WorldWideScience

Sample records for listing occupational carcinogens

  1. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  2. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Hall, Amy L; Straif, Kurt

    2018-05-16

    The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations. Selected agents were substances, mixtures or types of radiation classified in IARC Group 1 with 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity' in humans from studies of exposed workers and evidence of occupational exposure documented in the pertinent monograph. The number of known occupational carcinogens has increased over time: 47 agents were identified as known occupational carcinogens in 2017 compared with 28 in 2004. These estimates are conservative and likely underestimate the number of carcinogenic agents present in workplaces. Exposure to these agents causes a wide range of cancers; cancers of the lung and other respiratory sites, followed by skin, account for the largest proportion. The dominant routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact. Important progress has been made in identifying occupational carcinogens; nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for research on the causes of work-related cancer. Most workplace exposures have not been evaluated for their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate epidemiologic evidence and a paucity of quantitative exposure data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  4. Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

  5. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  7. Prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among workers of Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese ancestry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Reid, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Although job-related diseases result in more deaths per year than job-related injuries, most research concerning ethnic minority workers has concerned accidents and injuries rather than disease-causing exposures such as carcinogens. We conducted a telephone-based cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among a sample of ethnic minority workers in Australia, and compared their exposure prevalence to that of a sample of the general Australian-born working population ('Australian workers'). One-third of the ethnic minority workers were exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. The likelihood of exposure to carcinogens was not significantly different from that of Australian workers, although the likelihood of exposure to individual carcinogens varied by ethnicity. Knowing the prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace in different ethnic groups will allow better targeted and informed occupational health and safety measures to be implemented where necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  9. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  10. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. (Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area were previously classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values (the list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification was based on qualitative criteria and reflected essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. In the new classification scheme the former sections IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB are retained as categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to the risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by non-genotoxic mechanisms, and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose/response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  11. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Vamvakas, S; Thielmann, H W; Gelbke, H P; Filser, J G; Reuter, U; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values (list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these categories - IIIA1, IIIA2, IIIB - be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics, and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  12. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  13. Participation of IPEN in the international program of information about occupational exposure to carcinogen risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute participated in the mapping of risks to carcinogens due to occupational exposure for our country through CAREX program because all radioactive substances are considered by the International Agency for Research Cancer as type 1 carcinogens (high risk) and the presence of these substances in the work environment are unknown to professionals from other institutions. This occasion allowed the incorporation of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) as indicators in all work activities that were not considered by the Energy and Mining Sector. (authors).

  14. Carcinogenic effectiveness of combined dust-and-radiation effect under experimental and occupational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Mikhajlov, M.; Todorov, A.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is made of the latest reports, reflecting the statistically significant increase of the lung cancer among workers in underground working sites at cumulative exposure to radon decay products under 60 monthly working levels. The significance of the non-radiation components of the occupational environment, participating in the carcinogenic process together with the classical noxiousness are emphasized. The significance of the functional sufficiency of the immune and endocrine systems, the tobacco smoking and the role of the inflammation respiratory tract diseases , etc. is denoted. Inferences are made for the complexity and multiformity of the occupational carcinogenesis according to the intensity, classical mutagenic factors and multitude of noncarcinogenic components of the occupational environment. Paralelly to the sanitary-technical fool-proof rendering of the respective productions, the necessity of purposeful balneotherapeutic and medical treatment of the risk worker contingents is pointed out

  15. Potential for occupational and environmental exposure to ten carcinogens in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, P. [ToxProbe Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted in which several contaminants were assessed for their toxicological properties, potencies and occupational and environmental exposures in the city of Toronto. The contaminants included 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, chromium, dioxins, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada have classified 9 of the 10 substances as human carcinogens. Tetrachloroethylene was classified as a probable human carcinogen. It was noted that there is no level of exposure for these chemicals that is without some risk. The information on the levels of selected contaminants in the workplace were obtained from existing literature. The sectors with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to these contaminants include the textiles industry, footwear manufacturing, wood products manufacturing, rubber products manufacturing, non-metallic mineral products manufacturing, fabricated metal products manufacturing, construction, land transport, and household services. The report discussed sources of emissions, routes and pathways of exposures and environmental levels, including outdoor air levels water concentrations, soil concentrations, and food concentrations. The report does not estimate the actual risk to Toronto residents due to environmental exposure to these carcinogens because data are insufficient to conduct such an assessment. However, some previous studies have indicated that exposure from ambient and indoor air has the greatest impact on human health. It is recommended that the city of Toronto remain up to date on the regulatory status of these chemicals. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  16. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Jorge; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Guardado, Jorge; Aragon, Aurora; Kauppinen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author) [es

  17. Reference Lists for HECE Occupational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations to appropriate reference books, pamphlets and audiovisual materials for the following 17 occupations: art and craft aide, bridal consultant, child care aide, clothing assistant, companion to the elderly, consumer aide, dietetic aide, fabric coordinator, fashion coordinator, floral designer, food…

  18. Contemporary Occupational Carcinogen Exposure and Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, Marcus G K; Cox, Angela; Teare, Dawn; Catto, James W F

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is a common disease. Despite manufacturing and legislative changes to workplace hygiene, many BCs still arise through occupational carcinogen exposure. To profile contemporary risks of occupational BC. A systematic review using PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was performed in October 2012 (initial review) and May 2014 (final review) and was updated in June 2015. We identified 263 eligible articles. We excluded reports in which BC or occupation were not the main focus, and those with insufficient case, risk, or confidence interval data. We selected the most recent data from populations with multiple reports. Reports were selected by 2 of us independently. We combined odds ratios and risk ratios (RRs) to provide pooled RRs, using maximally adjusted RRs in a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using I2 and Begg and Egger tests. Risk estimates were annotated by occupational class using Nordisk Yrkesklassificering, or Nordic Occupational Classification, and International Standard Classifications of Occupations (NYK and ISCO-1958) Codes. Occupations were profiled by BC incidence and mortality risk over time. After data collection, we detected a sex difference in these profiles and recorded this as a secondary outcome. Meta-analysis revealed increased BC incidence in 42 of 61 occupational classes and increased BC-specific mortality in 16 of 40 occupational classes. Reduced incidence and mortality were seen in 6 of 61 and 2 of 40 classes, respectively. Risk varied with sex and was greatest in men (standardized incidence ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03]; P men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.12-1.43) for women. In contrast, mortality risk declined for both sexes from the 1960s to the 1990s. The overall risk of BC mortality was also greater for men (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.18-1.48]) than for women (SMR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.80-1.63]). Limitations include possible publication bias, that reports

  19. Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings

  20. Design and validation of a self-administered questionnaire as an aid to detection of occupational exposure to lung carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, C; Dutertre, V; Fournel, P; Gendre, I; Michel Vergnon, J; Kalecinski, J; Tinquaut, F; Fontana, L; Chauvin, F

    2017-02-01

    Ten to thirty percent of lung cancer is thought to be of occupational origin. Lung cancer is under-declared as an occupational disease in Europe, and most declarations of occupational disease concern asbestos. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a short, sensitive self-administered questionnaire, as an aid for physicians in detecting occupational exposure to asbestos and other lung carcinogens in order to remedy occupational lung cancer under-declaration. Cross-sectional study. A short (30-question) self-administered questionnaire was drawn up by oncologist-pneumologists and occupational physicians, covering situations of exposure to proven and probable lung carcinogens. Understanding and acceptability were assessed on 15 lung cancer patients. Validity and reliability were assessed on 70 lung cancer patients by comparison against a semi-directive questionnaire considered as gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by comparing responses to items on the two questionnaires. Reliability was assessed by analysing the kappa concordance coefficient for items on the two questionnaires. Sensitivity was 0.85 and specificity 0.875. Concordance between responses on the two questionnaires was 85.7%, with a kappa coefficient of 0.695 [0.52-0.87]. Mean self-administration time was 3.1 min (versus 8.12 min to administer the gold-standard questionnaire). In 16 patients, the self-administered questionnaire detected lung carcinogen exposure meeting the criteria for occupational disease. The present short, easy-to-use self-administered questionnaire should facilitate detection of occupational exposure to lung carcinogens. It could be used in occupational lung cancer screening and increase the presently low rate of application for recognition of lung cancer as an occupational disease. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Task Lists for Home Economics Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Home Economics Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Below, Virginia

    This document contains information for home economics occupations in Illinois in seven sections. The first part provides lists of employability skills for the following: food preparation and service worker, fashion designer, dietetic technician, and service coordinator/consumer assistant/concierge. The second section contains task analyses for the…

  2. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2013-08-05

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194.

  3. A Comparative Survey on Parameters Influencing on Hexavalent Chromium Measurement as an Occupational Carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tirgar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hexavalent chromium, Cr+6, is a very harmful pollutant and a relatively unstable compound that is present in many industries. It is a known human respiratory carcinogen and occupational exposure to this chemical is associated with different health hazards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four parameters including: type of sampling head, sampling height from the surface of electroplating solution, sampling duration, and sample storage duration on Cr+6 mist monitoring.Materials & Methods: To evaluate the influence of the main parameters as an experimental study, the 24 factorial design was applied at constant electroplating condition. A chromium electroplating bath with the ability to produce homogenous mist was used to create Cr+6 mist in laboratory setting. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 7600 was used to determine the Cr+6 concentration. Results: The results of 48 Cr+6 mist samples showed that Cr+6 concentration was higher: (1 for sampling by closed-face filter cassettes than for sampling by open-face filter cassettes (P<0.001; (2 for samples collected at 35 cm above the electroplating solution surface than for samples collected at 50 cm (P <0.001; (3 for sampling duration of 30 minutes than for sampling duration of 180 minutes (P <0.001; and, (4 for samples extracted immediately after sampling than for samples with delayed extraction (24 hours after sampling (P <0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that the accuracy of Cr+6 mist sampling in electroplating shops will be enhanced when: (1 a closed-face filter cassette is used to prevent liquid splash contamination; (2 the sampling height is suitable as determined by further research; (3 the sampling duration is short (approximately 30 minutes; and, (4 the extraction of the Cr+6 sample is performed as soon as the sampling is completed.

  4. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havet, Nathalie [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Lab. SAF; Penot, Alexis [Lyon Univ. (France). ENS Lyon, GATE-UMR 5824-CNRS; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel [Lyon Univ. (France). Direction de la Recherche Clinique et de l' Innovation; Charbotel, Barbara [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud Service des Maladies Professionnelles; Fervers, Beatrice [Lyon Univ. (France). Dept. Cancer and Environment

    2017-02-15

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p < 0.01) and intensity (p < 0.05). Bluecollar workers and shift workers experienced also longer exposure duration (p < 0.001). Conversely, managers, workers of large companies, and women were less exposed to CMR agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  5. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havet, Nathalie; Penot, Alexis; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p < 0.01) and intensity (p < 0.05). Bluecollar workers and shift workers experienced also longer exposure duration (p < 0.001). Conversely, managers, workers of large companies, and women were less exposed to CMR agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  6. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  7. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and

  8. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, James T; Keith, Margaret M; Watterson, Andrew; Park, Robert; Gilbertson, Michael; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Beck, Matthias; Abu-Zahra, Hakam; Schneider, Kenneth; Reinhartz, Abraham; Dematteo, Robert; Luginaah, Isaac

    2012-11-19

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case-control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work

  9. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  10. Development and application of non-invasive biomarkers for carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis in occupationally exposed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, G; Cudnik, J; Jaeger, M; Rothman, N; Hayes, R; Bhatnagar, V J; Kayshup, S J

    1996-07-17

    Biological monitoring of exposures to carcinogenic compounds in the workplace can be a valuable adjunct to environmental sampling and occupational medicine. Carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis has promise as a biomarker of effective dose if target organ samples can be obtained non-invasively. We have developed non-invasive techniques using exfoliated urothelial and bronchial cells collected in urine and sputum, respectively. First morning urine samples were collected from 33 workers exposed to benzidine or benzidine-based dyes and controls matched for age, education, and smoking status. Sufficient DNA for 32P-postlabelling analysis was obtained from every sample. Mean levels of a specific DNA adduct (which co-chromatographed with standard characterized by MS) were elevated significantly in the benzidine-exposed workers relative to controls. In addition, workers exposed to benzidine had higher adduct levels than those exposed to benzidine-based dyes. This study demonstrates the usefulness of these non-invasive techniques for exposure/effect assessment. To be useful in occupational studies, biomarkers must also be sensitive to exposure interventions. We have conducted topical application studies of used gasoline engine oils in mice and found that the levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in skin and lung can be significantly lowered if skin cleaning is conducted in a timely manner. The combination of useful, non-invasive techniques to monitor exposure and effect and industrial hygiene interventions can be used to detect and prevent exposures to a wide range of carcinogens including those found in used gasoline engine oils and jet exhausts.

  11. The Weight of Evidence Does Not Support the Listing of Styrene as “Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen” in NTP's Twelfth Report on Carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R.; Goodman, Julie E.; Prueitt, Robyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Styrene was listed as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” in the twelfth edition of the National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens based on what we contend are erroneous findings of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, and supporting mechanistic data. The epidemiology studies show no consistent increased incidence of, or mortality from, any type of cancer. In animal studies, increased incidence rates of mostly benign tumors have been observed only in certain strains of one species (mice) and at one tissue site (lung). The lack of concordance of tumor incidence and tumor type among animals (even within the same species) and humans indicates that there has been no particular cancer consistently observed among all available studies. The only plausible mechanism for styrene-induced carcinogenesis—a non-genotoxic mode of action that is specific to the mouse lung—is not relevant to humans. As a whole, the evidence does not support the characterization of styrene as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen,” and styrene should not be listed in the Report on Carcinogens. PMID:23335843

  12. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-05

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  13. Review of carcinogenicity of hexavalent chrome and proposal of revising approval standards for an occupational cancers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungwon; Seo, Sangyun; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to suggest revised recognition standards for occupational disease due to chromium (VI) by reflecting recent domestic and international research works and considering domestic exposure status with respect to target organs, exposure period, and cumulative exposure dose in relation to the chromium (VI)-induced occupational disease compensation. In this study, the reports published by major international institutions such as World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2012), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2006), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2013), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (2004), National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2014), and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) (2012) were reviewed and the recent research works searched by PubMed were summarized. Considering the recent research works and the domestic situation, only lung cancer is conserved in the legislative bill in relation to chromium (VI), and the exposure period is not included in the bill. Nasal and paranasal sinus cancer was excluded from the list of cancers that are compensated as the chromium (VI)- induced occupational disease, while lung cancer remains in the list. In the view of legislative unity, considering the fact that only the cancers having sufficient evidence are included in the conventional list of cancers compensated as occupational disease, nasal and paranasal sinus cancer having limited evidence were excluded from the list.The exposure period was also removed from the legislative bill due to the insufficient evidence. Recent advices in connection with cumulative exposure dose were proposed, and other considerable points were provided with respect to individual occupational relevance. It is suggested that the current recognition standard which is "Lung cancer or nasal and paranasal sinus cancer caused by exposure

  14. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals

  15. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  16. [To-day exposure to occupational carcinogens and their effects. The experience of the rubber industry, iron metallurgy, asphalt work and aviculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2009-01-01

    While the progressive improvement of hygiene situations in the workplaces has taken to a reduction of chemical carcinogens exposure, in recent years in Italy the number of compensated occupational cancer resulting from carcinogens exposures of distant decades, has been increasing. Nevertheless, several experiences suggest that the proportion of occupational cancers unrecognised and not notified, as required by law, still remains important. This contribution concerns some experiences, performed between 2004-2008 by the Local Occupational Health Service (SPSAL) located in a highly industrialised province, on the working sector of rubber, iron and steel industry, the asphalt working and the poultry stock-breeders. This work concerns the following issues: - the evaluation of carcinogens exposure; - technical preventive measures and personal protection; - the level of workers' information and formation and the registration of exposed workers; - the characterization of work-related cancer. The results of the 5 years of activity allow us to underline that, in the most of 49 plants involved in the study, the carcinogens exposure evaluation and the prevention and protection measures were lacking. Information of workers was largely deficient and the registration of exposed workers was absent. A major attention to detect and to evaluate the work-related cancer has allowed us to recognize 50 new cases in the iron-steel industries and 21 new cases in a rubber industry. Although this experience concerns only few occupational fields, it provides the basis to call for a greater commitment of SPSAL addressed to companies and general practitioners to both, the promotion and surveillance of the correct procedures of carcinogens exposure evaluation and his prevention, and the active detection of occupational cancer, still missing.

  17. Royal Order of 28 March 1969 listing occupational diseases giving rise to compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Royal Order, made in implementation of the Act of 24 December 1963 on compensation for damage resulting from occupational diseases and prevention thereof, as amended by an Act fo 24 December 1968, lists the occupational diseases giving rise to compensation and includes those caused by ionizing radiations. The Order came into force on 1 July 1969 and repealed a previous Order of 18 January 1964 which laid down a first list of such diseases giving rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  18. Prioritising action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: a socioeconomic and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, J W; Hutchings, S; Gorman Ng, M; Mistry, R; Corden, C; Lamb, J; Sánchez Jiménez, A; Shafrir, A; Sobey, M; van Tongeren, M; Rushton, L

    2017-07-11

    Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment. The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits. It was estimated that if no action is taken there will be >700 000 attributable cancer deaths over the next 60 years for the substances assessed. However, there are only seven substances where the data suggest a clear benefit in terms of avoided cancer cases from introducing a binding limit at the levels considered. Overall, the costs of the proposed interventions were very high (up to [euro ]34 000 million) and the associated monetised health benefits were mostly less than the compliance costs. The strongest cases for the introduction of a limit value are for: respirable crystalline silica, hexavalent chromium, and hardwood dust.

  19. Renal Effects and Carcinogenicity of Occupational Exposure to Uranium: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard Stammler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Uranium is a heavy metal with alpha radioactivity. We state the hypothesis that uranium exposure is harmful to human kidneys and carcinogenic to body tissues. Therefore, we review epidemiological studies from people with known long-lasting uranium exposure. Materials and Methods: Three meta-analyses are performed using clinical studies published in the PubMed database and applying RevMan 5.3 from the Cochrane Collaboration to calculate the outcome. The first two meta-analyses examine the standardized mortality ratio (SMR and the standardized incidence ratio for any cancers of uranium workers who were operating in areas ranging from uranium processing to the assembly of final uranium products. The third meta-analysis evaluates the nephrotoxic risk in uranium workers as well as soldiers and of individuals with exposure to drinking water containing uranium. Results: Overall and contrasting to our hypothesis, the tumor risk is significantly lower for uranium workers than for control groups (SMR = 0.90 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.84 to 0.96. In addition and also contrasting to our hypothesis, the risk of nephrotoxicity is not increased either. This holds for both the incidence and the mortality due to renal cell carcinoma or due to acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. In contrast, a significantly better creatinine clearance is found for the uranium cohort as compared to the control groups (mean difference = 7.66 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 15.2. Conclusion: Our hypothesis that a chronic uranium exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality or of kidney failure is refuted by clinical data. The decreased risk may result from better medical surveillance of uranium workers.

  20. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the 32 P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG)

  1. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  2. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P

    1997-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  3. Method of risk estimates for genetic, leukemogenic and carcinogenic effects from medical and occupational exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-12-01

    For the risk estimate of fatal malignancies, an effective dose was proposed on the basis of the assumption that the risk should be equal whether the whole body irradiated uniformly or whether there is non-uniform irradiation. The effective dose was defined by the product of organ or tissue doses and a weighting factor representing the proportion of risk factor for a fatal malignancy resulting from organ or tissue irradiation to the total malignant factor. The risk of malignancies can be derived by multiplying the malignant significant factor by the product of the risk factor and the effective dose. For the genetic risk, a significant factor was a relative child expectancy and organ or tissue doses were gonad doses. And, for the leukemogenic risk, a significant factor was the leukemia significant factor and organ or tissue dose was mean bone marrow dose. The present method makes it easy to estimate the risk for individuals and population from medical and occupational exposures. The variation with age and sex of risk rates for stochastic effects was discussed, and the present data on risk rates were compared with the variation of risk rates recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  4. The Impact of an AirBnb Host's Listing Description 'Sentiment' and Length On Occupancy Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Richard Diehl; Carrington, Anthony; Kuo, Tiffany; Tarhuni, Lena; Abdel-Motaal, Nour Adel Zaki

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant literature regarding the way product review sentiment affects brand loyalty. Intrigued by how natural language influences consumer choice, we were motivated to examine whether an AirBnb host's occupancy rate (how often their listing is booked out of the days they indicated their listing was available) can be determined by the perceived sentiment and length of their description summary. Our main goal, more generally, was to determine which features, including (but no...

  5. Priority Setting for Occupational Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting priority occupational carcinogens is important for cancer prevention efforts; however, standardized selection methods are not available. The objective of this paper was to describe the methods used by CAREX Canada in 2015 to establish priorities for preventing occupational cancer, with a focus on exposure estimation and descriptive profiles. Methods: Four criteria were used in an expert assessment process to guide carcinogen prioritization: (1 the likelihood of presence and/or use in Canadian workplaces; (2 toxicity of the substance (strength of evidence for carcinogenicity and other health effects; (3 feasibility of producing a carcinogen profile and/or an occupational estimate; and (4 special interest from the public/scientific community. Carcinogens were ranked as high, medium or low priority based on specific conditions regarding these criteria, and stakeholder input was incorporated. Priorities were set separately for the creation of new carcinogen profiles and for new occupational exposure estimates. Results: Overall, 246 agents were reviewed for inclusion in the occupational priorities list. For carcinogen profile generation, 103 were prioritized (11 high, 33 medium, and 59 low priority, and 36 carcinogens were deemed priorities for occupational exposure estimation (13 high, 17 medium, and 6 low priority. Conclusion: Prioritizing and ranking occupational carcinogens is required for a variety of purposes, including research, resource allocation at different jurisdictional levels, calculations of occupational cancer burden, and planning of CAREX-type projects in different countries. This paper outlines how this process was achieved in Canada; this may provide a model for other countries and jurisdictions as a part of occupational cancer prevention efforts. Keywords: cancer prevention, carcinogen exposure, occupational health

  6. Identification and monitoring of non-radiological carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui, C A; Petkau, A; Greenstock, C L; Brown, C P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the feasibility of identifying and monitoring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in the workplace at Canadian nuclear establishments (Whiteshell Laboratories, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Cameco Limited and Canadian General Electric Company Limited). Recent epidemiological studies recommended that potential confounding factors of a non-radiological nature be identified and analyzed, particularly non-radiological carcinogens that may be present in the workplace at nuclear facilities. The feasibility of identifying and measuring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in Canadian nuclear facilities is examined. Also, the report describes the problem of chemical carcinogens and the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis; the epidemiology related to the problem, followed by a description of the analytical aspects of detection, monitoring and analysis of carcinogens, as well as a discussion on the regulatory aspects and the regulations in place; and the findings, recommendations and concluding remarks of this study. Several problem areas became apparent as the study proceeded. For example, the classification of a chemical as a human carcinogen is a difficult problem, as is its adequate monitoring and analysis. This situation reflects, in turn, the regulatory aspects in the workplace. A list of chemical carcinogens used industrially at the four Canadian nuclear facilities has been identified. The list includes arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, beryllium, nickel, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and trichloroethylene. Several recommendations are made in relation to the need for practical and efficient monitoring methods for chemical carcinogens, the definition of radiation and chemical dose equivalencies, and the classification of human chemical carcinogens, as well as their disposal. (author). 122 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Identification and monitoring of non-radiological carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, C.A.; Petkau, A.; Greenstock, C.L.; Brown, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the feasibility of identifying and monitoring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in the workplace at Canadian nuclear establishments (Whiteshell Laboratories, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Cameco Limited and Canadian General Electric Company Limited). Recent epidemiological studies recommended that potential confounding factors of a non-radiological nature be identified and analyzed, particularly non-radiological carcinogens that may be present in the workplace at nuclear facilities. The feasibility of identifying and measuring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in Canadian nuclear facilities is examined. Also, the report describes the problem of chemical carcinogens and the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis; the epidemiology related to the problem, followed by a description of the analytical aspects of detection, monitoring and analysis of carcinogens, as well as a discussion on the regulatory aspects and the regulations in place; and the findings, recommendations and concluding remarks of this study. Several problem areas became apparent as the study proceeded. For example, the classification of a chemical as a human carcinogen is a difficult problem, as is its adequate monitoring and analysis. This situation reflects, in turn, the regulatory aspects in the workplace. A list of chemical carcinogens used industrially at the four Canadian nuclear facilities has been identified. The list includes arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, beryllium, nickel, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and trichloroethylene. Several recommendations are made in relation to the need for practical and efficient monitoring methods for chemical carcinogens, the definition of radiation and chemical dose equivalencies, and the classification of human chemical carcinogens, as well as their disposal. (author). 122 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  9. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belpomme, D.; Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment

  10. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  11. Participation of IPEN in the international program of information about occupational exposure to carcinogen risks; Participacion del IPEN en el programa internacional de informacion sobre exposicion ocupacional de riesgos cancerigenos (CAREX-Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana [Direccion de Servicios, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2014-07-01

    During 2014, the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute participated in the mapping of risks to carcinogens due to occupational exposure for our country through CAREX program because all radioactive substances are considered by the International Agency for Research Cancer as type 1 carcinogens (high risk) and the presence of these substances in the work environment are unknown to professionals from other institutions. This occasion allowed the incorporation of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) as indicators in all work activities that were not considered by the Energy and Mining Sector. (authors).

  12. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Outcomes Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. Results We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1–10 years, 6.2% for 11–20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21–30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Conclusions Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with beginning of exposure. PMID:28939575

  13. The Atlas of Health and Working Conditions by Occupation. 1. Occupational ranking lists and occupational profiles from periodical occupational health survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, J. P.; van Dijk, F. J.; Weel, A. N.; Verbeek, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we describe methods which have been applied in the compilation of the Atlas of Health and Working conditions by Occupation. First, we discuss the need for information systems to identify problems concerning working conditions and health. Such information systems have an exploratory

  14. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueckle, Todd A.; Lu, Yongju; Davis, Mary E.; Wang, Liying; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Holaskova, Ida; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As 2 O 3

  15. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueckle, Todd A., E-mail: tstueckle@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Lu, Yongju, E-mail: yongju6@hotmail.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Davis, Mary E., E-mail: mdavis@wvu.edu [Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wang, Liying, E-mail: lmw6@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Holaskova, Ida, E-mail: iholaskova@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Schafer, Rosana, E-mail: rschafer@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon, E-mail: yrojan@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As{sub 2}O

  16. Listings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-07

    Nursing Standard regrets that it is no longer able to take listings over the telephone because of unprecedented demand. Readers are reminded that the listings section is for the use of charitable and professional organisations, unions and health authorities to publicise forthcoming events. Listings should contain all relevant details and be posted or faxed to Susan Blood-worth, Nursing Standard, Viking House, 17-19 Peterborough Road, Harrotc. Middlesex HA 1 2AX. Fax: 081-423 3867.

  17. Differences in Waiting List Prioritization Preferences of Occupational Therapists, Elderly People, and Persons With Disabilities: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Demers, Louise; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2018-01-01

    To compare the preferences of occupational therapists, elderly people, and adults with disabilities regarding prioritization criteria for occupational therapy waiting lists in home care. Discrete choice experiment survey. Survey mailed to occupational therapists working in home care and community-dwelling elderly or disabled persons. A sample (N=714) of home-based occupational therapists (n=241), elderly persons from a bank of research participants (n=226), and adults with physical disabilities recruited through community organizations (n=247). Not applicable. The dependent variable was whether the referral scenario was prioritized or not in each question. The results were analyzed through logistic regression using conditional logit models. Prioritization preferences differed between groups (Ppeople who had a few falls (odds ratio vs no falls, 48.7), whereas elderly people and adults with disabilities most strongly prioritized people who were unable to enter and exit the home (odds ratio vs no difficulty entering and exiting the home, 30.8 for elderly people and 16.8 for persons with disabilities.) CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the gap between the priorities of home-based occupational therapists and their target clientele. Although further inquiry is needed to inform priority setting, the findings emphasize the importance of public or patient involvement in decisions on waiting list prioritization. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bibliography of selected research reports on occupational medicine in nuclear industry of China (list of subjects, 1958-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qi; Sun Jinkai; Zhang Xuzong; Li Guangyu; Chen Shaojia; Ni Xiangting

    1991-10-01

    A bibliography of 648 research reports on occupational medicine in the past 30 years in nuclear industry is presented. It gives only a list of titles with affiliations. It contains four parts. The first part is on experimental study including internal contamination with radionuclides, radiobiology, radiotoxicology and radiohygiene. The second part focuses on epidemiological investigation including radioepidemiological investigation and on-site investigation of occupational detriment. The third part concentrates on radiation injury clinic, including internal contamination with radionuclides, β-ray skin injury radiohematology, emergency handling for radiation accident, as well as silicosis and lung cancer of uranium miners. And the last part gives space to occupational detriment from non-radiation industrial poisonous materials

  19. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  20. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  1. Changes in cognitive functioning in sick-listed participants in occupational rehabilitation: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Thomas; Skjerve, Arvid; Jensen, Chris; Dittrich, Winand H; Øyeflaten, Irene

    2016-11-01

    Individuals on long-term sick leave attending occupational rehabilitation often complain about impairments in cognitive functions such as memory and attention. Knowledge of cognitive functioning in these individuals is limited. Such knowledge is clinically relevant for improving occupational rehabilitation programmes. The aims of this feasibility study were to assess the methodological design and to investigate changes in memory and attention on participants during occupational rehabilitation. Individuals attending occupational rehabilitation (n = 28) and individuals working full time (n = 25) matched for age, gender, and education participated. The two groups were administered cognitive tests targeting memory and attention and self-reported questionnaires at pre-test and post-test. Outcome measures were speed and accuracy of responses on the cognitive tests and self-reported work ability, subjective health complaints, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. In total, 35% of all invited participants agreed to take part and 93% of these also completed the second test. The mean gain scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group in response latency on simple and choice reaction time and errors in spatial working memory. The results of this study indicate that the motivation of participants to complete testing was high. Improvements in memory and attention were evident in rehabilitation participants indicating that rehabilitation may have an effect on cognitive functions.

  2. Biomarkers for environmental and occupational exposure to aromatic mutagens and carcinogens from emissions of oil shale petrochemistry. Report of the EC PECO programme, project CIPA-CT92-3016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carere, A.; Crebelli, R. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1998-03-01

    Oil shale processing for energy supply and further refining for petrochemistry is an important field of industry in Baltic countries. Estonia possesses the largest oil shale mines and oil shale processing plants of the world. Large scale oil shale extraction and processing lead to extensive environmental pollution and to the release of high levels of aromatic carcinogenic substances in processing plants. In the framework of the `PECO` programme, during 1993-1996, the European Commission funded a research project on biomarkers of environmental and occupational exposure in oil shale petrochemistry. The project gave the opportunity to develop and calibrate several biomarkers of exposure to aromatic carcinogens. The results obtained highlighted the role of blood benzene and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and l-hydroxypyrene as sensitive biomarkers of occupational exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A new promising approach was developed for the analysis of benzene adducts in haemoglobin. This methodology, as well as the {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of nulky adducts in DNA of blood cells of oil shale workers, showed high sensitivity and potential utility in human biomonitoring. Molecular cytogenetic methods based on in situ hybridization showed an exposure related clastogenic, and possibly an eugenic, effect in oil shale workers, demonstrating the potential advantage of new molecular approaches in the cytogenetic surveillance of carcinogen exposure. [Italiano] Gli scisti bituminosi costituiscono una materia prima di importanza prioritaria per l`industria petrolchimica dei paesi baltici. In Estonia, l`estrazione su larga scala degli scisti bituminosi ha prodotto una situazione di degrado ambientale, aggravata dalla emissione di considerevoli quantita` di sostanze cancerogene durante la lavorazione degli scisti negli impianti petrolchimici. Nell`ambito del programma di ricerca `PECO`, nel 1993-1996, l`Unione Europea ha finanziato un progetto

  3. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelatti Umberto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to assess in hospital nurses preparing and/or administering therapy to cancer patients the current level of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, DNA and chromosome damage as cancer predictive effects, and the association between the two. Methods/Design About 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses, who job it is to prepare or handle antineoplastic drugs, and a reference group of about 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses not occupationally exposed to chemicals will be examined simultaneously in a cross-sectional study. All the workers will be recruited from five hospitals in northern and central Italy after their informed consent has been obtained. Evaluation of surface contamination and dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs will be assessed by determining cyclophosphamide on selected surfaces (wipes and on the exposed nurses' clothes (pads. The concentration of unmetabolized cyclophosphamide as a biomarker of internal dose will be measured in end-shift urine samples from exposed nurses. Biomarkers of effect and susceptibility will be assessed in exposed and unexposed nurses: urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; DNA damage detected using the single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay in peripheral white blood cells; micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification (i.e. glutathione S-transferases will also be analysed. Using standardized questionnaires

  4. Sick-listed employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms : burden or routine for the occupational health physician? A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Krol, Boudien; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The two primary objectives of this study were to the assess consultation load of occupational health physicians (OHPs), and their difficulties and needs with regard to their sickness certification tasks in sick-listed employees with severe medical unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

  5. Process evaluation of a blended web-based intervention on return to work for sick-listed employees with common mental health problems in the occupational health setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A blended web-based intervention, "eHealth module embedded in collaborative occupational health care" (ECO), aimed at return to work, was developed and found effective in sick-listed employees with common mental disorders. In order to establish the feasibility of ECO, a process evaluation

  6. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  7. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  8. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  9. Sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: a qualitative focus group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Johnsen, Roar; Fimland, Marius S

    2015-11-27

    Occupational medicine has shifted emphasis from disease treatment to disability rehabilitation and management. Hence, newly developed occupational rehabilitation programs are often generic and multicomponent, aiming to influence the sick-listed persons' perception on return to work, and thereby support the return to work process. The aim of this study was to explore sick-listed persons' experiences with taking part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Twenty-nine adults on sickness benefit or work assessment allowance due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental health disorders participated in this study. They were interviewed in focus groups at the beginning and at the end of a 3.5 week inpatient group-based occupational rehabilitation program in Central Norway. Key elements in the program were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), physical exercise and creating a work-participation plan. The program was mainly group-based including participants with different diagnoses. Data was analyzed according to a phenomenological approach. At the start of the program most participants expressed frustration regarding being sick-listed, external anticipations as well as hindrances towards returning to work, and described hope that the program would provide them with the skills and techniques necessary to cope with health problems and being able to return to work. At the end of the program the participants described that they had embarked upon a long process of increased awareness. This process encompassed four areas; an increased awareness of what was important in life, realizing the strain from external expectations and demands, a need to balance different aspects of life, and return to work as part of a long and complex process. The occupational rehabilitation program induced a perceived meaningful reorientation encompassing several aspects of life. However, the return to work process was described as diffuse

  10. 77 FR 5781 - Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000; Revision to the List of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... of the Department that the listing for the United Lead Company in Middlesex, New Jersey, was duplicative of the listing of the Middlesex Sampling Plant--a DOE facility in New Jersey for which United Lead... indicated below: Removes the United Lead Company in Middlesex, New Jersey, as an AWE facility under EEOICPA...

  11. Adjuvant occupational therapy improves long-term depression recovery and return-to-work in good health in sick-listed employees with major depression: results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Hiske L.; de Vries, Gabe; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether adjuvant occupational therapy (OT) can improve the effectiveness of treatment-as-usual (TAU) in sick-listed employees with major depression. In total, 117 employees sick-listed for a median duration of 4.8 months (IQR=2.6 to 10.1 months) because of major depression were

  12. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  13. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  14. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  15. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  16. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  17. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. © 2013.

  18. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  19. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  20. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  1. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  2. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  3. OSHA Confronts Carcinogens in the Workplace as Inflation Fighters Confront OSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Ilene

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the apparently opposing forces of worker safety, as represented by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and economic inflation spawned by expensive industrial processes needed to limit the emission of carcinogens. (CP)

  4. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  5. Sick-listed employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms: burden or routine for the occupational health physician? A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two primary objectives of this study were to the assess consultation load of occupational health physicians (OHPs, and their difficulties and needs with regard to their sickness certification tasks in sick-listed employees with severe medical unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS. Third objective was to determine which disease-, patient-, doctor- and practice-related factors are associated with the difficulties and needs of the OHPs. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 43 participating OHPs from 5 group practices assessed 489 sick-listed employees with and without severe MUPS. The OHPs filled in a questionnaire about difficulties concerning sickness certification tasks, consultation time, their needs with regard to consultation with or referral to a psychiatrist or psychologist, and communication with GPs. The OHPs also completed a questionnaire about their personal characteristics. Results OHPs only experienced task difficulties in employees with severe MUPS in relation to their communication with the treating physician. This only occured in cases in which the OHP attributed the physical symptoms to somatoform causes. If they attributed the physical symptoms to mental causes, the OHPs reported a need to consultate a psychiatrist about the diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions OHPs experience few difficulties with their sickness certification tasks and consultation load concerning employees with severe MUPS. However, they encounter problems if the diagnostic uncertainties of the treating physician interfere with the return to work process. OHPs have a need for psychiatric expertise whenever they are uncertain about the psychiatric causes of a delayed return to work process. We recommend further training programs for OHPs. They should also have more opportunity for consultation and referral to a psychiatrist, and their communication with treating physicians should be improved.

  6. Blood proteins as carcinogen dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, S.R.; Skipper, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of quantifying exposure to genotoxins in a given individual represents a formidable challenge. In this paper methods which rely on the covalent binding of carcinogens and their metabolites to blood proteins are described. That carcinogens interact with proteins as well as with DNA has been established, although whether protein-carcinogen adducts can result in genetic damage has not been established. It has been shown, however, that the amount of a protein carcinogen adduct formed may be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to a carcinogen. Such a measure presumably is reflective of the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the compound in an exposed individual. Protein adduction may reflect exposure in a time-frame of weeks to months. Thus, protein adduct measurement is a form of human chemical dosimetry. Hemoglobin and albumin are promising candidates for such dosimeters. Hemoglobin has a lifetime of about 120 days in humans; thus, circulating levels of carcinogen-modified hemoglobin will reflect the level of carcinogen exposure during a period of nearly four months. It also possesses some metabolic competence, particularly, the ability to oxidize aromatic hydroxylamines to nitroso compounds which react quite efficiently with sulfhydryl groups. Albumin has a half-life of 20 to 25 days in man. This protein does not possess metabolic capacity other than, perhaps, some esterase activity. In contrast to hemoglobin, though, it is not protected by the erythrocyte membrane and might be the target for a greater number of carcinogens. It is present and is synthesized in the same cells in which the reactive metabolic intermediates of carcinogens are mostly formed - the hepatocytes. Also, albumin has a number of high-affinity binding sites for a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. 25 refs., 1 tab

  7. Night shift work characteristics and occupational co-exposures in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work involving circadian rhythm disruption has been classified by IARC as a probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A. Little is known about co-exposures of the night shift work in occupational settings. The aim of our study was to characterize night shift work systems and industrial exposures occurring in the manufacturing plants in Łódź, Poland, where night shift work system operates, with particular focus on potential carcinogens. Material and Methods: Data on the night shift work systems and hazardous agents were collected through survey performed in 44 enterprises. The identified hazardous agents were checked using the IARC carcinogen list, and the harmonized EU classification of chemical substances. We also examined databases of the Central Register of Data on exposure to substances, preparations, agents and technological processes showing carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in Poland. Results: The most common system of work among studied enterprises employed 3 (8-hour shifts within a 5-day cycle. We identified as many as 153 hazards occurring in the environment of the plants, with noise, carbon monoxide and formaldehyde recorded as the most common ones. Out of these hazards, 11 agents have been classified by IARC to group 1 - carcinogenic to humans, whereas 10 agents have been classified as carcino - gens by the regulation of European Classification of carcinogens. Analysis of the data from the Central Register revealed that 6 plants reported presence of carcinogens in the environment of work. Conclusions: In our study we observed that in none of the workplaces the night shift work was a single exposure. Further epidemiological studies focusing on investigation of health effects of the night shift work should identify occupational co -exposures and examine them as potential confounders.

  8. Carcinogenicity of soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbak, N P

    1970-01-01

    A total of 270 3-mo-old mice, hybrids of the C57BL and CBA strains which are highly susceptible to carcinogens, were painted on the skin (2-3 admin./week) with 3-4 drops of (1) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken near a petroleum refinery with a 3,4 benzpyrene (BP) content of 0.22%; (2) a 0.22% soln of pure BP in benzene; (3) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken from an old residential area of Moscow (BP content 0.0004%); (4) a 0.0004% BP soln in benzene; and (5) pure benzene. Only mice in the first 2 groups developed tumors. In group (1), 8 mice had papillomas, 46 had skin cancer, 1 had a sarcoma and 2 had plasmocytomas. In group (2) all 60 animals had skin cancer. Lung metastases were present at autopsy in 5 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2); in some cases, these tumors were multiple. Lymph node metastases were found in 6 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2). Tumors developed more slowly in group (1) than in group (2).

  9. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P 450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate

  10. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  11. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  12. Occupational cancer. 4. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the fourth, supplementary edition work related cancer illnesses which from 1978 to 1990 were recognized by the Industrial Professional Associations as occupational diseases are described. This covers: Type of occupational disease, organs affected, causal substances, hazardous professions. In addition, for every occupational-disease, detailed data are presented, e.g. latency periods and ages at death. 16 carcinogenic substances and substance classes are considered in this catalogue including ionizing radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  13. [Insurance against occupational cancer in Italy and in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    European and Italian data show a marked under ascertainment of occupational cancers: only a small proportion is recognized, although for the majority of them the etiological fraction attributable to the workplace is high. Since more than 20 years Patronato INCA is active in order to reduce this gap. Its commitment to spread scientific knowledge has paralleled the action intended to make social security rules more favourable to workers, as well as to improve hygiene and safety in the workplace. Particular attention has been given to updating both the Italian list of occupational diseases for which notification is compulsory (which includes all Group I carcinogens according to IARC) and the Italian tables of occupational diseases. The latter are of particular relevance to the Patronato because, within the Italian norms, causality is approached in different terms according to whether a disease is or is not included in the tables. Together with changing the tables, a theoretical elaboration regarding causality, as required by multifactorial diseases such as occupational cancer, has been carried out. Such a constant commitment to bring to the surface occupational diseases is based on the belief that the right to compensation of workers who turned ill because of the work is important, and even more on the belief that identification of occupational diseases is most important for primary prevention.

  14. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  15. Workshop. Assessment of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Genotoxic Substances - a Methodological Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    During the workshop various works concerning radiobiology, environmental and occupational medicine were presented. Exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents, like ionizing radiation, aromatic hydrocarbons, herbicides, pesticides was investigated

  16. Environmental carcinogens and prophylaxis of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1977-01-01

    A short history of a relatively new branch of cancer research, hygienic oncology, is reviewed. Occupational skin tumors (papillomas and even squamous-cell carcinoma) are described not only among chimney-sweepers, but also among the workers of petroleum refineries. Of 512 workers who had prolonged exposure to various petroleum products, 53.2% developed skin carcinoma. Occupational malignant tumors of the respiratory tract are observed among the workers of nickel industries. Workers who experienced prolonged exposure to asbestos had an increased incidence of lung and stomach cancer. To prevent occuptional cancer of the urinary bladder, such carcinogens as 2-napthylamine, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3-dioxybenzidine, and para-amino-azobenzene were banned. Environmental pollution with the products of incomplete fuel combustion, especially with polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates constitutes a hazard to the urban population. The level of benzopyrene (BP) in soil samples taken in different localities averaged 5 microg/kg. Legislatively approved permissible concentrations of BP in the air are 0.1 microg/100 cubic meters, and in the water 0.005 microg/liter. 23 references.

  17. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  18. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  20. Decision Tree of Occupational Lung Cancer Using Classification and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: We found that exposure to lung carcinogens, latency and smoking history were predictive factors of approval for occupational lung cancer. Further studies for work-relatedness of occupational disease are needed.

  1. Banking and Financial Services Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the banking and financial services series. Each occupation is divided into seven or eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been…

  2. SYN-JEM : A Quantitative Job-Exposure Matrix for Five Lung Carcinogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, L??tzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; LavouCrossed Sign, Jcrossed D Signr??me; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Br??ning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of measurement data in occupational exposure assessment allows more quantitative analyses of possible exposure-response relations. We describe a quantitative exposure assessment approach for five lung carcinogens (i.e. asbestos, chromium-VI, nickel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  3. SYN-JEM : A Quantitative Job-Exposure Matrix for Five Lung Carcinogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lützen; Olsson, Ann C.; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; LavouCrossed Sign, Jcrossed D.Signrôme; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The use of measurement data in occupational exposure assessment allows more quantitative analyses of possible exposure-response relations. We describe a quantitative exposure assessment approach for five lung carcinogens (i.e. asbestos, chromium-VI, nickel, polycyclic aromatic

  4. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  5. Mémoire du travail et des expositions professionnelles aux cancérogènes Work account and occupational exposures to carcinogens. Survey in Seine-Saint-Denis (France Memoria del trabajo y de las exposiciones profesionales a agentes cancerígenos. Encuesta en Seine-Saint-Denis (Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Thébaud-Mony

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Selon les estimations officielles, en 2000 environ 32 millions de travailleurs européens (de l’Europe des 15 étaient exposés à des cancérogènes. Depuis 2002, considérant la maladie comme « événement-sentinelle » pour la connaissance des activités de travail exposant aux cancérogènes, le Groupement d’intérêt scientifique sur les cancers d’origine professionnelle (GISCOP93 mène une enquête permanente auprès de patients atteints de cancer en Seine Saint Denis (France. S’appuyant sur les récits recueillis auprès des patients et sur l’expertise des spécialistes en matière d’exposition, une démarche d’analyse et de classement des activités exposées a été réalisée pour l’élaboration d’un répertoire des activités de travail en présence de produits/procédés cancérogènes. L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en perspective cette nouvelle base de données par rapport à quelques sources d’information concernant l’exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, déjà disponibles en ligne, en montrant l’apport d’une méthode de recueil d’information fondée sur l’expérience et la parole des travailleurs.According to official estimates, in the year 2000, approximately 32 million European workers (in Europe 15 were exposed to carcinogens. Since 2002, considering the disease as a "sentinel-event" for understanding the work activities that expose workers to carcinogens, the GISCOP93 research group has been carrying out an ongoing survey on patients with cancer in Seine-Saint-Denis (France. Based on the patients’ narratives and on the expertise of exposure hazard specialists, an analysis and classification of the exposed working activities was carried out to build a new database of work activities in the presence of carcinogenic products/processes. The aim of this article is to present this database in relation to some other sources of information on occupational exposure to carcinogens

  6. Medical care of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems: a cohort study to describe and compare the care of the occupational physician and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Jettinghoff, K; Houtman, I; Schoemaker, C G; Buijs, P C; van den Berg, R

    2006-03-01

    To describe medical management by the general practitioner (GP) and occupational physician (OP) of workers sick listed due to mental health problems, and to determine agreement in diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence and obstacles in return to work. A cohort of 555 employees being sick listed for 12 to 20 weeks due to mental health problems was recruited and followed for 1 year. These employees were interviewed about their mental health and contacts with GP, OP, other specialists and employer. In addition, the GP and/or the OP of 72 employees were interviewed about the medical diagnosis and management. Most employees sick listed for 12-20 weeks visited their GP and OP. According to the employees most interventions applied by the GP were medical interventions, such as referral of employees and prescription of medical drugs. Working conditions were seldom discussed by the GP and work-related interventions were never applied. Most interventions applied by the OP were work-related interventions and/or contact with the employer. The OP more often talked about working conditions and conflicts. According to the employees, the communication between GP and OP only took place in 8% of the cases. Agreement in the diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence, and obstacles in return to work reported by the GPs and OPs of the same employee was poor. In addition, similarity in reported diagnosis by GP and/or OP and the employees' scores on valid questionnaires on (mental) health was limited. The lack of communication and agreement by Dutch GPs and OPs in medical diagnosis and management of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems are indicators of sub-optimal medical treatment and return-to-work strategies.

  7. Occupational Exposure Limits and classification of 25 carcinogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren PCE; Palmen NGM; Dekkers S; SIR; vgc

    2012-01-01

    Grenswaarden voor beroepsmatige blootstelling aan stoffen helpen de blootstelling aan gevaarlijke stoffen op de werkplek te beheersen door de maximale concentratie van een stof (in de lucht) vast te stellen die nog veilig wordt geacht. Deze grenswaarden kunnen worden vastgelegd op Europees niveau,

  8. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  9. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  10. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  11. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  12. Inconsistency... or why differentiate, where prevention is concerned, between radioactive substances and carcinogenic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, R.; Vinit, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracers, low-activity unsealed radioactive sources, and certain chemical products belong to the list of substances and agents known to promote cancers in humans. The dangers of radiotracers and carcinogenic chemicals being very similar, or even identical, it is inadmissible that preventive measures have not been equally developed and are not viewed in the same way in our country. It should be noted that the International Labour Bureau has long since included radioactive products in the list of carcinogenic substances and agents and treated preventive measures as a whole by proceeding in this way it would be easier to account for the possible combined effects of ionising radiations and chemical molecules. After a review of some facts about cancer the present situation is examined with regard to statutory measures applied on the one hand to radioelements and on the other to chemicals recognised as carcinogenic by international organisations. Proposals are made to remedy this illogical situation [fr

  13. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yafei Wang,1,* Hong Su,1,* Yuanliang Gu,1 Xin Song,1 Jinshun Zhao1,2 1Department of Preventative Medicine, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China; 2Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]. Cr(VI, a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V], tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV] or Cr(III via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI and/or Cr(III compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI and Cr(III and chemoprevention with different antioxidants. Keywords: hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, trivalent chromium, Cr(III, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, chemoprevention, antioxidant 

  14. 78 FR 67372 - Evaluation of Trichloroethylene for the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Nominations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Trichloroethylene for the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Nominations of Scientific Experts for Proposed Webinar... association of exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and cancer. DATES: The deadline for receipt of nominations.../Trichloroethylene.pdf ). The NTP selected TCE for evaluation to determine whether a change in its listing status in...

  15. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Twenty-nine (69.0%) [95% CI: 47.0 – 75.0] participants could smell the carcinogenic chemicals they use. Thirty. (71.4%) [95% CI: 65.0 – 77.0] participants had been instructed in the use of protective equipment against carcinogens. Participants used preventive devices like hand gloves, laboratory coats, ...

  16. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  17. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  18. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Humans can prevent themselves from a number of workplace and environmental carcinogens. ... Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on carcinogen exposure in the workplace and environment through trained field staff from volunteers after gaining informed ...

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION CARCINOGENIC POTENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humans comes primarily from occupational studies of workers following inhalation ... Rats given 50 or 150 mg/kg per day of benzo(a)pyrene orally for four days showed ... exposed by inhalation to 7.7 mg/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene dust for 2 h/day, five days .... and the toxic effects of different compounds in a mixture are additive.

  20. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  1. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  2. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  3. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and early effects.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens that have been most extensively developed are those for genotoxic agents and for compounds that generate hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radical species, and it is...

  4. Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, H.J.; van Kreijl, C.F.; Hrubec, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter results of oxidation treatments with chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and ultraviolet (UV), with respect to their effects on activity (Ames test) in drinking water supplies are reviewed. In addition, the authors present the preliminary results of a pilot plant study on the effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on mutagenicity. Furthermore, results of several carcinogenicity studies performed with organic drinking water concentrates are discussed in relation to the results of a Dutch carcinogenicity study with mutagenic drinking water concentrates

  5. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  6. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  7. Career listings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-12

    Nursing Standard regrets that it is no longer able to take listings over the telephone because of unprecedented demand. Readers are reminded that the listings section is for the use of charitable and professional organisations, unions and health authorities to publicise forthcoming events.

  8. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-12-20

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  9. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  10. Occupancy and Occupants’ Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Carlucci, Salvatore; Andersen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    to study, measure, and ultimately model. The categories are physiological, individual, environmental, and spatial adjustments. Third, a list of adaptive and non-adaptive triggers together with contextual factors that could influence occupant behavior is presented. Individual elements are further grouped...... into physical environmental, physiological, psychological, and social aspects. Finally, a comprehensive table of studies related to occupant behavior and the corresponding significant and non-significant predictors, based on an extensive literature review, is shown. This table highlights areas of research where......Occupants’ presence and actions within the built environment are crucial aspects related to understanding variations in energy use. Within this chapter, first, a nomenclature for the field of research dealing with occupants in buildings is defined. This nomenclature distinguishes between occupants...

  11. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and kidney cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, S.; Lan, Q.; Rothman, N.; Stewart, P.A.; Lee, K.M.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Moore, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inconsistent epidemiological findings, debate over interpretation, and extrapolation of findings from animal studies to humans have produced uncertainty surrounding the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure in occupational settings. We updated meta-analyses of published

  12. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  13. Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, S

    2009-11-01

    Recent reviews and reports of cancer incidence and mortality in firefighters conclude that they are at an increased risk of a number of cancers. These include leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, male breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, urinary bladder, testes, and thyroid. Firefighters are exposed to a long list of recognized or probable carcinogens in combustion products and the presumed route of exposure to these carcinogens is by inhalation. Curiously, respiratory system cancers and diseases are usually not increased in firefighters as they are in workers exposed to known inhaled carcinogens. The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified.

  14. A comprehensive list of asthmagens to inform health interventions in the Australian workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crewe, Julie; Carey, Renee; Glass, Deborah; Peters, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Tim; Fritschi, Lin

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a comprehensive list of asthmagens which may occur in occupational settings in Australia. METHODS: Potential asthmagens considered for this list were identified through work health and safety classification databases in Australia and through lists developed by professional

  15. Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during highway pavement construction in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostinelli, Jacopo; Madeo, Egidio; Toraldo, Emanuele; Sarnico, Michela; Luzzana, Giorgio; Tomasi, Cesare; De Palma, Giuseppe

    2018-06-09

    We performed a cross-sectional study with the main aim of evaluating occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers involved in the pavement construction of a new highway in Northern Italy, where modified bitumen was used as binder for Hot Mix Asphalt. We applied a combined approach of air and biological monitoring. Both the aerosol and vapour phases of bitumen were collected applying the NIOSH 5506 method. The 16 PAHs listed as high priority by EPA were determined by HPLC-UV. End-of-shift urine samples were collected from 144 workers to determine 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP) concentrations after enzyme digestion and HPLC-UV analysis. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information was collected by a questionnaire. Paving workers were actually exposed to PAHs, including carcinogenic compounds, that were measurable only in the aerosol phase. Higher exposure as well as dose levels were measured for the paver group. Biological monitoring confirmed that 1-OHP was less affected by smoking habits as compared to 2-NAP and showed a higher association with occupational exposure. Carcinogenic PAH compounds were detectable only in the aerosol phase and this must be taken into account in the adoption of preventive measures. Biomonitoring supported the superiority of 1-OHP as compared to 2-NAP in assessing the internal dose in such workers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Proposed changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1997-12-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values. This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these Categories--IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB--be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to conform with EU regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, it is now proposed that these three categories be supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not convey a significant risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. It is proposed that chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures be classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed will be classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented. The proposed changes in classifying carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are presented for further discussion.

  17. Methodology in use for the assessment of carcinogenic risk. II. Radiation. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Assessment of carcinogenic risk from environmental and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation used for medical diagnosis or treatment; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation following nuclear bomb explosions; Comparison of risk from radiation sources with risk from nonradiation sources; Experimental studies to assess risk of carcinogenesis following exposure to ionizing radiation; Theoretical aspects of dose-response relationships in the assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; Public policy and standards for acceptable risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; General reviews on the assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiation

  18. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  19. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence.

  20. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  1. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  2. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  3. Carcinogenic effects of radiation-introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The weight of experimental evidence reviewed indicates that UV damage to DNA, probably pyrimidine dimers, is the best molecular candidate for the initiating damage that leads to skin cancer. It is postulated that the carcinogenic action spectrum should be similar to the DNA action spectrum filtered through the upper layer of skin

  4. QSAR pre-screen of 70,983 substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the EU FP7 project ChemScreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and (limited) developmental toxicity was included in the project. Predictions for estrogenic and anti...... algorithms were applied to combine the predictions from the individual models to reach overall predictions for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and developmental toxicity. Furthermore, the full list of REACH pre-registered substances (143,835) was searched for substances containing certain...

  5. Assessment of predictivity of volatile organic compounds carcinogenicity and mutagenicity by freeware in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lília Ribeiro; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Côrtes, Juliana Alves; Lione, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas; Castro, Helena Carla; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-12-01

    The application of in silico methods is increasing on toxicological risk prediction for human and environmental health. This work aimed to evaluate the performance of three in silico freeware models (OSIRIS v.2.0, LAZAR, and Toxtree) on the prediction of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of thirty-eight volatile organic compounds (VOC) related to chemical risk assessment for occupational exposure. Theoretical data were compared with assessments available in international databases. Confusion matrices and ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model. All three models (OSIRIS, LAZAR and Toxtree) were able to identify VOC with a potential carcinogenicity or mutagenicity risk for humans, however presenting differences concerning the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The best predictive performances were found for OSIRIS and LAZAR for carcinogenicity and OSIRIS for mutagenicity, as these softwares presented a combination of negative predictive power and lower risk of false positives (high specificity) for those endpoints. The heterogeneity of results found with different softwares reinforce the importance of using a combination of in silico models to occupational toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EPA's evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several international agencies have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a subdivision of the World Health Organization (WHO), determined that glyphosate was a probable carcinogen (gro...

  7. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  8. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  9. Detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.C.; Yuspa, S.H.; Weinstein, I.B.; Blobstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Covalent binding of carcinogen to nucleic acids is believed to be an essential component of the carcinogenic process, so it is desirable to have highly sensitive and specific methods for detecting such adducts in cells and tissues exposed to known and suspected carcinogens. A radioimmunoassay is here described capable of detecting nanogram amounts of DNA adducts resulting from the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its activated N-acetoxy derivative. (author)

  10. Developments in assessing carcinogenic risks from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this volume have ranged widely over theoretical, experimental, and epidemiologic topics relating to radiation carcinogenesis. The multistage character of carcinogenesis, emphasis on the ease with which the initial event occurs in contrast to the infrequency of carcinogenic expression, the role of cell repair, and factors that may influence expression were major themes of the theoretical and experimental papers. The elegance of the cell transformation tool was illustrated in reviews of experimental work dealing with the exposure and environmental variables that influence radiation-induced transformation, among them the intracellular environment. Arguments were advanced for the view that more than one cell must be affected by radiation if a critical event is to occur. The relative congruence of carcinogens and clastogens was noted, and the suggestion made that the rules governing the induction of chromosomal aberrations by ionizing may apply to radiation carcinogenesis as well

  11. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  12. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  13. Recent developments in carcinogenic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Murdoch, D.; Withey, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, recent developments in the quantitative assessment of carcinogenic risks based on toxicological and epidemiological data are reviewed. In particular, model-free approaches to low-dose risk assessment which involve only the assumption of low-dose linearity are considered. Measures of carcinogenic potency which avoid the need to extrapolate to low doses are also described. The allometric bases for converting risk estimates between species are then discussed. Pharmacokinetic models for determining the dose delivered to the target tissue are examined, and the implications of using such models in extrapolating between doses, of exposure, and species are examined. The application of these concepts in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis is illustrated by means of brief case studies of methylene chloride and Rn. Biologically motivated cancer models based on the initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis are discussed and compared with the classical multistage model. The estimation of risks with time-dependent exposure patterns is considered, and conditions under which the use of a time-weighted average dose is appropriate are identified. Finally, the estimation of carcinogenic risks posed by exposure to complex mixtures is explored. 92 references

  14. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  15. Metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P; Fuscoe, James C; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction.

  16. Advances in Carcinogenic Metal Toxicity and Potential Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeyaporn Koedrith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system’s ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-κB, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression.

  17. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  18. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM mice (50 mice/sex/group were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  20. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  1. Carcinogen-induced damage to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.; Altamirano, M.; Bose, K.; Sklar, R.; Tatsumi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Human cells respond to carcinogen-induced damage in their DNA in at least two ways. The first response, excision repair, proceeds by at least three variations, depending on the nature of the damage. Nucleotide excision results in relatively large repair patches but few free DNA breaks, since the endonuclease step is limiting. Apurinic repair is characterized by the appearance of numerous breaks in the DNA and by short repair patches. The pathways behave as though they function independently. Lymphoic cells derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C patient are deficient in their ability to perform nucleotide excision and also to excise 6 methoxyguanine adducts, but they are apurinic repair competent. Organisms may bypass damage in their DNA. Lymphoblastoid cells, including those derived from xeroderma pigmentosum treated with 3 H-anti-BPDE, can replicate their DNA at low doses of carcinogen. Unexcised 3 H is found in the light or parental strand of the resulting hybrid DNA when replication occurs in medium with BrdUrd. This observation indicates a bypass reaction occurring by a mechanism involving branch migration at DNA growing points. Branch migration in DNA preparations have been observed, but the evidence is that most occurs in BrdUrd-containing DNA during cell lysis. The measurement of the bifilarly substituted DNA resulting from branch migration is a convenient method of estimating the proportion of new synthesis remaining in the vicinity of the DNA growing point. Treatment with carcinogens or caffeine results in accumulation of DNA growing points accompanied by the synthesis of shortened pieces of daughter DNA

  2. Electrochemical methods for monitoring of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barek, J; Cvacka, J; Muck, A; Quaiserová, V; Zima, J

    2001-04-01

    The use of modern electroanalytical techniques, namely differential pulse polarography, differential pulse voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode or carbon paste electrode, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, azo compounds, heterocyclic compounds, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines is discussed. Scope and limitations of these methods are described and some practical applications based on their combination with liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction are given.

  3. Occupational rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Maria M; Slavin, Raymond G

    2003-05-01

    This article aims to define occupational rhinitis, classify its various causes, review the steps in its diagnosis, and describe its nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic principles of management. Occupational rhinitis frequently coexists with asthma but also occurs alone. Although it does not have the same impact as occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis causes distress, discomfort, and work inefficiency. By concentrating on the patient's workplace, the clinician has an opportunity to practice preventive medicine: to recognize substances in the patient's micro- and macroenvironment that are causing the problems and then to intervene by altering the environment or removing the patient from the environment.

  4. Carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: challenging issue on hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Kasai, Tatsuya; Umeda, Yumi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2018-01-25

    This report reviews the carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in experimental animals, concentrating on MWNT-7, a straight fibrous MWCNT. MWCNTs were administered to mice and rats by intraperitoneal injection, intrascrotal injection, subcutaneous injection, intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Intraperitoneal injection of MWNT-7 induced peritoneal mesothelioma in mice and rats. Intrascrotal injection induced peritoneal mesothelioma in rats. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNT-N (another straight fibrous MWCNT) induced both lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma in rats. In the whole body inhalation studies, in mice MWNT-7 promoted methylcholanthrene-initiated lung carcinogenesis. In rats, inhalation of MWNT-7 induced lung carcinoma and lung burdens of MWNT-7 increased with increasing concentration of airborne MWNT-7 and increasing duration of exposure. Straight, fibrous MWCNTs exerted carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Phagocytosis of MWCNT fibers by macrophages was very likely to be a principle factor in MWCNT lung carcinogenesis. Using no-observed-adverse-effect level-based approach, we calculated that the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of MWNT-7 for cancer protection is 0.15 μg/m 3 for a human worker. Further studies on the effects of the shape and size of MWCNT fibers and mode of action on the carcinogenicity are required.

  5. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  6. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  7. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  8. Determination of carcinogenic threshold limit values using the tumorigenic dose rate 50% (TD50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvalot, Y.; Oudiz, A.; Hubert, P.; Abenhaim, L.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for the determination of Occupational Limit Values (OLVs) based on the TD 50 concept (Tumorigenic Dose Rate 50%). The TD 50 concept was introduced by Peto R. and al. to help classify chemical substances according to their carcinogenic potency. The TD 50 is that dose rate (in mg/KXg body weight/day) which, if administered chronically for the standard lifespan of the species will halve the probability of remaining tumorless throughout that period. Using TD 50 values available for 776 substances, the procedure presented here allows one to determine OLVs corresponding to a fixed excess risk. It is based on a mathematical high-to-low doses extrapolation of the TD 50 . OLVs obtained with this procedure are compared with currently available TLVs and other occupational guidelines. (author)

  9. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  10. Human rights in occupational therapy education: A step towards a more occupationally just global society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Emma; Aplin, Tammy; Rodger, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    Education on human rights will place occupational therapists in a strong position to address societal inequities that limit occupational engagement for many client groups. The imminent changes to the Minimum Standard for the Education of Occupational Therapists engender efforts towards social change and will require university-level human rights education. This education might enhance the profession's influence on disadvantaging social structures in order to effect social change. To contribute to the evidence base for social change education in occupational therapy, this research aims to understand the knowledge, skills, confidence and learning experiences of occupational therapy students who completed a human rights course. Final year occupational therapy students responded to questionnaires which included listing human rights, a human rights scale measuring knowledge and confidence for working towards human rights, and open questions. Numbers of rights listed, knowledge scores and confidence scores were calculated. Responses to the open questions were thematically analysed. After completing a human rights course, students had good knowledge and moderate confidence to work with human rights. Three themes were identified including 'learning about human rights', 'learning about structural, societal and global perspectives on occupational engagement' and 'learning how occupational therapists can work with groups, communities and populations: becoming articulate and empowered'. Human rights education fosters the development of occupational therapists who are skilled, knowledgeable, confident and empowered to address occupational injustices, according to these research findings. To develop a more occupationally just global society, education that considers iniquitous social structures and human rights is necessary. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Overview of occupational cancer in painters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Cho, Younmo; Choi, Min; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive consideration is necessary for setting guidelines to evaluate evidence of occupational cancer in painters due to work-related exposure to carcinogens in paint (a phenomenon termed herein as "work-relatedness"). The aim of the present research is to perform a comprehensive review and to suggest criteria for the provision of compensation for occupational neoplasm among painters in Korea. In order to perform a comprehensive review, this study assessed and evaluated scientific reports of carcinogenicities from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC), as well as reviewed the existing literature about occupational exposure among painters in Korea and the epidemiologic investigations of claimed cases of cancer among painters in Korea. The IARC declares that occupational exposures in commercial painting are classified as Group 1 carcinogens for lung cancer and bladder cancer among painters. The epidemiologic studies show consistent causal relationships between occupational exposure in painters and cancers such as lung cancer [meta relative risk: 1.34 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.23-1.41)] and bladder cancer [meta relative risk: 1.24 (95% CIs: 1.16-1.33)]. In reviewing occupational cancer risks for commercial painters, the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC) confirms occupational cancer risks for lung and bladder cancer among commercial painters. According to the IIAC, however, the elevated cancer risks reported in existing literature are not doubled in either lung or bladder cancer in commercial painters relative to the risks of these cancers in the general population. Based on our review of existing Korean articles on the topic, painters are exposed to potential carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, hexavalent chrome, crystalized silica, asbestos, and other agents, and relative levels are estimated within commercial painting processes. However

  12. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  13. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  14. QSAR ligand dataset for modelling mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and rodent carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Five datasets were constructed from ligand and bioassay result data from the literature. These datasets include bioassay results from the Ames mutagenicity assay, Greenscreen GADD-45a-GFP assay, Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE assay, and 2 year rat carcinogenicity assay results. These datasets provide information about chemical mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  15. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  16. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  17. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  18. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 3, 2015 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  19. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  20. NIOH and NIOSH basis for an occupational health standard: Chlorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, B.

    1993-01-01

    Information relevant for assessing potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to chlorobenzene was reviewed and summarized. Topics included physical properties, chemical properties, production levels, industrial uses, occupational exposure levels, toxicokinetics, acute and chronic toxicity, organ system toxicity, immunotoxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, dose/response relationships, and research needs. Studies have indicated that chlorobenzene is absorbed via respiratory and dermal routes and has resulted in headaches, dizziness, somnolence, and dyspeptic disorders in humans chronically exposed. There were no case reports or epidemiological studies available concerned with the potential carcinogenicity of chlorobenzene in humans. There was some limited evidence indicating that the compound is genotoxic and that it may induce hematopoietic toxicity at relatively moderate doses. The author concludes that the central nervous system effects and the hepatotoxic effects should be considered in setting occupational exposure limits

  1. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  2. Occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Coosemans, R.

    1997-01-01

    Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most valuable assets of individuals, communities and countries. Nowadays, new broader approach is promoted, recognizing the fact that occupational health is a key, but not a unique element of workers’ health. Workers health is a public health approach to resolving the health problems of working populations including all determinants of health recognized as targets of risk management. It focuses on primary prevention of occupational an...

  3. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  4. 2004 list of MAK (maximum work place concentration) and BAT (biological workplace tolerance) values; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The MAK value (maximum workplace concentration) is the highest permissible concentration of a working material occurring in the ambient air of the workplace as a gas or vapour or in suspended form which according to the present state of knowledge does not, in general, impair the health of or pose an unreasonable molestation (for example through repulsive odour) to employees even in the case of repeated, long-term exposure, that is as a rule 8 hours daily, assuming an average working week of no more than 40 hours. As a rule, MAK values are quoted as average values over a time period of up to one working day or shift. They are primarily defined in consideration of effect characteristics of the substances in question, but also - as far as possible - of the practical conditions attending the work processes or the exposure patterns which they entail. This is done on the basis of scientifically founded criteria of health protection, not on whether providing such protection is technically or economically feasible. In addition, substances are assessed in terms of carcinogenicity, sensitising effects, any contribution to systemic toxicity following cutaneous resorption, hazards for pregnancy and germ cell mutagenicity and are classified or marked accordingly. The Commission's procedures in assessing substances with respect to these criteria are described in corresponding sections of the MAK and BAT list of values, in the ''Toxicological and occupational medical explanations of MAK values'' and in scientific journals.

  5. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  7. MAK and BAT values list 2013. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2013 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  8. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2015. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  9. Neuropatía compresiva del nervio interoseo posterior a nivel del codo (síndrome de la arcada de frohse: ¿debe incluirse en el listado de enfermedades profesionales? Must the neuropathy compressive of posterior interoseal nerve at the elbow level (arcade of frohse syndrome: be included in the occupational diseases list?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús Regal Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La afectación compresiva del nervio radial se encuentra recogida en el último Listado de Enfermedades Profesionales (LEP, con el código 2F0601. En este apartado no se recoge entre las "principales actividades" capaces de producir afectación del n.radial la compresión de origen laboral más frecuente de este, el síndrome de la Arcada de Frohse (SAF. Objetivos: El objetivo de esta revisión no es solo reflejar que la afectación compresiva del nervio interóseo posterior puede considerarse una Enfermedad Profesional (EP, sino que además debería estar recogida en el actual listado de EP entre las "principales actividades capaces de producir afectación del nervio radial". Metodología: Se han revisado hasta Febrero de 2010 las siguientes bases de datos bibliográficas: Medline, Embase, Cochrane. Resultados: Esta revisión bibliográfica nos permite concluir que: El SAF puede tener un origen laboral (la fibrosis del supinador corto se relaciona con movimientos repetidos de pronación y supinación del antebrazo y esta descrita su mayor prevalencia en determinadas profesiones que realizan estos movimientos. El SAF es la neuropatía compresiva de origen laboral mas frecuente del nervio radial, la más relacionada con los movimientos repetitivos de la mano y antebrazo. La Arcada de Frohse es el lugar más frecuente de compresión del radial. Conclusiones: Por tanto, el SAF puede considerarse una EP, si asocia factores de riesgo laborales suficientes, y debería estar recogido en el LEP por tratarse de la localización más frecuente de compresión de origen laboral del nervio radial.Introduction: The compress affection of radial nerve is included in the last Occupational Diseases List (ODL, with code 2f0601. In this paragraph the Arcade of Frohse syndrome (SAF isn't included among the "main activities" able to induce radial nerve affection, the occupational origin radial nerve compression more frequent. Objectives: The objective

  10. DisLexList

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    DisLexList is a simple analysis script for the generation of lists of lexemes in discourses, and may be used as a tool in discourse analysis (critical and otherwise). DisLexList is, in its current state, able to generate simple word lists and lexeme list based on output from VISL's flat structure...

  11. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  12. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  13. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  14. Validated Competency Task Lists for Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selke-Kern, Barbara E.

    Developed by a project that validated task lists by a variety of teachers and apparel marketing business persons, this guide contains task lists for occupations in the field of apparel and accessories marketing. The guide is organized in three sections. Section 1 includes the following: (1) notes on using the information in the guide; (2) a…

  15. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  16. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  17. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions

  18. Relative potency estimation for synthetic petroleum skin carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J M; Wolf, D A; Clark, B R

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative analysis of skin carcinogenesis data, for the purpose of establishing carcinogenic potency, has been applied to observations obtained from C3H mice exposed continuously to synthetic and natural petroleums. The importance of total polynuclear aromatic (PNA) content to the skin carcinogenic activity of the crude materials was also examined. Of three synthetic petroleums evaluated, all were shown capable of inducing skin neoplasms within a two-year exposure period. U...

  19. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  20. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  1. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  2. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  3. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  4. [Carcinogens exposure risk control: balance and strategies of action within the most emblematic industrial divisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In Italy during the last three decades important changes in employment have occurred. During the '70s, thanks to a variety of factors, the hygiene conditions of work have undergone a process of slow, but gradual improvement, which has not been arrested during the following decades. New legislation, partly deriving from European directives, has been introduced, and processes of outsourcing have moved the most burdensome and pollutants industrial productions to developing countries. Nevertheless, the estimates of the number of exposed (or even potentially so) workers, to carcinogens remain quite high. Currently, in absence of the planned National Information System on Prevention, it is impossible to estimate in how many and which workplaces primary prevention plans and facilities have been already installed. This paper aims to describe the situation related to most occupationally diffused carcinogenic agents: asbestos, wood and crystalline silica dusts, each one for its specificity. It also describes the innovations introduced by the most recent legislation, in particular with regard to the asbestos risk control. Finally, it stresses the need for a reform of the insurance premiums in order to introduce a mechanism for rewarding those employers who implement primary prevention facilities and penalizing those who don't. The economic advantages should gradually cover the cost of risk control technology.

  5. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  6. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  7. Occupational hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Fuchs, Amir; Ronen, Yaël

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis and a critique of the law governing the employment relationship between Israeli employers and Palestinian employees in industries operating in the West Bank. \\ud \\ud Through an analysis of Israeli jurisprudence it highlights the intersection among different areas of law: choice of law, public international law (in particular the law of occupation), and labor law. The article explores the tensions that this intersection creates: first, between the importance t...

  8. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  9. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  10. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  11. Current and new challenges in occupational lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Matteis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects. In addition, the ageing workforce, many of whom have pre-existing respiratory conditions, poses new challenges in terms of the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. Primary preventive interventions aimed to reduce exposure levels in the workplace remain pivotal for elimination of the occupational lung disease burden. To achieve this goal there is still a clear need for setting standard occupational exposure limits based on transparent evidence-based methodology, in particular for carcinogens and sensitising agents that expose large working populations to risk. The present overview, focused on the occupational lung disease burden in Europe, proposes directions for all parties involved in the prevention of occupational lung disease, from researchers and occupational and respiratory health professionals to workers and employers.

  12. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of carcinogens is made.

  13. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  14. Citizen scientist lepidopterists exposed to potential carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Petri J; Vahlberg, Tero; Liesivuori, Jyrki

    2016-05-01

    Lepidopterists use substantial volumes of solvents, such as chloroform, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene, in their traps when collecting faunistic and phenological data. A majority of them are citizen scientists and thus in part not identified by occupational healthcare as being at risk due to solvent handling. We surveyed the extent of solvent use, the frequency and extent of potential exposure and the safety precautions taken in trapping and catch handling by Finnish lepidopterists. Chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane were the most frequently used anaesthetics. Potential for exposure prevailed during trap maintenance and exploration and catch sorting. Adequate protection against vapours or spills was worn by 17% during trap exploration. Subjects completed a median of 100 trap explorations per season. Dermal or mucosal spills were recorded at a median rate of one spill per ten (chloroform) to 20 (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene) trap explorations. Median annual cumulative durations of 8 and 20 h of exposure to chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at levels above odour detection threshold were reported. Subjective adverse findings possibly related solvents had been noticed by 24 (9.8%) lepidopterists. All the events had been mild to moderate. No factor predicting unsafe procedures or adverse reactions was recorded despite thorough statistical testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental Exposure to Workplace Carcinogens and the Risk of Development of Acute Leukemia in Infants. Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Sierra-Ramírez, José Alfredo; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Pérez-Lorenzana, Héctor; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Román-Zepeda, Pedro Francisco; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; González-Ulivarri, Juana Esther; López-Santiago, Norma; Martínez-Silva, Sofía Irene; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Occupational exposure of parents to carcinogens is of great interest in the etiology of leukemias. Evidence of the impact of such exposure on infants or small children is scarce. Here we estimated whether occupational exposure of parents to carcinogens could be a risk factor for leukemias in their children. Cases of acute leukemia (AL) in infants ≤24 months old diagnosed in Mexico City (1998-2013) were included in a population-based, case-control study. Each of the 195 cases was matched with at least one healthy child (n = 369). For each of four exposure windows studied, the degree of exposure to carcinogens was determined for both parents by using a validated occupational exposure index. An unconditional logistic regression was carried out. Odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the overall occupational exposure for parents during the four exposure windows indicated no association with risk of AL in their children. Pre-conception, the OR by the father 0.77 (0.49-1.21), by the mother 1.03 (0.50-2.11); during pregnancy, father 0.66 (0.38-1.15), mother 1.79 (0.46-6.90); during breastfeeding, father 0.75 (0.43-1.30), mother 0.96 (0.21-4.30); and after birth, father 0.74 (0.45-1.22), mother 0.90 (0.24-3.32). The statistical power of the sample size to identify an OR ≥2 and an exposure of ≥10% among controls was 78%. These data support the idea that parents' occupational exposure during any of the periods studied was not a risk factor contributing to the etiology of AL in infants ≤24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  17. Understanding arsenic carcinogenicity by the use of animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Kinoshita, Anna; Shen Jun; Wei Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Yoshida, Kaoru; Kuroda, Koichi; Endo, Ginji; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that human arsenic exposure is associated with increased incidences of bladder, liver, skin, and lung cancers, limited attempts have been made to understand mechanisms of carcinogenicity using animal models. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), an organic arsenic compound, is a major metabolite of ingested inorganic arsenics in mammals. Recent in vitro studies have proven DMA to be a potent clastogenic agent, capable of inducing DNA damage including double strand breaks and cross-link formation. In our attempts to clarify DMA carcinogenicity, we have recently shown carcinogenic effects of DMA and its related metabolites using various experimental protocols in rats and mice: (1) a multi-organ promotion bioassay in rats; (2) a two-stage promotion bioassay by DMA of rat urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis; (3) a 2-year carcinogenicity test of DMA in rats; (4) studies on the effects of DMA on lung carcinogenesis in rats; (5) promotion of skin carcinogenesis by DMA in keratin (K6)/ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) transgenic mice; (6) carcinogenicity of DMA in p53(+/-) knockout and Mmh/8-OXOG-DNA glycolase (OGG1) mutant mice; (7) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in rat liver; (8) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis test; and (9) 2-year carcinogenicity tests of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) in rats. The results revealed that the adverse effects of arsenic occurred either by promoting and initiating carcinogenesis. These data, as covered in the present review, suggest that several mechanisms may be involved in arsenic carcinogenesis

  18. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2017. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  19. Carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimadeev, M M

    1962-01-01

    A review of literature on the carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products are briefly discussed. Many of the products can induce hyperkeratosis, folliculitis, verruca, pulmonary adenoma, skin cancer, etc. Their action is mainly local but they can also be multicentric. Although a number of groups have made chemical analyses of various petroleums and peroleum products, results were generally negative with respect to 3,4-benzypyrene, although 40 to 68 microg/g was found in 1 crude petroleum. At present it appears that much of the carcinogenic action of these materials resides in polycyclic hydrocarbons about which little is known.

  20. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have accumulated more experimental evidences that demonstrated the comparative approaches with human cells will allow us to predict human risk with good accuracy following exposure to toxic chemicals. We also synthesized several carcinogenic DNA adducts, i.e., the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct, 0 6 -methyldeoxyguanosine, 7-methyl- deoxyguanosine and 2-methyl-deoxyguanosine to be used as standards for quantitating DNA adduct formation in carcinogen exposed cells. A simple synthetic method was developed for preparation of the major B[a]p DNA adduct with yields better than those reported. The main accomplishments related to the originally stated objectives are summarized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  2. Mutagenic and carcinogenic structural alerts and their mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plošnik, Alja; Vračko, Marjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-09-01

    Knowing the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals is very important for their hazard (and risk) assessment. One of the crucial events that trigger genotoxic and sometimes carcinogenic effects is the forming of adducts between chemical compounds and nucleic acids and histones. This review takes a look at the mechanisms related to specific functional groups (structural alerts or toxicophores) that may trigger genotoxic or epigenetic effects in the cells. We present up-to-date information about defined structural alerts with their mechanisms and the software based on this knowledge (QSAR models and classification schemes).

  3. Modification of carcinogenic and antitumor radiation effects (biomedical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenchik, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    In the book the data on modification of carcinogenic radiation effects by physiologicaly active compounds (caffeine, hormones, promoters and others) as well as on potentiation of antitumor radiation effects by means of hyperthermia are systematized. It is shown that as a basis of synergetic (superadditive) carcinogenic or antitumor radiation effects combined with other factor can be the inhibiting effects of the latter on the reparation process of radiation-induced DNA injuries. The results of experimental investigations and the data on quantitative analysis can be used as a theoretical basis for improvement of the ways and means of the prophylaxis of tumor diseases as well as for increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy

  4. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  5. Molecular Epidemiology Studies on Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Mutagens and Carcinogens, 1997-1999

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 108, Supplement 1 (2000), s. 57-70 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2000

  6. Cytogenetic analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate occupational exposure to carcinogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Binková, Blanka; Rössner, P.; Šmerhovský, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 149, - (2004), s. 335-344 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2004

  7. Acronym master list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  8. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  9. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J; Aw, T; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia.
METHODS—Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked i...

  10. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  11. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  12. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed. T...

  13. Title III List of Lists -- Data Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This list was prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of the Emergency Planning and...

  14. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  15. Medical Terminology: Suffixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…

  16. Health Occupations Module. The Integumentary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the integumentary system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, objectives (e.g., list and describe the types of glands formed in the skin, and explain the…

  17. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  18. Occupational and Radiological Protection Department - DEPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the activities and purposes of the Occupational and Radiological Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian CNEN. A critical analysis of its situation and expectations are also presented, besides personnel list. (J.A.M.M.)

  19. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  20. DNA repair studies in mouse germ cells exposed to two carcinogens and two non-carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An in vivo test was used to measure induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in the germ cells of male mice exposed to the carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF), and to the noncarcinogens pyrene (PYR) and 4-acetylaminofluorene (4AAF). Early spermatids, a DNA-repair competent stage, were used to test the effects of all chemicals. After chemical treatment and testicular injection of [ 3 H]dThd, sperm were recovered 16 days later from the caudal epididymides (these sperm were in early spermatid stages at the time of treatment) and assayed for the unscheduled incorporation of [ 3 H]dThd using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Exposures of 2AAF ranged from 125 to 1600 mg/kg, 4AAF from 125 to 2000 mg/kg, PYR from 100 to 600 mg/kg, B(a)P from 100 to 400 mg/kg. Chemicals were administered both by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and by gavage. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) was used as a positive control

  1. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  2. Structure alerts for carcinogenicity, and the Salmonella assay system: a novel insight through the chemical relational databases technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, chemical carcinogenicity has been the object of mechanistic studies that have been translated into valuable experimental (e.g., the Salmonella assays system) and theoretical (e.g., compilations of structure alerts for chemical carcinogenicity) models. These findings remain the basis of the science and regulation of mutagens and carcinogens. Recent advances in the organization and treatment of large databases consisting of both biological and chemical information nowadays allows for a much easier and more refined view of data. This paper reviews recent analyses on the predictive performance of various lists of structure alerts, including a new compilation of alerts that combines previous work in an optimized form for computer implementation. The revised compilation is part of the Toxtree 1.50 software (freely available from the European Chemicals Bureau website). The use of structural alerts for the chemical biological profiling of a large database of Salmonella mutagenicity results is also reported. Together with being a repository of the science on the chemical biological interactions at the basis of chemical carcinogenicity, the SAs have a crucial role in practical applications for risk assessment, for: (a) description of sets of chemicals; (b) preliminary hazard characterization; (c) formation of categories for e.g., regulatory purposes; (d) generation of subsets of congeneric chemicals to be analyzed subsequently with QSAR methods; (e) priority setting. An important aspect of SAs as predictive toxicity tools is that they derive directly from mechanistic knowledge. The crucial role of mechanistic knowledge in the process of applying (Q)SAR considerations to risk assessment should be strongly emphasized. Mechanistic knowledge provides a ground for interaction and dialogue between model developers, toxicologists and regulators, and permits the integration of the (Q)SAR results into a wider regulatory framework, where different types of

  3. A Systematic Review of Carcinogenic Outcomes and Potential Mechanisms from Exposure to 2,4-D and MCPA in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine von Stackelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophenoxy compounds, particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, are amongst the most widely used herbicides in the United States for both agricultural and residential applications. Epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to 2,4-D and MCPA may be associated with increased risk non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL, Hodgkin’s disease (HD, leukemia, and soft-tissue sarcoma (STS. Toxicological studies in rodents show no evidence of carcinogenicity, and regulatory agencies worldwide consider chlorophenoxies as not likely to be carcinogenic or unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity. This systematic review assembles the available data to evaluate epidemiologic, toxicological, pharmacokinetic, exposure, and biomonitoring studies with respect to key cellular events noted in disease etiology and how those relate to hypothesized modes of action for these constituents to determine the plausibility of an association between exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA and lymphohematopoietic cancers. The combined evidence does not support a genotoxic mode of action. Although plausible hypotheses for other carcinogenic modes of action exist, a comparison of biomonitoring data to oral equivalent doses calculated from bioassay data shows that environmental exposures are not sufficient to support a causal relationship. Genetic polymorphisms exist that are known to increase the risk of developing NHL. The potential interaction between these polymorphisms and exposures to chlorophenoxy compounds, particularly in occupational settings, is largely unknown.

  4. Medical Terminology: Root Words. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (root words) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to root words, a list of resources needed, procedures for using the module, a list of terminology used in the…

  5. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic

  6. Classification of carcinogenic and mutagenic properties using machine learning method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moorthy, N. S.Hari Narayana; Kumar, Surendra; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    An accurate calculation of carcinogenicity of chemicals became a serious challenge for the health assessment authority around the globe because of not only increased cost for experiments but also various ethical issues exist using animal models. In this study, we provide machine learning...

  7. In vitro transformation: interactions of chemical carcinogens and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPaolo, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of reproducible quantitative in vitro procedures resulting in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells has made possible the separation of events related to the process leading to transformation from secondary events that interfere with the early recognition of transformation. The use of chemical carcinogens on Syrian hamster cell strains results in a dose-response relation consistent with a Poisson distribution, indicating that the transformation phenomenon is inductive. In some circumstances, the joint action or interaction of chemical carcinogens with other agents results in an increased incidence of transformation. The pretreatment of Syrian hamster cells with ionizing radiation (250 R) or alkylating chemicals enhances the frequency of transformation on a cell or colony basis ordinarily obtained with known chemical carcinogens. Pretreatment with non-ionizing irradiation (uv, 254 nm) did not have a similar effect. The two types of irradiation and the alkylating agents reduced the cloning efficiency of the cells. X ray alone produced no transformation; the alkylating chemicals produced transformations infrequently, whereas uv produced a significant number of transformations. The number of transformations associated with uv is increased by pretreatment of the cells by x-irradiation. The enhancement of transformation by x-ray or x-ray-type agents appears to be independent of the type of second carcinogen used

  8. Chemical procedures to detect carcinogenic compound in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Manan T S; Malakahmad A

    2013-01-01

    This review presents chemical methods to detect carcinogenic compound in wastewater. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) and their alternative attached equipments were discussed. The application of each method is elaborated using related studies in the field.

  9. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  10. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  11. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing RadiationR Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  12. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), a limit of 20 ppb or ∼30 μg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB 1 is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of 32 P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made

  13. Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Lisk, D; Fisenne, I; Brunnemann, K D

    1987-12-01

    The oral use of snuff is causatively associated with cancer of the oral cavity. Since most epidemiologic studies to date relate to the long-term use of dry snuff, which has dominated the U.S. smokeless tobacco market in the past, the concentrations of several toxic and carcinogenic agents in the three most popular dry snuff brands have been compared with those in the five most popular moist snuff brands sold in the United States. All eight samples were analyzed for nitrate, alkaloids, polyphenols, volatile carbonyl compounds, lead, cadmium, selenium, and the carcinogenic compounds benzo[a]pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8), polonium-210 (CAS: 13981-52-7), volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs), N-nitrosodiethanolamine (CAS: 1116-54-7), and the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs). Most of the snuff brands were rich in nitrate (greater than or equal to 1.5%), total polyphenols (greater than 2%), and in nicotine (greater than or equal to 1.5%), which is the habituating factor in tobacco use. Concentrations of the VNAs were significantly above the permissible limits set for some food products; the concentrations of the TSNAs in both snuff types exceeded the levels of nitrosamines in other consumer products by at least two to three orders of magnitude. The extremely high levels of the TSNAs in snuff have remained unchanged during the last decade and present the major carcinogenic risk factor for the oral use of snuff. Polonium-210 contributes further to the carcinogenic risk associated with snuff. The chemical-analytical data presented in this study do not indicate marked differences in the carcinogenic potential of moist snuff compared to dry snuff.

  14. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  15. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  16. The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1989-08-01

    New information is available concerning the carcinogenic effects of radiation and the implications for risk assessment and risk management. This information comes from further follow-up of the epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, patients irradiated medically for cancer and allied conditions, and workers exposed in various occupations. In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors the carcinogenic risks are estimated to be somewhat higher than previously, due to the reassessment of the atomic-bomb dosimetry, further follow-up with increase in the number of excess cancer deaths, particularly in survivors irradiated early in life, and changes in the methods of analysis to compute the age-specific risks of cancer. Because of the characteristics of the atomic bomb survivor series as regards sample size, age and sex distribution, duration for follow-up, person-years at risk, and type of dosimetry, the mortality experience of the atomic bomb survivors was selected by the UNSCEAR Committee and the BEIR V Committee as the more appropriate basis for projecting risk estimates for the general population. In the atomic bomb survivors, the dose-effect relationship for overall cancer mortality other than leukemia is consistent with linearity below 3 Gy, while the dose-effect relationship for leukemia, excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, conforms best to a linear-quadratic function. The shape of the dose-incidence curve at low doses still remains uncertain, and the data do not rule out the possible existence of a threshold for an neoplasm. The excess relative risk of mortality from all cancers combined is estimated to be 1.39 per Gy (shielded kerma), which corresponds to an absolute risk of 10.0 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy; the relative risks is 1.41 at 1 Gy (organ-absorbed dose), and an absolute risk of 13.07 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy. 19 refs

  17. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  18. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  19. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, Michel; Goutet, Pierre; Calvez, Olivier; Fontaine, Bernard; Bastos, Henri; Guseva-Canu, Irina; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Pourquet, Michel; Fontaine, Jean-Raymond; Silvente, Eric; Malenfer, Marc; Risse-Fleury, Mathilde; Lepocreau, Antoine; Guimon, Michele; Laine, Patrick; Fares, Nadim; Hermouet, Christine; Chauvet, Claire; Haeflinger, Raphael; Vogel, Laurent; Counil, Emilie; Bertin, Melanie; Thebaud-Mony, Annie; Certin, Jean-Francois; Goutet, Pierre; Brixi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  20. Environmental and occupational interventions for primary prevention of cancer: a cross-sectorial policy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J; Neira, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms "environmental," "occupational," "exposure," "cancer," "primary prevention," and "interventions." To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled "Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention" under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17-18 March 2011. Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens.

  1. [Exposure to metal compounds in occupational galvanic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgiewicz, Jolanta; Domański, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Occupational galvanic processes are provided in more than 600 small and medium enterprises in Poland. Workers who deal with galvanic coating are exposed to heavy metal compounds: tin, silver, copper and zinc. Some of them are carcinogenic, for example, hexavalent chromium compounds, nickel and cadmium compounds. Research covered several tens of workstations involved in chrome, nickel, zinc, tin, silver, copper and cadmium plating. Compounds of metals present in the air were determined: Cr, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ag--by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) and Zn--by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (F-AAS). The biggest metal concentrations--of silver and copper--were found at workstations of copper, brass, cadmium, nickel and chrome plating, conducted at the same time. Significant concentrations of copper were found at workstations of maintenance bathing and neutralizing of sewage. The concentrations of metals did not exceed Polish MAC values. MAC values were not exceeded for carcinogenic chromium(VI), nickel or cadmium, either. In galvanic processes there was no hazard related to single metals or their compounds, even carcinogenic ones. Combined exposure indicators for metals at each workstation did not exceed 1, either. However, if there are even small quantities of carcinogenic agents, health results should always be taken into consideration.

  2. NEG and NIOSH basis for an occupational health standard: 2-diethylaminoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toren, K.

    1996-05-01

    Health effects associated with occupational exposure to 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) were reviewed as part of the agreement between NIOSH and the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals to exchange information and expertise in the area of occupational safety and health to provide a scientific basis for the establishment of recommended occupational exposure limits. The occurrence, use, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, immunotoxicity and organ systems, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects of DEAE were reviewed. Three reports of clusters of cases associated with DEAE exposure were described, as were studies examining the dose response relationship of DEAE in humans and experimental animals.

  3. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  4. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  5. Relevance of urinary 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene to assess exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Damien; Persoons, Renaud; Marques, Marie; Hervé, Claire; Laffitte-Rigaud, Gilbert; Maitre, Anne

    2014-06-01

    In metallurgy, workers are exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in which some compounds are carcinogenic. Biomonitoring of PAH exposure has been performed by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene which is not carcinogenic. This study investigated the use of 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), a metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) which is the main carcinogenic component in PAHs, to improve carcinogen exposure assessment. We included 129 metallurgy workers routinely exposed to PAHs during working hours. Urinary samples were collected at three sampling times at the beginning and at the end of the working week for 1-OHP and 3-OHBaP analyses. Workers in anode production showed greater exposure to both biomarkers than those in cathode or silicon production, with respectively, 71, 40, and 30% of 3-OHBaP concentrations exceeding the value of 0.4 nmol mol(-1) creatinine. No difference was observed between the 3-OHBaP levels found at the end of the penultimate workday shift and those at the beginning of the last workday shift. Within these plants, the 1-OHP/3-OHBaP ratios varied greatly according to the workers' activity and emission sources. Using linear regression between these two metabolites, the 1-OHP level corresponding to the guidance value for 3-OHBaP ranged from 0.7 to 2.4 µmol mol(-1) creatinine, depending on the industrial sector. This study emphasizes the interest of monitoring urinary 3-OHBaP at the end of the last workday shift when working week exposure is relatively steady, and the irrelevance of a single guideline value for 1-OHP when assessing occupational health risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. A Review of the Carcinogenic Potential of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seachrist, Darcie D; Bonk, Kristen W.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of “carcinogen” put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties. PMID:26493093

  7. Retraction: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (Emf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This retracts the article "EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF" on page 245. The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal ofBasic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: “Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF” published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3:245-50.After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  8. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  9. Mammalian cell transformation: Mechanisms of carcinogenesis and assays for carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.C.; Tennant, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains nine sections, each consisting of several papers. The section titles are: Molecular Changes in Cell Transformation; Differentiation, Growth Control, and Cell Transformation; Mutagenesis and Cell Transformation; Tumor Promotion and Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Transformation of Human Fibroblasts; Mechanisms of Transformation of Epithelial Cells; Mechanisms of C 3 H 10T12 Cell Transformation; Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Cell Transformation; and Use of Cell Transformation Assays for Carcinogen Testing

  10. Carcinogenic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbons on man and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1976-03-01

    Basic facts are reported on the carcinogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) towards humans and animals. Benzyprene (BP) is taken as a standard indicator for PAH. Studies of the distribution of BP in atmosphere, hydrosphere, in soil, in plants, and in animals led to an understanding of the accumulation and breakdown of this chemical. On this basis, safety limits were set as a prophylactic measure.

  11. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  12. ACQUISITIONS LIST, MAY 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS ACQUISITIONS LIST IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF EDUCATION. OVER 300 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING MAINLY FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) ACHIEVEMENT, (2) ADOLESCENCE, (3) CHILD DEVELOPMENT, (4)…

  13. Course Resource Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Robert G.

    The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

  14. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  15. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  16. Problems related to the carcinogenic impact of radon and daughters, as a source of exposure of population and underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, A.; Vasilev, G.; Vyrbanov, P.

    1998-01-01

    The population radiation exposure to radon and its daughters is a specific problem. In real conditions, ling irradiation in some population groups exceeds the allowable limit of occupational exposure for A category, but no increase in carcinogenesis is observed. At the same time, a correlation between dose and incidence of lung cancer is recorded in underground miners. There are various explanations of these effects, but a number of questions are still disputable. Thus in ICRP publication 60, for evaluation of radon irradiation exposure expressed in WLM is used, rather than effective dose. Epidemiological data are published, questioning the use of the linear non-threshold model for the carcinogenic impact of radon, as well as the role of some accompanying factors, such as smoking (author)

  17. MAK and BAT values list 2016. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2016 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  18. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  19. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  20. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  1. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  2. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  3. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  4. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  5. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  6. List of publications 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A list is given of reports, articles published in or submitted to journals, theses, conference papers, patents and reports only for internal use, published by the Nuclear Research Institute staff in 1988

  7. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  8. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  9. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). There is evidence that certain cyanobacterial toxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; however, the mechanisms of their potential carcinogenicity are not well understood. The most frequently occurring and widespread cyanotoxins in brackish and freshwater blooms are the cyclic heptapeptides, i.e., microcystins (MCs), and the pentapeptides, i.e., nodularins (NODs). The main mechanism associated with potential carcinogenic activity of MCs and NOD is the inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to the hyperphosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is considered to be associated with their tumor-promoting activity. Apart from this, MCs and NOD induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species and, consequently, oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence that MCs and NOD induce micronuclei, and NOD was shown to have aneugenic activity. Both cyanotoxins interfere with DNA damage repair pathways, which, along with DNA damage, is an important factor involved in the carcinogenicity of these agents. Furthermore, these toxins increase the expression of TNF-α and early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes, genes involved in the response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Rodent studies indicate that MCs and NOD are tumor promotors, whereas NOD is thought to have also tumor-initiating activity. Another cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which has been neglected for a long time, is lately being increasingly found in the freshwater environment. The principal mechanism of its toxicity is the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. It is pro

  10. IARC monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.

  11. Annual report on occupational safety 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This report presents information on occupational safety relating to the Company's employees for the year 1985, and compares data with figures for the previous year. The following headings are listed: principle activities of BNFL, general policy and organisation, radiological safety, including whole body, skin and extremity, and internal organ doses, non-radiological safety, incidents reportable to the health and safety executive. (U.K.)

  12. Occupational and environmental exposures and cancers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a decline in cancers attributable to environmental and occupational carcinogens of asbestos, arsenic, and indoor and outdoor air pollution in high-income countries. For low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), however, these exposures are likely to increase as industrialization expands and populations grow. The aim of this study was to review the evidence on the cancer risks and burdens of selected environmental and occupational exposures in less-developed economies. A causal association has been established between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma and lung cancer. For arsenic exposure, there is strong evidence of bladder, skin, lung, liver, and kidney cancer effects. Women are at the highest risk for lung cancer due to indoor air pollution exposure; however, the carcinogenic effect on the risk for cancer in children has not been studied in these countries. Cancer risks associated with ambient air pollution remain the least studied in LMICs, although reported exposures are higher than World Health Organization, European, and US standards. Although some associations between lung cancer and ambient air pollutants have been reported, studies in LMICs are weak or subject to exposure misclassification. For pulmonary cancers, tobacco smoking and respiratory diseases have a positive synergistic effect on cancer risks. A precise quantification of the burden of human cancer attributable to environmental and occupational exposures in LMICs is uncertain. Although the prevalence of carcinogenic exposures has been reported to be high in many such countries, the effects of the exposures have not been studied due to varying country-specific limitations, some of which include lack of resources and government support. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Keishibukuryogan is not carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanitani, Masanao; Nishimura, Nobuo; Edamoto, Hiroshi; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan is a traditional Japanese medicine widely administered to patients with menopausal symptoms. Because humans use it on a long-term basis, we believed that a carcinogenicity study was warranted. We orally administered keishibukuryogan (TJ-25) extract powder to 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats [Crl:CD(SD)], which were divided into four dosage groups-0 (water for injection), 100, 500 and 2,500 mg/kg/day for 24 months. We found that TJ-25 did not affect the survival rate of either s...

  14. Carcinogenic Substances Naturrally Occuring in the Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos Viorel T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis is a result of the combined action of numerous factors peculiar to the body and the environment (the latter are more effective. Among dietary factors directly implied in the occurrence of malignant tumors we can mention: food additives, contaminated food, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and some components which are naturally present in food. Moreover, food-related malignancies are a consequence of the increased consumption of fats, proteins, alcohol in parallel with decreases in the consumption of dietary fibers and some micronutrients. Carcinogenic substances naturally present in food are of a particular interest for both nutritionist’s and patient’s, usually not being perceived as being harmful.

  15. Automotive Mechanic: Task List and Competency Record. Developed for Vocational-Technical Curriculum Articulation in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Intended for the vocational instructor, the booklet presents a task list and competency record for the occupational program of automotive mechanic. The list was developed by a working committee of auto mechanics instructors and industry representatives throughout the state of Minnesota for use in program articulation between secondary and…

  16. 20 CFR 404.1569 - Listing of Medical-Vocational Guidelines in appendix 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 404.1569 Listing of Medical-Vocational Guidelines in appendix 2. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listing of Medical-Vocational Guidelines in appendix 2. 404.1569 Section 404.1569 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  17. Task Listings Resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. Memorandum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    This memorandum report consists of 14 task listings resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. (The Vocational Competency Measures Project was a test development project that involved the writing and verification of task listings for 14 vocational occupational areas through over 225 interviews conducted in 27 states.) Provided in…

  18. 75 FR 57044 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... identified 24 drugs that fit the NIOSH definition of hazardous drugs. The second draft list also proposed... Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2010 AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... publication of the following document entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in...

  19. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the ke test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Bakale, G.; McCreary, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that ''carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or ''Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  20. The spectrosome of occupational health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaudemaris, Régis; Bicout, Dominique J.

    2018-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected, the impact of the environment on the population represents a substantial public health challenge. Surveillance systems have become an essential public health decision-making tool. Networks have been constructed to facilitate the development of analyses of the multifactorial aspects of the relationships between occupational contexts and health. The aim of this study is to develop and present an approach for the optimal exploitation of observational databases to describe and improve the understanding of the (occupational) environment–health relationships, taking into account key multifactorial aspects. We have developed a spectral analysis (SA) approach that takes into account both the multi-exposure and dynamic natures of occupational health problems (OHPs) and related associations. The main results of this paper are to present the construction method of the “spectrum” and “spectrosome” of OHPs (range and structured list of occupational exposures) and describe the information contained therein with an illustrative example. The approach is illustrated using the case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from the French National Occupational Diseases Surveillance and Prevention Network database as a working example of an occupational disease. We found that the NHL spectrum includes 40 sets of occupational exposures characterized by important multi-exposures, especially solvent combinations or pesticide combinations, but also specific exposures such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde and ionizing radiation. These findings may be useful for surveillance and the assessment of occupational exposure related to health risks. PMID:29304043

  1. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Mogensen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Mogensen1, Gregor BE Jemec21Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark; 2Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, DenmarkIntroduction: In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice.Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers.Results: Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior.Discussion: The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers.Keywords: tanning beds, skin cancers, melanoma, nonmelanoma

  2. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers

  3. Exploring recruitment strategies to hire occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Susan; Derdall, Michele

    2005-02-01

    Recruitment issues in occupational therapy have been a long-standing concern for the profession. This descriptive study explored the strategies currently being used by employers to recruit occupational therapists for employment purposes. An 18-item survey was mailed to 251 sites where occupational therapists work in Alberta and Saskatchewan. There was a 64% response rate and data from 130 surveys were analyzed. The results indicate that employers continue to rely on a wide variety of strategies for advertising and recruiting, the most prevalent being word of mouth, postings at universities, and providing student fieldwork placements. In turn, the most effective recruitment strategies were listed as word of mouth, advertising in the general media, and providing student fieldwork placements. Various examples of financial incentives offered by employers were also listed. Many participants identified recent changes in recruitment strategies such as making a move towards web site job postings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results suggest strategies for employers to target for recruiting occupational therapists and illustrate to both employers and students the importance of fieldwork in recruitment and hiring.

  4. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, P M

    1998-01-01

    Of 240 pesticides screened for carcinogenicity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, at least 24 (10%) produce thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Thirteen of the thyroid carcinogens also induce liver tumors, mainly in mice, and 9 chemicals produce tumors at other sites. Some mutagenic data are available on all 24 pesticides producing thyroid tumors. Mutagenicity does not seem to be a major determinant in thyroid carcinogenicity, except for possibly ...

  5. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Polyamines modulate carcinogen-induced mutagenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, U Margaretha; O'Brien, Thomas G

    2005-01-01

    Elevated polyamine levels as a consequence of targeted overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to murine skin enhance susceptibility to tumorigenesis in this tissue. A possible mechanism for the enhanced susceptibility phenotype is an increased sensitivity of tissues with elevated polyamine levels to the mutagenic action of carcinogens. To test this hypothesis, a transgenic mouse model containing the Big Blue transgene and also expressing a K6/ODC transgene was developed. Incorporation of the K6/ODC transgene into the Big Blue model did not affect the spontaneous lacI mutant frequency in either skin or epidermis of the double-transgenic mice. After skin treatment with single doses of either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, however, the mutant frequency was significantly increased in the skin of double-transgenic Big Blue;K6/ODC mice compared to Big Blue controls. The increases in mutant frequency were clearly due to ODC transgene activity, since treatment of mice with the ODC inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, completely abolished the difference in mutant frequencies between double-transgenic and Big Blue mice. These results demonstrate that intracellular polyamine levels modulate mutation induction following carcinogen exposure. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Metabolic activation of the bladder carcinogen 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of NBP, a dog bladder carcinogen, was examined in vitro using rat liver tissues. NBP was metabolized by enzymes localized both in the microsomes and cytosol. The microsomal enzyme activity was inducible by Aroclor 1254 and phenobarbital. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the reaction mixture, following incubation of [ 3 H]NBP with NADPH and microsomes, revealed four radioactive and UV absorbing peaks with retention times of 5, 8, 14 and 28 min. The peaks at 8, 14 and 28 min corresponded with 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), NBP and azoxy biphenyl, respectively. The early eluting component with a retention time of 5 min has been tentatively identified as a ring hydroxylated derivative. In contrast to microsomal metabolism, cytosol-mediated metabolism yielded only one major metabolite identified as ABP. Cytosol-mediate reduction was inhibited by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. In vitro incubation of NBP with NADH and commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase also yielded ABP and the formation of the latter was blocked by allopurinol. Xanthine oxidase catalyzed also the binding of [ 3 H]NBP to DNA and proteins; the binding was inhibited by allopurinol. These data support the hypothesis that the nitro reduction step is involved in the activation of the bladder carcinogen NBP, and that the nitroreductases occur in both the microsomes and cytosol. The cytosolic activity is primarily due to xanthine oxidase

  8. Carcinogen specific dosimetry model for passive smokers of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Risa J.

    2005-01-01

    Studies indicate that being exposed to second hand smoke increases the chance of developing lung cancer. Understanding the deposition of carcinogenic particles present in second hand smoke is necessary to understand the development of specific histologic type cancers. In this study, a deposition model is presented for subjects of various ages exposed to sidestream smoke. The model included particle dynamics of coagulation, hygroscopic growth, charge and cloud behavior. Concentrations were varied from the maximum measured indoor concentrations (10 6 particles/cm 3 ) to what would be expected from wisps of smoke (10 8 particles/cm 3 ). Model results agreed well with experimental data taken from human subject deposition measurements (four studies). The model results were used to determine the dose intensity (dose per unit airway surface area) of Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the respiratory tract for subjects of various ages. Model predictions for BaP surface concentration on the airway walls paralleled incident rates of tumors by location in the upper tracheobronchial region. Mass deposition efficiency was found to be larger for younger subjects, consistent with diffusion being the predominant mechanism for this particle size range. However, the actual dose intensity of BaP was found to be smaller for children than adults. This occurred due to the predominant effect of the smaller initial inhaled mass for children resulting from smaller tidal volumes. The resulting model is a useful tool to predict carcinogen specific particle deposition

  9. Carcinogenic action of polycyclic hydrocarbons in animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M

    1976-01-01

    Polycyclic hydrocarbons are universally present in the atmosphere, soil, lakes and streams, vegetation, and human and animal tissues, the concentrations varying with distance from the sources (heating systems, industrial plants, automobile highways and airports, petroleum refineries, etc.). The most potent of the carcinogens is benz(a)pyrene whose presence in an object, as shown by studies done in the author's laboratory, is an indication that other polycyclic hydrocarbons are also present. These studies also demonstrated that while benz(a)pyrene may accumulate in soil with seasonal fluctuations, it can also be destroyed by certain microorganisms. Other experiments showed that benz(a)pyrene and other such compounds can be destroyed in tissue culture as well as in vivo (e.g., benz(a)pyrene given to cows with fodder was found in their milk but not in meat after they were slaughtered). It is suggested that maximum permissible concentrations be set for benz(a)pyrene in air and water to minimize its potential carcinogenic effects.

  10. Carcinogenicity of a medicinal ozokerite and its constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchkovskii, B; Borisiuk, I P; Tiktin, L A

    1970-01-01

    Fluorimetric analysis and skin painting tests on mice demonstrated that ceresin (a medicinal ozokerite) contains carcinogens. In the USSR, ceresin is applied to the skin or rectal and vaginal mucosa for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Ceresin and its components were tested on 460 male non-inbred mice (aged 2 to 2.5 mo) by applying either the melted substance or a 60% benzene solution of it to the skin in 30-mg doses (2 admin./week x 10 mo). Skin papillomas were produced after latent periods of 4.5 to 9 mo by paraffin, petrolatum, heavy mineral oil and 1/2 ceresin samples. Squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were seen in 2 mice painted with mineral oil. Fluorimetric analysis of ceresin demonstrated several polycyclic hydrocarbons, identified as 3,4-benzpyrene (BP) benzo(ghi) perylene, and perylene. An aqueous extract of crude ozokerite contained traces of BP, while a benzene extract contained 70 to 77 microg/kg. It is recommended that petroleum products which are commonly used to improve the consistency of ceresin be analyzed for the presence of carcinogens before use.

  11. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  12. Potential carcinogenicity predicted by computational toxicity evaluation of thiophosphate pesticides using QSTR/QSCarciAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Alina-Maria; Ilia, Gheorghe

    2017-07-01

    This study presents in silico prediction of toxic activities and carcinogenicity, represented by the potential carcinogenicity DSSTox/DBS, based on vector regression with a new Kernel activity, and correlating the predicted toxicity values through a QSAR model, namely: QSTR/QSCarciAR (quantitative structure toxicity relationship/quantitative structure carcinogenicity-activity relationship) described by 2D, 3D descriptors and biological descriptors. The results showed a connection between carcinogenicity (compared to the structure of a compound) and toxicity, as a basis for future studies on this subject, but each prediction is based on structurally similar compounds and the reactivation of the substructures of these compounds.

  13. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models was performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and predictive

  14. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10 -1 --10 -3 and 10 -4 --10 -6 , respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens

  15. STAFF VACANCY LIST

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For economy reasons, it has been decided to stop printing and distributing this list to Staff Members. It can be found on the Web (LIST). Divisional Administrative Officers will receive an updated printed copy on a monthly basis and are asked to display this in a public place in their division. Copies will also be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) in the glass-fronted cabinet (close to the lifts) and also on the notice board close to the Post Office. A copy will also be given to the Reception (Building No. 33). Human Resources Division Tel. 74606

  16. Occupational disease risk and some medical assessment criteria in occupational dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, L.; Kalensky, J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposals are put forward for the amendment of the List of Occupational Diseases (Supplement to Decree No. 149/1988 of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs for the enforcement of Act No. 100/1988 on social welfare) in the field of skin diseases. This also concerns the item ''Diseases Caused by Ionizing Radiation and by Radiation with Similar Biological Effects''. Problems associated with diagnosing the skin disease, criteria of occupational diseases and disease hazards, and measures to be taken are discussed. (P.A.)

  17. NIOSH Certified Equipment List (CEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), under the authorization of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and the Occupational...

  18. Economic evaluations of occupational health interventions from a corporate perspective - A systematic review of methodological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uegaki, K.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Lambeek, L.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Using a standardized quality criteria list, we appraised the methodological quality of economic evaluations of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions conducted from a corporate perspective. Methods: The primary literature search was conducted in Medline and Embase.

  19. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  20. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P

    2009-01-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g -1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  1. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  2. Disruption of spindle checkpoint function in rats following 28 days of repeated administration of renal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD(+) cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.

  3. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Iterative List Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Hjaltason, Johan

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the relation between iterative decoding and the extended parity check matrix. By considering a modified version of bit flipping, which produces a list of decoded words, we derive several relations between decodable error patterns and the parameters of the code. By developing a tree...... of codewords at minimal distance from the received vector, we also obtain new information about the code....

  5. List of participants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    List of participants. Abbas Sohrab, BARC, Mumbai, India. Achary S N, BARC, Mumbai, India. Acharya Prashant G, JMS College, Ahmedabad, India. Aggarwal S K, BARC, Mumbai, India. Agrawal Ashish, BARC, Mumbai, India. Alam Md Sayem, AMU, Aligarh, India. Alamelu D, BARC, Mumbai, India. Aldona Rajewska, IAE ...

  6. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  7. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  8. List of publications 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    AECL Research is engaged in research and development related to the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. Specifically, the company's mission is to perform the research, development, demonstration and marketing required to apply nuclear sciences and their related technologies for the maximum benefit of Canada. Among our most important products are scientific reports, publications and conference presentations. This document lists our publications for 1990

  9. Making Lists, Enlisting Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2011-01-01

    was the indicator conceptualised? How were notions of scientific knowledge and collaboration inscribed and challenged in the process? The analysis shows a two-sided process in which scientists become engaged in making lists but which is simultaneously a way for research policy to enlist scientists. In conclusion...

  10. The Christmas list

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2010-01-01

    List making seems to be among mankind’s favourite activities, particularly as the old year draws to a close and the new one begins. It seems that we all want to know what the top 100 annoying pop songs are, who are the world’s most embarrassing people and what everyone’s been watching on TV. The transition from 2009 to 2010 was no different, but some of the latest batch of lists have a few surprising entries. According to the Global Language Monitor, ‘twitter’ was the top word of 2009. No surprises there, but ‘hadron’ came in at number 8 on the list. ‘King of pop’ was top phrase, according to the same source, but ‘god particle’ came in at number 10. And while ‘Barack Obama’ was the name of the year, ‘Large Hadron Collider’ came in at number four. The Global Language Monitor was not the only organization whose lists included particle physics references. &ls...

  11. Getting on the List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  12. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  13. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with bromate carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delker, Don; Hatch, Gary; Allen, James; Crissman, Bobby; George, Michael; Geter, David; Kilburn, Steve; Moore, Tanya; Nelson, Gail; Roop, Barbara; Slade, Ralph; Swank, Adam; Ward, William; DeAngelo, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ) is a chemical oxidizing agent found in drinking water as a disinfection byproduct of surface water ozonation. Chronic exposures to KBrO 3 cause renal cell tumors in rats, hamsters and mice and thyroid and testicular mesothelial tumors in rats. Experimental evidence indicates that bromate mediates toxicological effects via the induction of oxidative stress. To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress in KBrO 3 -induced cancer, male F344 rats were administered KBrO 3 in their drinking water at multiple concentrations for 2-100 weeks. Gene expression analyses were performed on kidney, thyroid and mesothelial cell RNA. Families of mRNA transcripts differentially expressed with respect to bromate treatment included multiple cancer, cell death, ion transport and oxidative stress genes. Multiple glutathione metabolism genes were up-regulated in kidney following carcinogenic (400 mg/L) but not non-carcinogenic (20 mg/L) bromate exposures. 8-Oxodeoxyguanosine glycosylase (Ogg1) mRNA was up-regulated in response to bromate treatment in kidney but not thyroid. A dramatic decrease in global gene expression changes was observed following 1 mg/L compared to 20 mg/L bromate exposures. In a separate study oxygen-18 ( 18 O) labeled KBrO 3 was administered to male rats by oral gavage and tissues were analyzed for 18 O deposition. Tissue enrichment of 18 O was observed at 5 and 24 h post-KBr 18 O 3 exposure with the highest enrichment occurring in the liver followed by the kidney, thyroid and testes. The kidney dose response observed was biphasic showing similar statistical increases in 18 O deposition between 0.25 and 50 mg/L (equivalent dose) KBr 18 O 3 followed by a much greater increase above 50 mg/L. These results suggest that carcinogenic doses of potassium bromate require attainment of a threshold at which oxidation of tissues occurs and that gene expression profiles may be predictive of these physiological changes in renal homeostasis

  14. Medical examination of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    The hazardous effects of ionizing radiation to man are well recognized, and they are divided into two groups, the stochastic effects (hereditary and carcinogenic effect) and non-stochastic effects (somatic effects such as depression of hematopoiesis, chronic dermatitis and cataracta). The basic framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to prevent the occurrence of non-stochastic effects, by keeping doses below the relevant thresholds, and to ensure that all reasonable aspects are taken to reduce the incidence of stochastic effects. In Japan, the regulatory provisions of radiological protection of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation are based on the recommendation of ICRP adopted in 1977. According to these regulations, the dose equivalent limits of occupational exposure of man has been decided at 50 mSv/year. The monitoring of exposure to the individual and the procedure of medical examination of the workers are briefly described and discussed. (author)

  15. Association Between Kidney Cancer and Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagen, Morten; Grønskag, Anna; Ragde, Siri Fenstad; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and kidney cancer, as this correlation has been questioned. The incidence of cancers was studied in a dynamic cohort of 997 male workers who for many years had been occupationally exposed to TCE. During a 50-year observation period, 13 cases of kidney cancer were observed (7.5 expected) with a standardized incidence ratio of 1.7 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.0 to 3.0. Four other cases, not included in the SIR analysis, were also observed. Long-term TCE exposure was positively confirmed for 14 of the 17 incident cases. There is reason to assume that the remaining cases also had been exposed to TCE. The present study supports the view that TCE is a kidney carcinogen.

  16. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  17. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  18. Occupation and bladder cancer in a population-based case-control study in Northern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Joanne S; Karagas, Margaret R; Schwenn, Molly; Baris, Dalsu; Johnson, Alison; Stewart, Patricia; Verrill, Castine; Moore, Lee E; Lubin, Jay; Ward, Mary H; Samanic, Claudine; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Schned, Alan; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T

    2011-04-01

    We used data from a large, population-based case-control study in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont to examine relationships between occupation, industry and bladder cancer risk. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by personal interview from 1158 patients newly diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in 2001-2004, and from 1402 population controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and employment in other high-risk occupations. Male precision metalworkers and metalworking/plasticworking machine operators had significantly elevated risks and significant trends in risk with duration of employment (precision metalworkers: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4, p(trend) = 0.0065; metalworking/plasticworking machine operators: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.6, p(trend) = 0.047). Other occupations/industries for which risk increased significantly with duration of employment included: for men, textile machine operators, mechanics/repairers, automobile mechanics, plumbers, computer systems analysts, information clerks, and landscape industry workers; for women, service occupations, health services, cleaning and building services, management-related occupations, electronic components manufacturing and transportation equipment manufacturing. Men reporting use of metalworking fluids (MWF) had a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5). Our findings support the hypothesis that some component(s) of MWF may be carcinogenic to the bladder. Our results also corroborate many other previously reported associations between bladder cancer risk and various occupations. More detailed analyses using information from the study's job-specific questionnaires may help to identify MWF components that may be carcinogenic, and other bladder carcinogens associated with a variety of occupations.

  19. Work-related stress management between workplace and occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2016-06-13

    Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.

  20. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  1. Dose-response relationships for carcinogens: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeise, L.; Wilson, R.; Crouch, E.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the experimental evidence for various shapes of dose-response relationships for carcinogens and summarize those experiments that give the most information on relatively low doses. A brief review of some models is given to illustrate the shapes of dose-response curve expected from them. Their major interest is in the use of dose-response relationships to estimate risks to humans at low doses, and so they pay special attention to experimentally observed and theoretically expected nonlinearities. There are few experimental examples of nonlinear dose-response relations in humans, but this may simply be due to the limitations in the data. The several examples in rodents, even though for high dose data, suggest that nonlinearity is common. In some cases such nonlinearities may be rationalized on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of the test compound or its metabolites

  2. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  3. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  4. The assessment of the carcinogenic effects of low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Latarjet, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is concluded that the exclusion of patients for the purposes of risk estimation, the choice of a particular relative risk projection model and of a dose reduction factor equal to 2 are all decisions which result in an overestimation of the actual risk. These choices can be understood when the aim is radiation protection and when it is safer to overestimate the risk; however, they are open to criticism if the aim is a realistic assessment of the risk. For low doses, below 50 mSv/year, and when all causes of uncertainty are added, the actual risk might be markedly lower than the risk estimated with the ICRP (1991) carcinogenic risk coefficient and the DRF estimated by ICRP. Future studies should aim at providing direct and more precise assessments of risk coefficients in the low dose region. (Author)

  5. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts.

  6. Nuclear DNA synthesis rate and labelling index: effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals on its behaviour in the organism of growing CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlacher, E.; Rudolph, C.

    1978-01-01

    Well known bioassays have been compared with the author's thymidine incorporation-screening system and other assays based on biochemical quantification of DNA synthesis as a possibility of identification of carcinogens. The partial inhibition of the whole DNA synthesis in a proliferating cell population after treatment with toxic and carcinogenic chemicals is an early common response especially in hepatectomized animal, livers caused by the effects of those substances. However, by quantitative evaluation of the nuclear DNA synthesis rate as a basic parameter, using autoradiographs of kidney and liver of juvenile growing CBA mice, it is possible to differentiate carcinogenic from non-carcinogenic chemicals by means of silver grain counting after 3 H-TdR incorporation. On the contrary, the whole DNA synthesis, expressed by the 3 H-labelling index (in per cent) of kidney and liver, did not permit such a differentiation in the experimental arrangement used. It could be demonstrated that carcinogenic compounds of different chemical classes partially inhibit the nuclear DNA synthesis rate significantly over a period of more than 24 hours. The tested non-carcinogenic compounds did not show this suppressive effect on the nuclear DNA synthesis rate. (author)

  7. DNA-adducts in fish exposed to alkylating carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giam, C.S.; Holliday, T.L.; Williams, J.L.; Bahnson, A.; Weller, R.; Hinton, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    There are limited studies on DNA-adduct formation following exposure of fish or fish cells to carcinogens. It will be essential to determine if procarcinogens and carcinogens form the same DNA-adducts in different liver cells and how these compare to those reported in mammalian livers. They are also interested in the influence of different alkylating agents on the type and quantity of DNA-adduct formation and repair in fish. While eggs or small fish are ideal for routine screening, large fish such as trout (Salmo gairdneri) is needed initially for the development of analytical procedures for the isolation, quantitation and identification of various adducts. Trout (Salmo gairdneri) weighing approximately 250 grams were acclimatized at 13 degree C before being given i.p. injection of diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). The exposure period varied, though most animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. Their livers were excised and DNA was isolated mainly according the procedure of Croy et al. The neutral thermal hydrolysate and the acid hydrolysate were analyzed by HPLC-Fluorescent detector for 7-ethylguanine and O 6 -ethylguanine, respectively. O 6 -ethylguanine was detected, 7-ethylguanine was not detected. Attempts are being made to improve the detection of the latter compound. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to establish nanogram quantities of the ethylated bases. Laser desorption FT-IC-MS is particularly useful for characterizing thermally-labile and involatile nucleosides or nucleotides. Excretion of DEN was rapid and high. Exposure of trout (and other fish) to various ethylating agents will be discussed

  8. Changing the field of carcinogenicity testing of human pharmaceuticals by emphasizing mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, J.W. van der; Duijndam, B.; Hoorn, T. van den; Woutersen, R.; Water, B. van de

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime testing for carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals in rodents has been a controversial issue since the start of the International Conference on Harmonisation in 1990. Since 2010 the debate reached a new level following the proposal that a negative outcome of carcinogenicity studies can be

  9. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  10. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 16681 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Proposed Change to Rodent Carcinogenicity Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-evidence (WOE) factors proposed for inclusion in CADs. II. Past Experience With Carcinogenicity Assessment... Medicines Agency; and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We would request that CADs be... WOE factors proposed for inclusion in carcinogenicity assessment documents. Submit either electronic...

  12. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    most common cancer type in the present series, 373 361 cases) was larger, and there was a tendency of physically demanding occupations to show SIRs below unity. Women in occupations which require a high level of education have, on average, a higher age at first child-birth and elevated breast cancer...... workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low SIRs were found for farmers, gardeners and teachers. Our study was able to repeat most of the confirmed associations between...... with the lung cancer risk among farmers, gardeners and teachers. The occupational risk patterns were quite similar in all main histological subtypes of lung cancer. Bladder cancer is considered as one of the cancer types most likely to be related to occupational carcinogens. Waiters had the highest risk...

  13. Moesin Is a Biomarker for the Assessment of Genotoxic Carcinogens in Mouse Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:22358511

  14. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    A Drug Information Association (DIA) workshop was held in May 2001 to discuss the outcome of the International Life Sciences Institute-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (ILSI-HESI) project on alternative models for carcinogenicity assessment such as the P53(+/-) and XPA(+/-) knockout...... mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic...

  15. The Contribution of Health Professionals to the Creation of Occupational Health Standards: The Impact of Professional Ethics in the Case of Asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, H.N.

    2013-01-01

    ln the Netherlands, as in other Western countries, there is a great time lag between the evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos (1949) and the launching of first legislation that reduces the occupational exposure (1971) and finally, the complete ban of the production and application of asbestos

  16. List of HMI reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin publishes a series of reports with the results of R+D work of the institute. This list of publications contains also an author index in alphabetical order which points to annual reports of the institute as well as to the reports of the sections of nuclear and radiation physics, nuclear chemistry and reactor, and the section data processing and electronics. With 440 refs [de

  17. Software listing: CHEMTOX database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Initially launched in 1983, the CHEMTOX Database was among the first microcomputer databases containing hazardous chemical information. The database is used in many industries and government agencies in more than 17 countries. Updated quarterly, the CHEMTOX Database provides detailed environmental and safety information on 7500-plus hazardous substances covered by dozens of regulatory and advisory sources. This brief listing describes the method of accessing data and provides ordering information for those wishing to obtain the CHEMTOX Database

  18. High-Risk List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    economy. The World Bank has said that “corruption creates an unfavorable business environment by undermining the operation efficiency of firms and... Bank Began as ‘Ponzi Scheme,’” 11/27/2012. 64 Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation Committee, Unfinished Business : The Follow...HIGH RISK AREA 7: Oversight 51 HIGH-RISK AREA 8: Strategy and Planning 55 CONCLUSION HIGH RISK LIST I JANUARY 11, 2017 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  19. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Marker list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...Database Site Policy | Contact Us Marker list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  1. QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...Policy | Contact Us QTL list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Characteristics of sick-listing cases that physicians consider problematic--analyses of written case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Monika; Alexanderson, Kristina; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to discern common characteristics in the sick-listing cases that physicians in general practice and occupational health services find problematic. Descriptive categorization within a narrative theoretical framework. Sickness-insurance course for physicians in general practice and occupational health services. A total of 195 case reports written by 195 physicians. Main outcome measures. Categories of features regarding medical, work, and social situation as well as medical interventions. Beside age and sex, the following information was often provided: family situation, stressful life events, occupation, problem at work, considerations concerning diagnoses, medical investigations, treatments, and vocational rehabilitation measures. Two-thirds of the patients had been sickness absent for more than a year. The most common type of case reports concerned women, employed in non-qualified nursing occupations, and sick listed due to mental disorders. The most common measures taken by the physicians were referrals to psychotherapy and/or physiotherapy, and prescribing antidepressants (SSRI). Facts about alcohol habits were rarely provided in the cases. Some of the circumstances, such as prolonged sick-listing, are likely to be more or less inevitable in problematic sick-listing cases. Other circumstances, such as stress-full life events, more closely reflect what the reporting physicians find problematic. The categories identified can be regarded as markers of problematic sick-listing cases in general practice and occupational health service.

  3. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, two objectives (e.g., list the types of joints and movements, and give examples), and two learning…

  4. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, three objectives (e.g., define the skeletal system and list its functions), and three learning…

  5. Occupational Opportunities for the Physically Handicapped. Part B. Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, Elaine F.

    This manual presents the master lists of 206 job titles of 167 different Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) code numbers which were held by physically handicapped graduates/completers of vocational programs as determined by a business and industry survey and graduate followup. (The project itself is reported in CE 026 163; survey and followup…

  6. The Relative Effectiveness of Three Occupational Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Pat; Hermann, Graham

    1988-01-01

    In investigating communication competencies needed by beginning automotive mechanics, an attempt was made to compare the effectiveness of three occupational analysis techniques: (1) developing a curriculum (DACUM), (2) observation, and (3) extended information search. Extended information search produced a comprehensive, valid list of competencies…

  7. Marketing occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  8. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  9. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  10. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  11. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  12. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  13. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  15. Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco, Ann; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. We used data from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997-2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health care providers is needed to ensure that people

  16. New occupational diseases legislation rules – Functioning evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rybacki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 3 July 2009, new law pertaining to occupational diseases (ODs became effective in Poland. The article presents opinions of the representatives of the 1st degree ODs certification entities and sanitary inspectorates on the changes in OD law and the problems that may cause difficulties and/or certification errors. Material and Methods: A questionnaire study was performed covering representatives of 20 voivodeship occupational medicine centers and 40 national district sanitary inspectorates. We received 57 completed questionnaires which were analyzed. Results: Positive opinions were expressed on changes in procedures on reporting suspected occupational diseases (50%, keeping time limits for diagnosing ODs (89.2%, and changes pertaining to entities responsible for certifying infectious ODs (92.9%. A large group of respondents (66.7% was in favor of conducting jointly an occupational exposure risk analysis by occupational medicine physicians and occupational health and safety practitioners and/or sanitary inspectors. One-third of the respondents declared that changes in the list of ODs had no influence on the certification procedure. Conclusions: New law has improved the existing procedure of ODs certification. There is a need to elaborate detailed diagnostic guidelines on and criteria for ODs identification and recognition. A panel of experts should be established by the Ministry of Health to track the latest advancements in medicine and to update the list of ODs. Conducting jointly an occupational exposure risk analysis by occupational medicine physicians and occupational health and safety practitioners and/or sanitary inspectors should become a standard. Med Pr 2014;65(4:473–483

  17. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  18. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Tavares dos Santos; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Fernandes, Alan Lins; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Dantas, Wagner Silva; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Santinho, Mirela Aparecida Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Carpentier, Alain; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Creatine supplementation has been associated with increased cancer risk. In fact, there is evidence indicating that creatine and/or creatinine are important precursors of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of low- and high-dose creatine supplementation on the production of HCAs in healthy humans (i.e. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx),  2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b])pyridine (IFP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)). This was a non-counterbalanced single-blind crossover study divided into two phases, in which low- and high-dose creatine protocols were tested. After acute (1 day) and chronic supplementation (30 days), the HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were assessed through a newly developed HPLC–MS/MS method. Dietary HCA intake and blood and urinary creatinine were also evaluated. Out of 576 assessments performed (from 149 urine samples), only nine (3 from creatine and 6 from placebo) showed quantifiable levels of HCAs (8-MeIQx: n = 3; 4,8-DiMeIQx: n = 2; PhIP: n = 4). Individual analyses revealed that diet rather than creatine supplementation was the main responsible factor for HCA formation in these cases. This study provides compelling evidence that both low and high doses of creatine supplementation, given either acutely or chronically, did not cause increases in the carcinogenic HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx in healthy subjects. These findings challenge the long-existing notion that creatine supplementation could potentially increase the risk of cancer by stimulating the formation of these mutagens. Key points There is a long-standing concern that creatine supplementation could be associated with cancer, possibly by facilitating the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). This study provides compelling evidence

  19. The STAPL pList

    KAUST Repository

    Tanase, Gabriel; Xu, Xiabing; Buss, Antal; Harshvardhan,; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Pearce, Olga; Smith, Timmie; Thomas, Nathan; Bianco, Mauro; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of the stapl pList, a parallel container that has the properties of a sequential list, but allows for scalable concurrent access when used in a parallel program. The Standard Template Adaptive Parallel

  20. NOAA Weather Radio - Station Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using

  1. 78 FR 44117 - Notice of a Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide AGENCY... Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide'' (EPA/635/R-13/128a) and on the draft peer review charge questions. The draft... on the draft Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide and on the draft peer...

  2. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  3. INTEGRATION OF QSAR AND SAR METHODS FOR THE MECHANISTIC INTERPRETATION OF PREDICTIVE MODELS FOR CARCINOGENICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Fjodorova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based Toxtree expert system (SAR approach was integrated with the statistically based counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN model (QSAR approach to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of a carcinogenicity model for non-congeneric chemicals using Dragon descriptors and carcinogenic potency for rats as a response. The transparency of the CP ANN algorithm was demonstrated using intrinsic mapping technique specifically Kohonen maps. Chemical structures were represented by Dragon descriptors that express the structural and electronic features of molecules such as their shape and electronic surrounding related to reactivity of molecules. It was illustrated how the descriptors are correlated with particular structural alerts (SAs for carcinogenicity with recognized mechanistic link to carcinogenic activity. Moreover, the Kohonen mapping technique enables one to examine the separation of carcinogens and non-carcinogens (for rats within a family of chemicals with a particular SA for carcinogenicity. The mechanistic interpretation of models is important for the evaluation of safety of chemicals.

  4. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, E; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, W; Tueting, W; van Benthem, J; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-10-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in food that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, it does not take carcinogenic potency into account and, therefore, does not permit prioritisation based on potential risk or concern. In the absence of carcinogenicity dose-response data, an assessment based on comparison with an appropriate threshold of toxicological concern may be possible. When carcinogenicity data from animal bioassays are available, a useful analysis is achieved by the calculation of margins of exposure (MOEs), which can be used to compare animal potency data with human exposure scenarios. Two reference points on the dose-response relationship that can be used for MOE calculation were examined; the T25 value, which is derived from linear extrapolation, and the BMDL10, which is derived from mathematical modelling of the dose-response data. The above approaches were applied to selected food-borne genotoxic carcinogens. The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers.

  5. Enhanced replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 DNA in carcinogen-treated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 (SV40) in carcinogen-treated monkey cells has been studied to elucidate the mechanism of carcinogen-enhanced reactivation. Carcinogen enhanced reactivation is the observed increase in UV-irradiated virus survival in host cells treated with low doses of carcinogen compared to UV-irradiated virus survival in untreated hosts. Carcinogen treatment of monkey kidney cells with either N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) or UV radiation leads to an enhanced capacity to replicate UV-damaged virus during the first round of infection. To further define the mechanism leading to enhanced replication, a detailed biochemical analysis of replication intermediates in carcinogen-treated cells was performed. Several conclusions can be drawn. First enhanced replication can be observed in the first four rounds of replication after UV irradiation of viral templates. The second major finding is that the relaxed circular intermediate model proposed for the replication of UV-damaged templates in untreated cells appears valid for replication of UV-damaged templates in carcinogen-treated cells. Possible mechanisms and the supporting evidence are discussed and future experiments outlined

  6. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  7. Listed waste determination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P ampersand Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application

  8. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Occupational health issues in marine and freshwater research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Glenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine and freshwater scientists are potentially exposed to a wide variety of occupational hazards. Depending on the focus of their research, risks may include animal attacks, physiological stresses, exposure to toxins and carcinogens, and dangerous environmental conditions. Many of these hazards have been investigated amongst the general population in their recreational use of the environment; however, very few studies have specifically related potential hazards to occupational exposure. For example, while the incidence of shark and crocodile attacks may invoke strong emotions and the occupational risk of working with these animals is certainly real, many more people are stung by jellyfish or bitten by snakes or dogs each year. Furthermore, a large proportion of SCUBA-related injuries and deaths are incurred by novice or uncertified divers, rather than professional divers using aquatic environments. Nonetheless, marine and freshwater research remains a potentially risky occupation, and the likelihood of death, injury and long-term health impacts still needs to be seriously considered.

  10. REVIEWER LIST – 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2014-01-01

    REVIEWER LIST – 2014 The Editorial Team would like to thank all those who gave generously of their time and expertise in reviewing the papers for the Indian Journal of Community Health in 2014.AAarti Kapil, New Delhi, IndiaAbhishek SinghAmandeep Kaur, Haldwani, IndiaAmit Kaushik, Safai, IndiaAnu Bhardwaj, Ambala, IndiaAnurag Chaudary, Ludhiana, IndiaA R BondArpan YagnikArvind Kumar Singh, Gorakhpur, IndiaAshish Yadav, Meerut, IndiaAthar Ansari, Aligarh, India BBaridalyne Nongkynrih, New Delhi...

  11. Identification of Radiation Effects on Carcinogenic Food Estimated by Ames Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, M.; Eid, I.; El - Nagdy, M.; Zaher, R.; Abd El-Karem, H.; Abd EL Karim, A.

    2016-01-01

    A major concern in studies related to carcinogenesis is the exposure to the exogenous carcinogens that may occur in food in both natural and polluted human environments. The purpose of the present study is to examine some of food products by Ames test to find out if food products carcinogenic then expose food to gamma radiation to find out the effect of radiation on it as a treatment. In this study, the food samples were examined by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test) to find out that a food product could be carcinogenic or highly mutated. Testing of chemicals for mutagenicity is based on the knowledge that a substance which is mutagenic in the bacterium is more likely than not to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals, and thus , by extension, present a risk of cancer to humans. After that food products that showed mutagenicity exposed to gamma radiation at different doses to examine the effect of gamma radiation on food products. This study represent γ radiation effect on carcinogenic food by using Ames test in the following steps: Detect food by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains in which the colony count /plate for each food sample will show if food is slightly mutated or highly mutated or carcinogenic. If food is highly mutated or carcinogenic with high number of colonies /plate, then the carcinogenic food or highly mutated food exposed to different doses of radiation The applied doses in this study were 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 (KGy). Detect the radiation effect on food samples by Ames test after irradiation. The study shows that mutated and carcinogenic food products estimated by Ames test could be treated by irradiation

  12. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  13. BURNOUT AND OCCUPATIONAL PARTICIPATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.

  14. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  15. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    in England and Wales from 1851 to 1979–1983, and these studies have provided key data on social inequalities in health. Death certificate studies have been used for identification of occupational groups with high excess risks from specific diseases. Follow-up studies require linkage of individual records......The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken...

  16. Validated Competency Task Lists for General Merchandise Retailing, Food Service Management, and Business and Personal Services Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Suzanne G.

    This publication contains competency task lists that address principal entry-level and career-sustaining jobs in the occupational categories of general merchandise retailing, food service management, and business and personal services marketing. Section I, Development of the Competency Task Lists, provides details on how the competencies were…

  17. Registered plant list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...the Plant DB link list in simple search page) Genome analysis methods Presence or... absence of Genome analysis methods information in this DB (link to the Genome analysis methods information ...base Site Policy | Contact Us Registered plant list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Gossip and Occupational Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Alexander R.

    1976-01-01

    Defines the transmission of gossip as an essential social process reflecting a shared group membership and discusses the ways in which gossip supports ideologies held by members of a specific occupation. (MH)

  19. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  20. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  1. Occupational choice and values.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantas, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  2. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  4. Occupational health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Aw, Tar-Ching; Jefferelli, Shamsul Bahrin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.

  5. Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo tropicalista magister en Epidemiología Clínica.

    2014-01-01

    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupationa...

  6. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  7. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  8. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Carcinogenicity and Immnotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Alexandra

    2002-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that long-term chronic exposure to embedded DU and HMTA initiates changes in normal immune function that will eventually result in a carcinogenic response characterized by both tumor...

  10. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  11. On the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    The recent classification by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the herbicide glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen has generated considerable discussion. The classification is at variance with evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by several national and international regulatory bodies. The basis for the IARC classification is examined under the assumptions that the IARC criteria are reasonable and that the body of scientific studies determined by IARC staff to be relevant to the evaluation of glyphosate by the Monograph Working Group is sufficiently complete. It is shown that the classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen was the result of a flawed and incomplete summary of the experimental evidence evaluated by the Working Group. Rational and effective cancer prevention activities depend on scientifically sound and unbiased assessments of the carcinogenic potential of suspected agents. Implications of the erroneous classification of glyphosate with respect to the IARC Monograph Working Group deliberative process are discussed.

  12. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  13. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  14. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully se...

  15. Quantitative structure activity relationship for the computational prediction of nitrocompounds carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Aliuska Helguera; Perez, Miguel Angel Cabrera; Combes, Robert D.; Gonzalez, Maykel Perez

    2006-01-01

    Several nitrocompounds have been screened for carcinogenicity in rodents, but this is a lengthy and expensive process, taking two years and typically costing 2.5 million dollars, and uses large numbers of animals. There is, therefore, much impetus to develop suitable alternative methods. One possible way of predicting carcinogenicity is to use quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). QSARs have been widely utilized for toxicity testing, thereby contributing to a reduction in the need for experimental animals. This paper describes the results of applying a TOPological substructural molecular design (TOPS-MODE) approach for predicting the rodent carcinogenicity of nitrocompounds. The model described 79.10% of the experimental variance, with a standard deviation of 0.424. The predictive power of the model was validated by leave-one-out validation, with a determination coefficient of 0.666. In addition, this approach enabled the contribution of different fragments to carcinogenic potency to be assessed, thereby making the relationships between structure and carcinogenicity to be transparent. It was found that the carcinogenic activity of the chemicals analysed was increased by the presence of a primary amine group bonded to the aromatic ring, a manner that was proportional to the ring aromaticity. The nitro group bonded to an aromatic carbon atom is a more important determinant of carcinogenicity than the nitro group bonded to an aliphatic carbon. Finally, the TOPS-MODE approach was compared with four other predictive models, but none of these could explain more than 66% of the variance in the carcinogenic potency with the same number of variables

  16. Occupation and mesothelioma in Sweden: updated incidence in men and women in the 27 years after the asbestos ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Plato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES We updated the Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA Study through 2009 in order to investigate the incidence of mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pleura in both genders, and explored occupational exposures that may be associated with mesothelioma. METHODS The Swedish component of the NOCCA Study includes 6.78 million individuals. Data from this cohort were linked to the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and Swedish Total Population Registry for three periods between 1961 and 2009, and then further linked to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 25 carcinogenic substances and the corresponding exposure levels for 280 occupations. Multivariate analysis was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pleura by gender, occupational category, carcinogenic substance, and for multiple occupational exposures simultaneously. RESULTS A total of 3,716 incident mesotheliomas were recorded (21.1% in women. We found a significantly increased risk of mesothelioma in 24 occupations, as well as clear differences between the genders. Among men, increased risks of mesothelioma of the pleura were observed in male-dominated occupations, with the greatest elevation of risk among plumbers (SIR, 4.99; 95% confidence interval, 4.20 to 5.90. Among women, increased risks were observed in sewing workers, canning workers, packers, cleaners, and postal workers. In multivariate analysis controlling for multiple occupational exposures, significant associations were only observed between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma. CONCLUSIONS Asbestos exposure was associated with mesothelioma incidence in our study. The asbestos ban of 1982 has yet to show any clear effect on the occurrence of mesothelioma in this cohort. Among women, the occupations of canning workers and cleaners showed increased risks of mesothelioma of the pleura without evidence of asbestos exposure.

  17. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  18. Non-carcinogenic late effects of ionizing radiation; human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The late effects of ionizing radiation may be somatic effect or potential effect, about which such informations as follows are required: teratogenesis the disturbances in growth and development, cataracts, infertility, cytogenetic aberration, and accelerated aging. Although much is known about the nature of the malformations produced by ionizing radiation, and about the vulnerability of human embryonal and fetal tissues during various stages of organogenesis, the quantitative information is uncertain and incomplete. The data on A-bomb survivors were flawed by confounding radiation dose with nutritional and other influences caused by the disasters created by war-time bombings. If the effects of radiation are real, they are quite small for the dose below 100 rad (kerma), are confined to the children of pre-pubertal age at the time of exposure, and are of much less consequence for low-LET radiation than for high. Radiation-induced lenticular changes are of graded severity, and as for cataracts, the threshold is in the range from 600 to 1,000 rad of low-LET radiation, and perhaps 75 to 100 rad for fast neutrons; the average latent period is 2 to 7 years. The estimate of the RBE for neutrons is in the range from 2 to 10, and dose-dependent. Ionizing radiation has important effects on fertility only at very high dose. The relationship of the quantitative aspects of the biologic significance of chromosomal aberration in somatic cells to dose may provide an interesting parallel to the carcinogenic effect. For neutrons, the dose-response curve appears to be linear, at least for stable aberration. (Yamashita, S.)

  19. Anticarcinogenic effect of betel leaf extract against tobacco carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Lalitha, V S; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated that betel quid offers some protection to tobacco induced carcinogenesis. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown betel leaf extract (BLE) to be antimutagenic against standard mutagens and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the present study, we have tested the anticarcinogenic effect of BLE using Swiss male mice. Two protocols of study were used to test this effect. In the first protocol, the effect of BLE was tested against the standard carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) using Wattenberg's stomach tumor model, Cancer Res., 41 (1981) 2820-2823. In this protocol, BLE inhibited the tumorigenicity of BP to a significant extent. In the second protocol, the effect of BLE against the two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNN and NNK was studied using long-term studies on Swiss male mice. The nitrosamines were administered on the tongues of the mice, while the BLE was supplied in drinking water. Two doses of NNN (22 mg and 72 mg) and one dose of NNK (22 mg) were used. In this study, it was observed that the number of tumor bearing animals decreased, but the difference was significant only in the group treated with the low dose of NNN in combination with BLE. However, in all the BLE treated animals, irrespective of the dose of nitrosamine, the hepatic vitamin A and C levels were elevated significantly as compared to the corresponding nitrosamine-treated controls. These results indicate that BLE has a promising anticarcinogenic role to play in tobacco induced cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Feasibility of preventing the effects of carcinogens on man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M; Wittig, K; Khesina, I A

    1973-01-01

    Measures are considered for reducing atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by domestic heating, industry, and motor vehicles. Older home heating systems should be replaced with ones which can burn more efficiently. It is recommended that emissions from industrial sources, such as by-product coke plants, petroleum refineries, and plants producing carbon black, resins, and gas, should be reduced by the use of filters or by more complete combustion. The amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle exhaust can be reduced by using oil additives, changing the ratio of gasoline to oil, and using neutralizers, but more appropriate long-term solutions would be to use vehicles powered by gas or electricity. Since the largest amounts of benzyprene (BP) are produced by idling motors, traffic flow should be improved by separating foot and automobile traffic. The amount of BP in airplane emissions has been reduced by more than 30% by adding magnesium to the fuel and by about 60% by using dearomatized fuels. To prevent lung cancer it is necessary to reduce the levels of not only carcinogens and cocarcinogens, but also of toxic substances, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and acrolein, which reduce ciliary activity in the bronchial epithelium. Since it is impractical to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the human environment at present, maximum permissible concentrations of BP have been established in the Soviet Union. They are 0.01 microg/100 m/sup 3/ BP for the atmosphere and 15 microg/100 m/sup 3/ in work places.

  1. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%........ In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...

  3. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  4. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle, John L; Finch, Gregory L; Heidel, Shawn M; Hovland, David N; Ivens, Inge; Parker, Suezanne; Ponce, Rafael A; Sachs, Clifford; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Short, Brian; Todd, Marque D

    2010-06-01

    An important safety consideration for developing new therapeutics is assessing the potential that the therapy will increase the risk of cancer. For biotherapeutics, traditional two-year rodent bioassays are often not scientifically applicable or feasible. This paper is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review past and current practice regarding carcinogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics and to provide recommendations. Publicly available information on eighty marketed protein biotherapeutics was reviewed. In this review, no assessments related to carcinogenicity or tumor growth promotion were identified for fifty-one of the eighty molecules. For the twenty-nine biotherapeutics in which assessments related to carcinogenicity were identified, various experimental approaches were employed. This review also discusses several key principles to aid in the assessment of carcinogenic potential, including (1) careful consideration of mechanism of action to identify theoretical risks, (2) careful investigation of existing data for indications of proliferative or immunosuppressive potential, and (3) characterization of any proliferative or immunosuppressive signals detected. Traditional two-year carcinogenicity assays should not be considered as the default method for assessing the carcinogenicity potential of biotherapeutics. If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling.

  6. [A new update of the SIMLII Guidelines on carcinogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Giachino, Gian Mario; Discalzi, Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    The second update of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) guidelines on Cancerogens and Mutagens, first published in 2003 and reviewed in 2007, is presented. The general setting of the guidelines remaines unmodified. In this new release some important developments on regulatory system, risk assessment, and health surveillance are discussed. The relevant evolution of the regulatory rules is illustrated in detail, with particular reference to the recent implementation in European Union and in Italy of the Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of substances and mixtures. The recent tendencies of the European Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits in risk assessment, are presented. Some remarks on the use of new biomarkers in health surveillance, with reference to lung and bladder cancer, are discussed. The more recent results on the effectiveness of the use of LDTC scan on screening in asymptomatic persons at high risk for lung cancer, are presented. The use of this imaging technique in health surveillance of special group of workers (i.e., subjects with relevant past asbestos exposure and smokers) could be adopted.

  7. Using carcinogenic agents in the research laboratories. Rules and procedure; Norme e procedure per l'utilizzo di agenti cancerogeni nei laboratori di ricerca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, C.C.; Mancini, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The carcinogenic risk represents a main problem of Health and Safety at Work Act. Chemical carcinogens regulation has been recently improved by the Italian Decree No. 626/94. The aim of the present work is to outline the criteria for the protection of working people in a complex workplace such as research laboratories, focusing on its peculiar occupational health factors, such as the hazardous exposure to a vast array of chemicals also due to the frequent turnover in the personnel activities. [Italian] Il tema dell'esposizione ad agenti cancerogeni costituisce un vasto e complesso problema di igiene del lavoro e medicina preventiva. Limitatamente ai cancerogeni chimici, un impulso importante in materia di prevenzione e' venuto dalla promulgazione del D.lgs. 626/94 e successive modificazioni. Il presente lavoro ha lo scopo di fornire indicazioni concrete per la messa in atto delle misure di prevenzione e protezione dei lavoratori, ponendo particolare attenzione ai laboratori di ricerca che costituiscono ambienti lavorativi, particolari caratterizzati dal gran numero di agenti manipolati e dal continuo mutamento delle attivita' e del personale.

  8. Let us prevent occupational cancers - Paris, 18-20 November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, A.; Falcy, M.; Hery, M.

    2010-01-01

    This document first presents and comments the proposals for action made by the colloquium scientific committee: improvement of the policy of information on risks, identification, suppression and substitution of carcinogenic products, improved action towards very small and medium-sized enterprises, and a better consideration of activities related to production (maintenance, cleaning and so on). The next part proposes large abstracts of contributions on various themes: current status (changes of institutions and practices of prevention, the CMR national plan, experience and action of a CHSCT of the oil industry sector), present issues (occupational cancers, detection of emerging pathologies in occupational environment), assessment of the number of occupational cancers, exposure characterization and assessment, mobilization and substitution, exposure tracing, information, training and awareness raising

  9. Identifying educational priorities for occupational therapy students to prepare for mental health practice in Australia and New Zealand: Opinions of practising occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Pépin, Geneviève; Haracz, Kirsti; Ennals, Priscilla; Webster, Jayne S; Meredith, Pamela J; Batten, Rachel; Bowman, Siann; Bonassi, Marianne; Bruce, Rosie

    2015-10-01

    The effective preparation of occupational therapy students for mental health practice is critical to facilitate positive consumer outcomes, underpin optimal practice and support new graduates' professional identity. This project was established to determine a set of 'educational priorities' for occupational therapy students to prepare them for current (and future) entry-level practice in mental health, from the perspective of mental health occupational therapists in Australia and New Zealand. The study included two phases. In Phase One, participants identified what they considered to be important educational priorities for occupational therapy students to prepare them for practice in mental health. For Phase Two, an 'expert panel' was assembled to review and rank these using a Policy Delphi approach. Eighty-five participants provided educational priorities in Phase One. These were grouped into a total of 149 educational themes. In Phase Two, the expert panel (consisting of 37 occupational therapists from diverse locations and practice settings) prioritised these themes across three Delphi rounds. A final priority list was generated dividing educational themes into three prioritised categories: 29 'Essential', 25 'Important' and 44 'Optional' priorities. Highest-ranked priorities were: clinical reasoning, client-centred practice, therapeutic use of self, functional implications of mental illness, therapeutic use of occupation and mental health fieldwork experience. The priority list developed as part of this project provides additional information to support the review of occupational therapy curricula across Australia and New Zealand to ensure that new graduates are optimally prepared for mental health practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Can a voice disorder be an occupational disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša Gluvajić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Voice disorders are all changes in the voice quality that can be detected by hearing. Some etiological factors that contribute to the development of voice disorders are related to occupation, working environment and working conditions. In modern societies one third of the labour force works in professions with vocal loading. In such professions, voice disorders influence work ability and quality of life. For an occupational disease, the exposure to harmful factors in the workplace is essential and causes the development of a disorder in a previously healthy individual. In some European countries, voice disorders in teachers, which do not improve after proper treatment are recognized as occupational diseases. In Slovenia, no organic or functional voice disorder is listed on the current list of occupational diseases. Prevention and cure of occupational voice disorders can contribute to better safety at the workplace and improve the workers’ health. Voice professionals must also know that they are responsible for their own health and that they must actively take care of it.

  11. Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Yong-Bum; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Choong-Yong

    2010-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (or 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients. It has been classified as non-genotoxic carcinogen but its carcinogenic potential in the rodents has been controversial. The carcinogenicity to B6C3F1 mice by drinking water administration was assessed over a period of 104 weeks. Three groups, each comprising 50 male and 50 female mice received 3-MCPD at dosages of 30, 100 or 300 ppm up to Day 100 and 200 ppm onward (4.2, 14.3 and 33.0 mg/kg for males; 3.7, 12.2, and 31.0 mg/kg for females), were allocated. Survival was good, with at least 80% of males and 72% of females in each group surviving 104 weeks. Body weights and body weight gain were decreased in males and females receiving 200 ppm. Water and food consumptions of both sexes at 300/200 ppm were lowered. Emaciated or crouching position was observed for animals of both sexes exposed to 200 ppm. There were some differences in hematology and serum biochemistry compared with controls, although there was no histopathological evidence to support those changes. Histopathological examination did not reveal any neoplastic or non-neoplastic findings attributable to treatment with 3-MCPD. It is concluded that drinking water administration of 3-MCPD for 104 weeks revealed no evidence of carcinogenic potential.

  12. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30 µg l −1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60 µg l −1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60 µg l −1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3–4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. - Highlights: • Uranium level in groundwater samples have been assessed in different regions of Punjab. • Comparative study of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects of uranium has been done. • Wide variation has been found for different geological regions. • It has been found that South west Punjab is worst affected by uranium contamination in its water. • For west and north east regions of Punjab, uranium levels in groundwater laid under recommended safe limits.

  13. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  14. Occupational health offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.

    2002-07-01

    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  15. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  16. Carcinogenic risk associated with radon-enriched well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison has been made between radon in drinking water and the incidence of cancer using a set of home occupants in Virginia and Maryland. In a subset of people who drink radon-free but chlorinated drinking water from a reservoir, about 3% develop some type of cancer. In a subset of people who drink low-radon water from private water wells, about 3% develop cancer. In a subset who drink high-radon well water, about 6% develop cancer. A comparison with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of cancer related to airborne radon indicates that for the general population, the incidence of radon-related cancer from drinking water is similar to the incidence of cancer from inhaled radon. For the 10% of the population that consumes well water and, in particular, for the 5% of the population that consumes high-radon well water, the drinking water carries a considerably higher cancer risk than inhaling airborne radon

  17. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  18. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...... and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response....

  19. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  20. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  2. The STAPL pList

    KAUST Repository

    Tanase, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of the stapl pList, a parallel container that has the properties of a sequential list, but allows for scalable concurrent access when used in a parallel program. The Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library (stapl) is a parallel programming library that extends C++ with support for parallelism. stapl provides a collection of distributed data structures (pContainers) and parallel algorithms (pAlgorithms) and a generic methodology for extending them to provide customized functionality. stapl pContainers are thread-safe, concurrent objects, providing appropriate interfaces (e.g., views) that can be used by generic pAlgorithms. The pList provides stl equivalent methods, such as insert, erase, and splice, additional methods such as split, and efficient asynchronous (non-blocking) variants of some methods for improved parallel performance. We evaluate the performance of the stapl pList on an IBM Power 5 cluster and on a CRAY XT4 massively parallel processing system. Although lists are generally not considered good data structures for parallel processing, we show that pList methods and pAlgorithms (p-generate and p-partial-sum) operating on pLists provide good scalability on more than 103 processors and that pList compares favorably with other dynamic data structures such as the pVector. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  4. Availability of a New Job-Exposure Matrix (CANJEM) for Epidemiologic and Occupational Medicine Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2018-04-10

    To introduce the Canadian job-exposure matrix (CANJEM). Four large case-control studies of cancer were conducted in Montreal, focused on assessing occupational exposures by means of detailed interviews followed by expert assessment of possible occupational exposures. 31,673 jobs were assessed using a checklist of 258 agents (listed with prevalences at http://expostats.ca/chems). This large exposure database was configured as a JEM. CANJEM is available in four occupational classification systems. It provides estimates of probability of exposure among workers with a given occupation, and for those exposed, various metrics of exposure. CANJEM can be accessed online (www.canjem.ca) or in a batch version. CANJEM is a large source of retrospective exposure information, covering most occupations and many agents. CANJEM can be used to support exposure assessment efforts in epidemiology and occupational health.

  5. [UV-irradiation-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Elsner, P; Schmitt, J

    2015-03-01

    With the revision of the German Ordinance on Occupational Diseases, skin cancer due to UV irradiation was amended as a new occupational disease to the list of occupational diseases in Germany. The new occupational disease BK 5103 has the following wording: "Squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". Actinic keratoses are to be considered as multiple according to this new occupational diseases if they occur as single lesions of more than five annually, or are confluent in an area > 4 cm(2) (field cancerization). It is estimated that more than 2.5 million employees are exposed to natural UV irradiation due to their work (outdoor workers) in Germany and therefore have an increased risk of skin cancer. In this article the medical and technical prerequisites which have to be fulfilled for this new occupational disease in Germany are introduced.

  6. License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...t list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods © Satoshi ... Policy | Contact Us License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  7. [Review of occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys in sixty years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Chao-lin; Wang, Huan-qiang

    2010-11-01

    To compare and analyze the all previous censuses and large-scale surveys on occupational hazard in China, draw lessons from the past, and try to provide references for the development of census or surveys on the occupational hazard in the new period. A literature retrieval had been performed mainly on the occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys since the founding of People's Republic of China. Only the survey items carried on a national scale were selected. Some keywords were drawn from these items such as survey time, survey scope, industries, occupational diseases and the rate of examination, organization and technical director, methods and so on. The outcomes and experiences were summarized. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there were seven occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys carried in China, three of them were about silicosis or pneumoconiosis, two of them were about poison and carcinogens, one was about noise, another one was about the township industrial enterprises. Leadership attention was the fundamental guarantee of the success of the survey, sound occupational health management organizations were the base, collaborative relationship with each other was an import factor, and only the interdisciplinary team, scientific design, quality control and incentive mechanism could assure the quality of the survey. The survey should be designed and carried out according to industries.

  8. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc−/−p53+/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Salvatori, Daniela C.F.; Schaap, Mirjam M.; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; Benthem, Jan van; Luijten, Mirjam; Steeg, Harry van

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.

  9. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites.

  10. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites. 108 references.

  11. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  12. Non-genotoxic carcinogens: early effects on gap junctions, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Chipman, James Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are thought to induce tumour formation by disturbing the balance between cell growth and cell death. Gap junctions (GJ) contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by allowing the intercellular exchange of growth regulatory signals and potential inhibition of GJ intercellular communication through loss of connexin (Cx) plaques has been shown to be involved in the cancer process. We have investigated the time- and dose-dependent effects of the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens Wy-14,643, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, methapyrilene and hexachlorobenzene and the male rat kidney carcinogens chloroform, p-dichlorobenzene and d-limonene on gap junction plaque expression in relation to proliferation and apoptosis. With the exception of limonene, all non-genotoxic carcinogens significantly reduced the expression of GJ plaques containing Cx32 in their respective target tissue. No dose-dependent, significant effects were seen in non-target organs. Although alteration of Cx32 expression did not appear to correlate with induction of cell proliferation, out data suggest that the interaction of both processes--interference of GJ coupled with a proliferative stimulus (at the carcinogenic dose)--may be important in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis and provide a potential alert for non-genotoxic carcinogens in short-term toxicity tests

  13. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  14. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta

    2011-01-01

    preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  15. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  16. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Occupational therapists might: help kids work on fine motor skills so they ... maintain positive behaviors in all environments (e.g., instead of hitting ...

  17. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  18. Carcinogenicity of the environmental pollutants cyclopenteno-(cd)pyrene and cyclopentano(cd)pyrene in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, E.; Rogan, E.; Toth, B.; Munhall, A.

    1981-01-01

    Cyclopenteno(cd)pyrene (CPEP) is a widespread environmental pollutant. This hydrocarbon and its 3,4-dihydro derivative, cyclopentano(cd)pyrene (CPAP), were tested on skin in a two-stage initiation-promotion experiment in CD-1 mice and by repeated application in Swiss mice. The biological effect of CPEP and CPAP was compared to that of benzo(a)-pyrene (BP). Nine-week-old female CD-1 mice in groups of 30 were treated every other day over a 20-day period at mini-dose levels of 0.18, 0.06 and 0.02 mumol of CPEP or CPAP in acetone. One group was treated with BP at the low mini-dose level. Initiation was followed by twice weekly application of tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate for 40 weeks. In the second experiments, nine-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 30 were treated at dose levels of 1.8, 0.6 and 0.2 mumol CPEP or CPAP in acetone twice weekly for 30 weeks. One group was treated with BP at the low dose. CPAP was virtually inactive in both studies. In the initiation-promotion experiment CPEP was inactive at the low dose level, whereas BP exhibited significant tumorigenicity. At the medium and high doses CPEP showed weak, but statistically insignificant, tumorigenic activity. Repeated application of CPEP at the high, medium and low doses resulted in tumor incidences of 23, 37 and 57%, respectively. This reverse dose-response may be due to the relatively high cytotoxicity of CPEP, BP, which was compared to CPEP at the low dose, elicited tumors in 100% of the mice. Most of the CPEP-induced neoplasms were malignant and some metastasized to lungs and lymph nodes. The inactivity of CPAP suggests the carcinogenicity of CPEP is probably due to formation of the ultimate metabolite CPEP 3,4-oxide. In view of the abundance of CPEP in environmental and occupational pollutants, its moderately potent carcinogenicity may represent a potential health hazard.

  19. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration English | Spanish MENU OSHA English | Spanish Search A ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  1. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  2. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  3. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  4. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  5. 77 FR 41190 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-190] Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012, Correction AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the...

  6. Title III List of Lists -- Raw Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This list was prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of the Emergency Planning and...

  7. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  8. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  9. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  10. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  11. On a List of Priests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isager, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns the fate of an often cited list of priests for Poseidon, which at some point was established and cut into a stele in ancient Halikarnassos. The list could be considered the genealogical table of Halikarnassos: The cult of Poseidon was founded by colonists from Troizen...... and the first priest on the list was a son of the god Poseidon himself. This could be read from the inscription on a new stele to which it was decided to transfer all the names on the first stele in the Late Hellenistic Period. The article presents two new documents for future discussions on when, why...

  12. Return-to-work intervention versus usual care for sick-listed employees : Health-economic investment appraisal alongside a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokman, S.; Volker, D.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Boon, B.; Beekman, A.T.; Smit, F.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the health-economic costs and benefits of a guided eHealth intervention (E-health module embedded in Collaborative Occupational healthcare (ECO)) encouraging sick-listed employees to a faster return to work. A two-armed cluster randomised trial with occupational physicians (OPs) (n=62),

  13. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  14. Factors modifying sensitivity to carcinogens and the problem of threshold in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of chemical carcinogens and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been under extensive study both experimentally and epidemiologically. The problem of the carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation is a very difficult one: in epidemiological studies it is hard to take into account the many factors (e.g. diseases, diet, genetic peculiarities) that may affect sensitivity to radiation; in experimental studies it is hard to extrapolate with accuracy from one species to another or from the individual threshold to that of the whole population. Age, enzyme activity, sex, and DNA repair capability also modify sensitivity to radiation; when factors such as these are better understood it is expected that epidemiological studies will give a solution that allows estimation of the carcinogenic risk from low-level radiation and hence establishment of a threshold dose. (author)

  15. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  16. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  17. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-12-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30µgl -1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60µgl -1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60µgl -1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3-4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M.; Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich; Enzmann, Harald H.

    2004-01-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using 32 P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had 32 P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  19. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification. PMID:29562322

  20. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Dogan, Meral; Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Rodorico; Dogan, A. Umran; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Differently carcinogenic zeolite fibers were investigated combining physico-chemical methods. • For the first time, zeolite fibers were studied by means of the EPR technique using different spin probes. • The structural properties and the adsorption capability are function of different types and distributions of adsorption sites. • The interacting ability of erionite is higher than that of other fibrous zeolites. • The surface interacting properties may be related with the carcinogenicity of the zeolite fibers. - Abstract: Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si–O–Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity.

  1. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M. [New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla (United States); Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich [Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal (Germany); Enzmann, Harald H. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using {sup 32}P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had {sup 32}P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  2. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  3. Occupational exposure of aldehydes resulting from the storage of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-06-01

    An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen. Thus, air sampling was performed in a wood pellet warehouse at a pellet mill, two residential homes with bulk wood pellet storage bins, and in controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the risk to occupants. Using NIOSH method 2539, sampling was conducted in five locations in the warehouse from April-June 2016 when it contained varying quantities of bagged pellets as well as two homes with ten ton bulk storage bins. The aldehyde concentrations were found to increase with the amount of stored pellets. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were as high as 0.45 ppm in the warehouse exceeding the NIOSH REL-C, and ACGIH TLV-C occupational exposure limits (OELs). The concentrations of aldehydes measured in the residential bins were also elevated indicating emissions may raise indoor air quality concerns for occupants. While individual exposures are of concern the combined irritant effect of all the aldehydes is a further raise the concerns for building occupants. To minimize exposure and the risk of adverse health effects to a building's occupants in storage areas with large quantities of pellets, adequate ventilation must be designed into storage areas.

  4. Clinical Investigator Inspector List (CLIIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Investigator Inspection List (CLIIL) contains names, addresses, and other pertinent information gathered from inspections of clinical investigators who...

  5. #DDOD: Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to request means on consolidating multiple data sources (MDR, PMA, 510(k), R&L) in order to build a list of all marketed medical devices....

  6. Analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic risks: nitrates, nitrites, N-Nitroso compounds. Comparison with radioactive risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1987-07-01

    This report comes within the scope of the general studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than ionizing radiations. Through feeding, way of life and working activities, man is exposed to genotoxic risks of N-nitroso compounds (NNC). In spite of differences in the molecular modes of action, there exists some analogy between the effects of radiation exposures and those of NNC: DNA is the target in either instance. Unlike radiations, NNC are alkylating agents. The whole activation process of carcinogens arises from mechanisms leading to DNA repair [fr

  7. Prediction of Chemical Carcinogenicity in Rodents from in vitro Genetic Toxicity Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Raymond W.; Margolin, Barry H.; Shelby, Michael D.; Zeiger, Errol; Haseman, Joseph K.; Spalding, Judson; Caspary, William; Resnick, Michael; Stasiewicz, Stanley; Anderson, Beth; Minor, Robert

    1987-05-01

    Four widely used in vitro assays for genetic toxicity were evaluated for their ability to predict the carcinogenicity of selected chemicals in rodents. These assays were mutagenesis in Salmonella and mouse lymphoma cells and chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seventy-three chemicals recently tested in 2-year carcinogenicity studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute and the National Toxicology Program were used in this evaluation. Test results from the four in vitro assays did not show significant differences in individual concordance with the rodent carcinogenicity results; the concordance of each assay was approximately 60 percent. Within the limits of this study there was no evidence of complementarity among the four assays, and no battery of tests constructed from these assays improved substantially on the overall performance of the Salmonella assay. The in vitro assays which represented a range of three cell types and four end points did show substantial agreement among themselves, indicating that chemicals positive in one in vitro assay tended to be positive in the other in vitro assays. To help put this project into its proper context, we emphasize certain features of the study: 1) Standard protocols were used to mimic the major use of STTs worldwide--screening for mutagens and carcinogens; no attempt was made to optimize protocols for specific chemicals. 2) The 73 NTP chemicals and their 60% incidence of carcinogenicity are probably not representative of the universe of chemicals but rather reflect the recent chemical selection process for the NTP carcinogenicity assay. 3) The small, diverse group of chemicals precludes a meaningful evaluation of the predictive utility of chemical structure information. 4) The NTP is currently testing these same 73 chemicals in two in vivo STTs for chromosomal effects. 5) Complete data for an additional group of 30 to 40 NTP chemicals will be gathered on

  8. The implications of the 1990 recommendations of ICRP for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 the International Commission on Radiological Protection agreed to a new set of recommendations. In this Paper those aspects of the recommendations which are relevant to occupational exposure are described and their implications examined. First the new estimates of carcinogenic risk are presented and the way in which they are used to provide a measure of detriment is explained. The Paper then shows how the attributes of radiation detriment are used to set dose limits. Finally, the practical implementation of the recommendations is considered. (Author)

  9. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J R; Aw, T C; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-07-01

    As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia. Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked in industry or were from government organisations. The participation rate of 71% (55 of 78) was obtained for the first questionnaire and 76% (72 of 95) for the second questionnaire. The participants identified occupational health problems for specific groups and industries as the top research priority area (ranked as top priority by 25% of participants). Ministry of Health participants placed emphasis on healthcare workers (52% ranking it as top priority), whereas those from industry identified construction and plantation workers as groups, which should be accorded the highest priority. Evaluation of research and services was given a low priority. The priorities for occupational health determined with the Delphi approach showed differences between Malaysia, a developing country, and findings from similar European studies. This may be expected, as differences exist in stages of economic development, types of industries, occupational activities, and cultural attitudes to occupational health and safety. Chemical poisonings and workplace accidents were accorded a high priority. By contrast with findings from western countries, workplace psychosocial problems and musculoskeletal injuries were deemed less important. There also seemed to be greater emphasis on adopting interventions for identified problems based on experience in other countries rather than the need to evaluate local occupational health provisions.

  10. 39-week carcinogenicity study with cyclosporin A in XPA-/- mice, wild type mice and XPA-/-.P53+/- double transgenic mice. Part of the ILSI/HESI Program on Alternative Methods for Carcinogenicity Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beems RB; Kreijl CF van; Steeg H van; LPI; LEO

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic response of cyclosporin A in XPA-/- mice having a C57BL/6 background. XPA-/- mice are deficient in nucleotide excision repair and have shown increased susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogens and uv-light. The study was part of a world-wide

  11. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  12. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  13. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  14. List of Posters

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of Posters: Dark matter annihilation in the Galactic galo, by Dokuchaev Vyacheslav, et al. NEMO developments towards km3 telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The NEMO project. Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory By Antonio Capone, NEMO Collaboration. Alignment as a result from QCD jet production or new still unknown physics at LHC? By Alexander Snigirev. Small-scale fluctuations of extensive air showers: systematics in energy and muon density estimation By Grigory Rubtsov. SHINIE: Simulation of High-Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth By Lin Guey-Lin, et al.. Thermodynamics of rotating solutions in n+1 dimensional Einstein - Maxwell -dilation gravity By Ahmad Sheykhi, et al.. Supernova neutrino physics with future large Cherenkov detectors By Daniele Montanino. Crossing of the Cosmological Constant Barrier in the string Inspired Dark Energy Model By S. Yu. Vernov. Calculations of radio signals produced by ultra-high and extremely high energy neutrino induced cascades in Antarctic ice By D. Besson, et al.. Inflation, Cosmic Acceleration and string Gravity By Ischwaree Neupane. Neutrino Physics: Charm and J/Psi production in the atmosphere By Liudmila Volkova. Three generation flavor transitions and decays of supernova relic neutrinos By Daniele Montanino. Lattice calculations & computational quantum field theory: Sonification of Quark and Baryon Spectra By Markum Harald, et al.. Generalized Kramers-Wannier Duality for spin systems with non-commutative symmetry By V. M. Buchstaber, et al.. Heavy ion collisions & quark matter: Nuclear matter jets and multifragmentation By Danut Argintaru, et al.. QCD hard interactions: The qT-spectrum of the Higgs and Slepton-pairs at the LHC By Guiseppe Bozzi. QCD soft interactions: Nonperturbative effects in Single-Spin Asymmetries: Instantons and TMD-parton distributions By Igor Cherednikov, et al.. Gluon dominance model and high multiplicity By Elena Kokoulina. Resonances in eta pi- pi- pi+ system By Dmitry Ryabchikov

  15. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  16. Perspective on occupational mortality risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational risks to radiation workers are compared with other occupational risks on the basis of lost life expectancy (LLE) in a full working lifetime. Usual comparisons with National Safety Council accident death statistics for various industry categories are shown to be unfair because the latter average over a variety of particular industries and occupations within each industry. Correcting for these problems makes some common occupations in some industries 20-50 times more dangerous due to accidents alone than being a radiation worker. If more exposed subgroups of radiation workers are compared with more dangerous subgroups of other occupations, these ratios are maintained. Since radiation causes disease rather than acute injury, a wide range effort is made to estimate average loss of life expectancy from occupational disease; the final estimate for this is 500 days. The average American worker loses more than an order of magnitude more life expectancy from occupational disease than the average radiation worker loses from radiation induced cancer. (author)

  17. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  18. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  19. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  20. Sentinel health events (occupational): a basis for physician recognition and public health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutstein, D.D.; Mullan, R.J.; Frazier, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.; Melius, J.M.; Sestito, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A Sentinel Health Event (SHE) is a preventable disease, disability, or untimely death whose occurrence serves as a warning signal that the quality of preventive and/or therapeutic medical care may need to be improved. A SHE (Occupational) is a disease, disability, or untimely death which is occupationally related and whose occurrence may: (1) provide the impetus for epidemiologic or industrial hygiene studies; or (2) serve as a warning signal that materials substitution, engineering control, personal protection, or medical care may be required. The present SHE(O) list encompasses 50 disease conditions that are linked to the workplace. Only those conditions are included for which objective documentation of an associated agent, industry, and occupation exists in the scientific literature. The list will serve as a framework for developing a national system for occupational health surveillance that may be applied at the state and local level, and as a guide for practicing physicians caring for patients with occupational illnesses. The list will be updated periodically to accommodate new occupational disease events which meet the criteria for inclusion. 190 references, 1 figure, 1 table