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Microscopic characterizations have been performed to confirm the 3DGN and mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanostructures. The specific surface area and pore size of the hybrid structures have been found ∼ 34.5 m 2 g −1 and ∼ 3.8 nm respectively. It has been found that the Co 3 O 4 /3DGNs composite displays better LIB performance with enhanced reversible capacity, good cyclic performance and rate capability as compare with Co 3 O 4 /CNT and Co 3 O 4 structures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the addition of 3DGN not only preserves high conductivity of the composite electrode, but also largely enhanced the electrochemical activity of Co 3 O 4 during the cycling processes. The improved electrochemical performance is considered due to the addition of 3DGNs which prevent the cracking of electrode. In addition, the large specific surface area and porous nature of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are also very convenient and accessible for electrolyte diffusion and intercalation of Li + ions into the active phases. Therefore, this combination can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an anode material for LIBs

  20. SnS{sub 2} nanoplates embedded in 3D interconnected graphene network as anode material with superior lithium storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hongli [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Han, Weijia; Ren, Long; Liu, Yundan [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Xingyan, E-mail: xywangxtu@163.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zhong, Jianxin [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic formation process of 3D interconnected SnS{sub 2}/graphene composite, and its superior lithium storage performance. - Highlights: • 3D graphene network embedded with SnS{sub 2} is synthesized by a facile two-step method. • This structure produces a synergistic effect between graphene and SnS{sub 2} nanoplates. • High capacity, excellent cycle performance and good rate capability are achieved. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) interconnected graphene network embedded with uniformly distributed tin disulfide (SnS{sub 2}) nanoplates was prepared by a facile two-step method. The microstructures and morphologies of the SnS{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite (SSG) are experimentally confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using the as-prepared SSG as an anode material for lithium batteries, its electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CV), charge/discharge tests, galvanostatic cycling performance and AC impedance spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared SSG exhibits excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 1060 mAh g{sup −1} retained after 200 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, also a superior rate capability of 670 mAh g{sup −1} even at such a high current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}. This favorable performance can be attributed to the unique 3D interconnected architecture with great electro-conductivity and its intimate contact with SnS{sub 2}. Our results indicate a potential application of this novel 3D SnS{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite in lithium-ion battery.

  1. Alumina-coated and manganese monoxide embedded 3D carbon derived from avocado as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rehman, Wasif ur; Xu, Youlong; Du, Xianfeng; Sun, Xiaofei; Ullah, Inam; Zhang, Yuan; Jin, Yanling; Zhang, Baofeng; Li, Xifei

    2018-07-01

    Derived from avocado fruit, a three dimension (3D) carbon is prepared via a hydrothermal/pyrolysis process followed by embedding with MnO nanoparticles by a wet chemical method and coating with Al2O3 through an atomic layer deposition technique. The obtained material presents a hierarchical structure that MnO nanocrystals wrapped in 3D carbon and then encapsulated in a uniform Al2O3 layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. Benefiting from this hierarchical structure in which 3D carbon offers numerous electronic pathways to enhance the conductivity and Al2O3 nanolayer provide a shelter to keep away from dissolution of Mn4+ and volume changes during charge/discharge process. This material (marked as C/MnO@Al2O3) has exhibited high rate performance and excellent cyclability as an anode for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of about 600 mA h g-1 is achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g-1 and the electrode can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 1165 mA h g-1 at 150 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. These results facilitate a green and high potential of anode materials towards promising devices for advance performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Corrosion of vanadium and V 3Ti 1Si in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konys, J.

    1986-01-01

    A pumped Li loop fabricated from a titanium stabilized Type 316 steel was designed and constructed. At temperatures of about 823 K, experiments over a duration of more than 7500 h were performed. A magnetic trap had to be incorporated just before the flowmeter to avoid the precipitation of magnetic particles. Therefore it was possible to investigate the influence of the magnetic trap on the corrosion behaviour of V in flowing Li. The results are as follows: - The corrosion rate of V is about 14 μm/year and independent of the nitrogen content of Li. The corrosion rate of V 3Ti 1Si depends on the N concentration of Li. At about 30 wppm N in Li a vanadium-titanium-nitride is formed at the surface of the specimens. Hence, a low rate of 4 μm/year can be stated. - Both materials pick-up more N than C from Li, pure vanadium double as much nitrogen as the alloy V 3Ti 1Si. - N diffuses into the bulk of both materials, whilst C is bound near the surface. The hardening at the surface is due to the up-take of N. - The vanadium-carbonitride-, respectively the vanadium-titanium-nitride-layers have a strong influence on the weight loss and the up-take of non-metals. - The magnetic trap reduces the weight loss of vanadium in a significant way. The positive influence of the magnetic trap is supposed to be due to the reduction of the nitrogen content of Li. - The corrosion rates of the alloy V 3Ti 1Si show, that the dissolution due to V loss does not affect the lifetime of the alloy. The comparison with steels and nickle-base-alloys demonstrates the advantages of this material. Nevertheless, the purification of the Li and the control of its nonmetal-levels is indispensable. (orig./HP) [de

  3. A facile synthesis of Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Liqing; Deng, Kunfa; Lv, Mengni; Xu, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    The novel Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C has been successfully synthesized by a feasible solution process in ternary system. The spherical carbon-coated composites are obtained using a heat treatment in the presence of sucrose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffractogram displays that the Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C crystallized in an orthorhombic structure with a space group of Pmn21. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mappings indicate that Fe, Mn and Ni elements are distributed homogenously in Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C nano-spherical particle with size less than 50 nm. The lithium storage capacity and cycling performance of the Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C presents good results when tested as cathode materials in lithium cells at room temperature. It delivers an initial discharge capacity of 181.4 mAh g"−"1 and a discharge capacity of 172.9 mAh g"−"1 after 20 cycles at 0.1C in the voltage range of 1.5–4.6V. Furthermore, it also exhibits an excellent rate capability with a capacity under different current densities of about 144.0 mAh g"−"1 (0.2 C), 117.9 mAh g"−"1 (0.5 C), 106.1 mAh g"−"1 (1 C), respectively and a good capacity cycling maintenance of 153.7 mAh g"−"1 after 60 cycles. Above results indicate that the spherical Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C becomes a very promising candidate for cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Li_2Fe_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Ni_1_/_3SiO_4/C was obtained by solution process in a ternary system. • The material was pure phase ternary solid solution with tetrahedral morphology. • The spherical particle size was less than 50 nm with graphitized carbon coating. • The nanocomposite revealed high discharge capacity and excellent rate capability.

  4. Poly[aqua(μ3-pyridazine-4-carboxylato-κ2O:O:O′lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which two LiI ions are bridged by a carboxylate O atom, each donated by a ligand, acting in a bidentate mode. The second carboxylato O atoms bridge the dimers to LiI ions in adjacent dimers, forming molecular layers parallel to (001. Each LiI ion is coordinated by two bridging carboxylate O atoms, a bridging carboxylate O atom donated by the adjacent dimer and an aqua O atom, resulting in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The layers are held together by O—H...N hydrogen bonds in which coordinated water O atoms act as donors and ligand hetero-ring N atoms as acceptors.

  5. Microwave synthesis of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yupeng; Zhang, Yanhui; Su, Zhi, E-mail: suzhixj@sina.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • High performance LVP/C synthesized by self-assembly microwave oven. • TEM showed the carbon layer is consisted of two kinds of concrete components. • The fast and efficient method make the process feasible commercially. - Abstract: The paper reports a microwave irradiation method to rapidly synthesize Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials as cathode for lithium ion batteries by the self-assembly microwave reaction oven with carbon seal reactor, using LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and sucrose as raw materials. Sucrose was used to be reducer and carbon source. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize its structure and morphology. Electrochemical properties of the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge–discharge cycling performance. The results showed that the diffraction peaks of the sample correspond to a single-phase, and can be indexed as monoclinic structure with a space group of P2{sub 1}/n. An electrochemical test showed that Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C demonstrated an excellent electrochemical capacity of 138 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.2 C rate and 124.1 mA h g{sup −1} at 5 C rate with stable cycle ability.

  6. Synthesis of Fe3O4 cluster microspheres/graphene aerogels composite as anode for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Zhixing; Li, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    Iron oxides are considered as attractive electrode materials because of their capability of lithium storage, but their poor conductivity and large volume expansion lead to unsatisfactory cycling stability. We designed and synthesized a novel Fe3O4 cluster microspheres/Graphene aerogels composite (Fe3O4/GAs), where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assembled into cluster microspheres and then embedded in 3D graphene aerogels framework. In the spheres, the sufficient free space between Fe3O4 nanoparticles could accommodate the volume change during cycling process. Graphene aerogel works as flexible and conductive matrix, which can not only significantly increase the mechanical stress, but also further improve the storage properties. The Fe3O4/GAs composite as an anode material exhibits high reversible capability and excellent cyclic capacity for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A reversible capability of 650 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1 can be maintained. The superior storage capabilities of the composites make them potential anode materials for LIBs.

  7. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  8. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-05-16

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li(+) diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li(+) intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.

  9. In-Pile Assemblies for Investigation of Tritium Release from Li2TiO3 Lithium Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Kawamura, H.; Kenzhin, Y.; Kulsartov, T.; Chikhray, Y.; Kolbaenkov, A.; Arinkin, F.; Gizatulin, Sh.; Chakrov, P.

    2005-01-01

    The description of algorithm to design in-pipe experimental ampoule devices (IPAD) is presented here, including description of IPAD design for irradiation tests of highly enriched lithium ceramics at WWR-K reactor. The description of the system for registration of tritium release from ceramics during irradiation is presented as well. Typical curve of tritium release from the IPAD during irradiation under various temperatures of the samples is shown here

  10. First-cycle defect evolution of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 lithium ion battery electrodes investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlmayer, Stefan; Buchberger, Irmgard; Reiner, Markus; Gigl, Thomas; Gilles, Ralph; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    In this study the structure and evolution of vacancy type defects in lithium ion batteries are investigated in respect of crystallographic properties. The relation between positron annihilation and electronic structure is discussed in terms of structural dynamics during the lithiation process. Samples of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC-111) electrodes with decreasing lithium content (x = 0-0.7) covering the whole range of state of charge were electrochemically prepared for the non-destructive analysis using positron coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). The positron measurements allowed us to observe the evolution of the defect structure caused by the delithiation process in the NMC-111 electrodes. The combination of CDBS with X-ray diffraction for the characterization of the lattice structures enabled the analysis of the well-known kinetic-hindrance-effect in the first charge-discharge cycle and possible implications of vacancy ordering. In particular, CDBS revealed the highest degree of relithiation after discharge to 3.0 V at 55 °C. For the first time, we report on the successful application of CDBS on NMC-111 electrodes yielding new insights in the important role of defects caused by the delithiation process and the kinetic hindrance effect.

  11. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk–shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X......-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes...

  12. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The effect of diuretics and lithium on 3H-ouabain binding site concentration and Na,K-content in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noergaard, Aa.; Kjeldsen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an increase in 3 H-ouabain binding sites or Na,K-pumps in vitro in cultured cells in response to incubation in low K, diuretics or lithium. However, in the present study the administration in vivo of various diuretics or lithium combined with supplementary K was not associated with any significant changes in Na,K-content or 3 H-ouabain binding site concentration in rat skeletal muscle. When the diuretics were administered in combination with only the basal K requirement a decrease in both K-content and 3 H-ouabain binding site concentration was seen. This indicates that the decrease in 3 H-ouabain binding site concentration is not caused by these drugs per se but is secondary to the associated K-depletion. The discrepancy between the results obtained using isolated cells and rat skeletal muscles could be related to the fact that cultured cells are not subjected to the normal growth control of the intact organism. It should be emphasized that results obtained using cultured cells do not necessarily reflect processes taking place in the intact organism. (author)

  14. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  15. Improved cycling and high rate performance of core-shell LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/carbon nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries: Effect of the carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Yi; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Hongbo; Li, Guochun; Li, Yunxing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C. • The effects of different carbon sources were discussed in detail. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 shows a discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: Core-shell type olivine solid solutions, LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C, are synthesized via a very simple and rapid microwave heating route with different carbon sources. The obatined LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C materials are characterized thoroughly by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy instrument. The particle sizes and distribution of the carbon layer of BP2000 carbon black coated LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP) are more uniform than that obtained from acetylene black (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /AB) and Super P (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /SP). Moreover, the LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP nanocomposite shows superior electrochemical properties such as high discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, excellent cyclic stability (143 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C after 30 cycles) and rate capability (76 mAh g −1 at 20 C), which are better than other two samples. Cyclic voltammetric and electrical tests disclose that the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity are significantly improved in LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy illustrates that LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite electrode possesses low contact and charge-transfer impedances, which can lead to rapid electron transport during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction reaction. It is believed that olivine solid

  16. 131I therapy of Graves' disease using lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenshi

    1983-01-01

    Lithium is known to cause goiter and hypothyroidism. In the mechanism of goitrogenesis, there is general agreement that lithium inhibits the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland without significantly impairing other thyroid functions. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate the usefulness of lithium in the radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. Nine patients with Graves' disease who were all, except one, previously treated with antithyroid drugs were studied. 600 mg of lithium carbonate were administered daily to investigate the effects on thyroidal 131 I uptake, disappearance rate of 131 I from the prelabeled thyroid and the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Lithium showed no significant effect on the thyroidal 131 I uptake when the 24 hour thyroidal 131 I uptakes were determined both before and during lithium treatment in the five cases. On the other hand, lithium clearly prolonged the mean value of effective half-lives of 131 I to approximately 8 days vs. 5.1 days before lithium treatment (p 4 and T 3 levels significantly decreased during lithium treatment, from 21.3 to 12.4μg/dl (n=9, p 131 I for the Graves' disease can be reduced by using lithium, the radiation exposure to the total body is decreased. Moreover, it is possible to perform the 131 I therapy while improving the thyrotoxicosis with lithium. Finally, it is concluded that lithium is a very useful drug to be combined with the 131 I therapy of Graves' disease. (author)

  17. Co_3V_2O_8 Hexagonal Pyramid with Tunable Inner Structure as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Jian; Chen, Gang; Bie, Changfeng; Chen, Dahong; Jiao, Yang; Rao, Jiancun

    2017-01-01

    Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid was successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process and subsequent heat treatment. The inner structure of the hexagonal pyramid was further adjusted by controlling the size of Co_7V_4O_1_6(OH)_2(H_2O) precursors. Hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid with height of 1 μm were orderly constructed from 60–80 nm inter-connected particles, showing numerous interval voids. Benefiting from its unique structure, the as-prepared sample showed higher electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries than that of another bulk sample with height of 5 μm and adhesive inner structure. When tested at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, the hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid exhibited good rate capacity, high cycling stability, and excellent discharge capacity up to 712 mA h g"−"1, making it promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Carbon-covered Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow cubic hierarchical porous composite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shouhui, E-mail: csh2k@jxnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Rihui; Chen, Yaqin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li, E-mail: lwanggroup@aliyun.com [Jiangxi Normal University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, Prussian blue nanocrystals, a kind of cubic metal-organic frameworks, was firstly covered by a uniform layer of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin, and then followed with heat treatment at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the morphologies, phase, pore size, and electrochemical performance of the pyrolysis products were studied in this work. The composite generated at 600 {sup ∘}C, FexC600, was a hollow cubic composite of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} covered by a thin RF-derived carbon layer. The carbon layer on FexC600 was a robust and conductive protective layer, which can accommodate Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs and withstand the huge volume change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} during the process of discharge and charge. When used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, FexC600 showed excellent electrochemical performance. It delivered a discharge capacity of 1126 mAh g{sup −1} with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8% at the current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 100 times discharge/charge cycling. It even delivered a capacity of 492 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. This cubic hollow composite would be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Carbon-covered Fe_3O_4 hollow cubic hierarchical porous composite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Zhou, Rihui; Chen, Yaqin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Prussian blue nanocrystals, a kind of cubic metal-organic frameworks, was firstly covered by a uniform layer of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin, and then followed with heat treatment at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the morphologies, phase, pore size, and electrochemical performance of the pyrolysis products were studied in this work. The composite generated at 600 "∘C, FexC600, was a hollow cubic composite of Fe_3O_4 covered by a thin RF-derived carbon layer. The carbon layer on FexC600 was a robust and conductive protective layer, which can accommodate Fe_3O_4 NPs and withstand the huge volume change of Fe_3O_4 during the process of discharge and charge. When used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, FexC600 showed excellent electrochemical performance. It delivered a discharge capacity of 1126 mAh g"−"1 with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8% at the current density of 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 times discharge/charge cycling. It even delivered a capacity of 492 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 500 mA g"−"1. This cubic hollow composite would be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  1. Lithium ion diffusion measurements on a garnet-type solid conductor Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 by using a pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Matsui, Masaki; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The garnet-type solid conductor Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 is known to have high ionic conductivity. We synthesized a series of compositions of this conductor and found that cubic Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 (LLZO-Ta) has a high ionic conductivity of 3.7×10(-4)Scm(-1) at room temperature. The (7)Li NMR spectrum of LLZO-Ta was composed of narrow and broad components, and the linewidth of the narrow component varied from 0.69kHz (300K) to 0.32kHz (400K). We carried out lithium ion diffusion measurements using pulsed-field spin-echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy and found that echo signals were observed at T≥313K with reasonable sensitivity. The lithium diffusion behavior was measured by varying the observation time and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) strength between 313 and 384K. We found that lithium diffusion depended significantly on the observation time and strength of the PFG, which is quite different from lithium ion diffusion in liquids. It was shown that lithium ion migration in the solid conductor was distributed widely in both time and space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphene-doped carbon/Fe3O4 porous nanofibers with hierarchical band construction as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhao, Shuyuan; Lian, Yanping; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and thermal treatment. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 show unique dark/light banding with a hierarchical porous structure. • Doped graphene induces a uniform distribution of smaller size Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Doped graphene provides more active sites and accommodate the volume change. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped carbon/Fe 3 O 4 (GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 ) nanofibers are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment for use as lithium-ion battery anode materials. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution containing ferric acetylacetone and graphene oxide nanosheets is used as the electrospinning precursor solution. The resulting porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers show unique dark/light banding and a hierarchical porous structure. These nanofibers have a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 323.0 m 2 /g with a total pore volume of 0.337 cm 3 /g, which is significantly greater than that of a sample without graphene and C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers. The GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofiber electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g after 100 cycles, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability (455 mA/g at 5 A/g). The excellent performance of porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 is attributed to the material’s unique structure, including its striped topography, hierarchical porous structure, and inlaid flexible graphene, which not only provides more accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion and high-efficiency transport pathways for ions and electrons, but also accommodates the volume change associated with lithium insertion/extraction. Moreover, the zero-valent iron and graphene in the porous nanofibers enhance the conductivity of the electrodes.

  3. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  4. Embedding ultrafine ZnSnO3 nanoparticles into reduced graphene oxide composites as high-performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhang; Jiang, Ranran; Li, Dan; Dong, Yutao; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafine ZnSnO3 nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 45 nm, homogeneously grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully fabricated via methods of low temperature coprecipitation, colloid electrostatic self-assembly, and hydrothermal treatment. The uniformly distributed ZnSnO3 nanocrystals could inhibit the restacking of rGO sheets. In turn, the existence of rGO could hinder the growth and aggregation of ZnSnO3 nanoparticles in the synthesis process, increase the conductivity of the composite, and buffer the volume expansion of the ZnSnO3 nanocrystals upon lithium ion insertion and extraction. The obtained ZnSnO3/rGO exhibited superior cycling stability with a discharge/charge capacity of 718/696 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1.

  5. γ-Fe 2 O 3 Nanocrystalline Microspheres with Hybrid Behavior of Battery-Supercapacitor for Superior Lithium Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Wu, Chao; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Lin, Ling-Piao; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Pan, Feng

    2015-12-02

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanocrystalline microspheres (MNMs) self-assembled with 52 nm nanocrystals bridged with FeOOH around grain boundaries were formed by solvothermal reaction and thermal oxidation. The unique architecture endows the MNMs with the lithium storage behavior of a hybrid battery-supercapacitor electrode: initial charge capacity of 1060 mAh g–1 at the 100 mA g–1 rate, stable cyclic capacity of 1077.9 mAh g–1 at the same rate after 140 cycles, and rate capability of 538.8 mAh g–1 at 2400 mA g–1. This outstanding performance was attributed to the nanocrystal superiority, which shortens the Li+ diffusion paths. The mechanism of this hybrid anode material was investigated with experimental measurements and structural analysis. The results indicate that at the first discharge, the MNM nanocrystal microsphere, whose structure can buffer the volume change that occurs during lithiation/delithiation, goes through four stages: Li+ insertion in cation vacancies, spinel-to-rocksalt transformation, Li+ intercalation of Li1.75+xFe2O3 nanocrystals, and interfacial Li storage around nanocrystal boundaries. Only the latter two stages were reversible at and after the second charging/discharging cycle, exhibiting the hybrid behavior of a battery-supercapacitor with superior lithium storage.

  6. Embedding Co3O4 nanoparticles into graphene nanoscrolls as anode for lithium ion batteries with superior capacity and outstanding cycling stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Co3O4 is a promising high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs, but suffers from unsatisfied cyclability originating duo to low electrical conductivity and large volume expansion during charge and discharge process. Herein, we successfully constructed the Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded into graphene nanoscrolls (GNSs as advanced anode for high-performance LIBs with large capacity and exceptional cyclability. The one-dimensional (1D Co3O4/GNSs were synthesized via liquid nitrogen cold quenching of large-size graphene oxide nanosheets and sodium citrate (SC modified Co3O4 nanoparticles, followed by freeze drying and annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Benefiting from the interconnected porous network constructed by 1D Co3O4/GNSs for fast electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion, and wrinkled graphene shell for significantly alleviating the huge volume expansion of Co3O4 during lithiation and delithiation. The resultant Co3O4/GNSs exhibited ultrahigh reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, outperforming most reported Co3O4 anodes. Moreover, they showed high rate capability of 600 mAh g−1 at 5 C, and outstanding cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 90% after 500 cycles. Therefore, this developed strategy could be extended as an universal and scalable approach for intergrating various metal oxide materials into GNSs for energy storage and conversion applications. Keywords: Graphene nanoscrolls, Co3O4, Anode, Lithium ion batteries, Energy storage

  7. Imidazolium ionic liquid induced one-step synthesis of -Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies for lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies are prepared via a facile one-step method with the assistance of imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The aspect ratio of synthesized nanorods is determined by the alkyl chain length of [Cnmim]+. The inter-molecular π−π interaction and intra-molecular dipole-dipole interaction among imidazole rings of [C4mim]+[PhCOO]− play critical roles in both nucleation and assembly processes of α-Fe2O3 nanorods. The α-Fe2O3 nanorod assemblies show an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries with a reversible capacity of 1007.3 mA h g−1 at the rate of 500 mA g−1 after 150 cycles.

  8. Infrared studies of PVC-based electrolytes incorporated with lithium triflate and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate as ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkepeli, Nik A. S. Nik; Winie, Tan; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIMCF3SO3) is employed as ionic liquid in PVC-based polymer electrolyte system with lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) as doping salt. The samples in film form were prepared by quantitatively varying the concentration of BMIMCF3SO3 to a fixed ratio of PVC-LiCF3SO3 using solution cast technique. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.120 × 10-7 Scm-1 was exhibited by PVC-LiCF3SO3-BMIMCF3SO3 containing 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3. FTIR spectra of the polymer electrolytes were examined to study the complexation of the PVC-based polymer electrolytes. Intensity of free ions, ion pairs, and ion aggregates were obtained from FTIR deconvolution in an attempt to correlate with ionic conductivity results. The intensity of free ions was found to be high for sample with 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3.

  9. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis of 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials using 3-D urchin-like MnO2 as precursor for high performance lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chenhao; Hu, Zhibiao; Zhou, Yunlong; Fang, Shuzhen; Cai, Shaohan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we report synthesis of lithium rich layered oxide 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by using an urchin-like MnO 2 as precursor. The influences of calcination temperatures on the structures and electrochemical performances of as-prepared materials are systematically studied. The results show that the obtained sample can partially retain the morphology of urchin-like precursor especially at low temperature, and a higher calcination temperature helps to improve the layered structure and particle size. As lithium ion battery cathodes, the 750 °C sample with the size of 100–200 nm reveals an optimal electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity of 234.6 mAh g −1 with high Coulombic efficiency of 84.6 % can be reached at 0.1C within 2.0–4.7 V. After 50 cycles, the capacity retention can reach 90.2 % at 0.5C. Even at high current density of 5C, the sample also shows a stable discharge capacity of 120.5 mAh g −1 . Anyways, the urchin-like MnO 2 directed route is suitable to prepare 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 as lithium ion battery cathode

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Wu Lijuan; Li Zhaohui; Lei Gangtie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiao Qizhen, E-mail: qizhenxiao2004@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang Ping [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2011-06-01

    Highlights: > A simple electrospinning method has been developed to fabricate Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers. > Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. > A stable and reversible capacity of over 227 mAh g{sup -1} is achieved at a rate of 0.1 C. > Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} anode exhibits good cycle performance and high rate capability. - Abstract: Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers are synthesized by thermally treating electrospun Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}/LiOAc/TBT/PVP fibers and utilized as an energy storage material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The material is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results show that the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} fibers have an average diameter of 200 nm. Electrochemical properties of the material are evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that as-prepared Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has a high specific discharge capacity of 227.6 mAh g{sup -1} at the 2nd cycle. Its electrochemical performance at subsequent cycles shows good cycling capacity and rate capability. The obtained results thus strongly support that the electrospinning method is an effective method to prepare Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} anode material with higher capacity and rate capability.

  12. Photocatalytic properties of Co_3O_4/LiCoO_2 recycled from spent lithium-ion batteries using citric acid as leaching agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, I.L.; Moreira, T.F.M.; Lelis, M.F.F.; Freitas, M.B.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, cobalt and lithium from the cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries were recycled to synthesize a mixture of Co_3O_4 and LiCoO_2. The positive electrode was leached with citric acid in the green recycling. After being heated to 85 °C, the leaching solution formed a pink sol, and after being dried at 120 °C for 24 h, it formed a gel, which is a precursor material for Co_3O_4 and LiCoO_2 synthesis. A mixture of Co_3O_4 and LT-LiCoO_2 was obtained after the calcination of the precursor material at 450 °C for 3 h. The photocatalytic properties of the Co_3O_4 and LiCoO_2 were tested in the discoloration of methylene blue dye. The discoloration efficiency of methylene blue dye in the presence of Co_3O_4 and LiCoO_2 was 90% after 10 h and 100% after 24 h of heterogeneous catalysis. The contribution of this work is that it presents a means to produce valuable materials with photocatalytic properties from recycled batteries through a spent Li-ion battery recycling process without polluting the environment. - Highlights: • Synthesis a mixture of Co_3O_4/LiCoO_2 from spent Li-ion batteries. • Citric acid for leaching of the cathodes of the spent Li-ion batteries. • Co_3O_4/LiCoO_2 as catalysts in the photodegradation of the methylene blue dye.

  13. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  14. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  15. Li and Na storage behavior of bowl-like hollow Co3O4 microspheres as an anode material for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jian-Wu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zang, Yong; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Yu, Yan; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A unique bowl-like hollow spherical Co 3 O 4 structure is prepared through a simple, low-cost and mass-yield method. • Such a bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microsphere demonstrates extraordinary rate and cycling performance for Li-storage. • The sodium-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 is investigated for the first time. - Abstract: Bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are prepared via a simple and low-cost route by thermally treating Co-containing resorcinol-formaldehyde composites gel in air. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrate that these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are composed of hollow inner cavities and outer shell walls (70 nm thickness), on which a considerable amount of mesopores centered around 5-17 nm size are distributed. When employed as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres exhibit extraordinary cycling performance (111% retention after 50 cycles owing to capacity rise), fairly high rate capacity (650 mAh g −1 at 5 C) and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Meanwhile, the Na-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 as an anode material of Na-ion batteries is initially investigated based on such a hollow structure and it exhibits similar feature of discharge/charge profiles and a high initial discharge capacity but relatively moderate capacity retention compared with the Li-storage performance

  16. Three-dimensional mapping of the martensite microstructure of lithium by 3DXRD high-energy X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichl, W.; Krystian, M.; Prem, M.; Krexner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Metallic lithium undergoes a partial martensitic phase transition from bcc to a complex combination of close-pacKEXd structures below 80 K. On cooling, a rhombohedral 9R structure and a one-dimensionally disordered polytype phase coexist with the bcc matrix, whereas on heating an additional fcc phase appears. Up to now very little is known about the microstructure of this phase mixture. In the present investigation the 3DXRD method was applied in order to map the individual phases. This technique has been developed at the Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark) and is implemented at the Beamline ID11 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). It uses a micro-focussed synchrotron radiation beam and a conical slit cell for depth resolution. The method has been used successfully for the mapping of grains in single-phase, polycrystalline materials in the past. In the present work it was for the first time applied to the study of a phase transition. A lithium single crystal was cooled to 80 K. After the first transformation a gage volume of 200x200x200 μm was scanned two times with the conical slit cell in position for the bcc and for the 9R structure, respectively. The presence or absence of reflections within the different rings of the slit cell allows to distinguish between the two structures. In addition, diffuse streaks corresponding to the disordered polytype phase could be identified. (author)

  17. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 degree centigrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Ramirez, A.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Chaon-Nava, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Fe 3 Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO 2 +N 2 at 900 degree centigrade for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe 3 AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. Electrochemical study on PVDF-HFP/silylated AI2O3-coated PE separators using the electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    PVDF-HFP (binder)/silylated alumina (inorganic particle)-coated PE (polyethylene)separators were with various compositions of binder and inorganic particle were prepared by a dip-coating process with humidity control (R.H. 25% and 50%) using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of the coated PVDF-HFP/AI 2 O 3 layer with various compositions of PVDF-HFP and AI 2 O 3 , and humidity condition was found to be an important factor in determining ionic conductivity of the prepared separators. The PVDF-HFP/AI 2 O 3 (5/5)-coated PE separator prepared at R.H. 50% followed by electron beam irradiation at 200 kGy was applied for lithium-ion polymer battery and cell test results showed improved high-rate discharge performance and better cyclic stability compared to the cells with the bare PE and the PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators

  19. Outstanding Li-storage performance of LiFePO4@MWCNTs cathode material with 3D network structure for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Le

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the MWCNTs-decorated LiFePO4 microspheres (LiFePO4@MWCNTs) with a 3D network structure have been synthesized by a facile and efficient spray-drying approach followed by solid-state reaction in a reduction atmosphere. In the as-prepared composite, the MWCNTs around LiFePO4 nanoparticles can provide 3D conductive networks which greatly facilitate the transport of Li+-ion and electron during the electrochemical reaction. Compared to the pure LiFePO4 material, the LiFePO4@MWCNTs composite as cathode for lithium-ion batteries exhibits significantly improved Li-storage performance in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability. Therefore, we can speculate that the spray-drying approach is a promising route to prepare the high-performance electrode materials with 3D network structure for electrochemical energy storage.

  20. Multishelled Si@Cu Microparticles Supported on 3D Cu Current Collectors for Stable and Binder-free Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lu, Xianmao

    2018-04-24

    Silicon has proved to be a promising anode material of high-specific capacity for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, during repeated discharge/charge cycles, Si-based electrodes, especially those in microscale size, pulverize and lose electrical contact with the current collectors due to large volume expansion. Here, we introduce a general method to synthesize Cu@M (M = Si, Al, C, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 , Ag, Ti, Ta, SnIn 2 O 5 , Au, V, Nb, W, Mg, Fe, Ni, Sn, ZnO, TiN, Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , and TiO 2 ) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu substrates. The resulting Cu@Si nanowire arrays were employed as LIB anodes that can be reused via HCl etching and H 2 -reduction. Multishelled Cu@Si@Cu microparticles supported on 3D Cu current collectors were further prepared as stable and binder-free LIB anodes. This 3D Cu@Si@Cu structure allows the interior conductive Cu network to effectively accommodate the volume expansion of the electrode and facilitates the contact between the Cu@Si@Cu particles and the current collectors during the repeated insertion/extraction of lithium ions. As a result, the 3D Cu@Si@Cu microparticles at a high Si-loading of 1.08 mg/cm 2 showed a capacity retention of 81% after 200 cycles. In addition, charging tests of 3D Cu@Si@Cu-LiFePO 4 full cells by a triboelectric nanogenerator with a pulsed current demonstrated that LIBs with silicon anodes can effectively store energy delivered by mechanical energy harvesters.

  1. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  2. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  3. Comparative Investigation of 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode Materials Synthesized by Using Different Lithium Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Bo Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-rich manganese-based cathode materials has been attracted enormous interests as one of the most promising candidates of cathode materials for next-generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretic capacity and low cost. In this study, 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 materials are synthesized through a solid-state reaction by using different lithium sources, and the synthesis process and the reaction mechanism are investigated in detail. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performances of the material synthesized by using LiOH·H2O, Li2CO3, and CH3COOLi·2H2O have been analyzed by using Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electrochemical measurements. The 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 material prepared by using LiOH·H2O displays uniform morphology with nano particle and stable layer structure so that it suppresses the first cycle irreversible reaction and structure transfer, and it delivers the best electrochemical performance. The results indicate that LiOH·H2O is the best choice for the synthesis of the 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 material.

  4. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  5. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  6. The structural, microhardness and thermal properties of a semiorganic NLO crystal: Lithium paranitrophenolate trihydrate (NO2-C6H4-OLi.3H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaz, B. Milton; Raman, P. Santhana; Raja, S. Xavier Jesu; Das, S. Jerome

    2005-01-01

    The crystallographic parameters, morphology, microhardness anisotropy and thermal properties including differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of a new nonlinear optical material lithium paranitrophenolate trihydrate (NPLi.3H 2 O) are reported. The single crystals of NPLi.3H 2 O show effective phase matchable second harmonic generation properties for frequency conversion. Optically clear single crystals having dimensions up to 12 mm x 8 mm x 4 mm have been grown successfully within a period of 60 days by isothermal solvent evaporation technique. The title compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group Pa. Microhardness measurement on different planes verifies the hardness anisotropy and thermal studies reveal good thermal stability of the material. The NLO property of the crystal is verified by employing Kurtz powder test. The crystal has a wide range of optical transparency from 400 nm to 1500 nm

  7. Effect of the synthesis method on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical characteristics of α-Fe2O3 anodes for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzunov, I.; Klissurski, D.; Uzunova, S.; Aleksandrova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the synthesis method and temperature on some structural characteristics and electrochemical behaviour was investigated for samples of α-Fe 2 O 3 prepared from different precursors. The phase composition, morphology and crystallinity of the obtained materials were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behaviour of the synthesized samples was studied within voltage range 0.01-2.5V and various current densities. The electrochemical behaviour of the obtained active anode materials was found to depend mostly on the ratio between mean particle size (MPS) and mean coherent domain size (MCDS). It was found that the ratio depends on the synthesis method and calcination temperature. By optimization of the synthesis processes α-Fe 2 O 3 was prepared with optimal microstructure and particle size, a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. (authors)

  8. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g −1 , reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 are 201 mAh g −1 and 155.4 mAh g −1 (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g −1 even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%

  9. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  10. Core-shell Li2S@Li3PS4 nanoparticles incorporated into graphene aerogel for lithium-sulfur batteries with low potential barrier and overpotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zheng; Chen, Lu; Si, Jian; Xu, Chuxiong; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Ying; Yang, Yaqing; Zhao, Bing

    2017-06-01

    Lithium sulfide as a promising cathode material not only have a high theoretical specific capacity, but also can be paired with Li-free anode material to avoid potential safety issues. However, how to prepare high electrochemical performance material is still challenge. Herein, we present a facile way to obtain high crystal quality Li2S nanomaterials with average particle size of about 55 nm and coated with Li3PS4 to form the nano-scaled core-shell Li2S@Li3PS4 composite. Then nano-Li2S@Li3PS4/graphene aerogel is prepared by a simple liquid infiltration-evaporation coating process and used directly as a composite cathode without metal substrate for lithium-sulfur batteries. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the composite delivers a high discharge capacity of 934.4 mAh g-1 in the initial cycle and retains 485.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C rate. In addition, the composite exhibits much lower potential barrier (∼2.40 V) and overpotential compared with previous reports, indicating that Li2S needs only a little energy to be activated. The excellent electrochemical performances could be attributed to the tiny particle size of Li2S and the superionic conducting Li3PS4 coating layer, which can shorten Li-ion and electron diffusion paths, improve the ionic conductivity, as well as retarding polysulfides dissolution into the electrolyte to some extent.

  11. Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters as high rate capability and long life anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shengming; Xia, Tian; Wang, Jingping; Lu, Feifei; Xu, Chunbo; Zhang, Xianfa; Huo, Lihua; Zhao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters (UMCN-HCs) have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent thermolysis treatment. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, UMCN-HCs achieve high reversible capacity, good long cycling life, and rate capability. - Highlights: • UMCN-HCs show high capacity, excellent stability, and good rate capability. • UMCN-HCs retain a capacity of 1067 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g"−"1. • UMCN-HCs deliver a capacity of 507 mAh g"−"1 after 500 cycles at 2 A g"−"1. - Abstract: Herein, Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters (UMCN-HCs) have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent thermolysis treatment at 600 °C in air. The products consist of cluster-like Co_3O_4 microarchitectures, which are assembled by numerous ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, UMCN-HCs deliver a high reversible capacity of 1067 mAh g"−"1 at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles. Even at 2 A g"−"1, a stable capacity as high as 507 mAh g"−"1 can be achieved after 500 cycles. The high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and good rate capability of UMCN-HCs may be attributed to their mesoporous sheet-like nanostructure. The sheet-layered structure of UMCN-HCs may buffer the volume change during the lithiation-delithiation process, and the mesoporous characteristic make lithium-ion transfer more easily at the interface between the active electrode and the electrolyte.

  12. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate; Ionenstrahlverstaerktes Aetzen fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-12

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO{sub 3} with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO{sub 3}. Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO{sub 3}. This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Ausnutzung des ionenstrahlverstaerkten Aetzens (IBEE: Ion Beam Enhanced Etching) fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von

  13. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  14. Uniqueness of Co3O4/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nano-spheres Derived from Metal-Organic Framework: Insight of Superior Lithium Storage Capabilities Beyond Theoretical and Electrochemical Features in High Voltage Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-05-24

    Developing versatile strategy to create new structured materials with hetero-atomic doping has become one of the fascinating research topics owing to their fantastic properties, while the popular metal-organic-framework opens a promising avenue to design diverse architectures. Herein, an intriguing kind of spherical N-doped porous carbon (i.e., N-C) particles containing numerous Co3O4 nanocrystals (i.e., Co3O4/N-C) is introduced, in which the Zn-Co based Prussian blue analogue act as a sacrificial template and carbon source while the volatilization of zinc and oxidation of Co can produce rich pores and form highly active Co3O4 nanocrystals. The resultant Co3O4/N-C particles has an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 1255 mA h g-1 and excellent rate capability even to the current of 2000 mA g-1. The long cycle life over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 with the high capacity of 798 mAh g-1 further demonstrates its prominent properties. Our kinetics analysis reveals that the high performances beyond theoretical mainly stem from the active Co3O4 nanocrystals, fast diffusion of lithium ions within the structure and pseudocapacitive behaviors; therefore it further demonstrates impressive stability and rate capabilities in lithium ion battery versus the cathode of lithium layered oxide even at high voltage conditions.

  15. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kanamura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li{sup +}-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li{sub 6.25}Al{sub 0.25}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ) with Li{sup +}-ion conductivity of ~10{sup –4} S ⋅cm{sup −1} at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO{sub 2}/LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO{sub 2}–LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, which is a

  16. Li_2ZrO_3-coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 with nanoscale interface for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zr doped and Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 are prepared by a solid-state method. • Zr-doping and LZO coating are positive in improving lithium diffusion ability. • Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 deliver 168.1 mAh g"−"1 higher than 150.2 mAh g"−"1 of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2. • Li_2ZrO_3 coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 remains 162 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles. • The lowest D_L_i"+ is 5.97 × 10"−"1"7 and 1.85 × 10"−"1"5 cm"2 s"−"1 of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 before and after coating. - Abstract: Zr doped sample of Li_4Ti_4_._9_9Zr_0_._0_1O_1_2 (LZTO) and Li_2ZrO_3 (LZO) coated Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) are prepared by a solid-state method. The lattice structure of LTO is remained after doping element of Zr and coating layer of LZO. The crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the material are investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge-discharge tests, respectively. Zr-doping and LZO coating play the positive role in improving the diffusion ability of lithium cations. LZTO and LZO-LTO show much improved specific capacity and rate capability compared with pristine sample of LTO. LZO-LTO has the smallest voltage differential (ΔV) of the redox peaks because the coating of Li_2ZrO_3 is helpful for the diffusion ability of lithium ions during charge/discharge processes. LZTO and LZO-LTO as electrode deliver the initial capacities of 164.8, 168.1 mAh g"−"1, respectively, which are much higher than 150.2 mAh g"−"1 of intrinsic sample of LTO. Even at the current density of 2 A g"−"1, LTZO and LZO-LTO offer capacity of 96 and 106 mAh g"−"1, which are much higher than 33 mAh g"−"1 of LTO. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the improved diffusion ability of lithium. During the whole discharge process, the lowest value of LTO is 5.97 × 10"−"1"7 cm"2 s"−"1 that is

  17. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song; Li, Chang Ming; Zhou, Wen Wen; Yan, Qing Yu; Archer, Lynden A.; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2009-01-01

    -out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated

  18. Synthesis and properties of Li2SnO3/polyaniline nanocomposites as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiufen; Huang, Ying; Miao, Juan; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    The nanocomposites Li2SnO3/polyaniline (Li2SnO3/PANI) have been synthesized by a micro emulsion polymerization method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared materials are characterized by XRD, FTIR, Raman, XPS, TGA, TEM and electrochemical measurements. Results show that Li2SnO3/PANI nanocomposites are composed of uniform and blocky nano-sized particles (40-50 nm) with clear lattice fringes. Electrochemical measurement suggests that Li2SnO3/PANI exhibits better cycling properties and lower initial irreversible capacities than Li2SnO3 as negative electrodes materials for lithium-ion batteries. At a current density of 60 mA g-1 in the voltage about 0.05-2.0 V, the initial irreversible capacity of Li2SnO3/PANI is 563 mAh g-1 while it is 687.5 mAh g-1 to Li2SnO3. The capacity retained of Li2SnO3/PANI (569.2 mAh g-1) is higher than that of Li2SnO3 (510.2 mAh g-1) after 50 cycles. The PANI in the Li2SnO3/PANI nanocomposites can buffer the released stress caused by the drastic volume variation during the alloying/de-alloying process of Li-Sn.

  19. In situ preparation of Fe3O4 in a carbon hybrid of graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewen; Hassan Siddique, Ahmad; Huang, Heran; Fang, Qile; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Xufeng; Lu, Huanming; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-11-01

    A new conductive carbon hybrid combining both reduced graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes (rGNSs-CNTs) is prepared, and used to host Fe3O4 nanoparticles through an in situ synthesis method. As an anode material for LIBs, the obtained Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows good electrochemical performance. At a current density of 0.1 A g-1, the anode material shows a high reversible capacity of 1232.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Even at a current density of 1 A g-1, it still achieves a high reversible capacity of 812.3 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. Comparing with bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/rGO composite anode materials without nanoscroll structure, Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows much better rate capability with a reversible capacity of 605.0 and 500.0 mAh g-1 at 3 and 5 A g-1, respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance of the Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs anode material can be ascribed to the hybrid structure of rGNSs-CNTs, and their strong interaction with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which on one hand provides more pathways for lithium ions and electrons, on the other hand effectively relieves the volume change of Fe3O4 during the charge-discharge process.

  20. First-Principles Study of MoO3/Graphene Composite as Cathode Material for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Hong; Wei, Kaiyuan; Ni, Shuang; Cui, Yixiu; Shi, Siqi

    2018-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the adsorption and diffusion behavior of Li in MoO3 bulk, on MoO3 (010) surface and in MoO3/graphene composite. Our results indicate that, in case of MoO3 bulk, Li diffusion barriers in the interlayer and intralayer spaces are 0.55 eV and 0.58 eV respectively, which are too high to warrant fast Lithium-ion charge/discharge processes. While on MoO3 (010) surface, Li exhibits a diffusion barrier as low as 0.07 eV which guarantees an extremely fast Li diffusion rate during charge/discharge cycling. However, in MoO3/graphene monolayer, Li diffusion barrier is at the same level as that on MoO3 (010) surface, which also ensures a very rapid Li charge/discharge rate. The rapid Li charge/discharge rate in this system originates from the removal of the upper dangling O1 atoms which hinder the Li diffusion on the lower MoO3 layer. Besides this, due to the interaction between Li and graphene, the Li average binding energy increases to 0.14 eV compared to its value on MoO3 (010) surface which contributes to a higher voltage. Additionally, the increased ratio of surface area provides more space for Li storage and the capacity of MoO3/graphene composite increases up to 279.2 mAhg-1. The last but not the least, due to the high conductivity of graphene, the conductivity of MoO3/graphene composite enhances greatly which is beneficial for electrode materials. In the light of present results, MoO3/graphene composite exhibits higher voltage, good conductivity, large Li capacity and very rapid Li charge/discharge rate, which prove it as a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

  1. General Approach to Prepare 0.33Li₂MnO₃ · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O₂ Hollow Microspheres for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfa; Xu, Wenjin; Zhang, Lei; Li, Min

    2018-06-01

    Li-excess manganese-based oxide layered structures, have drawn increasing interests as the promising cathodes to succeed the conventional LiCoO2 in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). It could deliver a higher energy density and output potential, as well as the nature of environment benign and low cost. Pristine Li-excess manganese-based oxides however suffer from poor rate capacity and voltage fading after cycling, and their inherent capacity limits of bulk size in performance. Micro-/Nanostructured electrode materials are considered to hold the key to overcome these thresholds. This paper reports a general approach to prepare 0.33Li2MnO3 · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microspheres with pores and void space, which benefits improving both the capacity and cyclability. The electrode made of hollow 0.33Li2MnO3 · 0.67LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 microspheres exhibits a 224 mAh g-1 discharge capacity over 200 cycles at 0.25 C rate, and 195 mAh g-1 at 5.0 C rate. These results indicated good perspective of hollow microspheres for practical battery applications.

  2. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  3. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  4. Synergetic interface between NiO/Ni3S2 nanosheets and carbon nanofiber as binder-free anode for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Ma, Chao; Yang, Yinbo; Ding, Jingjing; Ji, Hongmei; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    A novel heterostructure of NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflake is synthesized and composited with carbon nanofibers (CNF) membrane. NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes are homogeneously dispersed in CNF network, herein, NiO/Ni3S2 like leaf and CNF like branch. Carbon nanofibers network efficiently prevents the pulverization and buffers the volume changes of NiO/Ni3S2, meanwhile, NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes through the conductive channels of carbon nanofibers own improved Li+ diffusion ability and structural stability. The capacity of NiO/Ni3S2/CNF reaches to 519.2 mA g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 while NiO/Ni3S2 fades to 71 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles. Owing to the synergetic structure, the resultant binder-free electrode NiO/Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers shows an excellent reversible lithium storage capability.

  5. Hierarchically structured carbon-coated SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles with enhanced lithium storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Xiaohan; Shi, Chunsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Liu, Enzuo [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); He, Chunnian, E-mail: cnhe08@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchically structured SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C microparticles for lithium-ion battery anode are developed by a facile and scalable strategy. - Highlights: • Hierarchically structured SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C micrometer-sized particles were synthesized. • The SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C micrometer-sized particles deliver high reversible lithium storage capacity. • The wrapped carbon layer can buffer the volume expansion of SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy was developed to fabricate SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C micrometer-sized particles as a good lithium-ion battery anode. The obtained materials were constructed by aggregated nanoclusters (100–200 nm) consisting of SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C nanospheres (20 ∼ 30 nm), in which SnO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (5 ∼ 8 nm) were homogeneously embedded in a percolating carbonaceous network with an average thickness of about 3 nm. SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C microparticles were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal process followed by annealing under Ar and subsequent chemical vapor transformation (CVT) under vacuum. The peculiar strategy allows to obtain hierarchical structure of micrometer-sized particles including nanospheres, nanoclusters and micro-scale particles, and the combination of SnO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} could promote the synergistic effects to enhance the reversible capacity as well as the structural stability. Meanwhile, the carbon layer, homogeneously covering the nanoparticles does not only accommodate the volume change of active materials to maintain the structural integrity but also forms a conductive network throughout the whole micro-sized structure during charge/discharge processes. As a result, the electrode of SnO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C microparticles exhibits good rate performance (1056 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, 734 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.2 C, 449 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C, 212

  6. Uniform hollow Fe3O4 spheres prepared by template-free solvothermal method as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingjing; Yao Yu; Huang Tao; Yu Aishui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Unique hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres assembled by Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles prepared by a simple template-free solvothermal reaction are tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results show that the material delivers reversible specific capacities of 870 mA h g −1 even after 50 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 836 mA h g −1 at 500 mA g −1 . The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their hollow nanostructure and excellent structural stability. Highlights: ► Uniform hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres were prepared by a template-free solvothermal method. ► The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres have the capacity of 870 mA h g −1 at 50th cycle. ► The specific capacity can be well maintained at a large current density. ► The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres exhibit enhanced rate capability. ► Electrochemical performance of hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres is better than Fe 3 O 4 powders. - Abstract: Unique hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres are prepared by a simple template-free solvothermal reaction. In the reaction, ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) serve as the reducing agent and surface stabilizer, respectively. NH 4 Ac plays the role of the structure-directing agent, which combines with the Ostwald ripening process, resulting in the favored formation of hollow structures. The morphologies and structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres exhibit excellent cycling and rate performance as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, delivering reversible specific capacities of 870 mA h g −1 even after 50 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 836 mA h g −1 at 500 mA g −1 . The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their hollow nanostructure and excellent structural stability.

  7. Core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with CNTs as a high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Li, Qin; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2018-04-17

    Metal silicates are good candidates for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), however, their electrochemical performance is hindered by their poor electrical conductivity and volume expansion during Li+ insertion/desertion. In this work, one-dimensional core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (referred to as CNT@MnSiO3) with good conductivity and electrochemical performance has been successfully synthesized using a solvothermal process under moderate conditions. In contrast to traditional composites of CNTs and nanoparticles, the CNT@MnSiO3 composite in this work is made up of CNTs with a layer of MnSiO3 on the surface. The one-dimensional CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes provide a useful channel for transferring Li+ ions during the discharge/charge process, which accelerates the Li+ diffusion speed. The CNTs inside the structure not only enhance the conductivity of the composite, but also prevent volume expansion. A high reversible capacity (920 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1 over 650 cycles) and good rate performance were obtained for CNT@MnSiO3, showing that this strategy of synthesizing coaxial CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes offers a promising method for preparing other silicates for LIBs or other applications.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe3O4@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge; Yan, Dongwei; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-05-01

    The Fe3O4@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe3O4@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1, the reversible capacity of Fe3O4@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g-1, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe3O4 counterpart (696 mAh g-1). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g-1 (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g-1), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g-1. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe3O4 as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2 (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  9. 3-dimensional interconnected framework of N-doped porous carbon based on sugarcane bagasse for application in supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yunhui; Peng, Yueying; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-06-01

    In this work, N-doped biomass derived porous carbon (NSBDC) has been prepared utilizing low-cost agricultural waste-sugarcane bagasse as the prototype, and needle-like PANI as the dopant. NSBDC possesses a special 3D interconnected framework structure, superior hierarchical pores and suitable heteroatom doping level, which benefits a large number of applications on ion storage and high-rate ion transfer. Typically, the NSBDC exhibits the high specific capacitance (298 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and rate capability (58.7% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1), as well as the high cycle stability (5.5% loss over 5000 cycles) in three-electrode systems. A two-electrode asymmetric system has been fabricated employing NSBDC and the precursor of NSBDC (sugarcane bagasse derived carbon/PANI composite) as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and an energy density as high as 49.4 Wh kg-1 is verified in this asymmetric system. A NSBDC-based whole symmetric supercapacitors has also been assembled, and it can easily light a 1.5 V bulb due to its high energy density (27.7 Wh kg-1). In addition, for expanding the application areas of NSBDC, it is also applied to lithium ion battery, and a high reversible capacity of 1148 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 is confirmed. Even at 5 A g-1, NSBDC can still deliver a high reversible capacity of 357 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, indicating its superior lithium storage capability.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haiyan, E-mail: hyyan1979@163.com; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is explored as cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries. • The introduce of PEDOT is effectively way to enhance the electron condcutivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g{sup −1} for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide assisted synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chaohong; Zhang, Yongzhi; Chen, Li; Lei, Ying; Ou, Junke; Guo, Yong; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2015-04-01

    LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion battery. In this research, a facile co-precipitation process is employed, during which the mixed solution of NH3·H2O, H2O2 (30% aqueous solution) and LiOH·H2O is added into the nitrate solution. Notably, H2O2 is introduced as the oxidant and dispersant during the co-precipitation process to oxidize the metal ions and decrease the agglomeration of the precursor by giving out O2, and then improves the specific capacity, stability and energy density of NCM. Additionally, O3 is employed to further oxidize NCM to enhance the stability during the calcination process. The obtained NCM material with single crystal structure exhibits a high initial discharge specific capacity of 208.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 280 mA g-1), an excellent cycle stability with high retained capacity of 176.3 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and a high initial discharge specific capacities of 150.6 mAh g-1 at 5 C even at a high cutoff potential (4.6 V).

  12. High rate performance of novel cathode material Li1.33Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haowen; Tan Long

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel cathode material with highly ordered structure has been prepared for the first time. → The charge and discharge current is 1000 mA g -1 and 2000 mA g -1 , respectively. → The results indicate better discharge capacity and cyclability. - Abstract: Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 with highly ordered structure has been successfully synthesized via a simple co-precipitation process. Charge-discharge tests showed that the initial discharge capacities are 153.0 mAh g -1 and 128.9 mAh g -1 at 5 C (1000 mA g -1 ) and 10 C (2000 mA g -1 ) between 2.5 and 4.5 V, respectively. The average full-charge time of this material is less than 12 min at 5 C and 6 min at 10 C. The electrode material composed of the prepared showed a better cyclability. The excellent high rate performance is attributed to the improved ordered layered structure and the electrical conductivity. The excess Li shorten Li + diffusion distance between these submicron and nano-scaled particles. The results show that Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode material has potential application in lithium ion batteries.

  13. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  14. Visualizing elemental deposition patterns on carbonaceous anodes from lithium ion batteries: A laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry study on factors influencing the deposition of lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt after dissolution and migration from the Li1[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 and LiMn1.5 Ni0.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Timo; Evertz, Marco; Fengler, Alexander; Börner, Markus; Dagger, Tim; Stenzel, Yannick; Harte, Patrick; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is applied to previously aged carbonaceous anodes from lithium ion batteries (LIBs). These electrodes are treated by cyclic aging in a lithium ion cell set-up against Li1[Ni1/3Mn 1/3Co1/3]O2 = NMC111 to elucidate factors that influence transition metal dissolution (TMD) of the cathode and subsequent deposition on the anode. The investigations are carried out by qualitatively visualizing the 7Li and TM patterns (60Ni, 55Mn and 59Co) of whole coin and pouch-bag electrodes. The lithium, as well as the TM amount, found on the anode, is directly correlated to the applied upper cut-off voltage (4.6, 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9 V) showing more deposition of Li and TMs at elevated voltages. While 7Li shows a more homogeneous pattern, the TM distribution is inhomogeneous but showing a similar pattern for all TMs of the same sample. An unequal pressure distribution, resulting in a nonparallel electrode alignment, on the electrode stack is identified to be responsible for the inhomogeneous TM deposition pattern. This uneven electrode orientation results in different diffusion pathways for the TM migration with regard to the spatial distances.

  15. Electrochemical performance of carbon-encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles in lithium-ion batteries: morphology and particle size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Li, Yue; Li, Haipeng; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Fuxing; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cycling performance and schematic of the fabrication process for the Fe 3 O 4 @C composites. - Highlights: • Carbon-encapsulated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with varied microstructures were produced. • Pomegranate-like Fe 3 O 4 @C electrodes exhibit enhanced cycling ability and rate ability. • The carbon content has impact on the specific capacity of the Fe 3 O 4 @C electrodes. - Abstract: Carbon-encapsulated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @C) with varied microstructures were produced by controlling the relative concentrations of glucose and iron nitrate hydrate in a hydrothermal process, followed by heat treatment in Ar atmosphere. Three Fe 3 O 4 @C nanocomposites with different particle sizes (mean diameter 31.2, 45.1 and 55.3 nm) and Fe 3 O 4 core size (26.8, 15.4 and 10.3 nm) were investigated for lithium storage performance. The Fe 3 O 4 @C nanoparticles with 15.4 nm Fe 3 O 4 core exhibit excellent initial specific capacity (1215 mAh g −1 ) and significantly improved cycling performance (806 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (573 mAh g −1 at current density of 1500 mA g −1 ), in comparison to the other Fe 3 O 4 @C composites. This superior performance is attributed to microstructural effects spawned from the pomegranate-like carbon coating architecture of the composite, the appropriate carbon content, and the optimized particle size of Fe 3 O 4 @C nanoparticles, which combined suppress the agglomeration and pulverization of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle upon cycling and enhance the electrical conductivity of the Fe 3 O 4 anode.

  16. Li3V2(PO4)3-coated Li1.17Ni0.2Co0.05Mn0.58O2 as the cathode materials with high rate capability for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Xiao; Qiao, Qiqi; Wang, Yonglong; Ye, Shihai; Gao, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Lithium rich layered oxide Li 1.17 Ni 0.2 Co 0.05 Mn 0.58 O 2 (LNCMO) is prepared and coated with Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LVP) by a chemical deposition method. The surface modification with LVP is introduced into Li-rich layered oxides LNCMO for the first time. After 100 cycles of charging and discharging at various rates, the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -coated Li 1.17 Ni 0.2 Co 0.05 Mn 0.58 O 2 (LVP-coated LNCMO) (5 wt%) still provides a large capacity of 261.4 mAh g -1 , much higher than the pristine LNCMO (211.5 mAh g -1 ). At 5 C rate, the LVP-coated LNCMO exhibits a stable cyclic capacity of 153.4 mAh g -1 , higher than 114.1 mAh g -1 of the pristine LNCMO. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis demonstrates the LVP coating layer can suppress interaction between the cathode surface and the electrolyte and enhance the kinetics of lithium-ion diffusion, contributing to the stable cyclic performance with more cyclic capacity as well as at the high current density

  17. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets by self-supported formation as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jieqiang, E-mail: mse_wangjq@ujn.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Du Guodong; Zeng Rong [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Niu Ben [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Chen Zhixin [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Guo Zaiping [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Dou Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-06-30

    In this paper, we have reported a simple and rapid approach for the large-scale synthesis of beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets via the microwave hydrothermal process using potassium hydroxide as mineralizer at 140 deg. C for 3 h. Calcining the beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets at 350 deg. C for 2 h, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets with a 3D quasi-single-crystal framework were obtained. The process of converting the beta-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplatelets into the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets is a self-supported topotactic transformation, which is easily controlled by varying the calcining temperature. The textural characteristics of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} products have strong positive effects on their electrochemical properties as electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The obtained porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets exhibit a low initial irreversible loss (18.1%), ultrahigh capacity, and excellent cyclability. For example, a reversible capacity of 900 mAh g{sup -1} can be maintained after 100 cycles.

  18. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  19. Experimental study of gaseous lithium deuterides and lithium oxides. Implications for the use of lithium and Li2O as breeding materials in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.; Kudo, H.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to LiH, which has been studied extensively by optical spectroscopy, the existence of a number of other stable lithium hydrides has been predicted theoretically. By analysis of the saturated vapour over dilute solutions of the hydrogen isotopes in lithium, using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, all lithium hydrides predicted to be stable were found. Solutions of deuterium in lithium were used predominantly because of practical advantages for mass spectrometric measurements. The heats of dissociation of LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and Li 2 D 2 , and the binding energies of their singly charged positive ions were determined, and the constants of the gas/liquid equilibria were calculated. The existence of these lithium deuterides in the gas phase over solutions of deuterium in lithium leads to enrichment of deuterium in the gas above 1240 K. The enrichment factor, which increases exponentially with temperature and is independent of concentration for low concentrations of deuterium in the liquid, was determined by Rayleigh distillation experiments. It was found that it is thermodynamically possible to separate deuterium from lithium by distillation. One of the alternatives to the use of lithium in (D,T)-fusion reactors as tritium-breeding blanket material is to employ solid lithium oxide. This has a high melting point, a high lithium density and still favourable tritium-breeding properties. Because of its rather high volatility, an experimental study of the vaporization of Li 2 O was undertaken by mass spectrometry. It vaporizes to give lithium and oxygen, and LiO, Li 2 O, Li 3 O and Li 2 O 2 . The molecule Li 3 O was found as a new species. Heats of dissociation, binding energies of the various ions and the constants of the gas/solid equilibria were determined. The effect of using different materials for the Knudsen cells and the relative thermal stabilities of lithium-aluminium oxides were also studied. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  1. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  2. A Facile Electrophoretic Deposition Route to the Fe3O4/CNTs/rGO Composite Electrode as a Binder-Free Anode for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Jiaqi; Chen, Dingqiong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-10-12

    Fe 3 O 4 is regarded as an attractive anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, and low cost. However, the poor cyclic performance resulting from the low conductivity and huge volume change during cycling impedes its application. Here we have developed a facile electrophoretic deposition route to fabricate the Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs (carbon nanotubes)/rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite electrode, simultaneously achieving material synthesis and electrode assembling. Even without binders, the adhesion and mechanical firmness of the electrode are strong enough to be used for LIB anode. In this specific structure, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) interconnected by CNTs are sandwiched by rGO layers to form a robust network with good conductivity. The resulting Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs/rGO composite electrode exhibits much improved electrochemical performance (high reversible capacity of 540 mAh g -1 at a very high current density of 10 A g -1 , and a remarkable capacity of 1080 mAh g -1 can be maintained after 450 cycles at 1 A g -1 ) compared with that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 NPs electrode.

  3. Yolk-Shelled C@Fe3 O4 Nanoboxes as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Luo, Liu; Chen, Yuanfu; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mA h g -1 ) and low cost, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer advantages for next-generation energy storage. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of sulfur cathodes limit the practical application of Li-S batteries. To address such issues, well-designed yolk-shelled carbon@Fe 3 O 4 (YSC@Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoboxes as highly efficient sulfur hosts for Li-S batteries are reported here. With both physical entrapment by carbon shells and strong chemical interaction with Fe 3 O 4 cores, this unique architecture immobilizes the active material and inhibits diffusion of the polysulfide intermediates. Moreover, due to their high conductivity, the carbon shells and the polar Fe 3 O 4 cores facilitate fast electron/ion transport and promote continuous reactivation of the active material during the charge/discharge process, resulting in improved electrochemical utilization and reversibility. With these merits, the S/YSC@Fe 3 O 4 cathodes support high sulfur content (80 wt%) and loading (5.5 mg cm -2 ) and deliver high specific capacity, excellent rate capacity, and long cycling stability. This work provides a new perspective to design a carbon/metal-oxide-based yolk-shelled framework as a high sulfur-loading host for advanced Li-S batteries with superior electrochemical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and properties of Li2SnO3/polyaniline nanocomposites as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufen; Huang Ying; Miao Juan; Zhao Yang; Wang Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Li 2 SnO 3 /polyaniline nanocomposite (40–50 nm) was synthesized by micro emulsion polymerization. ► Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI exhibits lower initial irreversible capacities than Li 2 SnO 3 . ► Its capacity retains 569.2 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles. - Abstract: The nanocomposites Li 2 SnO 3 /polyaniline (Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI) have been synthesized by a micro emulsion polymerization method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared materials are characterized by XRD, FTIR, Raman, XPS, TGA, TEM and electrochemical measurements. Results show that Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI nanocomposites are composed of uniform and blocky nano-sized particles (40–50 nm) with clear lattice fringes. Electrochemical measurement suggests that Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI exhibits better cycling properties and lower initial irreversible capacities than Li 2 SnO 3 as negative electrodes materials for lithium-ion batteries. At a current density of 60 mA g −1 in the voltage about 0.05–2.0 V, the initial irreversible capacity of Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI is 563 mAh g −1 while it is 687.5 mAh g −1 to Li 2 SnO 3 . The capacity retained of Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI (569.2 mAh g −1 ) is higher than that of Li 2 SnO 3 (510.2 mAh g −1 ) after 50 cycles. The PANI in the Li 2 SnO 3 /PANI nanocomposites can buffer the released stress caused by the drastic volume variation during the alloying/de-alloying process of Li–Sn.

  5. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  6. A Comparative Study of Structural Stability and Mechanical and Optical Properties of Fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) and Lithium Disilicate (Li2Si2O5) Components Forming Dental Glass-Ceramics: First Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskri, Z. E.; Rached, H.; Bouchear, M.; Rached, D.; Aida, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is a comparative study of structural stability and mechanical and optical properties of fluorapatite (FA) (Ca5(PO4)3F) and lithium disilicate (LD) (Li2Si2O5), using the first principles pseudopotential method based on density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The stability of fluorapatite and lithium disilicate compounds has been evaluated on the basis of their formation enthalpies. The results show that fluorapatite is more energetically stable than lithium disilicate. The independent elastic constants and related mechanical properties, including bulk modulus ( B), shear modulus ( G), Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( ν) as well as the Vickers hardness ( H v), have been calculated for fluorapatite compound and compared with other theoretical and experimental results. The obtained values of the shear modulus, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness are smaller in comparison with those of lithium disilicate compound, implying that lithium disilicate is more rigid than fluorapatite. The brittle and ductile properties were also discussed using B/ G ratio and Poisson's ratio. Optical properties such as refractive index n( ω), extinction coefficient k( ω), absorption coefficient α( ω) and optical reflectivity R( ω) have been determined from the calculations of the complex dielectric function ɛ( ω), and interpreted on the basis of the electronic structures of both compounds. The calculated values of static dielectric constant ɛ 1(0) and static refractive index n(0) show that the Li2Si2O5 compound has larger values compared to those of the Ca5(PO4)3F compound. The results of the extinction coefficient show that Li2Si2O5 compound exhibits a much stronger ultraviolet absorption. According to the absorption and reflectivity spectra, we inferred that both compounds are theoretically the best visible and infrared transparent materials.

  7. Carbon-Encapsulated Co3O4@CoO@Co Nanocomposites for Multifunctional Applications in Enhanced Long-life Lithium Storage, Supercapacitor and Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongyang; Mu, Congpu; Xiang, Jianyong; Wen, Fusheng; Su, Can; Hao, Chunxue; Hu, Wentao; Tang, Yongfu; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Porous nanostructure composites materials had attracted widely attention due to their potential application in energy storage (Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitor) and electrocatalyst of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C nanocomposites had been successfully synthesized using glucose as carbon source and cobalt nitrate as metalprecurs or of Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C, which has excellent electrochemical performance for LIBs, supercapacitor and OER. Three kinds of morphology samples marked by Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-2/1, Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-1/1 and Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-1/2 are synthesized due to different atomic ratio of cobalt/carbon in precursors. Electrochemical and catalytic performance of Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-2/1 nanocomposites is more excellent than Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-1/1 and Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-1/2. Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-2/1 shows that discharge capacity can maintain 450 mA h g −1 and coulombic efficiency is nearly 100% during 500 cycles for LIBs. It indicates the excellent cycling stability of Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-2/1 as electrode for supercapacitor that about 78.3% of initial specific capacitance can be retained after 10000 cycles at current density of 2 A g −1 . Co 3 O 4 @CoO@Co@C-2/1 as catalyst of OER shows excellent electrochemical durability over 15 hours continuous experiment.

  8. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  9. Recovery of lithium from geothermal water by amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Ooi, Kenta; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1984-01-01

    Effects of chemical composition, temperature, and lithium concentration of geothermal water on lithium recovery by amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide (a-HAO) were investigated in order to evaluate the feasibility of this process. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Among various chemical consituents in geothermal water, silica interfered with the lithium adsorption. The lithium uptake decreased when silica concentration exceeded 73 mg/l under 100 mg/50 ml a-HAO to solution ratio. (2) The lithium uptake decreased with an increase of adsorption temperature and was not observed above 40 deg C. At higher temperature, the crystallization of a-HAO to bayerite occurred prior to lithium adsorption. (3) The lithium uptake increased with an increase of lithium concentration. Lithium uptake comparable with lithium contents in lithium ores was obtained at the lithium concentration of 30 mg/l at 20 deg C. These results show that a-HAO is applicable to collect lithium from geothermal water if silica can be removed before lithium adsorption. (author)

  10. Comparative Study of Ether-Based Electrolytes for Application in Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the characteristics of electrolytes using various ether-solvents with molecular composition CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3, differing by chain length, and LiCF3SO3 as the lithium salt. The electrolytes, considered as suitable media for lithium-sulfur batteries, are characterized in terms of thermal properties (TGA, DSC), lithium ion conductivity, lithium interface stability, cyclic voltammetry, self-diffusion properties of the various components, and lithium transference number measured by NMR. Furthermore, the electrolytes are characterized in lithium cells using a sulfur-carbon composite cathode by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results clearly evidence the influence of the solvent chain length on the species mobility within the electrolytes that directly affects the behavior in lithium sulfur cell. The results may effectively contribute to the progress of an efficient, high-energy lithium-sulfur battery.

  11. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  12. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  13. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk-shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Guoyong; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes deliver superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than those of bare Fe3O4 micro/nanospheres and Fe3O4/PANI core-shell (FPcs) electrodes. Moreover, FPys also exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance when comparing to the synthesized Fe3O4-based electromagnetic wave absorbers, in which strong reflection loss and extensive response bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously. The excellent bifunctional properties of FPys material are associated with the specially designed hierarchical micro/nanostructures. The current strategy that application directed structural design can be applied to the synthesis of other multifunctional materials.

  14. A novel porous tubular Co3O4: Self-assembly and excellent electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Cun; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    Herein, the novel porous tubular Co3O4 was successfully prepared by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly process using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. It is very noteworthy that the formation and self-assembly of Co3O4 nanoparticles occur simultaneously. The as-synthesized porous tubular structure with average outer diameter of 2.2 μm is orderly self-assembled by numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles with diameter of 50-150 nm. The specific surface area of typical product is 24.6 m2 g-1 by the BET method, and the majority diameter of pores is about 67 nm. In addition, the effects of different Co2+ concentration on the morphology and electrochemical performance of the products were explored. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the typical sample shows a high reversible specific capacity (1053 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1), remarkable cycling performance and a good rate capability of 727 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current density of 500 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous tubular structure. With these outstanding performances, the as-prepared Co3O4 may be an outstanding candidate anode material for LIBs.

  15. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  16. Optical and vibrational spectroscopy of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 modified lithium borate glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Pamarti; Prashanth, Sadhu Sai Pavan; Molli, Muralikrishna; Wicram, Jaschin Prem; Sai Muthukumar, V.

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics are excellent replacement for single crystalline materials which are expensive and difficult to fabricate. In this context, we have attempted to fabricate glass nanocomposites comprising of Lithium Borate glass matrix embedded with lead free ferroelectric Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT). Both of these functional materials are known to exhibit excellent ferroelectric behavior and are currently explored for various device applications. We have prepared these novel glass nanocomposite using melt-quenching techniquein various chemical composition involving different molar ratio. x(Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3)-(1-x)(Li2O.2B2O3) where (x=0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4). The as-quenched samples exhibited amorphous nature as revealed by X-ray Diffraction studies. With the increase in BCZT content we have observed significant alteration in optical bandgap and Urbach energy. The tailoring of optical properties by tuning the structure was probed by Raman vibrational spectroscopy which confirmed the dominant role played by BCZT as a network modifier in these borate glasses. Concomitantly, these glass nanocomposites were found to be excellent UV absorbers.

  17. Understanding the anchoring effect of Graphene, BN, C2N and C3N4 monolayers for lithium-polysulfides in Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Haiyan; Fan, Honghong; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingping

    2018-03-01

    Recently, Li-S batteries with a high theoretical specific energy have attracted significant attention. However, their practical application is still seriously hindered by the shuttling effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) in the Li-S batteries system. Introducing anchoring materials into the cathode or separator, which can strongly attract LiPSs because of advisable binding energies, has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to alleviate the shuttling effect for achieving the excellent cycling performance of Li-S batteries. In this work, the complete mechanistic understanding of the interaction between non-metallic monolayer materials (N-MMLMs, including Graphene, BN, C2N and C3N4) and LiPSs is given in detail with the aid of density functional theory. The calculation results show that N-MMLM can combine the chemical interaction and the physical entrapment of sulfur species to suppress the shuttling effect. C3N4 and C2N are predicted to trap LiPSs via stronger interfacial interaction and alleviate the interactions between LiPSs and solvents as well as the consequent dissolution. The strong anchoring effect of C3N4/C2N comes from the bonding of Li-N/C-S and charge transfer. Further charge transfer study reveals that the C3N4/C2N can serve as an electrocatalyst, which effectively accelerates the kinetics of LiPSs redox reactions.

  18. Determination of trapping parameters of dosimetric thermoluminescent glow peak of lithium triborate (LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}) activated by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafadar, V. Emir [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Yazici, A. Necmeddin, E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.t [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Yildirim, R. Gueler [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    Lithium triborate (LBO) is a newly developed ideal nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal used in laser weapon, welder, radar, tracker, surgery, communication, etc. The effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}=7.3) makes it a tissue equivalent material and this encourages studies on its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for a radiation dosimetry. The previous studies have shown that Al-doped LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is a promising thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) material for dosimetric purposes and continuous and systematic investigations to improve its quality to get ones suited for dosimeter applications are worthy. In the given study, the additive dose (AD), initial rise with partial cleaning (IR), variable heating rate (VHR), peak shape (PS), three-points method (TPM) and computerized glow deconvolution (CGCD) methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters, namely the order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E{sub a}) and the frequency factor (s) associated with the dosimetric thermoluminescent glow peak (P3) of Al-doped LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} after different dose levels with beta-irradiation.

  19. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional hollow Sb2O3@TiO2 composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Cheng, Yong; Li, Qian; Chang, Limin; Wang, Limin

    2018-06-01

    Metallic Sb is deemed as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its flat voltage platform and high security. Nevertheless, the limited capacity restricts its large-scale application. Therefore, a simple and effective method to explore novel antimony trioxide with high capacity used as anode material for LIBs is imperative. In this work, we report a facile and efficient strategy to fabricate 1D hollow Sb2O3@TiO2 composites by using the Kirkendall effect. When used as an anode material for LIBs, the optimal Sb2O3@TiO2 composite displays a high reversible discharge capacity of 593 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and a relatively superior discharge capacity of 439 mAh g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1 even after 600 cycles. In addition, a reversible discharge capacity of 334 mAh g-1 can also be obtained even at a current density of 2000 mA g-1. The excellent cycling stability and rate performance of the Sb2O3@TiO2 composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 shell and hollow structure of Sb2O3, both of which can effectively buffer the volume expansion and maintain the integrity of the electrode during the repeated charge-discharge cycles.

  20. Conformal spinel/layered heterostructures of Co3O4 shells grown on single-crystal Li-rich nanoplates for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yue; Lan, Xiwei; Chang, Peng; Huang, Yaqun; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-07-01

    Lithium-rich layered materials have received much attention because of their high specific capacity and high energy density. Unfortunately, they suffer from irreversible capacity loss, low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor cyclability. Here we report a facile co-precipitation method to synthesize uniform single-crystal Li-rich Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 nanoplates without using any template. Subsequently, a Co3O4 shell is in situ grown on the Li-rich nanoplates through a hydrothermal method, leading to spinel/layered heterostructures. The electrode made of conformal heterostructured Li-rich/Co3O4 nanoplates delivers a high discharge capacity of 296 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 84%. The capacity retention reaches 83.2% with a discharge capacity of 223 mA h g-1 after 160 cycles at 0.2 C during the potential window ranging from 2.0 to 4.8 V. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the resulting Li-rich/Co3O4 nanoplates benefits from the unique conformal heterostructure as well as the electrochemically active LixCoOy generated between the reaction of Co3O4 shells and the extracted Li2O during charging/discharging processes.

  1. One-step solution combustion synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peiyang; Deng, Jiachun; Li, Ying [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liang, Wei, E-mail: liangwei@tyut.edu.cn [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Kun [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kang, Litao, E-mail: kangltxy@gmail.com [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zeng, Shaozhong; Yin, Shanhui; Zhao, Zhigang [Chery Automobile Co. Ltd., Wuhu 241006 (China); Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite anode materials were prepared by a solution combustion process. • The carbon content could be adjusted by regulating the ratio of oxidizer/fuel. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite showed capacity 470 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th cycle at 125 mA g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: This article describes a one-step solution combustion route (within 30 min at 350 °C in air) to prepare Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) from Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O solution with citric acid. XRD, SEM-EDX and TEM showed that the product consisted a mixture of nano-sized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals that agglomerated into porous particles. Significantly, in situ formed carbon could be introduced into the product (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites) by simply increasing the dosage of citric acid in the precursor solution. The as-prepared Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composite exhibited high reversible capacities of 470 and 419 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th and 200th cycles with a current density of 125 mA g{sup −1}, which are much higher than those of counterparts without carbon (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles). Comparison experiments correlated with the performance improvement of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites with in situ formed carbon, well-developed mesopores and relatively high specific surface areas.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as positive electrode material for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Lee, Myung-Hun; Komaba, Shinichi; Kumagai, Naoaki; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2005-01-01

    In attempts to prepare layered Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 , hydrothermal method was employed. The hydrothermal precursor, [Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ](OH) 2 , was synthesized via a coprecipitation route. The sphere-shaped powder precursor was hydrothermally reacted with LiOH aqueous solution at 170 deg. C for 4 days in autoclave. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies, it was found that the as-hydrothermally prepared powders were crystallized to layered α-NaFeO 2 structure and the particles had spherical shape. The as-prepared Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 delivered an initial discharge of about 110 mA h g -1 due to lower crystallinity. Heat treatment of the hydrothermal product at 800 deg. C was significantly effective to improve the structural integrity, which consequently affected the increase in the discharge capacity to 157 (4.3 V cut-off) and 182 mA h g -1 (4.6 V cut-off) at 25 deg. C with good reversibility

  3. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na 2 CO 3 and Na 3 PO 4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li 2 CO 3 and pure Li 3 PO 4 , respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na 2 CO 3 and Li 3 PO 4 vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li 2 CO 3 containing the impurity of Na 2 CO 3 is used to prepare LiMn 2 O 4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na 2 CO 3 in raw Li 2 CO 3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn 2 O 4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g -1 . The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li 2 CO 3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Dramatically Improved Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2012-05-29

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g -1 in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g -1 after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials. The nature of the electrolyte has a dramatic effect on the performance of poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT) as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. Whereas the use of an ethylene/diethyl carbonate (EC/DEC)-based electrolyte resulted in very poor performance, the use of a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte dramatically improved the performance in terms of both the discharge capacity and capacity retention (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-12

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm(-3)), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g(-1) at a specific current of 200 mA g(-1). Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g(-1), about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g(-1)) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  6. Microwave synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and their lithium storage properties: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: anjonmondal@yahoo.com; Chen, Shuangqiang; Su, Dawei; Kretschmer, Katja; Liu, Hao; Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.au

    2015-11-05

    This work introduces a simple microwave method for the preparation of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with two different sizes. Both the materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller methods. The lithium storage properties were evaluated and compared in terms of their reversible capacity, rate capability and cycling performance. Interestingly, the electrode made of large particles (200–300 nm) show the reversible capacity of 1012 mA h g{sup −1}, better rate capability and excellent cycling stability than those of the small particles (20–30 nm). The poor electrochemical performances of small particles can be ascribed to their agglomeration during repeated charging and discharge process. The agglomeration of small particles may substantially decrease the surface area, which results in the lack of sufficient electro active sites for electrochemical reaction. - Highlights: • A microwave method was employed to prepare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with two different sizes. • Larger particles of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed the reversible capacity of 1012 mA h g{sup −1}. • Compared to small particles larger particles presented excellent cycling stability. • Larger particles exhibited high rate capability.

  7. Epitaxial growth of branched {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} nano-heterostructures with improved lithium-ion battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Cheng, Chuanwei; Jia, Xingtao; Yu, Ting; Fan, Hong Jin [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 (Singapore); Liu, Jinping; Jiang, Jian [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Tay, Yee Yan; Hng, Huey Hoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Zhang, Jixuan; Gong, Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-07-08

    We report the synthesis of a novel branched nano-heterostructure composed of SnO{sub 2} nanowire stem and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod branches by combining a vapour transport deposition and a facile hydrothermal method. The epitaxial relationship between the branch and stem is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The SnO{sub 2} nanowire is determined to grow along the [101] direction, enclosed by four side surfaces. The results indicate that distinct crystallographic planes of SnO{sub 2} stem can induce different preferential growth directions of secondary nanorod branches, leading to six-fold symmetry rather than four-fold symmetry. Moreover, as a proof-of-concept demonstration of the function, such {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} composite material is used as a lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) anode material. Low initial irreversible loss and high reversible capacity are demonstrated, in comparison to both single components. The synergetic effect exerted by SnO{sub 2} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as the unique branched structure are probably responsible for the enhanced performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Structure and crystallization of SiO2 and B2O3 doped lithium disilicate glasses from theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlebach, Andreas; Thieme, Katrin; Sierka, Marek; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-09-27

    Solid solutions of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 in Li 2 O·2SiO 2 are synthesized and characterized for the first time. Their structure and crystallization mechanisms are investigated employing a combination of simulations at the density functional theory level and experiments on the crystallization of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 doped lithium disilicate glasses. The remarkable agreement of calculated and experimentally determined cell parameters reveals the preferential, kinetically controlled incorporation of [SiO 4 ] and [BO 4 ] at the Li + lattice sites of the Li 2 O·2SiO 2 crystal structure. While the addition of SiO 2 increases the glass viscosity resulting in lower crystal growth velocities, glasses containing B 2 O 3 show a reduction of both viscosities and crystal growth velocities. These observations could be rationalized by a change of the chemical composition of the glass matrix surrounding the precipitated crystal phase during the course of crystallization, which leads to a deceleration of the attachment of building units required for further crystal growth at the liquid-crystal interface.

  9. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  10. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Sn-doped Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode material for lithium ion battery by microwave solid-state technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haiping; Bi, Sifu; Wen, Guangwu; Teng, Xiangguo; Gao, Peng; Ni, Zujun; Zhu, Yongming; Zhang, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.10) cathode is first reported. ► Sn doping improves the initial discharge capacity and the cycle stability of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C. ► Sn doping improves the conductivity and reversibility of the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C. - Abstract: Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathode materials with uniform and fine particle sizes were successfully and fast synthesized by a microwave solid-state synthesis method. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that the appropriate addition of Sn did not destroy the lattice structure of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C, but decreased the unit cell volume. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the main chemical state of V in the Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite is +3 valence, while the chemical state of Sn in the Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is +4 valence. Scanning electron microscope analysis illustrated that the addition of Sn slightly affected the morphology of samples. As the cathode materials for Li-ion batteries, Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (x ⩽ 0.10) exhibited higher discharge capacity and better cycle stability than the pure one. At a discharge rate of 0.5 C in the potential range of 2.5–4.5 V at room temperature, the initial discharge capacity of Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C was 136 mA h/g. The low charge-transfer resistances and large lithium ion diffusion coefficients confirmed that Sn-doped Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C samples possessed better electronic conductivity and lithium ion mobility. These improved electrochemical performances can be attributed to the appropriate amount of Sn doping in Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C system by enhancing structural stability and electrical conductivity. The present study also demonstrates that the microwave processing is a fast, simple and useful method for the fabrication of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C crystals.

  12. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO 3 (WO 3 /C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO 3 /C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO 3 /C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li + insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li + conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO 3 /C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g -1 at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g -1 ) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g -1 at a current density of 0.2 A g -1 . At a high current density of 6 A g -1 , 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO 3 /C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg -1 at a power density of 173.6 W kg -1 and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g -1 after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO 3 /C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  13. Synthesis and performance of LiMn0.7Fe0.3PO4 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xiaoyan; Wang Zhixing; Li Xinhai; Zhang Long; Guo Huajun; Peng Wenjie

    2005-01-01

    Pure and carbon-containing olivine LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 O 4 were synthesized at 600 deg. C by the method of solid-state reaction. Structure, surface morphology and charge/discharge performance of LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 O 4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurement, respectively. The prepared materials with and without carbon both show the single olivine structure. The morphologies of primary particles are greatly affected by the addition of carbon. Large particles (500-1000 nm) and densely sintered blocks were observed in pure LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 PO 4 , which made the insertion and extraction of lithium ions difficult. Battery made from this sample can not charge and discharge effectively. The carbon-containing LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 PO 4 has a small particle size (100-200 nm) and a regular appearance. This material demonstrates high reversible capacity of about 120 mAh g -1 , perfect cycling performance, and excellent rate capability. It is obvious that the addition of carbon plays an important role in restricting the particle size of the material, which helps to prepare LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 PO 4 with excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical reaction resistance is much lower in the partly discharged state than in the fully charged or fully discharged state by the measurement of ac impedance for carbon-containing LiMn 0.7 Fe 0.3 PO 4 . It is indicated that the mixed-valence of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ or Mn 3+ /Mn 2+ is beneficial to the transfer of electron which happens between the interface

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe_3O_4@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge; Yan, Dongwei; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe_3O_4 particles are encapsulated by HKUST-1 to form core-shell microspheres composite. • The composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances as a novel anode. • The typical approach can be used to prepare some novel electrode materials. - Abstract: The Fe_3O_4@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe_3O_4@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1, the reversible capacity of Fe_3O_4@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g"−"1, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe_3O_4 counterpart (696 mAh g"−"1). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g"−"1 (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g"−"1), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g"−"1. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe_3O_4 as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu_3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)_2 (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF core-shell microspheres as an anode for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuemin; Gao, Ge [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Dongwei, E-mail: dwyan@iccas.ac.cn [Advance Technology & Materials Co. Ltd., China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, No. 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are encapsulated by HKUST-1 to form core-shell microspheres composite. • The composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances as a novel anode. • The typical approach can be used to prepare some novel electrode materials. - Abstract: The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF composite with a microspheric core and a porous metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1) shell has been successfully synthesized utilizing a versatile Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly method. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF composite exhibited outstanding electrochemical properties when it was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). After 100 discharge-charge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MOF could maintain ∼1002 mAh g{sup −1}, which was much higher than that of the bare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} counterpart (696 mAh g{sup −1}). Moreover, load the current density as high as 2 A g{sup −1} (after 70 cycles at the current density step increased from 0.1 to 2 A g{sup −1}), it still delivered a reversible capacity of ∼429 mAh g{sup −1}. The results demonstrate that the cycling stability of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as an anode could be significantly improved by coating Cu{sub 3}(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate){sub 2} (HKUST-1). This strategy may offer new route to prepare other composite materials using different particles and suitable Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for LIBs application.

  16. High performance of mesoporous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black composite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Ji, Mandi; Zhang, Huang; Zhao, Zhen; Zhao, Chongjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mesoporous γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB composite was synthesized via solvothermal method. • KB was used as a carbon template to improve electrochemical performance of γ-Fe 2 O 3 . • 3D network structure can relieve volume change and improve the ionic transport. • The composite exhibited an ultrahigh capacity and high rate performance. - Abstract: A type of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black (KB) composite material is synthesized by a solvothermal method combined with precursor thermal transformation. The structure and morphology are characterized by XRD, raman spectra, TG, nitrogen sorption, SEM, TEM and EDS. The results show that the composite has a uniform nanoporous network and well-dispersed γ-Fe 2 O 3 particles with a size of ca. 5 nm are embedded in the mesopores of KB. The γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB exhibits superior eletrochemical performances to the bare γ-Fe 2 O 3 , especially at high current rate. The discharge capacity of the composite is 1100 mAh·g −1 at the first cycle and remains 988.8 mAh·g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Moreover, it also maintains a high discharge capacity of 697.8 mAh·g −1 at 2 C and 410.1 mAh·g −1 at 5 C after 100 cycles, respectively. Such improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the superior conductivity and favorable structure of KB, which contributes to the improvement in electronic conductivity and structure stability of γ-Fe 2 O 3 during the lithium ion insertion/desertion process

  17. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  19. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  20. Multi-yolk-shell SnO2/Co3Sn2@C Nanocubes with High Initial Coulombic Efficiency and Oxygen Reutilization for Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liwei; Xu, Yawei; Xie, Jian; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-12-28

    The challenging problems of SnO 2 anode material for lithium ion batteries are the poor electronic conductivity and the low oxygen reutilization due to the irreversibility of Li 2 O generated in the initial discharge leading to a theoretical initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of only 52.4%. Different from these strategies, this work proposes a novel strategy to level up the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 by introducing Co 3 Sn 2 nanoalloys which can release Co atoms to reversibly react with Li 2 O instead. According to this protocol, multi-yolk-shell SnO 2 /Co 3 Sn 2 @C nanocubes are designed and successfully prepared using hollow CoSn(OH) 6 nanocubes as precursors followed a hydrothermal carbon coating and calcination treatment. The unique multi-yolk-shell nanostructure offers adequate breathing space for the volumetric deformation during long-term cycling. Moreover, the removal of Li 2 O allows a high electronic conductivity and resultant rate performance. As a result, the efficient reutilization of oxygen enables a high ICE of 71.7% and a reversible capacity of 1003 mA h g -1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g -1 . Cyclic voltammetry, cycling performance at different voltage windows, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the proposed mechanism. This strategy employing oxygen-poor metals or alloys provides a novel approach to enhance the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 for higher reversibility.

  1. Characterization of soft-combustion-derived NASICON-type Li2Co2(MoO4)3 for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, S.R.S.; Ramesh, S.; Michael, M.S.; Begam, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of a new polyanion material, Li 2 Co 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , belonging to the NASICON family. A low-temperature soft-combustion method using glycine as a soft-combustion fuel was adopted to obtain single-phase powders of the new material at a temperature as low as 300 deg. C. Li 2 Co 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 was found to crystallize in an orthorhombic structure (space group Pmmm) with lattice parameters a = 17.584(7) A, b 10.464(4) A and c = 5.102(9) A. The electronic state of each element present in the new material was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The powders were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The microstructural analysis revealed that the particles (5-10 μm) have a rather columnar shape. The electrochemistry redox behavior of the new material was studied, for the first time, and the material as positive electrode was found to exhibit topotactic Li + extraction/insertion in lithium-containing test cells

  2. Hierarchically assembled 3D nanoflowers and 0D nanoparticles of nickel sulfides on reduced graphene oxide with excellent lithium storage performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronganh, Nguyen; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Tao, Haihua; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Bing; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiao, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Constructing heterostructure can endow composites with many novel physical and electrochemical properties due to the built-in specific charge transfer dynamics. However, controllable fabrication route to heterostructures is still a great challenge up to now. In this work, a SiO2-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to fabricate heterostructured nickel sulfides/reduced graphene oxide (NiSx/rGO) composite. The SiO2 particles hydrolyzed from tetraethyl orthosilicate could assist the surface controllable co-growth of 3D nanoflowers and 0D nanoparticles of Ni3S2/NiS decorated on reduced graphene oxide, and the possible co-growth mechanism is discussed in detail. In this composite, the heterostructured nanocomposite with different morphologies, chemical compositions and crystal structures, along with varied electronic states and band structure, can promote the interface charge transfer kinetics and lead to excellent lithium storage performances. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the NiSx/rGO composite presents 1187.0 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and achieves a highly stable capacity of 561.2 mA h g-1 even when the current density is up to 5 A g-1.

  3. Preparation of 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures and their electrochemical properties in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qing; Chen, Yuejiao; Yang, Ting; Lei, Danni; Zhang, Guanhua; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-01-01

    3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures have been synthesized by a simple ethanolamine (EA)-mediated self-assembly route and subsequent calcination process. The synthesized β-Ni(OH) 2 precursors annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C exhibit similar morphology by scanning electron microscopy and different crystallinity, surface area, and pore distribution via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The electrochemical properties indicate that the synthesized NiO hierarchical architectures annealed at 300 °C show the best electrochemical performance, which presents a reversible specific capacity of 713 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 after 40 cycles. With varying the rate from 100 to 1000 mA g −1 , the capacity still remains 580 mAh g −1 at 500 mA g −1 after 18 cycles and resumes to 470 mAh g −1 at the same rate after 30 cycles. The above results indicate that the 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures are promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries

  4. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algradee, M.A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O.M.; Alwany, A.E.B. [Ibb University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ibb (Yemen)

    2017-08-15

    The Nd{sup 3+}-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system. (orig.)

  5. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  6. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  7. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  8. Cobalt-phthalocyanine-derived ultrafine Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heng-guo, E-mail: wanghengguo@cust.edu.cn; Zhu, Yanjie; Yuan, Chenpei; Li, Yanhui; Duan, Qian, E-mail: duanqian88@hotmail.com

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Transition-metal oxides nanoparticles are prepared by deriving from metal-phthalocyanine. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO nanoparticles can be prepared due to the adjustability of central metals. • This present strategy is simple, general, effective yet mass-production. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibit good lithium storage performances. - Abstract: In this work, we present a simple, general, effective yet mass-production strategy to prepare transition-metal oxides (TMOs) nanoparticles using the metal-phthalocyanine as both the precursor and the starting self-sacrificial template. As the central metals of metal-phthalocyanine are easily tunable, various TMOs nanoparticles including Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO have been successfully prepared by deriving from the corresponding metal-phthalocyanine. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the application of such nanostructured TMOs, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were evaluated as anode materials for LIBs, which show high initial capacity (1132.9 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.05 A g{sup −1}), improved cycling stability (585.6 mAh g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at 0.05 A g{sup −1}), and good rate capability (238.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 2 A g{sup −1}) due to the unique properties of the ultrafine Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This present strategy might open new avenues for the design of a series of transition metal oxides using organometallic compounds for a range of applications.

  9. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  10. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song

    2009-01-01

    In this work, uniform SnO2 hollow nanospheres with large void space have been synthesized by a modified facile method. The void space can be easily controlled by varying the reaction time. The formation of interior void space is based on an inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated. It is found that α-Fe2O3@SnO 2 nanorattles manifest a much lower initial irreversible loss and higher reversible capacity compared to SnO2 hollow spheres. This interesting finding supports a general hypothesis that a synergistic effect between functional core and shell materials can lead to improved lithium storage capabilities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  11. Graphene/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposites as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guofeng; Li, Ning; Li, Deyu; Liu, Ruiqing; Wang, Chen; Li, Qing; Lü, Xujie; Spendelow, Jacob S; Zhang, Junliang; Wu, Gang

    2013-09-11

    We report an rGO/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposite synthesized via homogeneous precipitation of Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto graphene oxide (GO) followed by reduction of GO with SnCl2. The reduction mechanism of GO with SnCl2 and the effects of reduction temperature and time were examined. Accompanying the reduction of GO, particles of SnO2 were deposited on the GO surface. In the graphene nanocomposite, Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a size of ∼20 nm were uniformly dispersed surrounded by SnO2 nanoparticles, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Due to the different lithium insertion/extraction potentials, the major role of SnO2 nanoparticles is to prevent aggregation of Fe2O3 during the cycling. Graphene can serve as a matrix for Li+ and electron transport and is capable of relieving the stress that would otherwise accumulate in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles during Li uptake/release. In turn, the dispersion of nanoparticles on graphene can mitigate the restacking of graphene sheets. As a result, the electrochemical performance of rGO/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposite as an anode in Li ion batteries is significantly improved, showing high initial discharge and charge capacities of 1179 and 746 mAhg(-1), respectively. Importantly, nearly 100% discharge-charge efficiency is maintained during the subsequent 100 cycles with a specific capacity above 700 mAhg(-1).

  12. Microwave-assisted reactive sintering and lithium ion conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallopeau, Leopold; Bregiroux, Damien; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Portehault, David; Stevens, Philippe; Toussaint, Gwenaëlle; Laberty-Robert, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) materials are made of a three-dimensional framework of TiO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra, which provides several positions for Li+ ions. The resulting high ionic conductivity is promising to yield electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In order to elaborate dense ceramics, conventional sintering methods often use high temperature (≥1000 °C) with long dwelling times (several hours) to achieve high relative density (∼90%). In this work, an innovative synthesis and processing approach is proposed. A fast and easy processing technique called microwave-assisted reactive sintering is used to both synthesize and sinter LATP ceramics with suitable properties in one single step. Pure and crystalline LATP ceramics can be achieved in only 10 min at 890 °C starting from amorphous, compacted LATP's precursors powders. Despite a relative density of 88%, the ionic conductivity measured at ambient temperature (3.15 × 10-4 S cm-1) is among the best reported so far. The study of the activation energy for Li+ conduction confirms the high quality of the ceramic (purity and crystallinity) achieved by using this new approach, thus emphasizing its interest for making ion-conducting ceramics in a simple and fast way.

  13. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  14. What we need to know about the effect of lithium on the kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rujun; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Lithium has been a valuable treatment for bipolar affective disorders for decades. Clinical use of lithium, however, has been problematic due to its narrow therapeutic index and concerns for its toxicity in various organ systems. Renal side effects associated with lithium include polyuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, proteinuria, distal renal tubular acidosis, and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Histologically, chronic lithium nephrotoxicity is characterized by interstitial nephritis with microcyst formation and occasional focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nevertheless, this type of toxicity is uncommon, with the strongest risk factors being high serum levels of lithium and longer time on lithium therapy. In contrast, in experimental models of acute kidney injury and glomerular disease, lithium has antiproteinuric, kidney protective, and reparative effects. This paradox may be partially explained by lower lithium doses and short duration of therapy. While long-term exposure to higher psychiatric doses of lithium may be nephrotoxic, short-term low dose of lithium may be beneficial and ameliorate kidney and podocyte injury. Mechanistically, lithium targets glycogen synthase kinase-3β, a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in the processes of tissue injury, repair, and regeneration in multiple organ systems, including the kidney. Future studies are warranted to discover the exact “kidney-protective dose” of lithium and test the effects of low-dose lithium on acute and chronic kidney disease in humans. PMID:27122541

  15. Controlled synthesis of graphitic carbon-encapsulated α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite via low-temperature catalytic graphitization of biomass and its lithium storage property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Huang, Rong; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Chen, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile synthesis of graphitic carbon/α-Fe 2 O 3 nano-sized anode composite. • In situ low temperature catalytic graphitization of biomass material. • Onion-like graphitic carbon layers conformally encapsulating around α-Fe 2 O 3 core. • High lithium storage properties, especially, outstanding cycle performance. - Abstract: A delicate structure of graphitic carbon-encapsulated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite is in situ constructed via “Absorption–Catalytic graphitization–Oxidation” strategy, taking use of biomass matter of degreasing cotton as carbon precursor and solution reservoir. With the assistance of the catalytic graphitization effect of iron core, onion-like graphitic carbon (GC) shell is made directly from the biomass at low temperature (650 °C). The nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 particles would effectively mitigate volumetric strain and shorten Li + transport path during charge/discharge process. The graphitic carbon shells may promote charge transfer and protect active particles from directly exposing to electrolyte to maintain interfacial stability. As a result, the as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 @GC composite displays an outstanding cycle performance with a reversible capacity of 1070 mA h g −1 after 430 cycles at 0.2C, as well as a good rate capability of ∼ 950 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 1C and ∼ 850 mA h g −1 even up to 200 cycles at a 2C rate.

  16. 3-dimensional porous NiCo2O4 nanocomposite as a high-rate capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yudi; Ru, Qiang; Song, Xiong; Hu, Shejun; Guo, Lingyun; Chen, Xiaoqiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • D-glucose molecules as organic carbon source, have a crucial effect on the morphology and pore distribution of the synthetic products. • Facile synthesis: solvothermal method. • High rate capacity: 625 mAh g −1 at 4.4 C. • Improved long-term cycling stability: 1389 mAh g −1 after 180 cycles at 0.55 C. - Abstract: In this work, organic carbon modified NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO@C) nanocomposite with porous 3-dimensional (3D) structure was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in D-glucose-mediated processes. A detailed research reveals that D-glucose molecules play an important role in the formation of the porous 3D structure and also provide a conductive carbon network within the NCO@C nanocomposite materials. Such a porous 3D interconnected carbonaceous nanostructure applied as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) shows that its reversible capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability are significantly enhanced in comparison with those of pure NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO) electrode. The as-prepared NCO@C composite electrode with porous 3D nanostructure displays a higher discharge specific capacity of 1389 mAh g −1 even after 180 cycles at a current rate of 0.55 C. Furthermore, this composite material also presents a high rate capacity, when the current rate gradually increases to 0.55 C, 1.1 C, 2.2 C, and 4.4 C, the reversible capacity can still render about 1082, 1029, 850, and 625 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance indicated that the NCO@C nanocomposite might be a very promising candidate to replace conventional graphite-based anode materials for LIBs

  17. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-06-01

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , such as the H 2 SO 4 concentration, temperature, H 2 O 2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H 2 SO 4 , 1vol% H 2 O 2 , 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO 2 . Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f) 1/3 =(1-kt/r 0 ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Insight into the Convenience and Efficiency of the Freeze-Drying Route to Construct 3D Graphene-Based Hybrids for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Caihua; Zhao, Yongjie; Yan, Dong; Zhao, Yuzhen; Zhou, Heping; Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Constructing hybrids of transition metal oxides with different kinds of carbon based materials has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, scalable synthesis of homogeneous hybrids with active controllable of microstructure remains great challenge. Here, we proposed a convenient and efficient strategy named freeze-drying process for scalable production of 3D NiO/graphene hybrids. With a controllable procedure, NiO microflowers and graphene layers could preserve uniform configuration from fully mixed solvent to final hybrids materials. The mechanical stability and electrical conductivity of NiO microflowers was increased by graphene. NiO microflowers as spacers intercalated into graphene layers and effectively prevented it from aggregation or restacking, leading to a high specific surface area in hybrids. The NiO/graphene exhibited enhanced cycle stability and rate performance when evaluated as an anode for lithium ion batteries. It rendered high specific capacities about 1000 mA h g −1 after 70 cycles, and 770 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 300 mA g −1 . Excellent electrochemical properties were probably ascribed to the synergistic effect of NiO microflowers and graphene layers, as a result of smart structure design by a freeze-drying route. This strategy with merits of rational construction and scalable production could establish new aspects for diverse hybrid towards industrialization.

  19. Analysis of time-of-flight experiment on lithium-oxide assemblies by a two-dimensional transport code DOT3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1985-03-01

    Calculational analyses were made on the time-of-flight experiment of neutron leakage spectra from lithium-oxide slabs. The uncertainties in the calculation due to modelling were examined and it was estimated to be 1-2 %. The calculational results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculations were carried out by a two-dimensional transport code DOT3.5 using ENDF/B-4 nuclear data file. The comparison of energy-integrated fluxes in C/E from made it clear that the tendency of discrepancy between both results depended on the thickness of assembly and leaking angle. The discrepancy of C/E was about 40 % at the maximum. The effect due to the cross section change to a new data of 7 Li(n,n't) 4 He was also examined. This type of comparison is useful for the systematic assesments. From the comparison, it was suggested that the angular distribution of secondary neutron should be improved in the calculation, and the correct differential data of cross section are required. (author)

  20. RECOVERY GARAM LITHIUM DARI AIR ASIN (BRINE DENGAN METODA PRESIPITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarno Sumarno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium demand increases as it is widely used as raw material for rechargeable battery, alloy for airplane, andfuel for fusion nuclear reactor. Lithium is an extremely reactive element, that it is never found as free element innature. Lithium compounds are found in earth crust, with very small concentration (20 – 70 ppm and totalcontent of more than 20 million tons. The biggest lithium reserve is in seawater (0,14 – 0,25 ppm andgeothermal water (7 ppm with total amount of 230 billion tons. There is no industry applies the technology torecover lithium from seawater. Having a vast sea area and abundant geothermal sources, Indonesia needs todevelop a technology to recover lithium from both sources. This research is aimed to recover lithium fromgeothermal water. The experiment was conducted using synthetic and geothermal water with lithiumconcentration range of 220 – 400 ppm, temperature range of 20 – 40°C, and mixing time range of 1 – 4 hours.The experiment was designed with 2 level factorial design. The results show that the most influencing variable ismixing time, while significant interaction amongst variables is not observed. Further experiment usinggeothermal water from Bledug Kuwu with initial lithium concentration of 400 ppm and temperature 30°Cresulted in optimum mixing time, i.e. 3 hours with 92,5% of the lithium could be recovered

  1. Synchrotron radiation-based {sup 61}Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segi, Takashi, E-mail: segi.takashi@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. (Japan); Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Tsubota, Takayuki [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Research and Utilization Division (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2}, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the {sup 61}Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni {sup 3+} with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni {sup 2+} ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  2. 3D and 2D marginal fit of pressed and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns made from digital and conventional impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadioti, Evanthia; Aquilino, Steven A; Gratton, David G; Holloway, Julie A; Denry, Isabelle; Thomas, Geb W; Qian, Fang

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the 3D and 2D marginal fit of pressed and computer-aided-designed/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic crowns made from digital and conventional impressions. A dentoform tooth (#30) was prepared for an all-ceramic crown (master die). Thirty type IV definitive casts were made from 30 polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Thirty resin models were produced from thirty Lava Chairside Oral Scanner impressions. Thirty crowns were pressed in lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press; 15/impression technique). Thirty crowns were milled from lithium disilicate blocks (IPS e.max CAD; 15/impression technique) using the E4D scanner and milling engine. The master die and the intaglio of the crowns were digitized using a 3D laser coordinate measurement machine with accuracy of ±0.00898 mm. For each specimen a separate data set was created for the Qualify 2012 software. The digital master die and the digital intaglio of each crown were merged using best-fitting alignment. An area above the margin with 0.75 mm occlusal-gingival width circumferentially was defined. The 3D marginal fit of each specimen was an average of all 3D gap values on that area. For the 2D measurements, the marginal gap was measured at two standardized points (on the margin and at 0.75 mm above the margin), from standardized facial-lingual and mesial-distal digitized sections. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference and two-way ANOVA tests were used, separately, for statistical analysis of the 3D and 2D marginal data (alpha = 0.05). One-way ANOVA revealed that both 3D and 2D mean marginal gap for group A: PVS impression/IPS e.max Press (0.048 mm ± 0.009 and 0.040 mm ± 0.009) were significantly smaller than those obtained from the other three groups (p max CAD (0.088 mm ± 0.024 and 0.076 mm ± 0.023), C: digital impression/IPS e.max Press (0.089 mm ± 0.020 and 0.075 mm ± 0.015) and D: digital impression/IPS e.max CAD (0.084 mm ± 0.021 and 0

  3. Improved electrochemical performance of porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon core/shell nanorods as an anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Q.Q.; Lu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, X.L., E-mail: wangxl@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Gu, C.D.; Qiao, Y.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Tu, J.P., E-mail: tujp@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C core/shell nanorods by a facile hydrothermal method using porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods as the precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods are homogenously coated by an amorphous carbon layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorod electrode shows high capacity and good cycle stability, as well as enhanced rate performance. - Abstract: Porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C core/shell nanorods have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods as the precursor and glucose as the carbon source. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods possess a uniform size with 50-80 nm in diameter and 300-500 nm in length, and are homogenously coated by amorphous carbon layer. The porous nanorods greatly increase the electrical contact, thus facilitating the Li-ion and electron transportation, and enhancing the reactivity of the electrode. Also, the carbon layer can effectively limit the volume expansion and detachment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and thus increase its structure stability during cycling. In the context of lithium storage behavior, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorod electrode shows high capacity and good cycle stability, as well as enhanced rate performance. After 50 cycles, the reversible capacity of the porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods is 762.1 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1 C and 597.2 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.5 C, much higher than that of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods (276.4 mAh g{sup -1}) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (307.9 mAh g{sup -1}). At a high rate of 1 C, the specific capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods is still as high as 630.1 mAh g{sup -1}.

  4. Synthesis and properties of Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/polyaniline nanocomposites as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiufen [School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China); School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Huang Ying, E-mail: yingh@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China); Miao Juan [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Zhao Yang; Wang Yan [School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/polyaniline nanocomposite (40-50 nm) was synthesized by micro emulsion polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI exhibits lower initial irreversible capacities than Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its capacity retains 569.2 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles. - Abstract: The nanocomposites Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/polyaniline (Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI) have been synthesized by a micro emulsion polymerization method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared materials are characterized by XRD, FTIR, Raman, XPS, TGA, TEM and electrochemical measurements. Results show that Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI nanocomposites are composed of uniform and blocky nano-sized particles (40-50 nm) with clear lattice fringes. Electrochemical measurement suggests that Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI exhibits better cycling properties and lower initial irreversible capacities than Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3} as negative electrodes materials for lithium-ion batteries. At a current density of 60 mA g{sup -1} in the voltage about 0.05-2.0 V, the initial irreversible capacity of Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI is 563 mAh g{sup -1} while it is 687.5 mAh g{sup -1} to Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}. The capacity retained of Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI (569.2 mAh g{sup -1}) is higher than that of Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3} (510.2 mAh g{sup -1}) after 50 cycles. The PANI in the Li{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}/PANI nanocomposites can buffer the released stress caused by the drastic volume variation during the alloying/de-alloying process of Li-Sn.

  5. Lithium intercalation mechanism into FeF3·0.5H2O as a highly stable composite cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghulam; Lee, Ji–Hoon; Chang, Wonyoung; Cho, Byung-Won; Jung, Hun-Gi; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Chung, Kyung Yoon

    2017-02-01

    The growing demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) requires investigation of high-performance electrode materials with the advantages of being environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In this study, a nanocomposite of open-pyrochlore-structured FeF3·0.5H2O and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is synthesized for use as a high-performance cathode in LIBs, where RGO provides high electrical conductivity to the composite material. The morphology of the composite shows that FeF3·0.5H2O spheres are embedded into RGO layers and high-resolution TEM image shows that those spheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with a size of ~5 nm. The cycling performance indicates that the composite electrode delivers an initial high discharge capacity of 223 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C, a rate capability up to a high C-rate of 10 C (47 mAh g-1) and stable cycle performance at 0.05 C (145 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and 0.2 C (93 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) while maintaining high electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the responsible electrochemical reaction is investigated using in-situ XRD and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and the XRD results show that FeF3·0.5H2O transitions to an amorphous-like phase through a lithiation process. However, a reversible oxidation change of Fe3+ ↔ Fe2+ is identified by the XAS results.

  6. Nature-Inspired 2D-Mosaic 3D-Gradient Mesoporous Framework: Bimetal Oxide Dual-Composite Strategy toward Ultrastable and High-Capacity Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wang, Yanlei; Mou, Lihui; Fang, Daliang; Chen, Shimou; Zhang, Suojiang

    2018-02-27

    In allusion to traditional transition-metal oxide (TMO) anodes for lithium-ion batteries, which face severe volume variation and poor conductivity, herein a bimetal oxide dual-composite strategy based on two-dimensional (2D)-mosaic three-dimensional (3D)-gradient design is proposed. Inspired by natural mosaic dominance phenomena, Zn 1-x Co x O/ZnCo 2 O 4 2D-mosaic-hybrid mesoporous ultrathin nanosheets serve as building blocks to assemble into a 3D Zn-Co hierarchical framework. Moreover, a series of derivative frameworks with high evolution are controllably synthesized, based on which a facile one-pot synthesis process can be developed. From a component-composite perspective, both Zn 1-x Co x O and ZnCo 2 O 4 provide superior conductivity due to bimetal doping effect, which is verified by density functional theory calculations. From a structure-composite perspective, 2D-mosaic-hybrid mode gives rise to ladder-type buffering and electrochemical synergistic effect, thus realizing mutual stabilization and activation between the mosaic pair, especially for Zn 1-x Co x O with higher capacity yet higher expansion. Moreover, the inside-out Zn-Co concentration gradient in 3D framework and rich oxygen vacancies further greatly enhance Li storage capability and stability. As a result, a high reversible capacity (1010 mA h g -1 ) and areal capacity (1.48 mA h cm -2 ) are attained, while ultrastable cyclability is obtained during high-rate and long-term cycles, rending great potential of our 2D-mosaic 3D-gradient design together with facile synthesis.

  7. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  8. Lithium isotope effect in the extraction systems of polyethers: effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengqiang; Fu Lian

    1991-01-01

    Separation factors of lithium isotopes at 20 deg C were determined in the extraction systems of B15C5-CHCl 3 /LiBr-H 2 O. The initial concentration of LiBr was controlled in the extent of more than 2 mol/l. It may be established that the increase of LiBr concentration causes a remarkable increase of the separation factor. The essence of this effect due to the change in salt concentration was discussed in connection with examination of relevant phenomena in literature. It can be concluded that the relationship between α and Cm, the concentration of lithium salt, is dependent on K Q and K P express respectively, lithium isotope exchange equilibrium constants between Li-crownether complex and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration less than 1-2 mol/l, and between lithium salt ion pair and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration more than 2 mol/l in aqueous phase

  9. Overview of the TFTB lithium blanket module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an ∼ 80-cm 3 module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. This paper summarizes the design, development, and construction of the LBM, and indicates the present status of the LBM program

  10. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  11. Effect of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} impurities on the physical, optical and thermoluminescence properties of lithium borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhareb, M.H.A., E-mail: mmhareb@hotmail.com [Radiation Protection Directorate, Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission, Amman 11821 (Jordan); Hashim, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K., E-mail: lordshib@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Alajerami, Y.S.M. [Department of Medical Radiography, Al-Azhar University, Gaza Strip, Palestine (Country Unknown); Bqoor, M.J.; Hamdan, A.I. [Radiation Protection Directorate, Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission, Amman 11821 (Jordan); Saleh, M.A. [Nuclear Engineering Programme, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Karim, M.K.B. Abdul [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-09-15

    Dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium borate glass (LBG) is prepared using conventional melting-quenching technique with varying Dy concentration in the range of 0 to 1.0 mol%. Prepared glass samples are characterized via X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV–vis–IR, Photoluminescence (PL), Thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The physical parameters such as the density, optical energy band gap, oscillator strength, refractive index, ion concentration, Polaron radius, molar volume and inter-nuclear distance are determined. UV–vis–IR spectra revealed seven prominent bands centered at 448, 749, 796, 899, 1085, 1265 and 1679 nm corresponding to the transition from the Dy{sup 3+} ion's ground state ({sup 6}H{sub 15/2}) to the excited states ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2},{sup 6}F{sub 3/2}, {sup 6}F{sub 5/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 6}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2}). The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the glass series at 350 nm excitation displayed two peaks centered at 481 nm and 573 nm, which are assigned to the transitions of ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}) and ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}), respectively. The TL spectra of gamma-irradiated samples are measured, which showed Dy{sup 3+} content dependent simple glow peak at 190 °C. Dysprosium ion is found to play an important role in the TL and PL intensity enhancement of LB phosphor.

  12. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  13. Coupling Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals on 3D graphene hybrid aerogel for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hailin; Hai, Yang; Li, Dongzhi; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Lin, Yemao; Yang, Bo; Fan, Haosen; Zhu, Caizhen

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid aerogel by dispersing Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals into three-dimensional (3D) graphene (Mo2C@C-GA) has been successfully prepared through two-step methods. Firstly, carbon-coated MoO2 nanocrystals uniformly anchor on 3D graphene aerogel (MoO2@C-GA) via hydrothermal reaction. Then the MoO2@C-GA precursor is transformed into Mo2C@C-GA after the following carbonization process. Furthermore, the freeze-drying step plays an important role in the resulting pore size distribution of the porous networks. Moreover, graphene aerogels exhibit extremely low densities and superior electrical properties. When evaluated as anode material for lithium ion battery, Mo2C@C-GA delivers excellent rate capability and stable cycle performance when compared with C-GA and Mo2C nanoparticles. Mo2C@C-GA exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 1461.4 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, and retains a reversible capacity of 1089.8 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. Even at high current density of 5 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 623.5 mA h g-1 can be still achieved. The excellent performance of Mo2C@C-GA could be attributed to the synergistic effect of Mo2C@C nanocrystals and the 3D graphene conductive network.

  14. Ionic conductivity of the lithium titanium phosphate (Li/sub 1+x/M/sub x/Ti/sub 2-x/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, M=Al, Sc, Y, and La) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, H.; Sugimoto, E.; Sadaaka, Y.; Imanaka, N.; Adachi, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    High lithium ionic conductivity was obtained in Li/sub 1+X/M/sub X/Ti/sub 2-X/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (M=Al, Sc, Y, and La) systems. Lithium titanium phosphate, LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, is composed of both TiO/sub 6/ octahedra and PO/sub 4/ tetrahedra, which are linked by corners to form a three dimensional network, with a space group R3-barC. Some workers have already described that the conductivity increased considerably if Ti/sup 4+/ in LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ was substituted by slightly larger cations such as Ga/sup 3+/(1),Sc/sup 3+/(2), and In/sup 3+/(3,4). These results are similar to each other because of their close ionic radii. In this communication, substitution effects of Ti/sup 4+/ in LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ by various ions (Al/sup 3+/, Sc/sup 3+/, Y/sup 3+/, and La/sup 3+/) on their conductivities are reported

  15. Electrochemical characterization of a LiV3O8-polypyrrole composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Fanghua; Liu Li; Yang Zhenhua; Wang Xingyan; Chen Quanqi; Wang Xianyou

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite has been synthesized successfully. → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows better cycling behavior and rate capability than LiV 3 O 8 . → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows lower electrochemical resistance than LiV 3 O 8 . - Abstract: LiV 3 O 8 -Polypyrrole (LiV 3 O 8 -PPy) composite has been chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the surface of LiV 3 O 8 using ferric chloride as oxidizing agent. The electrochemical properties of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite were systematically investigated using a variety of electrochemical methods. The LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite electrode exhibited better cycling behavior and superior rate capability as compared with the bare LiV 3 O 8 electrode. Cyclic voltammetry corroborated the galvanostatic cycling tests, with the composite cathode material showing better reversibility than bare material. Finally, fitting the impedance results to an equivalent circuit indicated that the enhanced electrochemical performances of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite resulted from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  16. Lithium attenuates cannabinoid-induced dependence in the animal model: involvement of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and GSK-3β signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most banned drugs in the world. Cannabinoid-induced dependence or withdrawal signs are indicated by the result of complex molecular mechanisms including upstream protein kinases (PKs, such as an extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and downstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, which lead to neuronal plasticity. In this study, we examined the protective effect of lithium (Li as a potent ERK1/2 and GSK-3β modulator to prevent the development of dependence on cannabinoids. For this purpose, rats were treated twice daily with increasing doses of WIN 55,212-2 (WIN, 2-8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p., for five consecutive days. AM251 (AM, 2 mg/kg, a cannabinoid antagonist, was injected i.p to induce manifestations of abstinence in rat dependency on WIN, and the subsequent withdrawal signs were recorded. To evaluate the preventive effect of Li, the rats were pre-treated with Li (10 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily, 30 minutes before every injection of WIN. SL327, as an ERK1/2 inhibitor, was also injected (SL, 50 mg/kg, i.p. 30 minutes before the last doses of WIN in separate groups. The p-ERK1/2, total ERK1/2, p-GSK-3β and total GSK-3β expressions were determined with Western blot method after 60 minutes, prior to the Li, WIN or AM injections. Li and SL pre-treatment attenuated the global withdrawal signs in regarding their modulation effect on the up-regulation of p-ERK1/2 cascade enhanced by AM injection. Furthermore, the p-GSK-3β expression was up-regulated with SL and Li pre-treatment against AM injection, without alteration on the total contents of ERK1/2 and GSK-3β level. Therefore, p-ERK1/2 and p-GSK-3β pathways are involved in the cannabinoid-induced dependence. However, no crosstalk was indicated between these two pathways. In conclusion, Li neuroprotectionwith regard to cannabinoid abstinence may occur through the regulation of the p-ERK1/2 cascade inconsequent of p-GSK-3β signaling pathways in rats.

  17. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  18. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  19. Preparation of submicrocrystal LiMn2O4 used Mn3O4 as precursor and its electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Yin; Yu, Fu-Da; Xue, Yuan; Ke, Ke; Li, Fang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Spinal LiMn 2 O 4 particles synthesized at 800 °C for 12 h has the best crystallinity with a submicron size and smallest cation disorder, resulting in a superior capacity retention ratio of 90.4% after 200 cycles at 1 °C at room temperature, which possesses an initial capacity of 106.8 mA h/g. - Highlights: • High purity spinel LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from industrial grade raw materials. • LiMn 2 O 4 prepared by optimal conditions has the smallest cation mixing. • Optimized LiMn 2 O 4 has the highest initial capacity with 112.9 mA h/g. • Capacity retention of optimized LiMn 2 O 4 is 90.4% after 200 cycles at 1 °C. - Abstract: Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 has been synthesized by solid state reaction with industrial grade Mn 3 O 4 and Li 2 CO 3 as precursors without purification, and its electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery has been investigated by CR2025 coin cell. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the size of LiMn 2 O 4 particles grow up with increasing temperature of calcination, and the sample synthesized at 800 °C for 12 h has the best crystallinity with a submicron size. It can deliver initial capacity of 112.9 mA h/g with capacity retention ratio of 89.1% after 200 cycles at charge/discharge rate of 1 C. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) also show that it has the highest electrochemical activity and lowest charge transfer impedance

  20. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Liu, Enzuo, E-mail: ezliu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Chunnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); Li, Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhao, Naiqin, E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  1. A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}: Self-assembly and excellent electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Cun; Xie, Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.com; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared by a simple, eco-friendly and turning waste into treasure method using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. • The formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. • The unique Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} tubular structure with many pores could accelerate electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion transport, as well as accommodate the volume change during the charge and discharge progress. • Significant electrochemical performance of porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been observed. - Abstract: Herein, the novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was successfully prepared by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly process using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. It is very noteworthy that the formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. The as-synthesized porous tubular structure with average outer diameter of 2.2 μm is orderly self-assembled by numerous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameter of 50–150 nm. The specific surface area of typical product is 24.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} by the BET method, and the majority diameter of pores is about 67 nm. In addition, the effects of different Co{sup 2+} concentration on the morphology and electrochemical performance of the products were explored. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the typical sample shows a high reversible specific capacity (1053 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}), remarkable cycling performance and a good rate capability of 727 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a high specific current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous tubular structure. With these outstanding performances, the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} may be an outstanding candidate anode material for LIBs.

  2. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  3. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  4. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  5. Polarization behavior of lithium electrode in polymetric solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Morita, Masayuki (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Tsutsumi, Hiromori (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

    1993-04-15

    Complexes of novel polymer matrices and lithium salts have been prepared as polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PEO-PMMA) and poly(methylsiloxane) (PMS) were used as the matrices. The conductance behavior of the complexes and the basic polarization characteristics of the lithium electrode in the polymeric electrolytes were studied. As high conductivities as 10[sup -3] S cm[sup -1] were obtained at room temperature for the PMMA-based electrolytes containing some liquid plasticizer. Limiting current densities of 3 to 5 mA cm[sup -2] were observed for the anodic and cathodic polarization of the lithium electrode. The transport number of Li[sup +] was approximately unity in 'single-ion type' PMS-based electrolyte, in which the polarization curve of the lithium electrode showed no current hysteresis. (orig.)

  6. CNTs in situ attached to α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres for enhancing lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid α-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (α-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ∼37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ∼116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ∼220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ∼326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite.

  7. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  8. Lithium toxicity precipitated by thyrotoxicosis due to silent thyroiditis: cardiac arrest, quadriplegia, and coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinori; Taki, Katsumi; Honda, Yuki; Takahashi, Shoichiro; Yoshimura, Ashio

    2013-06-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorders. Lithium toxicity is generally caused by inappropriately high doses of lithium or impaired lithium excretion. Most lithium is eliminated via the kidneys and, since thyroid hormone increases tubular reabsorption of lithium, thyrotoxicosis could contribute to the development of lithium toxicity. We report a case of severe lithium toxicity that was apparently precipitated by the onset of thyrotoxicosis resulting from silent thyroiditis and dehydration. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who was admitted for muscle weakness in the lower extremities, diarrhea, and palpitations. She had bipolar disorder and was being treated with lithium carbonate, which she discontinued one week before admission. Her circulating lithium levels had been monitored yearly. Early in her admission she was dehydrated and had febrile episodes, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and muscle weakness. Initially, fluid therapy was started, but she lost consciousness and had a cardiac arrest for 2 minutes due to prolonged sinus arrest. Chest compression and manual artificial ventilation were performed, and body surface pacing was started. Serum lithium was markedly elevated to 3.81 mEq/L (therapeutic range, 0.4-1.0 mEq/L), and thyroid hormone levels were increased (free triiodothyronine, 8.12 pg/mL; free thyroxine, 4.45 ng/dL), while thyrotropin (TSH) was suppressed (quadriplegia and deep coma. She gradually recovered. On day 36, she was discharged without any neurological symptoms or thyrotoxicosis. A 64-year-old woman taking lithium for bipolar disorder developed lithium toxicity in the setting of what seemed likely to be a recent onset of thyrotoxicosis due to silent thyroiditis. Thyrotoxicosis may be a contributing cause of lithium toxicity, particularly if it is abrupt in onset and even with cessation of lithium therapy if renal function is compromised. Thyroid function should be assessed immediately in patients with suspected lithium

  9. Physical, structural and luminescence investigation of Eu3+-doped lithium-gadolinium bismuth-borate glasses for LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, F.; Rooh, G.; Srisittipokakun, N.; Wongdeeying, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the current report is to fabricate Eu3+-doped glasses with the chemical composition of 50Li2O-15Gd2O3-5Bi2O3-(30-x)B2O3-xEu2O3 (where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%), with the help of conventional melt quenching technique. The fabricated glasses have been studied with help of physical, structural and luminescence properties for application of LEDs. The structural properties were investigated by XRD and FTIR spectra. Physical properties have been measured. Direct and indirect optical energy band gap (Eg) have been calculated and found to be increasing with Eu2O3 concentration. Luminescence spectra have been observed from photo and radioluminescence spectra and found in good agreement with each other, however the concentration quenching was not determined for the samples. The high-covalence and asymmetric nature was confirmed from Photoluminescence emission and RL emission transition as well as from the higher values of luminescence intensity ratio. The JO parameters have been found for the better performance of lasing materials. The lifetime's data have been found to be decreasing from 1.64 to 1.50 ms, which is the confirmation of energy transfer in Eu3+ ions through cross relaxations. From the calculated properties it has been suggested that the present glass samples might be good for red-light emitting devices.

  10. Hybrid of Co(3)Sn(2)@Co nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene as a lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Nasir; Zhang, Chenzhen; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Jinghan; Hou, Yanglong

    2013-11-26

    A facile strategy was designed for the fabrication of hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co nanoparticles (NPs) and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) sheets through a hydrothermal synthesis, followed by annealing process. Core-shell architecture of Co3Sn2@Co pin on NG is designed for the dual encapsulation of Co3Sn2 with adaptable ensembles of Co and NG to address the structural and interfacial stability concerns facing tin-based anodes. In the resulted unique architecture of Co3Sn2@Co-NG hybrid, the sealed cobalt cover prevents the direct exposer of Sn with electrolyte because of encapsulated structure and keeps the structural and interfacial integrity of Co3Sn2. However, the elastically strong, flexible and conductive NG overcoat accommodates the volume changes and therefore brings the structural and electrical stabilization of Co3Sn2@Co NPs. As a result, Co3Sn2@Co-NG hybrid exhibits extraordinary reversible capacity of 1615 mAh/g at 250 mA/g after 100 cycles with excellent capacity retention of 102%. The hybrid bears superior rate capability with reversible capacity of 793.9 mAh/g at 2500 mA/g and Coulombic efficiency nearly 100%.

  11. Order-disorder transition in the complex lithium spinel Li2CoTi3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Nik; Pasero, Denis; West, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 has an ordered Li 2 BB' 3 O 8 spinel structure, space group P4 3 32, at room temperature with 3:1 ordering of Ti and Li on the octahedral sites, and Li, Co disordered over the tetrahedral site. Rietveld refinement of variable temperature neutron powder diffraction data has shown an order-disorder phase transition in Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 which commences at ∼500 deg. C with Li and Co mixing on the tetrahedral and 4-fold octahedral sites and is complete at a first order structural discontinuity at ∼915 deg. C. The fraction of Ti on the 12-fold octahedral site exhibits a small decrease with increasing temperature, which may suggest that the disordering involves all three cations. Above 930 deg. C, the structure, space group Fd3-barm, has Li, Co and Ti sharing a single-octahedral site and Li, Co sharing a tetrahedral site, although Co still exhibits a preference for tetrahedral coordination. A labelling scheme for ordered and partially ordered 3:1 spinels is devised which focuses on the occupancy of the Li,B cations. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement of variable temperature neutron powder diffraction data shows an order-disorder phase transition in Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 commencing at ∼500 deg. C with Li,Co mixing on tetrahedral and octahedral sites. This becomes complete at a first-order structural discontinuity at ∼915 deg. C. Above 930 deg. C, the structure, space group Fd3-barm, has Li, Co and Ti sharing a single-octahedral site and Li, Co sharing a tetrahedral site

  12. Hierarchical Cr_2O_3@OPC composites with octahedral shape for rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Yongqing; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Wei; Du, Ke; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The development of catalyst materials is the most significant issue that hinders the practical applications of Li-O_2 batteries. Herein we show the design and synthesis of the hierarchical chromic oxide-octahedral porous carbon (Cr_2O_3@OPC) composites catalyst with octahedral shape that derived from Cr-based metal-organic frameworks (MIL-101(Cr)) precursor. When applied as cathode catalysts in rechargeable Li-O_2 batteries, the electrode with Cr_2O_3@OPC composites catalyst exhibits a low charge and discharge over-potential, high discharge capacity and excellent cycling stability. What's more, the electrode with Cr_2O_3@OPC composite shows a discharge capacity up to ∼4800 mAh g_(_c_a_t_a_l_y_s_t _+ _c_a_r_b_o_n_)"−"1 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm"−"2, and exhibits a very stable discharge voltage plateau of 2.7 V and a charge voltage plateau of ∼3.9 V. With the addition of Cr_2O_3@OPC composite, the Li-O_2 batteries can obtain good cycle performance over 50 cycles at a fixed capacity of 800 mAh g_(_c_a_t_a_l_y_s_t _+ _c_a_r_b_o_n_)"−"1. These results indicating that the Cr_2O_3@OPC composite derived from MIL-101(Cr) would be a promising catalyst for Li-O_2 batteries. - Highlights: • The Cr_2O_3@C composites were prepared by the pyrolysis of Cr-MIL-101. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites possess octahedral shape consisted of Cr_2O_3@C nanoparticle. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites have mesoporous structure with large specific area. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites have an excellent intrinsic electrocatalytic activity. • The Cr_2O_3@C electrode exhibits great cycling performance.

  13. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  14. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  15. Structural studies on actinides carboxylates. 3. Preparation, properties and crystal structure of lithium glutarate hydrogenglutarate dioxouranate(VI)tetrahydrate UO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 6/O/sub 4/)Li(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 4/). 4H/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetollo, F; Bombieri, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi; Herrero, J A; Rojas, R M

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis, thermal behaviour and crystal structure of lithium glutaratehydrogenglutaratedioxouranate(VI) tetrahydrate is described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2/sub 1//n. The two glutarato ligands behave differently; one is bridging the uranyl groups in infinite chains running approximately in the a axis direction, the second is bridging the uranyl and the lithium ions. The carboxylic groups are chelated on the uranium and monodentate on the lithium. The structure is linked through a network of hydrogen bonding involving water molecules and oxygen atoms from the carboxylato groups. The geometry around the uranium is approximately hexagonal bipyramidal while the lithium is tetrahedrally coordinated with one glutarate oxygen and 3 water oxygens.

  16. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Dramatically Improved Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E.; Abruñ a, Hé ctor D.

    2012-01-01

    ) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a

  17. Ferroelectricity of strained SrTiO3 in lithium tetraborate glass-nanocomposite and glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, E. K.; Mohamed, E. A.; Kashif, I.

    2018-02-01

    Glass-nanocomposite (GNCs) sample of the composition [90Li2B4O7-10SrTiO3] (mol %) was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glassy phase and the amorphous nature of the GNCs sample were identified by Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, respectively. DTA of the GNCs exhibits sharp and broad exothermic peaks which represent the crystallization of Li2B4O7 and SrTiO3, respectively. The tetragonal Li2B4O7 and tetragonal SrTiO3 crystalline phases in glass-ceramic (GC) were identified by XRD and scanning electron microscopic (SEM). The strain tetragonal SrTiO3 phase in GNCs and GC has been confirmed by SEM. The values of crystallization activation energies (Ec1 and Ec2) for the first and second exothermic peaks are equal to 174 and 1452 kJ/mol, respectively. The Ti3+ ions in tetragonal distorted octahedral sites in GNCs were identified by optical transmission spectrum. GNCs and GC samples exhibit broad dielectric anomalies at 303 and 319 K because of strained SrTiO3 ferroelectric, respectively.

  18. Morphology Engineering of Co3O4 Nanoarrays as Free-Standing Catalysts for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Shan; Yan, Xingbin

    2016-09-14

    The effective shape-controlled synthesis of Co3O4 nanoarrays on nickel foam substrates has been achieved through a simple hydrothermal strategy. When they served as the binder- and conductive-agent-free porous cathodes for nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries, they sufficiently reflect the favorable catalytic characteristic of Co3O4 and alleviate the problems of serious pore blocking and surface passivation caused by insoluble and insulating discharge products. In particular, Co3O4 rectangular nanosheets exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance comparing with Co3O4 nanowires and hexagonal nanosheets, leading to higher specific capacity and better cycling stability over 54 cycles at 100 mA g(-1), which relate to their good pore structure, large specific surface area, and highly active {112} exposed plane, effectively promoting the mass transport and reversible formation and decomposition of discharge products in the cathode. These comparisons further indicate the morphology effect of nanostructured Co3O4 on their performances as free-standing catalysts for Li-O2 batteries, which also have been proved through the further analysis of discharge products on different shapes of Co3O4 nanoarrays electrodes.

  19. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Rodríguez, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Fe3Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe3AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage.Se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosión a alta temperatura de intermetálicos tipo Fe3Al con adición de 1at. % de cerio, litio y níquel. Las diferentes aleaciones fueron expuestas bajo un ambiente compuesto de 2,5 % SO2+N2 a 900 °C durante 48 h. Para todos los intermetálicos ensayados, la cinética de corrosión presentó un comportamiento parabólico. La aleación que mostró la menor velocidad de corrosión fue el intermetálico Fe3AlNi, siendo el intermetálico Fe3AlCeLi el de mayor velocidad de corrosión. Los análisis mediante espectroscopía de dispersión de rayos X, EDS, sobre la costra formada identificaron únicamente aluminio, oxígeno y trazas de hierro y cerio, lo que sugiere la formación de alúmina como el componente principal. Los intermetálicos mostraron agrietamiento y desprendimiento de la costra de óxido. La composición química de los intermetálicos tuvo un papel importante en la definición de la morfología del óxido formado y el grado de daño.

  20. Comparison of phase composition, morphology and electrochemical property for Li3−xNaxV2(PO4)3 (x=0.5, 1.5 and 2.0) as lithium storage cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jinli; Shao, Lianyi; Li, Peng; Lin, Xiaoting; Shui, Miao; Long, Nengbing; Shu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Li 3−x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is prepared by a solid-state reaction method. •Li 2.5 Na 0.5 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is a three-phase mixture. •Both Li 1.5 Na 1.5 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and LiNa 2 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are two-phase composite. •Lithium ion diffusion coefficient is detected by cyclic voltammetry. •Structural change of LiNa 2 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is observed by in-situ XRD. -- Abstract: Three Li 3-x Na x V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (x=0.5, 1.5 and 2.0) samples are synthesized by a traditional solid-state reaction method in this work. Their phase composition, surface morphology and electrochemical property are described and compared by using various physical/chemical methods. Phase analysis results