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Sample records for liquid xenon detector

  1. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  2. A new liquid xenon scintillation detector for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepel, V.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    A new positron-sensitive detector of annihilation photons filled with liquid xenon is proposed for positron emission tomography. Simultaneous detection of both liquid xenon scintillation and ionization current produces a time resolution of < 1 ns and a position resolution in the tangential direction of the tomograph ring is ∼ 1 mm and in the radial direction is ∼ 5 mm. The advantages of a tomograph with new detectors are discussed. New algorithms of Compton scattering can be used. (author)

  3. Dark matter sensitivity of multi-ton liquid xenon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Marc; Bütikofer, Lukas; Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Selvi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of multi ton-scale time projection chambers using a liquid xenon target, e.g., the proposed DARWIN instrument, to spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering interactions. Taking into account realistic backgrounds from the detector itself as well as from neutrinos, we examine the impact of exposure, energy threshold, background rejection efficiency and energy resolution on the dark matter sensitivity. With an exposure of 200 t × y and assuming detector parameters which have been already demonstrated experimentally, spin-independent cross sections as low as 2.5 × 10 −49 cm 2 can be probed for WIMP masses around 40 GeV/c 2 . Additional improvements in terms of background rejection and exposure will further increase the sensitivity, while the ultimate WIMP science reach will be limited by neutrinos scattering coherently off the xenon nuclei

  4. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.L.; Fedotovich, G.V.; Anisenkov, A.V.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Kozyrev, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Ruban, A.A.; Bashtovoy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e + e − → K + K − in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  5. Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y; Lin, Q; Xiao, X; Ni, K

    2013-01-01

    Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection efficiency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector configurations with the same number of either R11410 (config.1) or R8520 (config.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array. The self-shielding of liquid xenon suppresses the background from the PMTs and the dominant background is from the pp solar neutrinos in the central fiducial volume. The light collection efficiency for the primary scintillation light is largely affected by the xenon purity and the reflectivity of the reflectors. In the optimistic situation with a 10 m light absorption length and a 95% reflectivity, the light collection efficiency is 43%(34%) for config.1(config.2). In the conservative situation with a 2.5 m light absorption length and a 85% reflectivity, the value is only 18%(13%) for config.1(config.2). The difference between the two configurations is due to the larger PMT coverage on the top for config.1. The slightly different position resolutions for the two configurations have a negligible effect on the sensitivity. Based on the above considerations, we estimate the sensitivity reach of the two detector configurations. Both configurations can reach a sensitivity of 2 ∼ 3 × 10 −47 cm 2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section for 100 GeV/c 2 WIMPs after two live-years of operation. The one with R8520 PMTs for the top

  6. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China.

  7. Absorption of scintillation light in a 100l liquid xenon γ-ray detector and expected detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Doke, T.; Grassi, M.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Grigoriev, D.N.; Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Kikuchi, J.; Maki, A.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mori, T.; Nicolo, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Papa, A.; Pazzi, R.; Ritt, S.; Sawada, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G.; Suzuki, S.; Terasawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Yuri, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    An 800l liquid xenon scintillation γ-ray detector is being developed for the MEG experiment which will search for μ + ->e + γdecay at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Absorption of scintillation light of xenon by impurities might possibly limit the performance of such a detector. We used a 100l prototype with an active volume of 372x372x496mm 3 to study the scintillation light absorption. We have developed a method to evaluate the light absorption, separately from elastic scattering of light, by measuring cosmic rays and α sources. By using a suitable purification technique, an absorption length longer than 100cm has been achieved. The effects of the light absorption on the energy resolution are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation

  8. Charged Particle Identification using the Liquid Xenon Calorimeter of the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetshin, R R; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Ryzhenenkov, A E; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a currently being developed procedure of the charged particle identification for CMD-3 detector, installed at the VEPP-2000 collider. The procedure is based on the application of the boosted decision trees classification method, and uses as input variables, among others, the specific energy losses of charged particle in the layers of the liquid Xenon calorimeter. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated by an example of the extraction of events of e+e- to K+K- process in the center of mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  9. Spatially uniform calibration of a liquid xenon detector at low energies using Kr-83m

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Askin, A.; Baudis, L.; Behrens, A.; Ferella, A.D.; Kish, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Santorelli, R.; Vénos, Drahoslav; Vollhardt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2010), 073303/1-073303/8 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA318; GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : DARK -MATTER DETECTOR * NUCLEAR RECOIL * ARGON Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  10. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  11. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Cease, H. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Markley, D. [Fermilab; Pahlka, R. B. [Fermilab; Balakishiyeva, D. [Florida U.; Saab, T. [Florida U.; Filipenko, M. [Erlangen - Nuremberg U., ECAP

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  12. Commissioning of the XENON1T liquid level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Christopher [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) have been operated very successfully in direct detection experiments for dark matter. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled with sub-millimeter precision. We present the installation, commissioning and first measurement data of two kinds of level meters operated in the XENON1T TPC: short level meters are three-plated capacitors measuring the level of the liquid-gas interface with a measurement range h∼5 mm and a resolution of ΔC/h∼1 pF/mm. The long level meters are cylindrical double-walled capacitors, measuring the overall filling level of the XENON1T TPC at a measurement range of h=1.4 m and a resolution of ΔC/h∼0.1 pF/mm. Further, we present the design and programming of the readout electronic based on the UTI chip by Smartec, which allows to read all six levelmeters simultaneously.

  13. Solubility of xenon in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Cafasso, F.A.; Feder, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    The solubility of xenon in liquid sodium was measured as a function of pressure (2-8 atm) and temperature (350-600 0 C). Henry's law was obeyed with the value of the Henry's law constant, K/sub H/ = N/sub Xe//P, ranging from 1.38 x 10 -10 atm -1 at 350C, to 1.59 x 10 -8 atm -1 at 600 0 C where N/sub Xe/ and P are the atom fraction and the partial pressure of xenon, respectively. The temperature dependence of solubility may be represented by log 10 lambda = (0.663 +- 0.01) - (4500 +- 73) T -1 , where lambda is the Ostwald coefficient (the volume of xenon dissolved per unit volume of sodium at the temperature of the experiment). The heat of solution of xenon in sodium was 20.6 +- 0.7 kcal/mole, where the standard state of xenon is defined as that of 1 mole of an ideal gas, confined to a volume equal to the molar volume of sodium

  14. A dual-phase xenon TPC for scintillation and ionisation yield measurements in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, Laura; Biondi, Yanina; Capelli, Chiara; Galloway, Michelle; Kazama, Shingo; Kish, Alexander; Pakarha, Payam; Piastra, Francesco; Wulf, Julien

    2018-05-01

    A small-scale, two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber ( Xurich II) was designed, constructed and is under operation at the University of Zürich. Its main purpose is to investigate the microphysics of particle interactions in liquid xenon at energies below 50 keV, which are relevant for rare event searches using xenon as target material. Here we describe in detail the detector, its associated infrastructure, and the signal identification algorithm developed for processing and analysing the data. We present the first characterisation of the new instrument with calibration data from an internal ^83{m} Kr source. The zero-field light yield is 15.0 and 14.0 photoelectrons/keV at 9.4 and 32.1 keV, respectively, and the corresponding values at an electron drift field of 1 kV/cm are 10.8 and 7.9 photoelectrons/keV. The charge yields at these energies are 28 and 31 electrons/keV, with the proportional scintillation yield of 24 photoelectrons per one electron extracted into the gas phase, and an electron lifetime of 200 μ s. The relative energy resolution, σ /E, is 11.9 and 5.8% at 9.4 and 32.1 keV, respectively using a linear combination of the scintillation and ionisation signals. We conclude with measurements of the electron drift velocity at various electric fields, and compare these to literature values.

  15. Gravity assisted recovery of liquid xenon at large mass flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virone, L.; Acounis, S.; Beaupère, N.; Beney, J.-L.; Bert, J.; Bouvier, S.; Briend, P.; Butterworth, J.; Carlier, T.; Chérel, M.; Crespi, P.; Cussonneau, J.-P.; Diglio, S.; Manzano, L. Gallego; Giovagnoli, D.; Gossiaux, P.-B.; Kraeber-Bodéré, F.; Ray, P. Le; Lefèvre, F.; Marty, P.; Masbou, J.; Morteau, E.; Picard, G.; Roy, D.; Staempflin, M.; Stutzmann, J.-S.; Visvikis, D.; Xing, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Thers, D.

    2018-06-01

    We report on a liquid xenon gravity assisted recovery method for nuclear medical imaging applications. The experimental setup consists of an elevated detector enclosed in a cryostat connected to a storage tank called ReStoX. Both elements are part of XEMIS2 (XEnon Medical Imaging System): an innovative medical imaging facility for pre-clinical research that uses pure liquid xenon as detection medium. Tests based on liquid xenon transfer from the detector to ReStoX have been successfully performed showing that an unprecedented mass flow rate close to 1 ton per hour can be reached. This promising achievement as well as future areas of improvement will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F; Badertscher, A; Benetti, P; Bernardini, E; Bettini, A; Borio di Tigliole, A A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A G; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, M; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, Sandro; Cesana, A; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Ferrari, A; Gigli-Berzolari, A; Matthey, C; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, Adriano; Petrera, S; Periale, L; Piano Mortari, G; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, André; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D A; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Tian, W; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, Z

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a test done with a Liquid Xenon (LXe) detector for 'Dark Matter' search, exposed to a neutron beam to produce nuclear recoil events simulating those which would be generated by WIMP's elastic scattering. The aim of the experiment was to measure directly the scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil. The nuclear recoil considered in the test was in the tens of keV range. The ratio of measured visible energy over the true recoil energy was evaluated to be about 20%, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  17. A Liquid Xenon Ionization Chamber in an All-fluoropolymer Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePort, F.; Pocar, A.; Bartoszek, L.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Flatt, B.; Gratta, G.; Green, M.; Montero Diez, M.; Neilson, R.; O'Sullivan, K.; Wodin, J.; Woisard, D.; Baussan, E.; Breidenbach, M.; Conley, R.; Fairbank, W. Jr.; Farine, J.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Applied Plastics Technology, Bristol; Neuchatel U.; SLAC; Colorado State U.; Laurentian U.; Carleton U.; Alabama U.; Moscow, ITEP

    2007-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed to build vessels for liquid xenon ionization detectors entirely out of ultra-clean fluoropolymer. We describe the advantages in terms of low radioactivity contamination, provide some details of the construction techniques, and show the energy resolution achieved with a prototype all-fluoropolymer ionization detector

  18. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  19. Scintillating liquid xenon calorimeter for precise electron/photon/jet physics at high energy high luminosity hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Luckey, D.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Wadsworth, B.; Yan, X.J.; You, C.; Zhang, X.; Chen, E.G.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Sullivan, J.D.; Bolozdynya, A.; Chernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Kouchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Epstein, V.; Zeldovich, S.; Krasnokutsky, R.; Shuvalov, R.; Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Suzuki, M.; Moulsen, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Okada, K.; Fujino, T.; Matsuda, T.; Miyajima, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Nagasawa, Y.; Ichinose, H.; Ishida, N.; Nakasugi, T.; Ito, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Wallraff, W.; Vivargent, M.; Mutterer, M.; Chen, H.S.; Tang, H.W.; Tung, K.L.; Ding, H.L.; Takahashi, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors use αs well as e, π, p, d and heavy ion beams to test prototype scintillating liquid xenon detectors, with large UV photodiodes and fast amplifiers submersed directly in liquid xenon. The data show very large photoelectron yields (10 7 /GeV) and high energy resolution (σ(E)/E 1.6 GeV). The α spectra are stable over long term and can be used to calibrate the detectors. Full size liquid xenon detectors have been constructed, to study cosmic μ's and heavy ions. The authors report the progress on the design and construction of the 5 x 5 and 11 x 11 cell liquid xenon detectors which will be tested in high energy beams to determine the e/π ratio. The authors describe the design and the unique properties of the proposed scintillating LXe calorimeter for the SSC

  20. 900-L liquid xenon cryogenic system operation for the MEG experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Hisamatsu, Y; Iawamoto, W; Mori, T; Nishiguchi, H; Otani, W; Sawada, R; Uchiyama, Y; Nishitani, T

    2009-01-01

    A cryogenic system for the MEG (muon rare decay) experiment has started operation at the Paul Sherrer Institute in Zurich. The main part of the MEG detector is the 900-L liquid xenon calorimeter for gamma ray detection, equipped with 850 photo multipliers directly immersed in liquid xenon. A 200 W pulse tube cryocooler enabled LN2-free operation of this calorimeter. A liquid purification system; using a liquid pump and a zero boil-off 1000-L cryogenic buffer dewar is also included in the system. The first entire engineering run was carried out in November-December 2007 and satisfactory cryogenic performances were confirmed.

  1. Cryogenic readout for multiple VUV4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, A.

    2018-03-01

    This work concerned the preliminary tests and characterization of a cryogenic preamplifier board for an array made of 16 S13370-3050CN (VUV4 family) Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu and operated at liquid xenon temperature. The proposed prototype is based on the use of the Analog Devices AD8011 current feedback operational amplifier. The detector allows for single photon detection, making this device a promising choice for the future generation of neutrino and dark matter detectors based on liquid xenon targets.

  2. Two-phase xenon detector with gas amplification and electroluminescent signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Burenkov, A.A.; Grishkin, Yu.L.; Kovalenko, A.G.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Stekhanov, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    An optical technique for detecting ionization electrons produced during ionization of the liquid phase has been experimentally tested in two-phase (liquid-gas) xenon. The effects of gas and electroluminescent amplifications at the wire anode are simultaneously used for detection. This method allows construction of a supersensitive detector of small ionization signals-down to those corresponding to the detection of single electrons [ru

  3. Reflectance measurements of PTFE, Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light for the LZ detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Haefner, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Morton, D.; Neff, A.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A.; Stephenson, S.; Wang, Y.; LZ Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    LZ (LUX-Zeplin) is an international collaboration that will look for dark matter candidates, WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), through direct detection by dual-phase time projection chamber (TPC) using liquid xenon. The LZ detector will be located nearly a mile underground at SURF, South Dakota, shielded from cosmic background radiation. Seven tons active mass of liquid xenon will be used for detecting the weak interaction of WIMPs with ordinary matter. Over three years of operation it is expected to reach the ultimate sensitivity of 2x10-48 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 50 GeV. As for many other rare event searches, high light collection efficiency is essential for LZ detector. Moreover, in order to achieve greater active volume for detection as well as reduce potential backgrounds, thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance are desired. Reflectance measurements of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light (178 nm), conducted at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Xenon Detector (MiX) will be presented. The University of Michigan, LZ Collaboration, The US Department of Energy.

  4. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  5. Performance of a cryogenic system prototype for the XENON1T detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, E; Budnik, R; Choi, B; Contreras, H A; Giboni, K L; Goetzke, L W; Lang, R F; Lim, K E; Melgarejo, A J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an efficient cryogenic system with heat exchange and associated gas purification system as a prototype for the XENON1T experiment. The XENON1T detector will use about 3 tons of liquid xenon (LXe) at a temperature of 175K as target and detection medium for a dark matter search. In this paper we report results on the cryogenic system performance focusing on the dynamics of the gas circulation-purification through a heated getter, at flow rates above 50 Standard Liter per Minute (SLPM). A maximum flow of 114 SLPM has been achieved, and using two heat exchangers in series, a heat exchange efficiency better than 96% has been measured.

  6. Distribution of xenon between gaseous and liquid CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackley, R.D.; Notz, K.J.

    1976-10-01

    The distribution of xenon at low concentrations between gaseous and liquid CO 2 was measured over essentially the entire liquid range of CO 2 . These measurements involved using a collimated radiation-detection cell to determine the relative quantities of 133 Xe-traced xenon in the separate phases contained in a vertical cylinder under isothermal conditions. The results are expressed in terms of a distribution ratio (mole fraction of xenon in the gaseous phase divided by mole fraction of xenon in the liquid phase) which decreased from 7.53 at -54.8 0 C to 1.10 at 30.5 0 C. These data were used to calculate various other solubility-related quantities

  7. NEST: a comprehensive model for scintillation yield in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydagis, M; Barry, N; Mock, J; Stolp, D; Sweany, M; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Walsh, N; Woods, M [University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kazkaz, K, E-mail: mmszydagis@ucdavis.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A comprehensive model for explaining scintillation yield in liquid xenon is introduced. We unify various definitions of work function which abound in the literature and incorporate all available data on electron recoil scintillation yield. This results in a better understanding of electron recoil, and facilitates an improved description of nuclear recoil. An incident gamma energy range of O(1 keV) to O(1 MeV) and electric fields between 0 and O(10 kV/cm) are incorporated into this heuristic model. We show results from a Geant4 implementation, but because the model has a few free parameters, implementation in any simulation package should be simple. We use a quasi-empirical approach with an objective of improving detector calibrations and performance verification. The model will aid in the design and optimization of future detectors. This model is also easy to extend to other noble elements. In this paper we lay the foundation for an exhaustive simulation code which we call NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique).

  8. NEST: a comprehensive model for scintillation yield in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydagis, M; Barry, N; Mock, J; Stolp, D; Sweany, M; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Walsh, N; Woods, M; Kazkaz, K

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive model for explaining scintillation yield in liquid xenon is introduced. We unify various definitions of work function which abound in the literature and incorporate all available data on electron recoil scintillation yield. This results in a better understanding of electron recoil, and facilitates an improved description of nuclear recoil. An incident gamma energy range of O(1 keV) to O(1 MeV) and electric fields between 0 and O(10 kV/cm) are incorporated into this heuristic model. We show results from a Geant4 implementation, but because the model has a few free parameters, implementation in any simulation package should be simple. We use a quasi-empirical approach with an objective of improving detector calibrations and performance verification. The model will aid in the design and optimization of future detectors. This model is also easy to extend to other noble elements. In this paper we lay the foundation for an exhaustive simulation code which we call NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique).

  9. Cryogenic readout for multiple VUV4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.; Conicella, V.; Di Giovanni, A.; Fawwaz, O.; Messina, M.; Candela, A.; Franchi, G.

    2018-06-01

    We present the performances and characterization of an array made of S13370-3050CN (VUV4 generation) Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu and equipped with a low power consumption preamplifier operating at liquid xenon temperature (∼ 175 K). The electronics is designed for the readout of a matrix of maximum dimension of 8 × 8 individual photosensors and it is based on a single operational amplifier. The detector prototype presented in this paper utilizes the Analog Devices AD8011 current feedback operational amplifier, but other models can be used depending on the application. A biasing correction circuit has been implemented for the gain equalization of photosensors operating at different voltages. The results show single photon detection capability making this device a promising choice for future generation of large scale dark matter detectors based on liquid xenon, such as DARWIN.

  10. Experimental development of a liquid xenon Compton telescope for functional medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oger, Tugdual

    2012-01-01

    3γ imaging is a new nuclear medical imaging technique which has been suggested by Subatech laboratory. This technique involves locating three-dimensional position of the decay of an innovative radioisotope (β + ,γ) emitter, the 44 Sc. The principle consist in the detection of two photons of 511 keV gamma rays from the decay of the positron, provided by a PET ring detector, associated to the detection of the third photon by a Liquid xenon Compton telescope. The energy deposited in the interaction between the photon and xenon and its position are identified by measuring the ionization signal with a Micromegas chamber (Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structure), while the trigger and time measurement of the interaction are provided by the detection of the scintillation signal. The principle of the TPC is thus used to Compton imaging. In order to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of imaging 3γ, a small prototype, XEMIS (Xenon Medical Imaging System) was developed. This thesis is an important step towards the proof of feasibility. In this work are exposed the characterization of the detector response for a beam of 511 keV gamma rays and the analysis of data derived from it. The measurement of energy and time resolutions will be presented, as well as the purity of the liquid xenon. (author) [fr

  11. First observation of liquid-xenon proportional electroluminescence in THGEM holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arazi, L; Itay, R; Landsman, H; Levinson, L; Pasmantirer, B; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A; Coimbra, A E C

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced proportional-electroluminescence UV signals, emitted from the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon, were recorded with a PMT for the first time. Significant photon yields were observed with gamma photons and alpha particles using a 0.4 mm thick electrode with 0.3 mm diameter holes; at 2 kV across the THGEM the photon yield was estimated to be ∼ 600 UV photons/electron over 4π. This may pave the way towards the realization of novel single-phase noble-liquid radiation detectors incorporating liquid hole-multipliers (LHM); their concept is presented

  12. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  13. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  14. Ionization yield from electron tracks in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronova, T.Ya.; Kipsanov, M.A.; Kruglov, A.A.; Obodovskij, I.M.; Pokachalov, S.G.; Shilov, V.A.; Khristich, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for calculating coefficients K β , characterizing ionization yield from electron track in liquid xenon are considered. K β calculation is conducted on the base of experimental data on K parameter characterizing ionization yield from a certain combination of photo-, Compton-and Auger electron tracks. K parameter measurements are conducted in liquid xenon at 170 K temperature within 10-30 keV gamma- and X radiation energy ranges. Calculated dependence of K β and K coefficients on the energy in a wide (5-500 keV) range is presented. K β values obtained can be applied for calculating the energy resolution of a gamma-spectrometer and linearity of its calibration characteristics if the electric field intensity in the spectrometer does not exceed some kV/cm

  15. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  16. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  17. Liquid xenon/krypton scintillation calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Bolozdynya, A.I.; Brastilov, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillating LXe/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter has been built at the ITEP and tested at the BATES (MIT) accelerator. The detector consists of PMT matrix and 45 light collecting cells made of aluminized 50 microns Mylar partially covered with p-terphenyl as a wavelength-shifter. Each pyramidal cell has (2.1 x 2.1) x 40 x (4.15 x 4.15) cm dimensions and is viewed by FEU-85 glass-window photomultiplier. The detector has been exposed at 106-348 MeV electron beam. The energy resolution σ E /E ≅ 5% √ E at 100 - 350 MeV range in LXe, the coordinate resolution τ x ≅ 0.7 cm, the time resolution for single cell ≅ 0.6 ns have been obtained. Possible ways to improve energy resolution are discussed. 8 refs., 15 figs

  18. Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V /cm , 154 V /cm and 366 V /cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to extract the photon yields and recombination fluctuations from the experimental data. The photon yields measured at the two lower fields are in agreement with those from literature; additional measurements at a higher field of 366 V /cm are presented. The electronic and nuclear recoil discrimination as well as its dependence on the drift field and photon detection efficiency are investigated at these low energies. The results provide new measurements in the energy region of interest for dark matter searches using liquid xenon.

  19. A liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the MEG and MEG II liquid xenon calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, G., E-mail: giovanni.signorelli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Sergiampietri, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Venturini, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We designed, built and operated a liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the liquid xenon calorimeter of the MEG experiment. The target was used throughout the entire data taking period, from 2008 to 2013 and it is being refurbished and partly re-designed to be integrated and used in the MEG-II experiment.

  20. Matrix of response functions for xenon gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shustov, A.E.; Vlasik, K.F.; Grachev, V.M.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Novikov, A.S.; P'ya, S.N.; Ulin, S.E.; Uteshev, Z.M.; Chernysheva, I.V.

    2014-01-01

    An approach of creation of response matrix using simulation GEANT4 gamma-ray Monte-Carlo method has been described for gamma-ray spectrometer based on high pressure xenon impulse ionization chamber with a shielding grid [ru

  1. Monitoring xenon purity in the LUX detector with a mass spectrometry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Jon; LUX Experiment Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. To monitor for radioactive impurities such as krypton and impurities which limit charge yield such as oxygen, LUX uses a xenon sampling system consisting of a mass spectrometer and a liquid nitrogen cold trap. The cold trap separates the gaseous impurities from a small sample of xenon and allows them to pass to the mass spectrometer for analysis. We report here on results from the LUX xenon sampling program. We also report on methods to enhance the sensitivity of the cold trap technique in preparation for the next-generation LUX-ZEPLIN experiment which will have even more stringent purity requirements.

  2. Supernova Neutrino Physics with Xenon Dark Matter Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichard, S.; Lang, R.F.; McCabe, C.; Selvi, M.; Tamborra, I.

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter experiment XENON1T is operational and sensitive to all flavors of neutrinos emitted from a supernova. We show that the proportional scintillation signal (S2) allows for a clear observation of the neutrino signal and guarantees a particularly low energy threshold, while the

  3. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  4. The XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Antunes, B.; Arneodo, F.; Balata, M.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breskin, A.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Chiarini, A.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Corrieri, R.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; Gangi, P. Di; Giovanni, A. Di; Diglio, S.; Disdier, J.-M.; Doets, M.; Duchovni, E.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Front, D.; Fulgione, W.; Rosso, A. Gallo; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Giboni, K.-L.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Huhmann, C.; Itay, R.; James, A.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Maier, R.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morå, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orlandi, D.; Othegraven, R.; Pakarha, P.; Parlati, S.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; García, D. Ramírez; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Saldanha, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. v.; Stern, M.; Stein, A.; Tatananni, D.; Tatananni, L.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Upole, N.; Vargas, M.; Wack, O.; Walet, R.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The XENON1T experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is the first WIMP dark matter detector operating with a liquid xenon target mass above the ton-scale. Out of its 3.2 t liquid xenon inventory, 2.0 t constitute the active target of the dual-phase time projection chamber. The scintillation and ionization signals from particle interactions are detected with low-background photomultipliers. This article describes the XENON1T instrument and its subsystems as well as strategies to achieve an unprecedented low background level. First results on the detector response and the performance of the subsystems are also presented.

  5. The XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Giboni, K.L.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Stern, M.; Tatananni, D.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Doets, M.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A.; Walet, R. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Othegraven, R.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Antunes, B.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, LIBPhys, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Balata, M.; Bruno, G.; Corrieri, R.; Disdier, J.M.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Orlandi, D.; Parlati, S.; Tatananni, L.; Wang, Z. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; James, A.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Maier, R.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Breskin, A.; Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Front, D.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Wack, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Sivers, M. von [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics; Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chiarini, A.; Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, IMT Atlantique, Nantes (France); Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Tunnell, C.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Messina, M. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Pienaar, J. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Garcia, D.R. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Reichard, S. [University of Zurich, Physik Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lavina, L.S. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Wei, Y. [University of Zurich, Physik Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    The XENON1T experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is the first WIMP dark matter detector operating with a liquid xenon target mass above the ton-scale. Out of its 3.2 t liquid xenon inventory, 2.0 t constitute the active target of the dual-phase time projection chamber. The scintillation and ionization signals from particle interactions are detected with low-background photomultipliers. This article describes the XENON1T instrument and its subsystems as well as strategies to achieve an unprecedented low background level. First results on the detector response and the performance of the subsystems are also presented. (orig.)

  6. The XENON1T dark matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Giboni, K.L.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Stern, M.; Tatananni, D.; Zhang, Y.; Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Doets, M.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A.; Walet, R.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Othegraven, R.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Amaro, F.D.; Antunes, B.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I.; Balata, M.; Bruno, G.; Corrieri, R.; Disdier, J.M.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Orlandi, D.; Parlati, S.; Tatananni, L.; Wang, Z.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; James, A.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Maier, R.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J.; Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B.; Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C.; Breskin, A.; Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Front, D.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N.; Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Wack, O.; Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. von; Chiarini, A.; Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D.; Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Fulgione, W.; Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Tunnell, C.; Upole, N.; Lindemann, S.; Messina, M.; Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P.; Pienaar, J.; Garcia, D.R.; Reichard, S.; Lavina, L.S.; Stein, A.; Wang, H.; Trinchero, G.; Wei, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The XENON1T experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is the first WIMP dark matter detector operating with a liquid xenon target mass above the ton-scale. Out of its 3.2 t liquid xenon inventory, 2.0 t constitute the active target of the dual-phase time projection chamber. The scintillation and ionization signals from particle interactions are detected with low-background photomultipliers. This article describes the XENON1T instrument and its subsystems as well as strategies to achieve an unprecedented low background level. First results on the detector response and the performance of the subsystems are also presented. (orig.)

  7. Mobility and lifetime of sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Tl ions in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, A J

    2003-01-01

    Positively charged sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Tl ions are transported through liquid xenon using electric fields in the range of 4-10 kV cm sup - sup 1 and for drift distances up to 50 mm. From these measurements we deduce upper limits on the attenuation length for Tl ions in liquid xenon, resulting in a lifetime >5.5 s. In addition to these results, the field independent mobility of Tl bearing species in liquid xenon was measured to be 1.33+-0.04x10 sup - sup 4 cm sup 2 V sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1. This result, when coupled with those for other species by previous workers, suggests that positive ion mobility in liquid xenon is proportional to the hard-core radius. Applications to Ba ion collection in a double beta decay experiment are also discussed.

  8. Noble Liquid (Xenon or Krypton) Totally Active Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Main Goals\\\\ \\\\ Determine ionization and scintillation yields in liquid Xenon (LXe) or Krypton.\\\\ \\\\ Determine the electron lifetime and photon mean free path in LXe or LKr. \\\\ \\\\ Determine energy resolution of LXe or LKr via ionization or scintillation.\\\\ \\\\ Determine correlation of fluctuations between ionization and scintillation. Summary of Results \\\\ \\\\ -~measured the electron lifetime in LXe, ($\\tau$~$>$~400 $\\mu$s).\\\\ \\\\ -~measured the energy to create an ionization electron in LXe, W=9.8 eV.\\\\ \\\\ -~measured the energy to create a LXe scintillation photon, W$ _{s} $~=~14.2~eV. \\\\ \\\\ -~measured the anticorrelation of scintillation and ionization yields. \\\\ \\\\ -~measured the energy resolution in LXe via ionization, $ sigma _{E} / $E=0.07\\%/$\\sqrt$E(GeV). \\\\ \\\\ -~measured resolution in LXe via scintillation $ sigma _{E} / $E=0.24\\%/$\\sqrt$E(GeV)+0.26\\%. \\\\ \\\\ -~measured electron drift velocity in LXe:~neat (2.5 mm/$\\mu$s), doped (4.4~mm/$\\mu$s). \\\\ \\\\ -~measured the photon mean free path in LXe vs $ lambd...

  9. Background in xenon filled X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Dwyer, J.; Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.

    1995-01-01

    Xenon based gas mixtures have been often used in proportional counters for X-ray astronomy in order to achieve a good efficiency in the medium/high X-ray energy range. Proportional counters flown on past missions (i.e. HEAO1 and EXOSAT) filled with Xe-based mixtures have shown a higher residual background (after that all the rejection techniques have been applied) with respect to Ar-based ones, operating in the same energy band and in the same radiation environment. We show, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, analytical computations and laboratory measurements, that such difference can be mostly understood in terms of higher internal background production and lower pulse discrimination efficiency in Xe-based gas filling, with respect to Ar-based ones. (orig.)

  10. Liquid xenon in nuclear medicine: state-of-the-art and the PETALO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, P.

    2018-01-01

    Liquid xenon has several attractive features, which make it suitable for applications to nuclear medicine, such as high scintillation yield and fast scintillation decay time, better than currently used crystals. Since the '90s, several attempts have been made to build Positron Emission Tomography scanners based on liquid xenon, which can be divided into two different approaches: on one hand, the detection of the ionization charge in TPCs, and, on the other one, the detection of scintillation light with photomultipliers. PETALO (Positron Emission Tof Apparatus with Liquid xenOn) is a novel concept, which combines liquid xenon scintillating cells and silicon photomultipliers for the readout. A first Monte Carlo investigation has pointed out that this technology would provide an excellent intrinsic time resolution, which makes it possible to measure the Time-Of-Flight with high efficiency. Also, the transparency of liquid xenon to UV and blue wavelengths opens the possibility of exploiting both scintillation and Cherenkov light for a high-sensitivity TOF-PET.

  11. Development of a liquid xenon Compton telescope dedicated to functional medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grignon, C.

    2007-12-01

    Functional imaging is a technique used to locate in three dimensions the position of a radiotracer previously injected in a patient. The two main modalities used for a clinical application to detect tumors, the SPECT and the PET, use solid scintillators as a detection medium. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of using liquid xenon in order to benefit from the intrinsic properties of this medium in functional imaging. The feasibility study of such a device has been performed by taking into account the technical difficulties specific to the liquid xenon. First of all, simulations of a liquid xenon PET has been performed using Monte-Carlo methods. The results obtained with a large liquid xenon volume are promising : we can expect a reduction of the injected activity of radiotracer, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image and a parallax free camera. The second part of the thesis was focused on the development of a new concept of medical imaging, the three gamma imaging, based on the use of a new emitter: the 44 scandium. Associated to a classical PET camera, the Compton telescope is used to infer the incoming direction of the third gamma ray by triangulation. Therefore, it is possible to reconstruct the position of each emitter in three dimensions. This work convinced the scientific community to support the construction and characterization of a liquid xenon Compton telescope. The first camera dedicated to small animal imaging should then be operational in 2009. (author)

  12. Observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon with a microstrip plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policarpo, A.P.L.; Geltenbort, P.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Araujo, H.; Fraga, F.; Alves, M.A.; Fonte, P.; Lima, E.P.; Fraga, M.M.; Salete Leite, M.; Silander, K.; Onofre, A.; Pinhao, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report here on the observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon in a microstrip chamber with an amplification factor of the order of 10. The measurements were carried out at a temperature between 208 and 215 K (liquid density of about 2.7 g/cm 3 ). (orig.)

  13. The XENON project for dark matter direct detection at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The XENON project at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, aims at dark matter direct detection with liquid xenon dual-phase time projection chambers. Latest results of XENON100 detector exclude various models of leptophilic dark matter. A search for low mass weakly interacting massive particles was also performed, lowering the energy threshold for detection to 0.7 keV for nuclear recoils. The multi-ton XENON1T detector is fully installed and operating. It is expected to reach a sensitivity a factor 100 better than XENON100 with a 2 ton·year exposure.

  14. Direct Dark Matter Detection through the use of a Xenon Based TPC Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jonathan; Akerib, Daniel; LZ group at SLAC

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of matter in the universe is unaccounted for. Only 15% of the universe's mass density is visible matter, while the other 85% is Dark Matter (DM). The Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) is currently the frontrunner of the DM candidates. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) and next generation LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiments are designed to directly detect WIMPs. Both experiments are xenon-based Time Projection Chambers (TPC) used to observe possible WIMP interactions. These interactions produce photons and electrons with the photons being collected in a set of two photomultiplier tube (PMT) arrays and the electrons drifted upwards in the detector by a strong electric field to create a secondary production of photons in gaseous xenon. These two populations of photons are classified as S1 and S2 signals, respectively. Using these signals we reconstruct the energy and position of the interaction and in doing so we can eliminate background events that would otherwise “light up” the detector. My participation in the experiment, while at SLAC, was the creation of the grids that produce the large electric field, along with additional lab activities aimed at testing the grids. While at Stan State, I work on background modeling in order to distinguish a possible WIMP signal from ambient backgrounds.

  15. Latest results from XENON100 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotto Lavina, L.

    2014-01-01

    XENON100 is the current phase of the XENON dark matter program, which aims for the direct detection of WIMPs with liquid xenon time-projection chambers. We present the status of the experiment after 224.6 live days taken in 2011 and 2012 during which the detector successfully improved in terms of more calibration data, higher xenon purity, lower threshold and better background removal. The analysis has yielded no evidence for dark matter interactions. The status of the next generation XENON1T detector will be briefly described. The goal of XENON1T is to increase the fiducial volume by a factor 10 and reduce the background noise by a factor 100

  16. Gamma-ray detector based on high pressure xenon for radiation and environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutny, V.E.; Rybka, A.V.; Davydov, L.N.; Pudov, A.O.; Sokolov, S.A.; Kholomeyev, G.A.; Melnikov, S.I.; Turchin, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometers based on compressed xenon gas assigned for monitoring the reactors and the radiation background at nuclear power plants, non-proliferation of radioactive materials, supervision and control over the radiation background in the environmentally disadvantaged areas, and other applications, are very promising detectors with excellent performance characteristics. This article reports on the results of the first stage of work on the creation of the portable gamma-spectrometer based on compressed xenon that is unique for Ukraine. In order to work with ultra-pure gases under pressure, the complex cryogenic installation for Xe purification and detector filling was designed and manufactured. The installation was made of specially cleaned components, equipped with a heating system for the degassing of the inner walls, and is able of maintaining high vacuum down to 2 centre dot 10"-"9 mbar. A prototype ionization chamber for the use in portable HP Xe detectors was developed and made. For the detector testing, a spectrometric channel based on high-quality electronic components was designed and manufactured. In the initial experiments, a study of the properties of the purified Xe mixed with the dopant H_2 was carried out. The assessment of the lifetime of charge carriers τ in the working gas at a pressure of 30 bar gave the value of τ > 150 μs

  17. Liquid level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.P.; Pendleton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A device is described for locating the level of the liquid metal in a sodium cooled nuclear reactor by using a movable probe equipped to signal a phase change with null on arrival at the interface between two conductively differing media. (U.K.)

  18. A liquid-xenon calorimeter for the detection of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.; Baskakov, V.; Bondarenko, G.; Dolgoshein, B.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Tcherniatin, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Kozodaeva, O.; Konovalov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Shmeleva, A.; Vassiliev, P.

    1990-01-01

    The energy and spatial resolution of a 40 l liquid-xenon calorimeter was measured. For electrons in the energy region 1-6 GeV the resolutions are σ E /E=3.4/√E (%), σ x =4.6/√E (mm). The details of construction and running of such a device are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear recoil scintillation and ionisation yields in liquid xenon from ZEPLIN-III data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M., E-mail: m.horn@imperial.ac.uk [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Belov, V.A.; Akimov, D.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araujo, H.M. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Barnes, E.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Burenkov, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chepel, V. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Currie, A. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Edwards, B. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kalmus, G.E. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Kobyakin, A.S.; Kovalenko, A.G. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedenko, V.N. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lindote, A. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Lopes, M.I. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Luescher, R.; Majewski, P. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.StJ. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-24

    Scintillation and ionisation yields for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon above 10 keV{sub nr} (nuclear recoil energy) are deduced from data acquired using broadband Am-Be neutron sources. The nuclear recoil data from several exposures to two sources were compared to detailed simulations. Energy-dependent scintillation and ionisation yields giving acceptable fits to the data were derived. Efficiency and resolution effects are treated using a light collection Monte Carlo, measured photomultiplier response profiles and hardware trigger studies. A gradual fall in scintillation yield below {approx}40 keV{sub nr} is found, together with a rising ionisation yield; both are in agreement with the latest independent measurements. The analysis method is applied to the most recent ZEPLIN-III data, acquired with a significantly upgraded detector and a precision-calibrated Am-Be source, as well as to the earlier data from the first run in 2008. A new method for deriving the recoil scintillation yield, which includes sub-threshold S1 events, is also presented which confirms the main analysis.

  20. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Measurement of eDsub(L)/μ of electrons in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Suzuki, S.; Shibamura, E.; Masuda, K.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for measuring the spread of electron swarm drifting under uniform electric field in liquid xenon is proposed. This is made by observing the width of scintillation pulse produced by drifting electrons in the vicinity of a thin center wire of a proportional scintillation counter, put in the end part of the electron drift space. From the spread of electron swarm and its drift time, the ratio of longitudinal diffusion coefficient to mobility epsilon sub(L) = eDsub(L)/μ for electrons in liquid xenon is directly obtained. epsilon sub(L) of electron swarms under the various electric fields have been measured and compared with epsilon sub(T) = eDsub(T)/μ previously obtained under the same electric fields. (Authors)

  2. Infrared scintillation: a comparison between gaseous and liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Conti, E.; Del Noce, C.; Iannuzzi, D.

    2001-01-01

    Light yield and spectrum of infrared (IR) scintillation in Xe are different in gaseous and liquid phases. In gas, the spectrum consists mainly of a broad line centered at 1300 nm. In liquid, light is emitted primarily below 1200 nm and with a lower yield

  3. A liquid-xenon calorimeter for the detection of electromagnetic showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, A.; Baskakov, V.; Bondarenko, G.; Dolgoshein, B.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Tcherniatin, V. (Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)); Gavrilenko, I.; Kozodaeva, O.; Konovalov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Shmeleva, A.; Vassiliev, P. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1990-09-15

    The energy and spatial resolution of a 40 l liquid-xenon calorimeter was measured. For electrons in the energy region 1-6 GeV the resolutions are {sigma}{sub E}/E=3.4/{radical}E (%), {sigma}{sub x}=4.6/{radical}E (mm). The details of construction and running of such a device are discussed. (orig.).

  4. Xenon-Xenon collision events in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    One of the first-ever xenon-xenon collision events recorded by CMS during the LHC’s one-day-only heavy-ion run with xenon nuclei. The large number of tracks emerging from the centre of the detector show the many simultaneous nucleon-nucleon interactions that take place when two xenon nuclei, each with 54 protons and 75 neutrons, collide inside CMS.

  5. Implementation of a Noise Mitigation Strategy for a High-Pressure Xenon Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, Allen; Milbrath, Brian D.; Pitts, W. K.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure xenon (HPXe) detectors have historically been unable to achieve or even approach the theoretically predicted energy resolution, a phenomenon usually attributed to problems with microphonic, vibrational, or acoustic noise. All these noises are expected to have characteristic frequency signatures. We have determined the effects of external acoustic noise signals on the resolution of HPXe spectrometers and implemented a technique to reduce or eliminate the resolution loss caused by external acoustic noise in real time. Using a precision waveform generator as the driver on a 400-watt speaker, we determined the response of a commercial HPXe detector to a variety of constant frequency acoustic noise signals by performing a fast Fourier transform on a buffered detector output signal and noting distortions to the spectral response of the frequency domain. A data acquisition package was developed using the frequency response information to perform real time digital signal noise filtering on each gamma-ray pulse. With external acoustic noise, the measured resolution of HPXe gamma-ray energy spectra was degraded by a factor of 2 to 3. With the noise mitigating data acquisition package the spectroscopic resolution was restored to values comparable to the resolution measured under ideal (non-noisy) conditions

  6. Fast-neutron and gamma-ray imaging with a capillary liquid xenon converter coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, I.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Vartsky, D.; Arazi, L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Breskin, A.

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray and fast-neutron imaging was performed with a novel liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation detector read out by a Gaseous Photomultiplier (GPM). The 100 mm diameter detector prototype comprised a capillary-filled LXe converter/scintillator, coupled to a triple-THGEM imaging-GPM, with its first electrode coated by a CsI UV-photocathode, operated in Ne/5%CH4 at cryogenic temperatures. Radiation localization in 2D was derived from scintillation-induced photoelectron avalanches, measured on the GPM's segmented anode. The localization properties of 60Co gamma-rays and a mixed fast-neutron/gamma-ray field from an AmBe neutron source were derived from irradiation of a Pb edge absorber. Spatial resolutions of 12± 2 mm and 10± 2 mm (FWHM) were reached with 60Co and AmBe sources, respectively. The experimental results are in good agreement with GEANT4 simulations. The calculated ultimate expected resolutions for our application-relevant 4.4 and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and 1-15 MeV neutrons are 2-4 mm and ~ 2 mm (FWHM), respectively. These results indicate the potential applicability of the new detector concept to Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR) and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography (DDEGR) of large objects.

  7. Development of a liquid xenon Compton telescope dedicated to functional medical imaging; Etude et developpement d'un telescope compton au xenon liquide dedie a l'imagerie medicale fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignon, C

    2007-12-15

    Functional imaging is a technique used to locate in three dimensions the position of a radiotracer previously injected in a patient. The two main modalities used for a clinical application to detect tumors, the SPECT and the PET, use solid scintillators as a detection medium. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of using liquid xenon in order to benefit from the intrinsic properties of this medium in functional imaging. The feasibility study of such a device has been performed by taking into account the technical difficulties specific to the liquid xenon. First of all, simulations of a liquid xenon PET has been performed using Monte-Carlo methods. The results obtained with a large liquid xenon volume are promising : we can expect a reduction of the injected activity of radiotracer, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image and a parallax free camera. The second part of the thesis was focused on the development of a new concept of medical imaging, the three gamma imaging, based on the use of a new emitter: the 44 scandium. Associated to a classical PET camera, the Compton telescope is used to infer the incoming direction of the third gamma ray by triangulation. Therefore, it is possible to reconstruct the position of each emitter in three dimensions. This work convinced the scientific community to support the construction and characterization of a liquid xenon Compton telescope. The first camera dedicated to small animal imaging should then be operational in 2009. (author)

  8. Development of a liquid xenon Compton telescope dedicated to functional medical imaging; Etude et developpement d'un telescope compton au xenon liquide dedie a l'imagerie medicale fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignon, C

    2007-12-15

    Functional imaging is a technique used to locate in three dimensions the position of a radiotracer previously injected in a patient. The two main modalities used for a clinical application to detect tumors, the SPECT and the PET, use solid scintillators as a detection medium. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of using liquid xenon in order to benefit from the intrinsic properties of this medium in functional imaging. The feasibility study of such a device has been performed by taking into account the technical difficulties specific to the liquid xenon. First of all, simulations of a liquid xenon PET has been performed using Monte-Carlo methods. The results obtained with a large liquid xenon volume are promising : we can expect a reduction of the injected activity of radiotracer, an improvement of the spatial resolution of the image and a parallax free camera. The second part of the thesis was focused on the development of a new concept of medical imaging, the three gamma imaging, based on the use of a new emitter: the 44 scandium. Associated to a classical PET camera, the Compton telescope is used to infer the incoming direction of the third gamma ray by triangulation. Therefore, it is possible to reconstruct the position of each emitter in three dimensions. This work convinced the scientific community to support the construction and characterization of a liquid xenon Compton telescope. The first camera dedicated to small animal imaging should then be operational in 2009. (author)

  9. Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; Di Gangi, P.; Di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Duchovni, E.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Huhmann, C.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Calloch, M. Le; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Piro, M.-C.; Pizzella, V.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. v.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Upole, N.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Cristescu, I.

    2017-05-01

    The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β -emitter ^{85}Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon ^{nat}Kr/Xe McCabe-Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4\\cdot 10^5 with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of ^{nat}Kr/Xe<26 ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN.

  10. Experimental results and first {sup 22}Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L., E-mail: mlgallin@lpsc.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Grondin, Y. [Laboratoire TIMC/IMAG, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Pavillon Taillefer 38706 La Tronche Cedex (France); Gac, N. [Laboratoire L2S, UMR 8506 CNRS - SUPELEC - Univ Paris-Sud, Gif sur Yvette F-91192 (France); Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a {sup 22}Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  11. Experimental results and first 22Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Grondin, Y.; Gac, N.; Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F.

    2012-01-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a 22 Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  12. Radon screening for XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Radon with its isotope {sup 222}Rn is one of the dominant sources of internal background in liquid xenon detectors searching for low energetic rare events like WIMP-nucleon scattering. In my talk I briefly review the problem posed by {sup 222}Rn and motivate the screening strategy followed by XENON1T. I introduce the radon emanation technique making use of ultra low background proportional counters and present selected results obtained during the design and construction phases of XENON1T. Finally, I sketch advances in radon emanation assay techniques and give a short outlook on upcoming measurements.

  13. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  14. Search for Dark Matter Interactions using Ionization Yield in Liquid Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Sergey

    Cosmological observations overwhelmingly support the existence of dark matter which constitutes 87% of the universe's total mass. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a prime candidate for dark matter, and the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment aims to a direct-detection of a WIMP-nucleon interaction. The LUX detector is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber housed 4,850 feet underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. We present the ionization-only analysis of the LUX 2013 WIMP search data. In the 1.04 x 104 kg-days exposure, thirty events were observed out of the 24.8 expected from radioactive backgrounds. We employ a cut-and-count method to set a 1-sided 90% C.L. upper limit for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections. A zero charge yield for nuclear-recoils below 0.7 keV is included upper limit calculation. This ionization-only analysis excludes an unexplored region of WIMP-nucleon cross-section for low-mass WIMPs achieving 1.56 x 10-43 cm2 WIMP-nucleon cross-section exclusion for a 5.1 GeV/ c2 WIMP.

  15. Radon depletion in xenon boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Lindemann, S.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    An important background in detectors using liquid xenon for rare event searches arises from the decays of radon and its daughters. We report for the first time a reduction of {sup 222}Rn in the gas phase above a liquid xenon reservoir. We show a reduction factor of >or similar 4 for the {sup 222}Rn concentration in boil-off xenon gas compared to the radon enriched liquid phase. A semiconductor-based α-detector and miniaturized proportional counters are used to detect the radon. As the radon depletion in the boil-off gas is understood as a single-stage distillation process, this result establishes the suitability of cryogenic distillation to separate radon from xenon down to the 10{sup -15} mol/mol level. (orig.)

  16. Calculation and comparison with experimental data of cascade curves for liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugal'skij, Z.S.; Yablonskij, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Cascade curves calculated by different methods are compared with the experimental data for showers caused by gamma-quanta with the energies from 40 to 2000 MeV in liquid xenon. The minimum energy of shower electrons (cut-off energy) taken into account by the experiment amounts to 3.1-+1.2 MeV, whereas the calculated cascade curves are given for the energies ranging from 40 to 4000 MeV at the cut-off energies 2.3; 3.5; 4.7 MeV. The depth of the shower development is reckoned from the point of generation of gamma-quanta which create showers. Cascade curves are calculated by the moment method with consideration for three moments. The following physical processes are taken into consideration: generation of electron-positron pairs; Compton effect; bremsstrahlung; ionization losses. The dependences of the mean number of particles on the depth of the shower development are obtained from measurements of photographs taken with a xenon bubble chamber. Presented are similar dependences calculated by the moment and Monte-Carlo methods. From the data analysis it follows that the calculation provides correct position of the shower development maximum, but different methods of calculation for small and low depths of shower development yield drastically different results. The Monte-Carlo method provides better agreement with the experimental data

  17. Photon-mediated electron multiplication in liquid xenon doped with trimethylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Toshio; Ashikaga, Kinya; Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Masuda, Kimiaki; Okumura, Yasuaki

    1989-01-01

    Electron multiplication mediated by photons has been observed in liquid xenon doped with trimethylamine in concentrations of 0, 9.3, 43, 118 and 400 ppm. The effect was observed by irradiating a single wire counter with 1 MeV electrons and gamma rays from 207 Bi sources. The multiplication factor was observed to increase from a value of 23 at a concentration of 9.3 ppm to a value of 45 at a concentration of 118 ppm. Over the same range of concentrations, the threshold anode voltage for photon-mediated electron multiplication (PMEM) decreased from 2.5 to 1.4 kV and the PMEM results in a deterioration of energy resolution. At a concentration of 400 ppm, the resulting electron multiplication was neither stable nor reproducible. (orig.)

  18. Detection of gamma-rays with a 3.5 l liquid xenon ionization chamber triggered by the primary scintillation light

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Chen Dan Li; Muhkerjee, R; Xu Fan

    2002-01-01

    A gridded ionization chamber with a drift length of 4.5 cm and a total volume of 3.5 l, was operated with high-purity liquid xenon and extensively tested with gamma-rays from sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 2 Na and sup 6 sup 0 Co radioactive sources. An electron lifetime in excess of 1 ms was inferred from two independent measurements. The electric field dependence of the collected charge and energy resolution was studied in the range 0.1-4 kV/cm, for different gamma-ray energies. With an electric field of 4 kV/cm, the spectral performance of the detector is consistent with an energy resolution of 5.9% at 1 MeV, scaling with energy as E sup - sup 0 sup . sup 5. The chamber was also used to detect the primary scintillation light produced by gamma-ray interactions in liquid xenon. The light signal was successfully used to trigger the acquisition of the charge signal with a FADC readout. A trigger efficiency of approx 85% was measured at 662 keV.

  19. A study of the scintillation induced by alpha particles and gamma rays in liquid xenon in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.V.; Howard, A.S.; Akimov, D.; Araujo, H.; Bewick, A.; Davidge, D.C.R.; Jones, W.G.; Joshi, M.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Liubarsky, I.; Quenby, J.J.; Rochester, G.; Shaul, D.; Sumner, T.J.; Walker, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Scintillation produced in liquid xenon by alpha particles and gamma rays has been studied as a function of applied electric field. For back scattered gamma rays with energy of about 200keV, the number of scintillation photons was found to decrease by 64±2% with increasing field strength. Consequently, the pulse shape discrimination power between alpha particles and gamma rays is found to reduce with increasing field, but remaining non-zero at higher fields

  20. Mitigation of {sup 222}Rn induced background in the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, Stefan A.

    2017-07-05

    {sup 222}Rn is a major source of background in many rare-event experiments such as the XENON1T dark matter search. The noble gas radon is created by radioactive decay inside all detector materials and emanates into the sensitive liquid xenon target disabling any detector shielding. Subsequent beta-decays of radon progenies are the dominant source of background in the XENON1T experiment. In order to mitigate radon induced background the detector's construction materials have been selected according to dedicated {sup 222}Rn emanation measurements. In the first part of this thesis, we summarize the results of the XENON1T radon screening campaign and present the measurement of the integral radon emanation rate of the fully assembled detector. The development of a radon removal system which continuously purifies the liquid xenon target from the emanated radon is the topic of the second part of this thesis. In order to demonstrate the suitability of cryogenic distillation as a technique to separate radon from xenon, we developed an experimental setup to measure the depletion of radon in xenon boil-off gas after a single distillation step. In the last part of the thesis, we demonstrate the operation of a radon removal system for the XENON100 experiment. For this first test employing a running dark matter detector, we integrated a multiple stage, cryogenic distillation column in the XENON100 gas purification loop. From the evolution of the radon concentration in XENON100, we investigate the distillation column's radon removal capability and discuss the design and application of a radon removal system for XENON1T and the upcoming XENONnT experiment.

  1. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.S.

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin's resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  2. Electronic excited states as a probe of surface adsorbate structure and dynamics in liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric Scott [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and a simple dipole-dipole interaction model is presented as a new technique for determining adsorbate geometries on surfaces. The polarization dependence of SHG is used to define possible geometries of the adsorbate about the surface normal. Absorption band shifts using geometry constraints imposed by SHG data are derived for a dimer constructed from two arbitrarily placed monomers on the surface using the dipole-dipole interaction potential. These formulae can be used to determine the orientation of the two monomers relative to each other. A simplified version of this formalism is used to interpret absorption band shifts for rhodamine B adsorbed on fused silica. A brief history of the exciton is given with particular detail to Xe. Data are presented for transient absorption at RT in liquid xenon on the picosecond time scale. These are observations of both tunneling through the barrier that separates the free and trapped exciton states and the subsequent trapping of the exciton. In high densities both of these processes are found to occur within 2 to 6 picoseconds in agreement with theories of Kmiecik and Schreiber and of Martin. A threshold density is observed that separates relaxation via single binary collisions and relaxation that proceeds via Martin`s resonant energy transfer hopping mechanism.

  3. Mount makes liquid nitrogen-cooled gamma ray detector portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1966-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen-cooled gamma ray detector system is made portable by attaching the detector to a fixture which provides a good thermal conductive path between the detector and the liquid nitrogen in a dewar flask and a low heat leak path between the detector and the external environment.

  4. Radioactive flow detectors: liquid or solid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    During the past five years, two schools of thought have emerged producing two different types of radio-HPLC detectors. Based on the naphthalene-in-the-vial principle, manufacturers have developed heterogeneous scintillation detectors. In these detectors the anthracene or naphthalene crystals are replaced by other scintillators. In order to avoid dead space and turbulence, a narrow diameter tube is used, either straight, or more popularly formed into a coil or a 'U' as the cell. To optimize light transmission to the photomultiplier tubes, mirrors are used. Due to limiting factors in this technique the counting efficiency for tritium is below the 10 percent level. The other school of radio-HPLC detectors based their design on classical liquid scintillation counting technology. In a homogeneous detector, the effluent from the HPLC system is mixed with a suitable liquid scintillator before entering the counting cell. The cell design is typically a flat glass or Teflon coil tightly sandwiched between two photomultiplier tubes, making good optical contact without the use of mirrors. Depending on the chromatographic effluent, 3 H efficiencies between 25 to 50 percent, and 14 C counting efficiencies up to 85 percent can be achieved

  5. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

  6. Liquid-Xe detector for contraband detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartsky, D., E-mail: david.vartsky@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Israelashvili, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Cortesi, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing 48823, MI (United States); Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A.E.; Moleri, L.; Erdal, E.; Bar, D.; Rappaport, M.; Shchemelinin, S. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Caspi, E.N. [Nuclear Research Center of Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 9001 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Breskin, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-07-11

    We describe progress made with a liquid-Xe (LXe) detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier (GPM), for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers. The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3.5 mm for fast neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively. Experimental results obtained using an {sup 241}Am source yielded energy and time resolutions of 11% and 1.2 ns RMS, respectively. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented.

  7. Large-Area Liquid Scintillation Detector Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, M. F.; Gurr, H. S.; Hruschka, A. A.; Jenkins, T. L.; Kropp, W.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.; Hruschka, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    A low-cost detector 18' x 2' x 5' has been developed for an underground cosmic ray neutrino experiment. The liquid employed is a high-clarity mineral oil-based mixture, and light is guided to the ends of the detector by total internal reflection at the surface of the Lucite container. Signals from 2 five-inch photomultipliers at each end give energy and event location for single penetrating particles, with relatively good discrimination against natural radioactivity by virtue of the substantial thickness. Data are presented on the response function of the tank, energy resolution, rates and thresholds. A number of modifications that have been tried are also described

  8. Separation and purification of xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlea, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    Xenon is separated from a mixture of xenon and krypton by extractive distillation using carbon tetrafluoride as the partitioning agent. Krypton is flushed out of the distillation column with CF 4 in the gaseous overhead stream while purified xenon is recovered from the liquid bottoms. The distillation is conducted at about atmospheric pressure or at subatmospheric pressure

  9. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO2-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200ps and 25ns. The plasma target was a 30μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO2 laser pulse width of 25ns at an intensity of 5×1010W/cm2.

  10. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO 2 -laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO 2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO 2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO 2 laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10 10 W/cm 2

  11. Characterisation of GERDA Phase-I detectors in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Gusev, Konstantin [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge by submerging bare enriched HPGe detectors in liquid argon. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, and reprocessed natural-Ge detectors from Genius-TF, will be redeployed. We have tested the operation and performance of bare HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and in liquid argon over more than three years with three non-enriched p-type prototype detectors. The detector handling and mounting procedures have been defined and the Phase-I detector technology, the low-mass assembly and the long-term stability in liquid argon have been tested successfully. The Phase-I detectors were reprocessed by Canberra Semiconductor NV, Olen, according to their standard technology but without the evaporation of a passivation layer. After their reprocessing, the detectors have been mounted in their low-mass holders and their characterisation in liquid argon performed. The leakage current, the counting characteristics and the efficiency of the detectors have been measured. The testing of the detectors was carried out in the liquid argon test stand of the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. The detectors are now stored underground under vacuum until their operation in GERDA.

  12. Comparison of Xenon-Enhanced Area-Detector CT and Krypton Ventilation SPECT/CT for Assessment of Pulmonary Functional Loss and Disease Severity in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Kaminaga, Shigeo; Seki, Shinichiro; Sugihara, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the capability of xenon-enhanced area-detector CT (ADCT) performed with a subtraction technique and coregistered 81m Kr-ventilation SPECT/CT for the assessment of pulmonary functional loss and disease severity in smokers. Forty-six consecutive smokers (32 men and 14 women; mean age, 67.0 years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced ADCT, 81m Kr-ventilation SPECT/CT, and pulmonary function tests. Disease severity was evaluated according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. CT-based functional lung volume (FLV), the percentage of wall area to total airway area (WA%), and ventilated FLV on xenon-enhanced ADCT and SPECT/CT were calculated for each smoker. All indexes were correlated with percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV 1 ) using step-wise regression analyses, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of the proposed model was compared with that of each radiologic index by means of McNemar analysis. Multivariate logistic regression showed that %FEV 1 was significantly affected (r = 0.77, r 2 = 0.59) by two factors: the first factor, ventilated FLV on xenon-enhanced ADCT (p < 0.0001); and the second factor, WA% (p = 0.004). Univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that all indexes significantly affected GOLD classification (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ventilated FLV on xenon-enhanced ADCT and CT-based FLV significantly influenced GOLD classification (p < 0.0001). The diagnostic accuracy of the proposed model was significantly higher than that of ventilated FLV on SPECT/CT (p = 0.03) and WA% (p = 0.008). Xenon-enhanced ADCT is more effective than 81m Kr-ventilation SPECT/CT for the assessment of pulmonary functional loss and disease severity.

  13. Cosmogenic activation of xenon and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Piastra, Francesco [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schumann, Marc [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Rare event search experiments using liquid xenon as target and detection medium require ultra-low background levels to fully exploit their physics potential. Cosmic ray induced activation of the detector components and, even more importantly, of the xenon itself during production, transportation and storage at the Earth's surface, might result in the production of radioactive isotopes with long half-lives, with a possible impact on the expected background. We present the first dedicated study on the cosmogenic activation of xenon after 345 days of exposure to cosmic rays at the Jungfraujoch research station at 3470 m above sea level, complemented by a study of copper which has been activated simultaneously. We have directly observed the production of {sup 7}Be, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 126}I and {sup 127}Xe in xenon, out of which only {sup 125}Sb could potentially lead to background for a multi-ton scale dark matter search. The production rates for five out of eight studied radioactive isotopes in copper are in agreement with the only existing dedicated activation measurement, while we observe lower rates for the remaining ones. The specific saturation activities for both samples are also compared to predictions obtained with commonly used software packages, where we observe some underpredictions, especially for xenon activation. (orig.)

  14. Noninvasive xenon-133 measurements of cerebral blood flow using stationary detectors compared with dynamic emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Vorstrup, S; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    the stationary detectors yielded somewhat lower CBF values than did emission tomography. Considering the side-to-side asymmetry, an excellent correlation was obtained. Using the initial slope index, the stationary detectors revealed quantitatively 83% of the interhemispheric asymmetry and 63% of the asymmetry...... in the middle cerebral artery territory shown with the tomograph. As illustrated by a case history, the nontomographic CBF unit used in this study may provide reliable and useful information in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease by performing repeated CBF studies and challenging the cerebral...

  15. Investigation of Spectral Characteristics of Pulsed Xenon Lamps for Combined Photochemical Degradation of Organometallic Compounds in Liquid Radioactive Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mishakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the composition of liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear plants. Using traditional ways to extract organometallic compounds formed, when using the deactivation solutions to clean the surfaces of nuclear plant rooms, are complicated. The paper studies the edge-cutting methods of solving this problem. Its proposal is to use a combined ultraviolet treatment for organometallic compounds degradation based on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA via pulsed xenon lamps. A potential use of the tubular and spherical geometry lamps is examined and advantages, disadvantages and features of these lamps are described. Instead of the pure EDTA the experiments used its disodium salt (Na2-EDTA. The hydrogen peroxide was used as an extra oxidizer. Absorption spectrums of solutions with various Na2-EDTA - hydrogen peroxide ratio were measured. It is found that the absorbance curve maximum is in the shortwave spectrum region (λ < 210 nm. The use of amalgam lamps of monochromatic radiation at wavelength λ = 254 nm will result only in formation of hydroxyl radicals but direct destruction processes of EDTA molecules due to radiation will be rare, and this decreases efficiency of their use.The spectral radiation characteristics of various continuum spectrum pulsed xenon lamps was measured. The experimental data expressed in relative units were compared with the emission spectrum of an absolutely black body. The paper shows that in spherical lamps high brightness temperature can be reached. Thus, in spherical lamps it is possible to obtain a spectrum, which is in maximum correlation with the absorption spectrum of the solutions under study, thereby making them a prospective radiation source for photo-degradation of EDTA compounds. For drawing a final conclusion it is necessary to conduct researches in order to compare Na2-EDTA degradation via tubular and spherical xenon lamps.

  16. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  17. Photon-counting digital radiography using high-pressure xenon filled detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Maozhen; Johns, P C

    2001-01-01

    Digital radiography overcomes many of the limitations of the traditional screen/film system. Further enhancements in the digital radiography image are possible if the X-ray image receptor could measure the energy of individual photons instead of simply integrating their energy, as is the case at present. A prototype photon counting scanned projection radiography system has been constructed, which combines a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Gas Microstrip Detector (GMD) using Xe : CH sub 4 (90 : 10) at high pressure. With the gain contribution from the GEM, the GMD can be operated at lower and safer voltages making the imaging system more reliable. Good energy resolution, and spatial resolution comparable to that of screen/film, have been demonstrated for the GEM/GMD hybrid imaging system in photon counting mode for X-ray spectra up to 50 kV.

  18. Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lin, Q. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-05-15

    The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β-emitter {sup 85}Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon {sup nat}Kr/Xe < 200 ppq (parts per quadrillion, 1 ppq = 10{sup -15} mol/mol) is required. In this work, the design, construction and test of a novel cryogenic distillation column using the common McCabe-Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4 . 10{sup 5} with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of {sup nat}Kr/Xe < 26 ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN. (orig.)

  19. Experimental and analytical studies of iodine mass transfer from xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble to liquid sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, S.; Sagawa, N.; Shimoyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the fuel pin failure accident of a liquid metal fast reactor, volatile fission products play an important role in the assessment of radiological consequences. Especially the radioisotopes of elemental iodine are important because of their high volatility and of the low permissible dose to human thyroid. The released iodines are known to be retained in the coolant sodium as sodium iodide due to the chemical affinity between alkali metals and halogens. However, the xenon and krypton released with iodines into the sodium pool as bubbles may influence the reaction rate of iodine with sodium during the bubble rising. So far, the only few experimental results have been available concerning the decontamination factor (DF: the ratio of the initial iodine mass in the mixed gas bubble to the released mass into the cover gas) of iodine in this phenomenon. Therefore, experimental and analytical studies were carried out to study the mass transfer of iodine from a xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble to the liquid sodium pool. In the experiments, the bubble was generated in the sodium pool by cracking a quartz ball which contains the xenon-iodine mixed gas and then, the mixed gas released into the argon cover gas was collected to determine the transferred iodine mass into the pool. A rising velocity of the bubble was measured by Chen-type void sensors arranged vertically in the pool. From the measured rising velocity and another observation of bubble behavior in simulated water experiments, it is found that the generated bubble breaks up into several smaller bubbles of spherical cap type during the rising period. Transferred iodine mass per unit initial bubble volume from the bubble to the sodium pool shows increases with increasing time and the initial iodine concentration. A mass transfer rate obtained by differentiating the transferred iodine mass with respect to the time indicates a rapid decrease just after the bubble generation and a slow decrease for the successive period

  20. Miniature silicon diode matrix-detector for in vivo measurement of 133xenon disappearance in the canine myocardium following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B; Damgaard, Y

    1992-01-01

    recording appearing from the gamma-energy of the photopeak. The detector matrix concept allows elimination of motion artefacts and indicator distribution in the myocardial tissue. Due to the uniformity and low cost of Si-diodes the perspective may be the introduction as a disposable transducer useful during......After local tissue depositioning of 133Xenon (133Xe) the regional washout is usually registered by a NaI(Tl) detector. The residual radioactivity of 133Xe is usually measured at its 81 keV photopeak. However, using small Silicon (Si) photodiodes it is feasible to measure only the low-energy...... activity in the X-ray energy range. In the myocardium of open chest dogs 133Xe washout measurements by a matrix of Si diodes composed in a 4 x 4 array and a conventional NaI(Tl) detector were carried out simultaneously. Fourteen separate pairs of measurements were performed in 3 dogs. When the Si...

  1. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  2. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  3. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  4. High purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.

    1991-11-01

    Surface barrier radiation detector made from high purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers have been operated as X- and γ-ray detectors at various operating temperatures. Low energy isotopes are resolved including 241 Am at 40 deg C. and the higher gamma energies of 235 U at -80 deg C. 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  5. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Abstract. An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the ...

  6. Xenon NMR of liquid crystals confined to cylindrical nanocavities: a simulation study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karjalainen, J.; Vaara, J.; Straka, Michal; Lantto, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2015), s. 7158-7171 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 129Xe NMR * liquid crystals * cylindrical cavities * phase transition s * Monte-Carlo simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  7. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  8. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Contreras, H.; Goetzke, L.W.; Fernandez, A.J.M.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Arazi, L.; Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Gross, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Priel, N.; Vitells, O. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Arisaka, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Meng, Y.; Pantic, E.; Teymourian, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arneodo, F.; Di Giovanni, A. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Auger, M.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Behrens, A.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Balan, C.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Bauermeister, B.; Fattori, S.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Beltrame, P. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Brown, A.; Lang, R.F.; Macmullin, S.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brown, E.; Levy, C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Bruenner, S.; Hampel, W.; Kaether, F.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Rauch, L.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Weber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Schumann, M. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Tiseni, A.; Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cussonneau, J.P.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Lavina, L.S.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Ferella, A.D.; Fulgione, W.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P.; Wall, R. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Orrigo, S.E.A. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Persiani, R. [Universite de Nantes, Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (FR); Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (IT); INFN, Bologna (IT); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment. (orig.)

  9. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, J.P.; Eperonnat, P.; Lions, N.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [fr

  10. An efficient energy response model for liquid scintillator detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebanowski, Logan; Wan, Linyan; Ji, Xiangpan; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2018-05-01

    Liquid scintillator detectors are playing an increasingly important role in low-energy neutrino experiments. In this article, we describe a generic energy response model of liquid scintillator detectors that provides energy estimations of sub-percent accuracy. This model fits a minimal set of physically-motivated parameters that capture the essential characteristics of scintillator response and that can naturally account for changes in scintillator over time, helping to avoid associated biases or systematic uncertainties. The model employs a one-step calculation and look-up tables, yielding an immediate estimation of energy and an efficient framework for quantifying systematic uncertainties and correlations.

  11. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet light production by nuclear irradiation of liquid and gaseous xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent Los Alamos investigations suggest that a liquefied noble element may be the long-sought medium for a nuclear-excited laser or flashlamp. Research is needed to confirm this finding and to provide a basis for design and application studies. Quantitative and qualitative information are needed on the nature and behavior of the excited species, the effects of impurities and additives in the liquid phase under nuclear excitation, and the existence and magnitudes of nonlinear effects. Questions that need to be addressed and the most appropriate types of facilities for this task are identified.

  13. NMR study of hyper-polarized {sup 129}Xe and applications to liquid-phase NMR experiments; Etude de la resonance magnetique nucleaire du Xenon{sup 129} hyperpolarise et applications en RMN des liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, D

    2008-07-15

    In liquid samples where both nuclear polarization and spin density are strong, the magnetization dynamics, which can be analysed by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) methods, is deeply influenced by the internal couplings induced by local dipolar fields. The present thesis describes some of the many consequences associated to the presence in the sample of concentrated xenon hyper-polarized by an optical pumping process. First, we deal with the induced modifications in frequency and line width of the proton and xenon spectra, then we present the results of SPIDER, a coherent polarization transfer experiment designed to enhance the polarization of protons, in order to increase their NMR signal level. A third part is dedicated to the description of the apparition of repeated chaotic maser emissions by un unstable xenon magnetization coupled to the detection coil tuned at the xenon Larmor frequency (here 138 MHz). In the last part, we present a new method allowing a better tuning of any NMR detection probe and resulting in sensible gains in terms of sensitivity and signal shaping. Finally, we conclude with a partial questioning of the classical relaxation theory in the specific field of highly polarized and concentrated spin systems in a liquid phase. (author)

  14. Xenon NMR of liquid crystals confined to cylindrical nanocavities: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Jouni; Vaara, Juha; Straka, Michal; Lantto, Perttu

    2015-03-21

    Applications of liquid crystals (LCs), such as smart windows and the ubiquitous display devices, are based on controlling the orientational and translational order in a small volume of LC medium. Hence, understanding the effects of confinement to the liquid crystal phase behaviour is essential. The NMR shielding of (129)Xe atoms dissolved in LCs constitutes a very sensitive probe to the details of LC environment. Linking the experimental results to microscopic phenomena calls for molecular simulations. In this work, the NMR shielding of atomic (129)Xe dissolved in a uniaxial thermotropic LC confined to nanosized cylindrical cavities is computed from coarse-grained (CG) isobaric Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with a quantum-chemically (QC) pre-parameterised pairwise-additive model for the Xe nuclear shielding tensor. We report the results for the (129)Xe nuclear shielding and its connection to the structure and order of the LC appropriate to two different cavity sizes, as well as a comparison to the results of bulk (non-confined) simulations. We find that the confinement changes the LC phase structure dramatically and gives rise to the coexistence of varying degrees of LC order, which is reflected in the Xe shielding. Furthermore, we qualitatively reproduce the behaviour of the mean (129)Xe chemical shift with respect to temperature for atomic Xe dissolved in LC confined to controlled-pore glass materials. In the small-radius cavity the nematic - paranematic phase transition is revealed only by the anisotropic component of the (129)Xe nuclear shielding. In the larger cavity, the nematic - paranematic - isotropic transition is clearly seen in the Xe shielding. The simulated (129)Xe NMR shielding is insensitive to the smectic-A - nematic transition, since in the smectic-A phase, the Xe atoms largely occupy the imperfect layer structure near the cavity walls. The direct contribution of the cavity wall to (129)Xe nuclear shielding is dependent on the cavity size but

  15. Search for 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay with the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EXO collaboration is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136 Xe. Such observation would determine an absolute mass scale for the neutrinos, establish their Majorana nature, and uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The EXO-200 detector is a single phase liquid xenon ultra low background TPC (Time Projection Chamber), with an active mass of 110 kg of 80.6% enriched xenon in the isotope 136. The detector is currently operating at the WIPP site and has been collecting data with enriched xenon since May 2011. The data collected give a lower limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 136 Xe: T > 1.6*10 25 years at 90% C.L. The same data give a lower limit for the 2 neutrinos double beta decay of 136 Xe: T > 2.23*10 21 years that agrees with experimental values found in the literature

  16. Dark matter search with XENON1T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, J.

    2018-01-01

    Most matter in the universe consists of 'dark matter' unknown to particle physics. Deep underground detectors such as XENON1T attempt to detect rare collisions of dark matter with ordinary atoms. This thesis describes the first dark matter search of XENON1T, how dark matter signals would appear in

  17. RESULTS FROM THE XENON100 EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Persiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The XENON program consists in operating and developing double-phase time projection chambers using liquid xenon as the target material. It aims to directly detect dark matter in the form of WIMPs via their elastic scattering off xenon nuclei. The current phase is XENON100, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, with a 62 kg liquid xenon target. We present the 100.9 live days of data, acquired between January and June 2010, with no evidence of dark matter, as well as the new results of the last scientific run, with about 225 live days. The next phase, XENON1T, will increase the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.

  18. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnik, M.I.; Yudin, S.G.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Golovkin, S.V.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Solovjev, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors

  19. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.

  20. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  1. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  2. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  3. Reflectance dependence of polytetrafluoroethylene on thickness for xenon scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, J.; Neff, A.; Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Morton, D.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Stephenson, S. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); University of California Davis, Department of Physics, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wang, Y. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Lorenzon, W., E-mail: lorenzon@umich.edu [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Many rare event searches including dark matter direct detection and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments take advantage of the high VUV reflective surfaces made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reflector materials to achieve high light collection efficiency in their detectors. As the detectors have grown in size over the past decade, there has also been an increased need for ever thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance to reduce dead volumes around active noble liquids, outgassing, and potential backgrounds. We report on the experimental results to measure the dependence of the reflectance on thickness of two PTFE samples at wavelengths near 178 nm. No change in reflectance was observed as the wall thickness of a cylindrically shaped PTFE vessel immersed in liquid xenon was varied between 1 mm to 9.5 mm.

  4. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ethan; Rosendahl, Stephan; Huhmann, Christian; Kettling, Hans; Schlak, Martin; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    Liquid xenon detectors have risen to be extremely competitive for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. In order to achieve the required sensitivity, backgrounds must be reduced substantially. One important background is the beta-decay of {sup 85}Kr, which constitutes a uniform internal background in liquid xenon detectors. Cryogenic distillation can be used to reduce the krypton concentration to acceptable levels, but gas diagnostics become incredibly difficult at these ultra-pure levels. A new method for measuring the concentration of krypton in xenon has been developed, expanding on the existing technique of a cold trap and a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). By using a liquid nitrogen cold trap, one can take advantage of the difference in vapor pressures of krypton in xenon to freeze most of the xenon gas while allowing the krypton to pass to the measurement chamber. Here, only a few milliliters of xenon is expended in the measurement, while achieving a sensitivity of sub ppb (parts per billion). The key change is the use of a butterfly valve to partially close the opening in front of the turbomolecular pump, thereby reducing the effective pumping speed and enhancing the RGA signal.

  5. Developing Detectors for Scintillation Light in Liquid Argon for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Bruce [Fermilab

    2016-12-22

    The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events. In pursuit of these studies, the experiment will deploy four 10kt fiducial mass liquid argon time projection chambers underground in Lead, South Dakota. Liquid argon time projection chambers allow high-resolution tracking and energy measurements. A precise timing signal is needed to provide the necessary time stamp to localize events in the drift direction. As liquid argon is a natural scintillator, a photon detection system will be deployed to provide such a signal, especially for non-beam events. In the baseline design for the single-phase time projection chamber, the detectors are contained within the anode plane assemblies. The design of two prototypes utilizing wavelength shifters and light guides are presented, and aspects of the research and development program are discussed.

  6. Alphas and surface backgrounds in liquid argon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Christopher J.

    Current observations from astrophysics indicate the presence of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the universe. One of the leading theories for dark matter is that it is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). One of the ways we try to discover WIMPs is by directly detecting their interaction with regular matter. This can be done using a scintillator such as liquid argon, which gives off light when a particle interacts with it. Liquid argon (LAr) is a favorable means of detecting WIMPs because it has an inherent property that enables a technique called pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). PSD can distinguish a WIMP signal from the constant background of electromagnetic signals from other sources, like gamma rays. However, there are other background signals that PSD is not as capable of rejecting, such as those caused by alpha decays on the interior surfaces of the detector. Radioactive elements that undergo alpha decay are introduced to detector surfaces during construction by radon gas that is naturally present in the air, as well as other means. When these surface isotopes undergo alpha decay, they can produce WIMP-like signals in the detector. We present here two LAr experiments. The first (RaDOSE) discovered a property of an organic compound that led to a technique for rejecting surface alpha decays in LAr detectors with high efficiency. The second (DarkSide-50) is a dark matter experiment operated at LNGS in Italy and is the work of an international collaboration. A detailed look is given into alpha decays and surface backgrounds present in the detector, and projections are made of alpha-related backgrounds for 500 live days of data. The technique developed with RaDOSE is applied to DarkSide-50 to determine its effectiveness in practice. It is projected to suppress the surface background in DarkSide-50 by more than a factor of 1000.

  7. COOLC, Ne-213 Liquid Scintillation Detector Neutron Spectra Unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: COOLC is designed to calculate a neutron energy spectrum from a pulse-height spectrum produced by a detector system using the liquid scintillator NE-213. 2 - Method of solution: The program estimates the counts which would be observed in an ideal detector system having a response which is specified by the user. The solution implicitly takes into account the non-negativity of the desired neutron spectrum. The solution is obtained by finding a nearly optimal combination of slices through the spectrometer response functions such that their sum approximates the response of a channel of the ideal analyzer, and then uses the coefficients so determined to obtain an estimate of the desired neutron spectrum. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are none noted

  8. A liquid scintillator detector for the solar neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranucci, G [Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy) Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States) Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR) Technical Univ. of Munich, Garching (Germany) Physics Dept., Univ. Genova (Italy) INFN, Genova (Italy) Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States) CCR Euratom, Ispra (Italy) Physics Dept., Univ. Milano (Italy) INFN, Milano (Italy) AT and T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ (United States) Physics Dept., Univ. Pavia (Italy) INFN, Pavia (Italy) Physics Dept., Univ. Perugia (Italy) INFN, Perugia (Italy) Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States) Charles Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia) Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Borex Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    Results of the three solar neutrino experiments presently running strongly suggest new neutrino physics scenarios to explain the discrepancy between the expected and measured neutrino flux. New experiments are needed to decide among the several theoretical explanations for this that has become known as the solar neutrino problem. This paper describes the unique features of the proposed low energy solar neutrino detector Borexino, that fully exploiting the powerful handless of liquid scintillation spectroscopy on large scale, will probe emerging suggestions on scenarios invoking neutrino mass mixing and magnetic moment. (orig.).

  9. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Weird muonium diffusion in solid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, V.G.; Kirillov, B.F.; Pirogov, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    Muon and muonium spin rotation and relaxation parameters were studied in liquid and solid xenon. The small diamagnetic fraction (∼ 10%) observed in condensed xenon is believed to be Xeμ + . The muonium hyperfine frequency was measured for the first time in liquid Xe and was found to be in agreement with the vacuum value. A nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the muonium relaxation rate probably indicates that muonium diffusion in solid Xe is of quantum nature. 16 refs., 3 figs

  11. ArgonCube: a Modular Approach for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors for Near Detector Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Sinclair, JR

    2017-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are an ideal detector candidate for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently under consideration at the future LBNF/DUNE facility in the United States. That particular endeavor would be on the very large mass scale of 40~kt. Following diverse and long standing R\\&D work conducted over several years, with contributions from international collaborators, we propose a novel LAr TPC based on a fully-modular, innovative design, ArgonCube. ArgonCube will demonstrate that LAr TPCs are a viable detector technology for high-energy and high-multiplicity environments, such as the DUNE near detector. Necessary R\\&D work is proceeding along two main pathways; the first, aimed at the demonstration of modular detector design and the second, at the exploration of new signal readout methods. This two-pronged approach has provided a hig...

  12. Occulting Light Concentrators in Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Cabrera, Anatael; Dusini, Stefano; Grassi, Marco; He, Miao; Wu, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    The experimental efforts characterizing the era of precision neutrino physics revolve around collecting high-statistics neutrino samples and attaining an excellent energy and position resolution. Next generation liquid-based neutrino detectors, such as JUNO, HyperKamiokande, etc, share the use of a large target mass, and the need of pushing light collection to the edge for maximal calorimetric information. Achieving high light collection implies considerable costs, especially when considering detector masses of several kt. A traditional strategy to maximize the effective photo-coverage with the minimum number of PMTs relies on Light Concentrators (LC), such as Winston Cones. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel concept called Occulting Light Concentrators (OLC), whereby a traditional LC gets tailored to a conventional PMT, by taking into account its single-photoelectron collection efficiency profile and thus occulting the worst performing portion of the photocathode. Thus, the OLC shape optimization takes into account not only the optical interface of the PMT, but also the maximization of the PMT detection performances. The light collection uniformity across the detector is another advantage of the OLC system. By considering the case of JUNO, we will show OLC capabilities in terms of light collection and energy resolution.

  13. Memory Effects Study of Measuring Radioactive Xenon Isotopes With β-γ Coincidence Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Wang Jun; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Zhang Xinjun

    2010-01-01

    The β-γ coincidence technique is a kind of the key important method to detect radioactive xenon isotopes for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). This paper describes noble gases memory effects of β-γ coincidence detector. Xenon memory effects were measured and its influence on detector's minimum detectable activity (MDA) was evaluated. The methods of reducing xenon memory effects were studied. In conclusion, aluminium coated plastic scintillator and YAP scintillator can remarkably decrease xenon memory effects. (authors)

  14. The Daya Bay antineutrino detector filling system and liquid mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Draeger, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Lewis, C. A.; Mattison, H.; McFarlane, M. C.; Webber, D. M.; Wenman, D.; Wang, W.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2013-09-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured the neutrino mixing angle θ13 to world-leading precision. The experiment uses eight antineutrino detectors filled with 20-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator to detect antineutrinos emitted from the Daya Bay nuclear power plant through the inverse beta decay reaction. The precision measurement of sin22θ13 relies on the relative antineutrino interaction rates between detectors at near (400 m) and far (roughly 1.8 km) distances from the nuclear reactors. The measured interaction rate in each detector is directly proportional to the number of protons in the liquid scintillator target. A precision detector filling system was developed to simultaneously fill the three liquid zones of the antineutrino detectors and measure the relative target mass between detectors to < 0.02%. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the system and the resulting precision measurement of the detectors' target liquid masses.

  15. Analysis and Improvement of Liquid Level Fluctuation in Condenser of Krypton-Xenon Enriched Tower%氪氙富集塔冷凝器液位波动原因分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩正祥; 赵刘强; 吴冰; 凌晨

    2017-01-01

    The stability of krypton-xenon enrichment tower in krypton-xenon refining process directly determines the yield and yield of the product.In this paper, the fluctuation of the condenser liquid level in the rare krypton-xenon enrichment tower is analyzed from the aspects of equipment structure.The cause of the fault is analyzed in detail, and the liquid level fluctuation of the condenser in the enrichment tower is solved by improving the operation and reforming the equipment, so as to achieve the stable operation of the krypton xenon purification device.%氪氙精制流程中氪氙富集塔的稳定运行直接决定着产品的合格率及产量.针对稀有氪氙富集塔出现的冷凝器液位波动现象从设备结构、工艺运行等方面,对故障产生的原因进行了详细分析,并通过改进操作、改造设备解决了富集塔冷凝器液位波动问题,达到了氪氙精制装置稳定运行的目的.

  16. Pulse-shape discrimination in NE213 liquid scintillator detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, M.; Tropea, S.; Agodi, C.; Assié, M.; Azaiez, F.; Boiano, C.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; De Napoli, M.; Séréville, N. de; Foti, A.; Linares, R.; Nicolosi, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The 16-channel fast stretcher BaFPro module, originally developed for processing signals of Barium Fluoride scintillators, has been modified to make a high performing analog pulse-shape analysis of signals from the NE213 liquid scintillators of the EDEN neutron detector array. The module produces two Gaussian signals, whose amplitudes are proportional to the height of the fast component of the output light and to the total energy deposited into the scintillator, respectively. An in-beam test has been performed at INFN-LNS (Italy) demonstrating a low detection threshold, a good pulse-shape discrimination even at low energies and a wide dynamic range for the measurement of the neutrons energy.

  17. Chromatographic separation of radioactive noble gases from xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment operates at the Sanford Underground Research Facility to detect nuclear recoils from the hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on a liquid xenon target. Liquid xenon typically contains trace amounts of the noble radioactive isotopes 85Kr and 39Ar that are not removed by the in situ gas purification system. The decays of these isotopes at concentrations typical of research-grade xenon would be a dominant background for a WIMP search experiment. To remove these impurities from the liquid xenon, a chromatographic separation system based on adsorption on activated charcoal was built. 400 kg of xenon was processed, reducing the average concentration of krypton from 130 ppb to 3.5 ppt as measured by a cold-trap assisted mass spectroscopy system. A 50 kg batch spiked to 0.001 g/g of krypton was processed twice and reduced to an upper limit of 0.2 ppt.

  18. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  19. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  20. Liquid nitrogen enhancement of alpha particle tracks in a polycarbonate detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilione, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors were exposed to 1 to 3 MeV alpha particles and subsequently immersed in liquid nitrogen for various periods of time. The influence of the liquid nitrogen on the track recording properties of the detector has been found by measuring the track densities and diameters. Track densities increase with immersion time with a maximum gain of approximately 9% after 1200 min in liquid nitrogen. Track enhancement decreases with waiting time between the end of alpha particle exposure and the beginning of liquid nitrogen immersion. Track diameters decrease with time after passage of the particles and this process is accelerated by immersion in liquid nitrogen. (author)

  1. Investigations on a highly luminous condensed xenon scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansiart, Alain; Seigneur, Alain; Morucci, J.-P.

    1976-12-01

    The means of creating a maximal amount of light by absorption of gamma radiation in condensed xenon were investigated. One of the methods relies on the light production around wires in liquid xenon when several kilovolts are applied to them. Another method uses the saturating vapor present over solid xenon; the electric field pulls out electrons from the solid and accelerates them in the gas phase where they produce light through inelastic collisions [fr

  2. The search for dark matter in xenon: Innovative calibration strategies and novel search channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Shayne Edward

    The direct detection dark matter experiment XENON1T became operational in early 2016, heralding the era of tonne-scale dark matter detectors. Direct detection experiments typically search for elastic scatters of dark matter particles off target nuclei. XENON1T's larger xenon target provides the advantage of stronger dark matter signals and lower background rates compared to its predecessors, XENON10 and XENON100; but, at the same time, calibration of the detector's response to backgrounds with traditional external sources becomes exceedingly more difficult. A 220Rn source is deployed on the XENON100 dark matter detector in order to address the challenges in calibration of tonne-scale liquid noble element detectors. I show that the subsequent 212Pb beta emission can be used for low-energy electronic recoil calibration in searches for dark matter. The isotope spreads throughout the entire active region of the detector, and its activity naturally decays below background level within a week after the source is closed. I find no increase in the activity of the troublesome 222Rn background after calibration. Alpha emitters are also distributed throughout the detector and facilitate calibration of its response to 222Rn. Using the delayed coincidence of 220Rn/216Po, I map for the first time the convective motion of particles in the XENON100 detector. Additionally, I make a competitive measurement of the half-life of 212Po, t1/2=293.9+/-(1.0)stat+/-(0.6)ns. In contrast to the elastic scattering of dark matter particles off nuclei, I explore inelastic scattering where the nucleus is excited to a low-lying state of 10-100 keV, with a subsequent prompt de-excitation. I use the inelastic structure factors for the odd-mass xenon isotopes based on state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations with chiral effective field theory WIMP-nucleon currents, finding that the inelastic channel is comparable to or can dominate the elastic channel for momentum transfers around 150 Me

  3. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Therefore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon

  4. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  5. Energy calibration of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisenkov, A.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Bashtovoy, N.S.; Bondar, A.E.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Epifanov, D.A.; Epshteyn, L.B.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. Experiments are carried out with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and end cap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the procedures of the energy calibration of the combined barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector.

  6. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  7. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  8. Modeling Pulse Characteristics in Xenon with NEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Jeremy; Barry, Nichole; Kazkaz, Kareem; Szydagis, Matthew; Tripathi, Mani; Uvarov, Sergey; Woods, Michael; Walsh, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive model for describing the characteristics of pulsed signals, generated by particle interactions in xenon detectors, is presented. An emphasis is laid on two-phase time projection chambers, but the models presented are also applicable to single phase detectors. In order to simulate the pulse shape due to primary scintillation light, the effects of the ratio of singlet and triplet dimer state populations, as well as their corresponding decay times, and the recombination time are ...

  9. Measuring fast neutrons with large liquid scintillation detector for ultra-low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); College of Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Mei, D.-M., E-mail: dongming.mei@usd.edu [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Davis, P.; Woltman, B. [Department of Physics, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Gray, F. [Department of Physics and Computational Science, Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    We developed a 12-liter volume neutron detector filled with the liquid scintillator EJ301 that measures neutrons in an underground laboratory where dark matter and neutrino experiments are located. The detector target is a cylindrical volume coated on the inside with reflective paint (95% reflectivity) that significantly increases the detector's light collection. We demonstrate several calibration techniques using point sources and cosmic-ray muons for energies up to 20 MeV for this large liquid scintillation detector. Neutron–gamma separation using pulse shape discrimination with a few MeV neutrons to hundreds of MeV neutrons is shown for the first time using a large liquid scintillator.

  10. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C.

    2013-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with Σm ν = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m ββ involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ββ0ν experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ββ0ν events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely

  11. Investigation of ionization losses of shower electrons in electron-photon shower developed in liquid xenon by gamma quanta in the energy range 1600-3400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhrymenko, L.S.; Slowinski, B.; Strugalski, Z.; Sredniawa, B.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the investigation of differential distributions of ionization losses and the corresponding fluctuations for shower electrons in the longitudinal development of electron-photon showers produced by gamma-quanta of energies Esub(γ)=1600-3400 MeV in liquid xenon are given. A simple and convenient from the methodical point of view two-parametric function, approximating the observed distribution has been obtained. The independence of the fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons on the energy of gamma-quanta in the investigated interval of Esub(γ) values has been found

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  13. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, no physical access to the beam hall is required during routine filling operation. The system consists of ... PSI with the manual valve (MV) on the dewar kept open. For filling the detectors on one ... sequence the opening/closing of the valves depending upon the outlet temperature. By monitoring the time taken for ...

  14. The research program of the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) in the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Yakushev, V. F.; Korchagin, P. V.; Korchagin, V. B.; Malgin, A. S.; Ryassny, F. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Talochkin, V. P.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Badino, G.

    1985-01-01

    A massive (90 tons) liquid scintillation detector (LSD) has been running since October 1984 in the Mont Blanc Laboratory at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock. The research program of the experiment covers a variety of topics in particle physics and astrophysics. The performance of the detector, the main fields of research are presented and the preliminary results are discussed.

  15. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my; Yussup, N., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Instrumentation Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  16. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume

  17. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J., E-mail: jrenner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Shuman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Álvarez, V. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Borges, F.I.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Cárcel, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Castel, J.; Cebrián, S. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cervera, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Conde, C.A.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); and others

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  18. The liquid scintillator neutrino detector and LAMPF neutrino source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassopoulos, C.; Auerbach, L.B.; Bauer, D.; Bolton, R.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cohen, I.; Caldwell, D.O.; Dieterle, B.D.; Donahue, J.B.; Eisner, A.M.; Fazely, A.; Federspiel, F.J.; Garvey, G.T.; Gray, M.; Gunasingha, R.M.; Highland, V.; Imlay, R.; Johnston, K.; Kim, H.J.; Louis, W.C.; Lu, A.; Margulies, J.; Mills, G.B.; McIlhany, K.; Metcalf, W.; Reeder, R.A.; Sandberg, V.; Schillaci, M.; Smith, D.; Stancu, I.; Strossman, W.; Tayloe, R.; VanDalen, G.J.; Vernon, W.; Wang, Y.-X.; White, D.H.; Whitehouse, D.; Works, D.; Xiao, Y.; Yellin, S. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States)]|[University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)]|[University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)]|[University of California, Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]|[Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States)]|[Linfield College, McMinnville, OR 97128 (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]|[Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)]|[Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)]|[University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)]|[Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States)]|[Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    1997-03-21

    A search for neutrino oscillations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility using {nu}{sub {mu}} from muon decay at rest. Evidence for this transition has been reported previously. This paper discusses in detail the experimental setup, detector operation and neutrino source, including aspects relevant to oscillation searches in the muon decay-at-rest and pion decay in flight channels. (orig.).

  19. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  20. Hadron and electron response of uranium/liquid argon calorimeter modules for the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolins, M.; Astur, R.; Edmunds, D.; Linnemann, J.T.; Mooney, P.; Owen, D.P.; Pi, B.; Pope, B.G.; Weerts, H.; Ahn, S.C.; Demarteau, M.; Forden, G.E.; Good, M.L.; Grannis, P.D.; Guida, J.A.; Heuring, T.; Marx, M.; McCarthy, R.; Ng, K.K.; Paterno, M.; Schamberger, R.D.; Timko, M.; Aronson, S.H.; Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.G.; Gordon, H.A.; Guida, J.M.; Guryn, W.; Kahn, S.; Protopopescu, S.; Yamin, P.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bross, A.D.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Fisk, H.E.; Haggerty, H.; Ito, A.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Jonckheere, A.M.; Merritt, K.W.; Raja, R.; Smith, R.P.; Treadwell, E.; Blazey, G.C.; Borders, J.; Draper, P.; Durston, S.; Ferbel, T.; Hirosky, R.; Kewley, D.; Libonate, S.; Lobkowicz, F.; Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Gerecht, J.; Kononenko, W.; Selove, W.; Wang, H.; Hadley, N.J.; Hagopian, S.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.D.; Yousseff, S.; Klopfenstein, C.; Madaras, R.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stevenson, M.L.; Wenzel, W.A.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Nemethy, P.; Nesic, D.; Sculli, J.; Martin, H.J.; Zieminski, A.; Roberts, K.; Wimpenny, S.J.; White, A.P.; Womersley, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    We present the results of tests on two types of uranium/liquid calorimeter modules, one electromagnetic and one hadronic, constructed for the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. For electrons and hardons with energies between 10 and 150 GeV, we present measurements of energy resolution, linearity of response, electromagnetic to hadronic response ratio (e/π), and longitudinal hadronic shower development. We have also investigated the effects of adding small amounts of methane to the liquid argon. (orig.)

  1. A large liquid scintillator detector for a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Border, P.; Cushman, P.; Heller, K.; Maxam, D.; Nelson, J.K.; Ruddick, K.; Rusack, R.; Schwienhorst, R.; Berg, T.; Chase, T.; Hansen, M.; Bower, C.; Hatcher, R.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the concept and design of a liquid scintillator detector for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Neutrinos interact in 2.5 cm thick steel plates alternating with 2.0 cm thick planes of liquid scintillator. The scintillator is contained in multicell PVC extrusions containing individual 2 cmx3 cm cells up to 8 m long. Readout of the scintillation light is via wavelength-shifting fibers which transport light to pixellated photodetectors at one end of the cells

  2. Research on the measurement of the ultraviolet irradiance in the xenon lamp aging test chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Muyao; Li, Tiecheng; Lin, Fangsheng; Yin, Dejin; Cheng, Weihai; Huang, Biyong; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the methods of calibrating the irradiance in the Xenon lamp aging test chamber. And the irradiance under ultraviolet region is mainly researched. Three different detectors whose response wave range are respectively UVA (320 400nm), UVB (275 330nm) and UVA+B (280 400nm) are used in the experiment. Through comparing the measuring results with different detectors under the same xenon lamp source, we discuss the difference between UVA, UVB and UVA+B on the basis of the spectrum of the xenon lamp and the response curve of the detectors. We also point out the possible error source, when use these detectors to calibrate the chamber.

  3. Study of the optical properties of the DF2000MA daylight film used in the XENON1T muon veto water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Diego [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    XENON1T is the 3rd stage of a series of experiments performed by the XENON collaboration for the direct detection of dark matter candidates, such as WIMPs. Its projected spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross-section entails an improvement of two orders of magnitude with respect to Xenon100 and requires, for a fiducial mass of the detector of about 1 ton liquid xenon, a similar reduction in background. In order to minimize the neutron background induced by cosmic ray muons, the XENON1T TPC is placed in the center of a 750 m{sup 3} water tank acting as an active Cherenkov muon veto, the walls of which are clad with the high reflective DF2000MA foil by 3M. The improved setup and results of a dedicated study of the reflective properties of the foil is presented, as well as a measurement of its possible wavelength shifting (WLS) properties. The analysis yields a specular reflectance of ∼ 100% for wavelengths larger than 400 nm, while ∼ 90% of the incoming light with wavelengths smaller than 370 nm is absorbed by the foil. The emission spectra of the WLS are dependent on the absorbed wavelength and show Gaussian shapes, with highest intensities at mean values of ∼ 450 nm emission wavelength.

  4. Operation of CdZnTe Semiconductor Detectors in Liquid Scintillator for the COBRA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldorf, Christian

    2015-08-01

    COBRA, the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride O-neutrino double-Beta Research Apparatus, is an experiment aiming for the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay with several isotopes, in particular 116 Cd, 106 Cd and 130 Te. A highly granular large scale experiment with about 400 kg of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors is currently under development. To provide evidence for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 116 Cd, a background rate in the order of 10 -3 counts/keV/kg/a is needed to achieve the required half-life sensitivity of at least 2 . 10 26 years. To reach this target, the detectors have to be operated in a highly pure environment, shielded from external radiation. Liquid scintillator is a promising candidate as a circum fluent replacement for the currently used lacquer. Next to the function as highly pure passivation material, liquid scintillator also acts as a neutron shield and active veto for external gammas. Within this thesis, the design, construction and assembly of a test set-up is described. The operation of four CdZnTe detectors after several years of storage in liquid scintillator is demonstrated. Next to extensive material compatibility tests prior to the assembly, the commissioning of the set-up and the characterization of the detectors are shown. Finally, results concerning the background reduction capability of liquid scintillator and the detection of cosmic muons are presented and compared to a Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  6. DARWIN: towards the ultimate dark matter detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Amsler, C.; Aprile, E.; Arazi, L.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Beskers, B.; Breskin, A.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Diglio, S.; Drexlin, G.; Duchovni, E.; Erdal, E.; Eurin, G.; Ferella, A.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Di Gangi, P.; Di Giovanni, A.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Glueck, F.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hannen, V.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Hilk, D.; Hils, C.; James, A.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kilminster, B.; Kish, A.; Krauss, L. M.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lin, Q.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morå, K. D.; Morteau, E.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Newstead, J. L.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; de Perio, P.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Piro, M. C.; Plante, G.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schumann, M.; Schreiner, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Silva, M. C.; Simgen, H.; Sissol, P.; von Sivers, M.; Thers, D.; Thurn, J.; Tiseni, A.; Trotta, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Valerius, K.; Vargas, M. A.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wester, T.; Wulf, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zuber, K.

    2016-11-01

    DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN (DARWIN) will be an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter using a multi-ton liquid xenon time projection chamber at its core. Its primary goal will be to explore the experimentally accessible parameter space for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in a wide mass-range, until neutrino interactions with the target become an irreducible background. The prompt scintillation light and the charge signals induced by particle interactions in the xenon will be observed by VUV sensitive, ultra-low background photosensors. Besides its excellent sensitivity to WIMPs above a mass of 5 GeV/c2, such a detector with its large mass, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level will also be sensitive to other rare interactions. It will search for solar axions, galactic axion-like particles and the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136Xe, as well as measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux with detect galactic supernovae. We present the concept of the DARWIN detector and discuss its physics reach, the main sources of backgrounds and the ongoing detector design and R&D efforts.

  7. DARWIN: towards the ultimate dark matter detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Bologna and INFN-Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Beskers, B. [Institut für Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D. [Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Amsler, C. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Universität Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Aprile, E. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Arazi, L.; Breskin, A.; Budnik, R. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L. [New York University Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Berger, T.; Brown, E. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G., E-mail: lior.arazi@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: laura.baudis@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: amos.breskin@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: decowski@nikhef.nl, E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); and others

    2016-11-01

    DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN (DARWIN) will be an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter using a multi-ton liquid xenon time projection chamber at its core. Its primary goal will be to explore the experimentally accessible parameter space for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in a wide mass-range, until neutrino interactions with the target become an irreducible background. The prompt scintillation light and the charge signals induced by particle interactions in the xenon will be observed by VUV sensitive, ultra-low background photosensors. Besides its excellent sensitivity to WIMPs above a mass of 5 GeV/ c {sup 2}, such a detector with its large mass, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level will also be sensitive to other rare interactions. It will search for solar axions, galactic axion-like particles and the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe, as well as measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux with < 1% precision, observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions, and detect galactic supernovae. We present the concept of the DARWIN detector and discuss its physics reach, the main sources of backgrounds and the ongoing detector design and R and D efforts.

  8. Large underground, liquid based detectors for astro-particle physics in Europe scientific case and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Bezrukov, L; Bouchez, J; Bueno, A; Busto, J; Campagne, J -E; Cavata, C; De Bellefon, A; Dumarchez, J; Ebert, J; Enqvist, T; Ereditato, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Perez, P Fileviez; Goger-Neff, M; Gninenko, S; Gruber, W; Hagner, C; Hess, M; Hochmuth, K A; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Kreslo, I; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kuusiniemi, P; Lachenmaier, T; Laffranchi, M; Lefièvre, B; Lightfoot, P K; Lindner, M; Maalampi, J; Maltoni, M; Marchionni, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mezzetto, M; Mirizzi, A; Mosca, L; Moser, U; Müller, A; Natterer, G; Oberauer, L; Otiougova, P; Patzak, T; Peltoniemi, J; Potzel, W; Pistillo, C; Raffelt, G G; Rondio, E; Roos, M; Rossi, B; Rubbia, André; Savvinov, N; Schwetz, T; Sobczyk, J; Spooner, N J C; Stefan, D; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W; Ulbricht, J; Volpe, C; Winter, J; Wurm, M; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zimmermann, R

    2007-01-01

    This document reports on a series of experimental and theoretical studies conducted to assess the astro-particle physics potential of three future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as next generation underground observatories. The proposed apparatus employ three different and, to some extent, complementary detection techniques: GLACIER (liquid Argon TPC), LENA (liquid scintillator) and MEMPHYS (\\WC), based on the use of large mass of liquids as active detection media. The results of these studies are presented along with a critical discussion of the performance attainable by the three proposed approaches coupled to existing or planned underground laboratories, in relation to open and outstanding physics issues such as the search for matter instability, the detection of astrophysical- and geo-neutrinos and to the possible use of these detectors in future high-intensity neutrino beams.

  9. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas; Detecteur d'entrainement de liquide dans un gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, J P; Eperonnat, P; Lions, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit un detecteur optique d'entrainement de liquide dans un gaz, sensible a une quantite cumulee de liquide entraine egale a quelques millimetres cubes. L'appareil peut actionner une alarme a distance. Le prototype a ete construit et essaye comme detecteur de fuites d'huile dans l'argon refoule par un compresseur a membranes. Une demande de brevet a ete deposee pour cet appareil sous le numero: P.V.954.703, le 22.11.1963. (auteur)

  10. CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Bondar, A.E.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Epifanov, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. The experiments are performed with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon Calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and endcap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector. The calorimeter design, its electronics and calibration procedures are discussed

  11. Investigation on n/γ discrimination methods for liquid scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kuinian; Li Yang; Zhang Mei; Zhang Zhongbing; Li Binkang; Zhang Xiaodong; Liu Jun; Zhang Xianpeng

    2014-01-01

    To obtain the n/γ discrimination ability of different digital pulse shape discrimination methods, four methods (rising time method, charge comparison method, pulse gradient analysis and frequency gradient analysis) in americium-beryllium mixed radiation fields were demonstrated. The signals from EJ-301 and BC501A scintillator detectors were digitized using oscilloscope. A comparison was taken among the four discrimination methods. The discrimination results of the four methods in liquid scintillator detectors show that the rising time method is the best and it provides a good choice in real-time n/γ discrimination system. (authors)

  12. The unbearable lightness of being: CDMS versus XENON

    CERN Document Server

    Frandsen, Mads T; McCabe, Christopher; Sarkar, Subir; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The CDMS-II collaboration has reported 3 events in a Si detector, which are consistent with being nuclear recoils due to scattering of Galactic dark matter particles with a mass of about 8.6 GeV and a cross-section on neutrons of about 2 x 10^-41 cm^2. While a previous result from the XENON10 experiment has supposedly ruled out such particles as dark matter, we find by reanalysing the XENON10 data that this is not the case. Some tension remains however with the upper limit placed by the XENON100 experiment, independently of astrophysical uncertainties concerning the Galactic dark matter distribution. We explore possible ways of ameliorating this tension by altering the properties of dark matter interactions. Nevertheless, even with standard couplings, light dark matter is consistent with both CDMS and XENON10/100.

  13. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  14. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  15. LArSoft: toolkit for simulation, reconstruction and analysis of liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, E. L.; Petrillo, G.

    2017-10-01

    LArSoft is a set of detector-independent software tools for the simulation, reconstruction and analysis of data from liquid argon (LAr) neutrino experiments The common features of LAr time projection chambers (TPCs) enable sharing of algorithm code across detectors of very different size and configuration. LArSoft is currently used in production simulation and reconstruction by the ArgoNeuT, DUNE, LArlAT, MicroBooNE, and SBND experiments. The software suite offers a wide selection of algorithms and utilities, including those for associated photo-detectors and the handling of auxiliary detectors outside the TPCs. Available algorithms cover the full range of simulation and reconstruction, from raw waveforms to high-level reconstructed objects, event topologies and classification. The common code within LArSoft is contributed by adopting experiments, which also provide detector-specific geometry descriptions, and code for the treatment of electronic signals. LArSoft is also a collaboration of experiments, Fermilab and associated software projects which cooperate in setting requirements, priorities, and schedules. In this talk, we outline the general architecture of the software and the interaction with external libraries and detector-specific code. We also describe the dynamics of LArSoft software development between the contributing experiments, the projects supporting the software infrastructure LArSoft relies on, and the core LArSoft support project.

  16. Advanced far infrared blocked impurity band detectors based on germanium liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Christopher Sean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This research has shown that epilayers with residual impurity concentrations of 5 x 1013 cm-3 can be grown by producing the purest Pb available in the world. These epilayers have extremely low minority acceptor concentrations, which is ideal for fabrication of IR absorbing layers. The Pb LPE growth of Ge also has the advantageous property of gettering Cu from the epilayer and the substrate. Epilayers have been grown with intentional Sb doping for IR absorption on lightly doped substrates. This research has proven that properly working Ge BIB detectors can be fabricated from the liquid phase as long as pure enough solvents are available. The detectors have responded at proper wavelengths when reversed biased even though the response did not quite reach minimum wavenumbers. Optimization of the Sb doping concentration should further decrease the photoionization energy of these detectors. Ge BIB detectors have been fabricated that respond to 60 cm-1 with low responsivity. Through reduction of the minority residual impurities, detector performance has reached responsivities of 1 A/W. These detectors have exhibited quantum efficiency and NEP values that rival conventional photoconductors and are expected to provide a much more sensitive tool for new scientific discoveries in a number of fields, including solid state studies, astronomy, and cosmology.

  17. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 μm were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV π 0 's is larger than 3; the precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 7 mrad above 40 GeV; the calorimeter performance behind the preshower (≅4X 0 ) is fully preserved. These results make such a detector attractive for future operation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  19. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  1. Toxic Compounds Analysis With High Performance Liquid Chromatography Detected By Electro Chemical Detector (Ecd)

    OpenAIRE

    Hideharu Shintaniq

    2014-01-01

    The principal area of application of high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) has been in the analysis of naturally-occurring analytes, such as catecholamines, and pharmaceuticals in biological samples, HPLC-ECD has also applied to the analysis of pesticides and other analytes of interest to the toxicologist. In this paper, toxic area is described. In these, ammatoxins, aromatic amine, nitro-compounds, algal toxins, fungal toxins, pesticides, veterinary drug ...

  2. A liquid-nitrogen monitor for lithium-drifted germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andeweg, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    An instrument has been developed that makes use of a load cell to monitor the liquid nitrogen in the Dewar flask of a lithium-drifted germaniun detector. The contents are recorded on a chart recorder, and an alarm is sounded when the previously set content has been reached. A signal switches off the high-voltage power supply 30 minutes after the alarm is triggered. The calibration of the load-cell monitor is described in an appendix [af

  3. Pulse shape analysis of enriched BEGe detectors in vacuum cryostat and liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium diodes of BEGe type (Canberra, Belgium) made from isotopically modified material have been procured for Phase II of Gerda. They will improve the sensitivity of the experiment by additional target mass, improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. The PSD efficiencies of the new enriched BEGe detectors were studied in vacuum cryostats as part of the characterization campaign at the HADES underground laboratory. For a deeper understanding of the pulse shape performance of the enriched BEGe detectors, detailed {sup 241}Am surface scans were performed. Unexpectedly high position-dependence of the pulse shape parameter Amplitude-over-Energy was found for some of the detectors. With further investigation this effect was traced to surface charge effects specific to the operational configuration of the detectors inside the vacuum cryostats. The standard behavior is restored when they are operated in liquid argon in the configuration intended for Gerda Phase II. Finally, five of the enriched BEGe diodes were installed in the Gerda liquid argon cryostat prior to the full upgrade. They show a good performance and are able to reject efficiently multi-site-events as well as β- and α-particles.

  4. The ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Detector Operation in the Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 Module is the largest liquid argon detector (760 t LAr mass) ever realized to study neutrino oscill ations and matter stability in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. One of t he key elements for the detector performance is the liquid argon purity: residual electronegative compounds in argon have to be kept as low as 0.1 part s per billion all over the detector run. The T600 Module design was finalized by the ICARUS Collaboration after years of R&D studies that brought to the viable and scalable industrial solutions necessary for sized experiments with severe safety prescriptions for the underground operation . We present the T600 Module successful commissioning and the 3-years efficient, stable and continuous operation with extraordinary LAr purity, high performance and zero dead time data taking . This result demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of activation and long-term run in safe conditions of sized cryogenic detectors even in a confined underground location and r...

  5. The CENNS-10 liquid argon detector to measure CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayloe, R.

    2018-04-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is deploying a suite of low-energy detectors in a low-background corridor of the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on an array of nuclear targets employing different detector technologies. A measurement of CEvNS on different nuclei will test the N2-dependence of the CEvNS cross section and further the physics reach of the COHERENT effort. The first step of this program has been realized recently with the observation of CEvNS in a 14.6 kg CsI detector. Operation and deployment of Ge and NaI detectors are also underway. A 22 kg, single-phase, liquid argon detector (CENNS-10) started data-taking in Dec. 2016 and will provide results on CEvNS from a lighter nucleus. Initial results indicate that light output, pulse-shape discrimination, and background suppression are sufficient for a measurement of CEvNS on argon.

  6. First Dark Matter Search Results from the XENON1T Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E; Aalbers, J; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Bütikofer, L; Calvén, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; de Perio, P; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Diglio, S; Eurin, G; Fei, J; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Fulgione, W; Gallo Rosso, A; Galloway, M; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Gardner, R; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Grandi, L; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Howlett, J; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kazama, S; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lombardi, F; Lopes, J A M; Manfredini, A; Mariş, I; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Molinario, A; Morå, K; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Pizzella, V; Piro, M-C; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Riedel, B; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Saldanha, R; Dos Santos, J M F; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Scotto Lavina, L; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Shockley, E; Silva, M; Simgen, H; Sivers, M V; Stein, A; Thapa, S; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C; Vargas, M; Upole, N; Wang, H; Wang, Z; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Ye, J; Zhang, Y; Zhu, T

    2017-11-03

    We report the first dark matter search results from XENON1T, a ∼2000-kg-target-mass dual-phase (liquid-gas) xenon time projection chamber in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy and the first ton-scale detector of this kind. The blinded search used 34.2 live days of data acquired between November 2016 and January 2017. Inside the (1042±12)-kg fiducial mass and in the [5,40]  keV_{nr} energy range of interest for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter searches, the electronic recoil background was (1.93±0.25)×10^{-4}  events/(kg×day×keV_{ee}), the lowest ever achieved in such a dark matter detector. A profile likelihood analysis shows that the data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis. We derive the most stringent exclusion limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section for WIMP masses above 10  GeV/c^{2}, with a minimum of 7.7×10^{-47}  cm^{2} for 35-GeV/c^{2} WIMPs at 90% C.L.

  7. First Dark Matter Search Results from the XENON1T Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Gardner, R.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Mariş, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Riedel, B.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thapa, S.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Upole, N.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report the first dark matter search results from XENON1T, a ˜2000 -kg -target-mass dual-phase (liquid-gas) xenon time projection chamber in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy and the first ton-scale detector of this kind. The blinded search used 34.2 live days of data acquired between November 2016 and January 2017. Inside the (1042 ±12 )-kg fiducial mass and in the [5 ,40 ] keVnr energy range of interest for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter searches, the electronic recoil background was (1.93 ±0.25 )×10-4 events /(kg ×day ×keVee) , the lowest ever achieved in such a dark matter detector. A profile likelihood analysis shows that the data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis. We derive the most stringent exclusion limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section for WIMP masses above 10 GeV /c2 , with a minimum of 7.7 ×10-47 cm2 for 35 -GeV /c2 WIMPs at 90% C.L.

  8. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  9. Autoionization in xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.D.; Wang, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied both even- and odd-parity autoionizing levels in xenon. These levels lie between the Xe/sup +/ /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ and /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ ionization limits. Their technique is laser spectroscopy of a thermal metastable atomic beam of xenon. One-photon laser spectroscopy from the 6s'[1/2]/sub 0/ level has been used to study the np'[1/2]/sub 1/ and np'[3/2]/sub 1/ autoionization doublets, n = 7-20. These had previously been observed only for n = 7,8. The authors are using a MQDT analysis of both discrete and autoionizing even-parity J = 1 levels (five channels) to understand the autoionization line profiles. They have also used two-photon laser spectroscopy from the 6s[3/2]/sub 2/ metastable level via various J = 1,2 6p' levels to observe the odd-parity ns'[1/2]/sub 0 1/, nd'[3/2]/sub 1 2/, and nd'[5/2]/sub 2 3/ autoionizing levels to n > 50. This is the first observation of J not equal to 1 odd-parity autoionization in xenon. The most striking feature of these spectra is the complete absence of the very intense, very broad transitions to nd'[3/2]/sub 1/, which dominate the photoabsorption spectrum from the xenon J = 0 ground state. The other nd' levels (J = 2.3) and ns'[1/2]/sub 0/ are all comparable in width to the previously observed ns'[1/2]/sub 1/ levels. The authors present the results of position and width measurements for these levels

  10. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Tiseni, A.; Tunnell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company

  11. Online {sup 222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant {sup 222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary {sup 222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector. (orig.)

  12. Modeling pulse characteristics in Xenon with NEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, J; Stolp, D; Szydagis, M; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Woods, M; Walsh, N; Barry, N; Kazkaz, K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive model for describing the characteristics of pulsed signals, generated by particle interactions in xenon detectors, is presented. An emphasis is laid on two-phase time projection chambers, but the models presented are also applicable to single phase detectors. In order to simulate the pulse shape due to primary scintillation light, the effects of the ratio of singlet and triplet dimer state populations, as well as their corresponding decay times, and the recombination time are incorporated into the model. In a two phase time projection chamber, when simulating the pulse caused by electroluminescence light, the ionization electron mean free path in gas, the drift velocity, singlet and triplet decay times, diffusion constants, and the electron trapping time, have been implemented. This modeling has been incorporated into a complete software package, which realistically simulates the expected pulse shapes for these types of detectors

  13. Analysis of metalaxyl racemate using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with four kinds of detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Jun; Gao, Ruiqi; Wang, Tai; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-10-07

    Chiral stationary phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detectors has been one of most commonly used methods for analysis and separation of chiral compounds over the past decades. Various detectors exhibit different characteristics in qualitative and quantitative studies under different chromatographic conditions. Herein, a comparative evaluation of HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, optical rotation, refractive index, and evaporative light scattering detectors has been conducted for qualitative and quantitative analyses of metalaxyl racemate. Effects of separation conditions on the peak area ratio between two enantiomers, including sample concentration, column temperature, mobile phase composition, as well as flow rate, have been investigated in detail. In addition, the limits of detection, the limits of quantitation, quantitative range and precision for these two enantiomers by using four detectors have been also studied. As indicated, the chromatographic separation conditions have been slight effects on ultraviolet and refractive index detections and the peak area ratio between two enantiomers remains almost unchanged, but the evaporative light scattering detection has been significantly affected by the above-mentioned chromatographic conditions and the corresponding peak area ratios varied greatly. Moreover, the limits of detection, the limits of quantitation, and the quantitative ranges of two enantiomers with UV detection were remarkably lower by 1-2 magnitudes than the others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The next enriched xenon observatory. A search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayerlein, Reimund; Hufschmidt, Patrick; Jamil, Ako; Schneider, Judith; Wagenpfeil, Michael; Wrede, Gerrit; Ziegler, Tobias; Hoessl, Juergen; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo [ECAP, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The question whether the neutrino could be its own antiparticle is still not answered. The most practical way to test this is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay. The half-life of this decay is related to the value of a linear combination of the masses of the neutrino mass eigenstates and therefore provides information about the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. The nEXO experiment - the successor of EXO200 - is currently under research and development. The baseline concept comprises a single-phase liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber (TPC) filled with about 5 tons of liquid xenon enriched to about 80% Xe-136 as the double beta decay nuclide. In order to fully cover the range of the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the inverted hierarchy scheme, excellent energy resolution is required. Therefore, a position-resolving, low-noise charge readout and very efficient light collection and detection are mandatory. For the purpose of very low background levels radiopure Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) have to be used to detect the scintillation light of LXe. Due to the large half-life a huge detector mass and long term measurement are needed. In this talk the baseline-concept of the experimental setup is presented.

  15. Low energy neutrino astrophysics with the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Winter, J.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will cover a broad field of physics. Apart from the detection of terrestrial and artificial neutrinos, and the search for proton decay, important contributions can be made to the astrophysics of stars by high-precision spectroscopy of low-energetic solar neutrinos and by the observation of neutrinos emitted by a galactic supernova. Moreover, the detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in LENA will offer the opportunity of studying both supernova core-collapse models and the supernova rate on cosmological timescales (z e events in an almost background-free energy window from ∼10 to 25 MeV. The search for such rare low-energetic events takes advantage of the high energy resolution and excellent background rejection possible in the LENA detector

  16. NMR investigations of surfaces and interfaces using spin-polarized xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaede, H.C.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-07-01

    129 Xe NMR is potentially useful for the investigation of material surfaces, but has been limited to high surface area samples in which sufficient xenon can be loaded to achieve acceptable signal to noise ratios. In Chapter 2 conventional 129 Xe NMR is used to study a high surface area polymer, a catalyst, and a confined liquid crystal to determine the topology of these systems. Further information about the spatial proximity of different sites of the catalyst and liquid crystal systems is determined through two dimensional exchange NMR in Chapter 3. Lower surface area systems may be investigated with spin-polarized xenon, which may be achieved through optical pumping and spin exchange. Optically polarized xenon can be up to 10 5 times more sensitive than thermally polarized xenon. In Chapter 4 highly polarized xenon is used to examine the surface of poly(acrylonitrile) and the formation of xenon clathrate hydrates. An attractive use of polarized xenon is as a magnetization source in cross polarization experiments. Cross polarization from adsorbed polarized xenon may allow detection of surface nuclei with drastic enhancements. A non-selective low field thermal mixing technique is used to enhance the 13 C signal of CO 2 of xenon occluded in solid CO 2 by a factor of 200. High-field cross polarization from xenon to proton on the surface of high surface area polymers has enabled signal enhancements of ∼1,000. These studies, together with investigations of the efficiency of the cross polarization process from polarized xenon, are discussed in Chapter 5. Another use of polarized xenon is as an imaging contrast agent in systems that are not compatible with traditional contrast agents. The resolution attainable with this method is determined through images of structured phantoms in Chapter 6

  17. ATLAS Event Display: First Xenon-Xenon Run 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Event display from the xenon-xenon collision run of 12-13 October 2017. Curved cyan lines show the trajectories of charged particles in the tracking systems. The bottom right plot shows the distribution of energy deposited in the calorimeters, demonstrating the high particle multiplicity of the event. Two muon candidates are reconstructed at high pseudorapidity, as seen in the bottom left plot

  18. A rope-net support system for the liquid scintillator detector for the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialek, A., E-mail: abialek@snolab.ca [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Chen, M. [Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Cleveland, B. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Gorel, P.; Hallin, A. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Harvey, P.J.; Heise, J. [Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada); Kraus, C. [Laurentian University, Sudbury (Canada); Krauss, C.B. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Lawson, I. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Ng, C.J.; Pinkney, B. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Rogowsky, D.M. [Rogowsky Engineering Ltd, AECOM Canada Ltd (Canada); Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.; Soukup, J. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Vázquez-Jáuregui, E. [SNOLAB, Lively (Canada); Laurentian University, Sudbury (Canada)

    2016-08-11

    The detector for the SNO+ experiment consists of 780 000 kg of liquid scintillator contained in an acrylic vessel that is surrounded by water. A mechanical system has been installed to counteract the 1.25 MN of buoyant force on the acrylic and prevent the vessel from moving. The system is a rope net, designed using a Finite Element Analysis to calculate the amount of stress on the acrylic induced by the ropes, hydrostatic pressures and gravity. A dedicated test was performed to measure strains in the acrylic arising from the complex geometry of the knots in the rope system. The ratio between measured and FEA calculated strains was 1.3.

  19. A new digital method for high precision neutron-gamma discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhostin, M

    2013-01-01

    A new pulse-shape discrimination algorithm for neutron and gamma (n/γ) discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors has been developed, leading to a considerable improvement of n/γ separation quality. The method is based on triangular pulse shaping which offers a high sensitivity to the shape of input pulses, as well as, excellent noise filtering characteristics. A clear separation of neutrons and γ-rays down to a scintillation light yield of about 65 keVee (electron equivalent energy) with a dynamic range of 45:1 was achieved. The method can potentially operate at high counting rates and is well suited for real-time measurements.

  20. The Next White (NEW) Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrabal, F.; et al.

    2018-04-06

    Conceived to host 5 kg of xenon at a pressure of 15 bar in the fiducial volume, the NEXT- White (NEW) apparatus is currently the largest high pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescent amplification in the world. It is also a 1:2 scale model of the NEXT-100 detector scheduled to start searching for $\\beta\\beta 0\

  1. Analysis of phenolic acids by ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and electrochemical detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Cao, Jun; Du, Li-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Shi, Yu-Tin; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2017-05-26

    An environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water (IL/W) microemulsion was established and applied as mobile phase in microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection or electrochemical detector (ECD) for analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. The optimal condition of the method was using the best composition of microemulsion (0.2% w/v [HMIM]PF 6 , 1.0% w/v SDS, 3.0% w/v n-butanol, 95.8% v/v water, pH 2.5) with UV detection. The validation results indicated that the method provided high degree of sensitivity, precision and accuracy with the low limit of detections ranged from 17.9-238ng/mL, satisfactory mean recovery values in the range of 80.1-105% and good linearity (r 2 >0.9994). Additionally, this method exhibited high selectivity and resolution for the analytes and was more eco-friendly compared with traditional MELC method. Consequently, the established IL/W MELC method was successfully applied to simultaneously separate and determine target compounds in Danshen sample and its preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129 Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131 Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen

  3. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  4. A Monte Carlo Model for Neutron Coincidence Counting with Fast Organic Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Cave, Frank D.

    2013-06-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is an established, nondestructive method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear materials. Several even-numbered nuclei of the actinide isotopes, and especially even-numbered plutonium isotopes, undergo spontaneous fission, resulting in the emission of neutrons which are correlated in time. The characteristics of this i.e. the multiplicity can be used to identify each isotope in question. Similarly, the corresponding characteristics of isotopes that are susceptible to stimulated fission are somewhat isotope-related, and also dependent on the energy of the incident neutron that stimulates the fission event, and this can hence be used to identify and quantify isotopes also. Most of the neutron coincidence counters currently used are based on 3 He gas tubes. In the 3 He-filled gas proportional-counter, the (n, p) reaction is largely responsible for the detection of slow neutrons and hence neutrons have to be slowed down to thermal energies. As a result, moderator and shielding materials are essential components of many systems designed to assess quantities of fissile materials. The use of a moderator, however, extends the die-away time of the detector necessitating a larger coincidence window and, further, 3 He is now in short supply and expensive. In this paper, a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method is described which has been performed using MCNPX 2.6.0, to model the geometry of a sector-shaped liquid scintillation detector in response to coincident neutron events. The detection of neutrons from a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pellet using an organic liquid scintillator has been simulated for different thicknesses of scintillators. In this new neutron detector, a layer of lead has been used to reduce the gamma-ray fluence reaching the scintillator. The effect of lead for neutron detection has also been estimated by considering different thicknesses of lead layers. (authors)

  5. Near-intrinsic energy resolution for 30–662 keV gamma rays in a high pressure xenon electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T.H.V.T.; Díaz, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, data and results from the NEXT prototype for Double Beta and Dark Matter (NEXT-DBDM) detector, a high-pressure gaseous natural xenon electroluminescent time projection chamber (TPC) that was built at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is a prototype of the planned NEXT-100 136 Xe neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) experiment with the main objectives of demonstrating near-intrinsic energy resolution at energies up to 662 keV and of optimizing the NEXT-100 detector design and operating parameters. Energy resolutions of ∼1% FWHM for 662 keV gamma rays were obtained at 10 and 15 atm and ∼5% FWHM for 30 keV fluorescence xenon X-rays. These results demonstrate that 0.5% FWHM resolutions for the 2459 keV hypothetical neutrino-less double beta decay peak are realizable. This energy resolution is a factor 7–20 better than that of the current leading 0νββ experiments using liquid xenon and thus represents a significant advancement. We present also first results from a track imaging system consisting of 64 silicon photo-multipliers recently installed in NEXT–DBDM that, along with the excellent energy resolution, demonstrates the key functionalities required for the NEXT-100 0νββ search

  6. A Monte-Carlo code for neutron efficiency calculations for large volume Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lynen, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on a Monte-Carlo program, MSX, developed to evaluate the performance of large-volume, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors used in neutron multiplicity measurements. The results of simulations are presented for the detector intended to count neutrons emitted by the excited target residue in coincidence with the charged products of the projectile fragmentation following relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The latter products could be detected with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at GSI-Darmstadt. (orig.) 61 refs.

  7. Performance and stability tests of bare high purity germanium detectors in liquid argon for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe Heider, Marik

    2009-05-27

    GERDA will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge by using a novel approach of bare germanium detectors in liquid argon (LAr). Enriched germanium detectors from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments have been reprocessed and will be deployed in GERDA Phase-I. At the center of this thesis project is the study of the performance of bare germanium detectors in cryogenic liquids. Identical detector performance as in vacuum cryostats (2.2 keV FWHM at 1.3 MeV) was achieved in cryogenic liquids with a new low-mass detector assembly and contacts. One major result is the discovery of a radiation induced leakage current (LC) increase when operating bare detectors with standard passivation layers in LAr. Charge collection and build-up on the passivation layer were identified as the origin of the LC increase. It was found that diodes without passivation do not exhibit this feature. Three month-long stable operation in LAr at {proportional_to} 5 pA LC under periodic gamma irradiation demonstrated the suitability of the modi ed detector design. Based on these results, all Phase-I detectors were reprocessed without passivation layer and subsequently successfully characterized in LAr in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory. The mass loss during the reprocessing was {proportional_to}300 g out of 17.9 kg and the exposure above ground {proportional_to} 5 days. This results in a negligible cosmogenic background increase of {proportional_to} 5.10{sup -4} cts/(keV.kg.y) at {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} for {sup 60}Co and {sup 68}Ge. (orig.)

  8. Systematic implementation of spectral CT with a photon counting detector for liquid security inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Xing, Yuxiang; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Li

    2018-06-01

    X-ray liquid security inspection system plays an important role in homeland security, while the conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) system may have a big deviation in extracting the atomic number and the electron density of materials in various conditions. Photon counting detectors (PCDs) have the capability of discriminating the incident photons of different energy. The technique becomes more and more mature in nowadays. In this work, we explore the performance of a multi-energy CT imaging system with a PCD for liquid security inspection in material discrimination. We used a maximum-likelihood (ML) decomposition method with scatter correction based on a cross-energy response model (CERM) for PCDs so that to improve the accuracy of atomic number and electronic density imaging. Experimental study was carried to examine the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed system. Our results show that the concentration of different solutions in physical phantoms can be reconstructed accurately, which could improve the material identification compared to current available dual-energy liquid security inspection systems. The CERM-base decomposition and reconstruction method can be easily used to different applications such as medical diagnosis.

  9. Electric dipole moment searches using the isotope 129-xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, Florian

    2014-11-13

    Two new complementary experiments searching for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of 129-xenon are presented. Besides demonstration of a sensitivity improvement by employing established methods and a highly sensitive SQUID detection system the progress towards a novel measurement approach is discussed. The new method introduces time-varying electric fields and a liquid hyper-polarized xenon sample with a potential improvement in sensitivity of three orders of magnitude. The search for EDMs is motivated by their symmetry-breaking nature. A non-zero EDM provides a new source of CP violation to solve the mystery of the huge excess of matter over anti-matter in our Universe.

  10. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L; Leal, M D; Prado, M del; Ramirez, J L

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  11. Studies of selenium and xenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, T.

    1994-01-01

    Since its development, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been a widely used analytical technique. ICP-MS offers low detection limits, easy determination of isotope ratios, and simple mass spectra from analyte elements. ICP-MS has been successfully employed for many applications including geological, environmental, biological, metallurgical, food, medical, and industrial. One specific application important to many areas of study involves elemental speciation by using ICP-MS as an element specific detector interfaced to liquid chromatography. Elemental speciation information is important and cannot be obtained by atomic spectrometric methods alone which measure only the total concentration of the element present. Part 1 of this study describes the speciation of selenium in human serum by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by ICP-MS. Although ICP-MS has been widely sued, room for improvement still exists. Difficulties in ICP-MS include noise in the background, matrix effects, clogging of the sampling orifice with deposited solids, and spectral interference caused by polyatomic ions. Previous work has shown that the addition of xenon into the central channel of the ICP decreases polyatomic ion levels. In Part 2 of this work, a fundamental study involving the measurement of the excitation temperature is carried out to further understand xenon's role in the reduction of polyatomic ions. 155 refs

  12. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  13. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu [Wuhan University, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian; Zheng, Yangheng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments. (orig.)

  14. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: xiangzhou@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian, E-mail: liuqian@ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zheng, Yangheng [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-21

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  15. Performance of the electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter system of the SLC large detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.; Abt, I.; Haller, G.M.; Honma, A.

    1988-10-01

    Results of performance tests on electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) for the SLD experiment at SLAC are presented. The behavior of a sub-unit called a ''tophat,'' which processes 720 detector signals, is described. The electronics consists of charge sensitive preamplifiers, analog memories, A/D converters, and associated control and readout circuitry. An internal charge injection system is used to calibrate the overall response of the devices. Linearity is better than 1% of 0--28 pC charge at the input of the amplifiers. Noise (expressed as equivalent input charge) is less than 3000 electrons at a shaping time of 4 μs, with a slope of 2600 e/sup /minus///nF. Crosstalk to adjacent channels is less than 0.5%. The power consumption at a duty cycle of 13% is 61 W. 3 refs., 7 figs

  16. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  17. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  18. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  19. Design and commissioning of ReStoX for XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibelhut, Melanie [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The XENON1T experiment, currently under construction at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory LNGS, uses the concept of a xenon dual-phase (liquid/gas) time projection chamber to search for Dark Matter particles. This requires cooling to about 175 K and liquefaction of the noble gas. The ReStoX (Recovery and Storage of Xenon) is a novel device to store and recover up to 7 tons of xenon - either in liquid phase at cryogenic temperatures and 1-2 bar of pressure, or in gaseous form at room temperature at about 70 bar of pressure. The ReStoX system consists of a double insulated stainless steel sphere with liquid nitrogen cooling loops distributed across the inner sphere. A condenser on the inside, also operated with liquid nitrogen, provides a cooling power of 3 kW. ReStoX is designed to provide an effective means for various operating modes: to fill the TPC fast, to recover xenon from the TPC under normal and emergency conditions, to store xenon safely in liquid or gaseous form, or to remain in cold standby nearly empty as a safety device. Here we present the design and first commissioning results.

  20. Direct coupling of a liquid chromatograph to a continuous flow hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance detector for analysis of petroleum and synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haw, J.F.; Glass, T.E.; Hausler, D.W.; Motell, E.; Dorn, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results obtained for a flow 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detector directly coupled to a liquid chromatography unit are described. Results achieved for a model mixture and several jet fuel samples are discussed. Chromatographic separation of alkanes, alkylbenzenes, and substituted naphthalenes present in the jet fuel samples are easily identified with the 1 H NMR detector. Results with our present flow 1 H NMR insert indicate that 5-Hz linewidths are readily obtainable for typical chromatographic flow rates. The limitations and advantages of this liquid chromatography detector are compared with more commonly employed detectors (e.g., refractive index detectors). 11 figures

  1. First 10 kg of naked Germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen installed in the GENIUS-Test-Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Chkvorets, O.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    The first four naked high-purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory on May 5, 2003. This is the first time ever that this novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is going to be tested underground. First operational parameters are presented

  2. Standardization of heparins by means of high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a low angle laser light scattering detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennink, W.E.; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Feijen, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This study shows that HPLC-LALLS (high performance liquid chromatography with a light-scattering detector) is a convenient and reliable method for the characterization of standard heparin samples, provided that polyelectrolyte artefacts are suppressed by a suitable dialysis procedure. The method has

  3. Strength function of xenon 127 and cross section of 127I(νe, e-)127Xe reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    The strenght functions S β (E) and the cross section of the reaction ν e + 127 I → e - + 127 Xe were calculated in the framework of the theory of finite Fermi-systems. The results obtained are used to estimate the possibility of using an iodine-xenon detector in the experiments with solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos. The advantages of the iodine-xenon detector over the chlorine-argon one are shown. 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Liquid chromatography automatic system with optical activity laser detector and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajer, V.; Naranjo, S.; Fernandez, H.; Mora, W.; Cepero, T.; Arista, E.; Mesa, G.; Cossio, G.; Arreche, J.; Fonfria, C.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic system with polarimetric detection and a computer program allowing the output of chromatograms to a display on line and electronic data storing was designed, built and put to work. The chromatographic system includes the laser polarimetric detector, having a measuring interval of one second, the chromatographic columns, the continuous flux polarimeter tubes of 50 and 100 mm, the programs for data acquisition, processing and storing, and the technical know-how for its most efficiently application. Thirty minutes is all the time needed to obtain a chromatogram by this method which is reasonably shorter than the time required for any other known comparable technique, and offering, besides, lower operation cost. The combination of molecular exclusion liquid chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system of basic importance for the evaluation of plants fluids of industrial interest (sugarcane, agave, vegetable extracts, etc.). It is described here the application of this system as an early or complementary indicator of leaf scald -disease that affects sugarcane plants-. Another application on algae extracts gave good results in the separation and identification of biologically active components. The introduction of this system in several research centers in Cuba and abroad has resulted in practical information for the industry. (Author)

  5. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  6. Visual detection of gas shows from coal core and cuttings using liquid leak detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Coal core descriptions are difficult to obtain, as they must be obtained immediately after the core is retrieved and before the core is closed in a canister. This paper described a method of marking gas shows on a core surface by coating the core with a water-based liquid leak detector and photographing the subsequent foam developed on the core surface while the core is still in the core tray. Coals from a borehole at the Yukon Flats Basin in Alaska and the Maverick Basin in Texas were used to illustrate the method. Drilling mud and debris were removed from the coal samples before the leak detector solution was applied onto the core surfaces. A white froth or dripping foam developed rapidly at gas shows on the sample surfaces. A hand-held lens and a binocular microscope were used to magnify the foaming action. It was noted that foaming was not continuous across the core surface, but was restricted to localized points along the surface. It was suggested that the localized point foaming may have resulted from the coring process. However, the same tendency toward point gas show across the sample surface was found in some hard, well-indurated samples that still had undisturbed bedding and other sedimentary structures. It was concluded that gas shows marked as separate foam centres may indicate a real condition of local permeability paths. Results suggested that the new gas show detection method could be used in core selection studies to reduce the costs of exploration programs. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A study of the J/psi production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR, using liquid argon calorimeters and lithium/xenon transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.

    1977-01-01

    The production of electron-positron (e + e - ) pairs with invariant masses greater than 2.5 GeV/c 2 was investigated at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The J/psi particle was observed by its decay into e + e - pairs and its production cross-section is found to rise by a factor of about six over the entire range of centre-of-mass energies available (√s=23.5 GeV to √s=62.4 GeV). The rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the production mechanism are discussed. The e + e - pair invariant mass spectrum is also studied for higher masses. The production and decay into e + e - pairs of the psi' is not observed within the statistical limits of the data discussed herein. A few e + e - events with masses above 4.5 GeV/c 2 are observed and are used to set upper limits on the cross-section for continuum production resulting from the annihilation of elementary point-like constituents of the protons. (Auth.)

  8. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  9. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  10. Comparison of detector materials for time-of-flight positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1982-06-01

    Knowledge of detection efficiency and timing resolution is essential when comparing detector materials for time-of-flight positron tomography. We present results of Monte Carlo calculations of the detection efficiency of plastic, lead loaded plastic, NaI(T1), liquid xenon, bismuth germanate (BGO), CsF, BaF 2 , Ge, and HgI 2 for 511 keV photons. We also use recently published values of timing resolution for these detector materials to tabulate the quantity (efficiency) 2 /(time resolution) which is a measure of the relative sensitivity for time of flight positron tomography

  11. Novel discrimination parameters for neutron-gamma discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Singh, S.

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that the discrimination performance of the wavelet transform method strongly depends on definition of discrimination parameters. These parameters are usually obtained from a combination of scaling functions at different scales, which represents the energy density of the wavelet coefficients. In this paper, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at minimum possible values of scale was investigated. Novel pulse shape discrimination parameters have been proposed for neutron and gamma discrimination in a mixed radiation field and tested with modeled pulses. The performance of these parameters was also validated in terms of quality of discrimination using experimental data of mixed events from an AmBe source collected with BC501 liquid scintillation detector. The quality of discrimination was evaluated by calculating a figure of merit (FOM) with all parameters under same experimental and simulation conditions. The FOM obtained with the proposed novel parameters was also compared with the charge comparison method. The proposed parameters exhibit better FOM as compared to the charge comparison method when high levels of noise are present in the data

  12. Neutron and photon spectrometry with liquid scintillation detectors in mixed fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, H

    2002-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detectors of type NE213 or BC501A are well suited and routinely used for spectrometry in mixed n-gamma-fields. Neutron- and photon-induced pulse height spectra may be simultaneously recorded making use of the n/gamma-discrimination capability based on pulse shape analysis. The light output functions for the detected secondary charged particles, i.e. electrons, positrons, protons and other charged reaction products, and the pulse height resolution function must carefully be determined. This can be done experimentally, in part via an iterative procedure by comparison with calculations. The response functions can then be reliably calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. Photon response functions calculated with the PHRESP code, which was developed on the basis of the EGS4+PRESTA program package, are in very good agreement with calibrations up to 17 MeV, both in shape and absolute scale. Similarly, neutron response functions calculated with the NRESP7 code well describe the pulse height spectra...

  13. Evaluating analytical ionization quenching correction models for 3D liquid organic scintillator detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, F.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    Proton therapy offers dosimetric advantage over conventional photon therapy due to the finite range of the proton beam, which improves dose conformity. However, one of the main challenges of proton beam therapy is verification of the complex treatment plans delivered to a patient. Thus, 3D measurements are needed to verify the complex dose distribution. A 3D organic scintillator detector is capable of such measurements. However, organic scintillators exhibit a non-linear relation to the ionization density called ionization quenching. The ionization quenching phenomenon in organic scintillators must be accounted for to obtain accurate dose measurements. We investigated the energy deposition by secondary electrons (EDSE) model to explain ionization quenching in 3D liquid organic scintillator when exposed to proton beams. The EDSE model was applied to volumetric scintillation measurement of proton pencil beam with energies of 85.6, 100.9, 144.9 and 161.9 MeV. The quenching parameter in EDSE model ρq was determined by plotting the total light output vs the initial energy of the ion. The results were compared to the Birks semi-empirical formula of scintillation light emission.

  14. Material radioassay and selection for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, LIBPhys, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Sivers, M. von [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics; Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Scotto Lavina, L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    The XENON1T dark matter experiment aims to detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) through low-energy interactions with xenon atoms. To detect such a rare event necessitates the use of radiopure materials to minimize the number of background events within the expected WIMP signal region. In this paper we report the results of an extensive material radioassay campaign for the XENON1T experiment. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques, systematic measurements of trace radioactive impurities in over one hundred samples within a wide range of materials were performed. The measured activities allowed for stringent selection and placement of materials during the detector construction phase and provided the input for XENON1T detection sensitivity estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  15. Physics studies with ICARUS and a hybrid ionization and scintillation fiber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the physics possibilities for the ICARUS detector currently being tested at CERN. The physics potential goes from a massive proton decay detector to the study of solar neutrinos. In addition, the detection of ν μ → ν τ and ν e → ν τ will be possible with such a detector. One major topic involves the possibility of a complete determination of the MSW solar neutrino parameters with the ICARUS. The possibility of detecting WIMPS with a scintillating fiber liquid Argon (Ar) detector or fiber Xenon (Xe) detector doped with Ar is also described. Some comments on the measurement of the 42 Ar level from an experiment at the Gran Sasso will be made

  16. Study of sample-detector assemblies for application to in-situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.; Narayanan Kutty, K.; Krishnamony, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigations carried out on four different types of sample-detector assemblies with a view to determining their detection limits and relative merits for application to in-situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents. The four systems studied were: (1) gamma detection using 11 cm x 8 cm NaI (Tl) scintillation detector inserted in the cavity of a specially designed stainless steel chamber of capacity 15 liters, (2) gamma detection using a metal-walled G.M. counter in a similar manner, (3) beta detection using twin thin-walled G.M. counters immersed in liquid, and (4) end window G.M. counter positioned above the liquid surface in a shallow tray. The design features of an in-line monitor employing a 11 cm x 8 cm NaI (Tl) detector used for the routine monitoring of beta gamma activity concentrations in the low level effluents of the Tarapur Fuel Processing Plant are described. (author). 1 tab

  17. New constraints and prospects for sub-GeV dark matter scattering off electrons in xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-08-01

    We study in detail sub-GeV dark matter scattering off electrons in xenon, including the expected electron recoil spectra and annual modulation spectra. We derive improved constraints using low-energy XENON10 and XENON100 ionization-only data. For XENON10, in addition to including electron-recoil data corresponding to about 1-3 electrons, we include for the first time events corresponding to about 4-7 electrons. Assuming the scattering is momentum independent (FDM=1 ), this strengthens a previous cross-section bound by almost an order of magnitude for dark matter masses above 50 MeV. The available XENON100 data corresponds to events with about 4-50 electrons, and leads to a constraint that is comparable to the XENON10 bound above 50 MeV for FDM=1 . We demonstrate that a search for an annual modulation signal in upcoming xenon experiments (XENON1T, XENONnT, LZ) could substantially improve the above bounds even in the presence of large backgrounds. We also emphasize that in simple benchmark models of sub-GeV dark matter, the dark matter-electron scattering rate can be as high as one event every ten (two) seconds in the XENON1T (XENONnT or LZ) experiments, without being in conflict with any other known experimental bounds. While there are several sources of backgrounds that can produce single- or few-electron events, a large event rate can be consistent with a dark matter signal and should not be simply written off as purely a detector curiosity. This fact motivates a detailed analysis of the ionization-data ("S2") data, taking into account the expected annual modulation spectrum of the signal rate, as well as the DM-induced electron-recoil spectra, which are another powerful discriminant between signal and background.

  18. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  19. Liquid radiation detectors based on nano-silver surface plasmon resonance phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puiso, J.; Laurikaitiene, J.; Adliene, D.; Prosycevas, I.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of micro- and nano-structures containing silver nano-particles is based on their unique physical properties. Despite the new applications of silver nano-particles in nano-medicine are under heavy discussions, silver nano-particles could be used in liquid radiation detectors thanks to the irradiation-induced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena observed in the colloidal solutions. Silver nitrate (1 mM AgNO 3 ) and sodium citrate (1 wt% and 5 wt% C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 ) were used as precursors for the fabrication of colloidal solutions. Prepared solutions were exposed to gamma-rays from a 60 Co gamma therapy unit 'Rokus-M' to varying absorbed doses, from 2 to 250 Gy. A UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer (Avantes-2048) was used for the measurement of the optical properties (absorbance) of the silver solutions. It was found that an initial absorbed dose of 2 Gy induced the formation of spherical silver nano-particles as it was indicated in the absorbance spectrum of the solution, which had a well-pronounced absorption maximum at the wavelength of 410 nm. There is a potential to measure absorbed doses down to around 20 mGy. The SPR peaks at the wavelengths of 500-700 nm were found at the highest investigated doses > 100 Gy, indicating the presence of silver nano-rods. The colour of colloidal solutions ranged from pale yellow to green and was dependent on the absorbed dose. The investigation has shown that density, size and shape of synthesised silver nano-particles are dependent on the absorbed dose and that shape transformations of the particles due to irradiation are possible. Application of colloidal solutions containing silver nano-particles for dosimetric purposes is discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (authors)

  20. Extraction of butyltins from sediments and their determination by liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivaro, P.; Frache, R.

    2000-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction of the butyltin compounds from sediment, suitable for their subsequent following determination by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector system, is proposed. Recoveries of 86%, 80% and 42% for tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) respectively were achieved. The relative detection limits of butyltin compounds by this method ranged from 27 to 62 ng of tin per gram of dry sediment. The method was applied to real sediment samples collected in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The results showed that, despite the restrictions on the use of butyltin contained in antifoulting paints, a considerable amount of organotin compounds is still present in Venice sediments [it

  1. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolmsjoe, M.

    1981-11-01

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  2. Investigation of n{sup +} surface events in HPGe detectors for liquid argon background rejection in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU-Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using an array of germanium detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment aims to improve the background level by a factor 10 in order to reach 10{sup -3} counts / (kg.keV.yr). A strong suppression technique is required to suppress the intrinsic LAr background of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K. 30 newly produced p-type Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will be deployed in Phase II. The n{sup +} electrode of the GERDA BEGe detectors is covering 96-98 % of the surface and is between 0.5 and 1.2 mm thick. Betas from the {sup 42}K decay can penetrated the detector surface and deposit energies within the 0νββ region. Experiences from GERDA Phase I show that these surface events are the dominate background component without suppression. Energy depositions inside the n{sup +} layer create pulse shapes that are slower than those from interactions in the bulk. This talk presents a rejection technique for those events. The signal development inside the n{sup +} layer is modeled and applied in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are compared with data for {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr calibration source measurements. The suppression capabilities are extrapolated for {sup 42}K in GERDA Phase II.

  3. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  4. Determination of Imidacloprid and metabolites by liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector and post column photochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancan, M. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA), Istituto Nazionale di Apicoltura, Via di Saliceto 80, I-40128 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: mrancan@inapicoltura.org; Sabatini, A.G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA), Istituto Nazionale di Apicoltura, Via di Saliceto 80, I-40128 Bologna (Italy); Achilli, G. [Euroservice s.r.l., Piazza Maggiolini 3A, I-20015 Parabiago, Milan (Italy); Galletti, G.C. [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , University of Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-01-05

    A procedure for the determination of Imidacloprid and its main metabolites was set up by means of liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector and post-column photochemical reactor (LC-h{nu}-ED). Sample clean-up was developed for bees, filter paper and maize leaves. Chromatographic conditions were based on a reversed-phase C-18 column operated by phosphate buffer 50 mM/CH{sub 3}CN (80/20, v/v) at pH 2.9. Detection of Imidacloprid and its metabolites was performed at a potential of 800 mV after photoactivation at 254 nm. Compared to conventional techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or LC coupled to other detectors, the present method allows simultaneous trace-level determination of both Imidacloprid (0.6 ng ml{sup -1}) and its main metabolites (2.4 ng ml{sup -1})

  5. Determination of Imidacloprid and metabolites by liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector and post column photochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancan, M.; Sabatini, A.G.; Achilli, G.; Galletti, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of Imidacloprid and its main metabolites was set up by means of liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector and post-column photochemical reactor (LC-hν-ED). Sample clean-up was developed for bees, filter paper and maize leaves. Chromatographic conditions were based on a reversed-phase C-18 column operated by phosphate buffer 50 mM/CH 3 CN (80/20, v/v) at pH 2.9. Detection of Imidacloprid and its metabolites was performed at a potential of 800 mV after photoactivation at 254 nm. Compared to conventional techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or LC coupled to other detectors, the present method allows simultaneous trace-level determination of both Imidacloprid (0.6 ng ml -1 ) and its main metabolites (2.4 ng ml -1 )

  6. Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenon is one of noble gases and has been recognized as an anesthetic for more than 50 years. Xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic, but it is not widely applied in clinical practice mainly because of its high cost. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that xenon as an anesthetic can exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in different models. Moreover, xenon has been applied in the preconditioning, and the neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies in which some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed. In this review, we summarized these mechanisms and the biological effects of xenon preconditioning.

  7. Control aid for xenon vibration in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekawa, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    In the present invention, the control operation for suppressing xenon vibrations in a reactor is aided for saving forecasting analysis and operator's skills. That is, parameters to be controlled for the suppression of xenon vibrations are power distribution, iodine distribution and xenon distribution. But what can be observed by operaters by the conventional fast overtone method is only the output distribution. In the present invention, the output level of the reactor core is always observed. Then, mathematical processings are conducted for the iodine distribution, the xenon distribution and the power distribution in the reactor core based on the histeresis of the parameters obtained by the measurement using physical constants and reactor design data. The xenon vibration control is aided by displaying the change with time of the distortion in axial direction. Accordingly, operators can always recognize the axial distortion of the power distribution, the iodine distribution and the xenon distribution. (I.S.)

  8. Gas purity analytics, calibration studies, and background predictions towards the first results of XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasterok, Constanze

    2017-10-25

    The XENON1T experiment aims at the direct detection of the well motivated dark matter candidate of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off xenon nuclei. The first science run of 34.2 live days has already achieved the most stringent upper limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections above masses of 10 GeV with a minimum of 7.7.10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} at a mass of 35 GeV. Crucial for this unprecedented sensitivity are a high xenon gas purity and a good understanding of the background. In this work, a procedure is described that was developed to measure the purity of the experiment's xenon inventory of more than three tons during its initial transfer to the detector gas system. The technique of gas chromatography has been employed to analyze the noble gas for impurities with the focus on oxygen and krypton contaminations. Furthermore, studies on the calibration of the experiment's dominating background induced by natural gamma and beta radiation were performed. Hereby, the novel sources of radioactive isotopes that can be dissolved in the xenon were employed, namely {sup 220}Rn and tritium. The sources were analyzed in terms of a potential impact on the outcome of a dark matter search. As a result of the promising findings for {sup 220}Rn, the source was successfully deployed in the first science run of XENON1T. The first WIMP search of XENON1T is outlined in this thesis, in which a background component from interactions taking place in close proximity to the detector wall is identified, investigated and modeled. A background prediction was derived that was incorporated into the background model of the WIMP search which was found to be in good agreement with the observation.

  9. Ultralow energy calibration of LUX detector using Xe 127 electron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report an absolute calibration of the ionization yields (Qy ) and fluctuations for electronic recoil events in liquid xenon at discrete energies between 186 eV and 33.2 keV. The average electric field applied across the liquid xenon target is 180 V /cm . The data are obtained using low energy Xe 127 electron capture decay events from the 95.0-day first run from LUX (WS2013) in search of weakly interacting massive particles. The sequence of gamma-ray and x-ray cascades associated with I 127 deexcitations produces clearly identified two-vertex events in the LUX detector. We observe the K-(binding energy, 33.2 keV), L-(5.2 keV), M-(1.1 keV), and N-(186 eV) shell cascade events and verify that the relative ratio of observed events for each shell agrees with calculations. The N-shell cascade analysis includes single extracted electron (SE) events and represents the lowest-energy electronic recoil in situ measurements that have been explored in liquid xenon.

  10. First 10 kg of naked germanium detectors installed in liquid nitrogen in GENIUS Test-Facility in GRAN-SASSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The GENIUS Test Facility has come into operation in Gran Sasso on May 5, 2003 with its first ten kg of naked Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen. This is the first time that this novel technique for extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is applied under the background conditions of an underground laboratory. GENIUS-TF has the potential to check the DAMA evidence for cold dark matter by modulation, and possibly, to improve the accuracy of the recently observed first signal for neutrinoless double beta decay. (orig.)

  11. First 10 kg of naked germanium detectors installed in liquid nitrogen in GENIUS Test-Facility in GRAN-SASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    2004-01-01

    The GENIUS Test Facility has come into operation in Gran Sasso on May 5, 2003 with its first ten kg of naked Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen. This is the first time that this novel technique for extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is applied under the background conditions of an underground laboratory. GENIUS-TF has the potential to check the DAMA evidence for cold dark matter by modulation, and possibly, to improve the accuracy of the recently observed first signal for neutrinoless double beta decay. (orig.)

  12. Results of low energy background measurements with the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Dadykin, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984, at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma-rays from (n,p) reaction which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed.

  13. Results of low energy background measurements with the liquid scintillation detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) has been fully running since October 1984 at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma rays from (n,p) reactions which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed. 1 ref

  14. An experimental investigation of a liquid cooling scheme for the low dropout voltage regulators of the multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Bosze, E.

    1997-10-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators in the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD), a device used to determine and characterize the collision location of two accelerated heavy ions. The coolant temperatures and flow rates as well as the voltage regulator operating temperatures were used to assess and optimize the performance of the proposed cooling system, identify potential assembly problems and system limitations, and provide the necessary information for designing and sizing the final MVD cooling system components. The MVD is part of the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven RHIC

  15. Xenon changes under power-burst conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Under ordinary operating conditions the xenon concentration in a reactor core can change significantly in times on the order of hours. Core transients of safety significance are much more rapid and hence calculations are done with xenon concentration held constant. However, in certain transients (such as reactivity initiated accidents) there is a very large power surge and the question arises as to whether under these circumstances the xenon concentration could change. This would be particularly important if the xenon were reduced thereby tending to make the accident autocatalytic. The objective of the present study is to quantify this effect to see if it could be important

  16. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  17. Determination of BEACON Coupling Coefficients using data from Xenon transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2007-01-01

    NEK uses BEACO TM code (BEACO TM - Westinghouse Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operating Nuclear) for core monitoring, analysis and core behaviour prediction. Coupling Coefficients determine relationship between core response and excore instrumentation. Measured power distribution using incore moveable detectors during Xenon transient with sufficient power axial offset change is the most important data for further analysis. Classic methodology and BEACO TM Conservative methodology using established Coupling Coefficients are compared on NPP Krsko case. BEACON TM Conservative methodology with predefined Coupling Coefficients is used as a surveillance tool for verification of relationship between core and excore instrumentation during power operation. (author)

  18. Realization of the low background neutrino detector Double Chooz. From the development of a high-purity liquid and gas handling concept to first neutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfahler, Patrick

    2012-12-17

    Neutrino physics is one of the most vivid fields in particle physics. Within this field, neutrino oscillations are of special interest as they allow to determine driving oscillation parameters, which are collected as mixing angles in the leptonic mixing matrix. The exact knowledge of these parameters is the main key for the investigation of new physics beyond the currently known Standard Model of particle physics. The Double Chooz experiment is one of three reactor disappearance experiments currently taking data, which recently succeeded to discover a non-zero value for the last neutrino mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13}. As successor of the CHOOZ experiment, Double Chooz will use two detectors with improved design, each of them now composed of four concentrically nested detector vessels each filled with different detector liquid. The integrity of this multi-layered structure and the quality of the used detector liquids are essential for the success of the experiment. Within this frame, the here presented work describes the production of two detector liquids, the filling and handling of the Double Chooz far detector and the installation of all necessary hardware components therefore. In order to meet the strict requirements existing for the detector liquids, all components were individually selected in an extensive material selection process at TUM, which compared samples from different companies for their key properties: density, transparency, light yield and radio purity. Based on these measurements, the composition of muon veto scintillator and buffer liquid were determined. For the production of the detector liquids, a simple surface building close to the far detector site was upgraded into a large-scale storage and mixing facility, which allowed to separately, mix, handle and store 90 m{sup 3} of muon veto scintillator and 110 m{sup 3} of buffer liquid. For the muon veto scintillator, a master-solution composed of 4800 l LAB, 180 kg PPO and 1.8 kg of bis/MSB was

  19. Realization of the low background neutrino detector Double Chooz. From the development of a high-purity liquid and gas handling concept to first neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfahler, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino physics is one of the most vivid fields in particle physics. Within this field, neutrino oscillations are of special interest as they allow to determine driving oscillation parameters, which are collected as mixing angles in the leptonic mixing matrix. The exact knowledge of these parameters is the main key for the investigation of new physics beyond the currently known Standard Model of particle physics. The Double Chooz experiment is one of three reactor disappearance experiments currently taking data, which recently succeeded to discover a non-zero value for the last neutrino mixing angle Θ 13 . As successor of the CHOOZ experiment, Double Chooz will use two detectors with improved design, each of them now composed of four concentrically nested detector vessels each filled with different detector liquid. The integrity of this multi-layered structure and the quality of the used detector liquids are essential for the success of the experiment. Within this frame, the here presented work describes the production of two detector liquids, the filling and handling of the Double Chooz far detector and the installation of all necessary hardware components therefore. In order to meet the strict requirements existing for the detector liquids, all components were individually selected in an extensive material selection process at TUM, which compared samples from different companies for their key properties: density, transparency, light yield and radio purity. Based on these measurements, the composition of muon veto scintillator and buffer liquid were determined. For the production of the detector liquids, a simple surface building close to the far detector site was upgraded into a large-scale storage and mixing facility, which allowed to separately, mix, handle and store 90 m 3 of muon veto scintillator and 110 m 3 of buffer liquid. For the muon veto scintillator, a master-solution composed of 4800 l LAB, 180 kg PPO and 1.8 kg of bis/MSB was produced and

  20. The paradox of characteristics of silicon detectors operated at temperature close to liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V.; Shepelev, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zamantzas, C.; Galkin, A.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to give characterization of silicon p+/n/n+ detectors for the monitoring systems of the Large Hadron Collider machine at CERN with the focus on justifying the choice of silicon resistivity for the detector operation at the temperature of 1.9-10 K. The detectors from n-type silicon with the resistivity of 10, 4.5, and 0.5 kΩ cm were investigated at the temperature from 293 up to 7 K by the Transient Current Technique with a 660 nm pulse laser and alpha-particles. The shapes of the detector current pulse response allowed revealing a paradox in the properties of shallow donors of phosphorus, i.e., native dopants in the n-type Si. There was no carrier freeze-out on the phosphorus energy levels in the space charge region (SCR), and they remained positively charged irrespective of temperature, thus limiting the depleted region depth. As for the base region of a partially depleted detector, the levels became neutral at T < 28 K, which transformed silicon to an insulator. The reduction of the activation energy for carrier emission in the detector SCR estimated in the scope of the Poole-Frenkel effect failed to account for the impact of the electric field on the properties of phosphorus levels. The absence of carrier freeze-out in the SCR justifies the choice of high resistivity silicon as the only proper material for detector operation in a fully depleted mode at extremely low temperature.

  1. Novel xenon calibration scheme for two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; Short, Zachary, E-mail: zdshort@mix.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26056 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) measurements of neutral hydrogen and its isotopes are typically calibrated by performing TALIF measurements on krypton with the same diagnostic system and using the known ratio of the absorption cross sections [K. Niemi et al., J. Phys. D 34, 2330 (2001)]. Here we present the measurements of a new calibration method based on a ground state xenon scheme for which the fluorescent emission wavelength is nearly identical to that of hydrogen, thereby eliminating chromatic effects in the collection optics and simplifying detector calibration. We determine that the ratio of the TALIF cross sections of xenon and hydrogen is 0.024 ± 0.001.

  2. 气相色谱质谱联用法测定液氧中微量的氪和氙%Determination of trace krypton and xenon in liquid oxygen by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐轩; 陈鹰; 吴建军

    2013-01-01

    Trace krypton and xenon was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selection ion monitoring mode (SIM). The ions m/z=84 and m/z=132 were chosen as quantitative ion for krypton and xenon respectively. The results show that it is a simple way to implement, rapid detection and good selectivity. The linear relation between the peak area and concentration was excellent within the range of (1.0~100)×10-6 V/V. Meanwhile, the minimum detectable concentration and repeatability was also detected.%利用气相色谱质谱联用技术中的选择离子监测(SIM)方式对液氧中的微量氪气和氙气进行了测定。选择m/z为84的离子作为氪的定量离子、m/z为132的离子作为氙的定量离子。方法简单、快速、选择性好,在浓度为(1.0~100)×10-6 V/V范围内,峰面积与浓度有良好的线性关系。同时考察了方法的最低检测浓度和重复性。

  3. Studies on adsorption-desorption of xenon on surface of BC-404 plastic scintillator based on soaking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongchun, Xiang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China and Academy of Engineer Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100080 (China); Tieshuan, Fan [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100080 (China); Chuanfei, Zhang; Fei, Luo; Qian, Wang; Rende, Ze [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China and Academy of Engineer Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qingpei, Xiang, E-mail: xiangqingpei@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China and Academy of Engineer Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-03-01

    The phoswich coincidence detector is used to verify the CTBT treaty by measuring radioxenon and as such needs to possess high detection sensitivity. However, residual xenon adsorbed onto the surface of β detectors greatly influences subsequent measurements of weak samples. In this study, we investigate the adsorption-desorption behavior of xenon on BC-404 scintillator surfaces with different coating thicknesses using the soaking method. The results present the desorption behavior of xenon on a BC-404 surface for the first time. The calculated adsorption capacity for an uncoated surface is consistent with that from previous studies. However, due to factors such as limitations in coating technology, the effectiveness of coating on reducing the “memory effect” of the detector was poor. The proposed method is suitable for studying the adsorption-desorption behavior of gases on solid surfaces due to its simplicity and flexibility. - Highlights: • We investigate the adsorption-desorption of xenon on coated BC-404 surfaces. • The calculated adsorption capacity on an uncoated surface agrees with other results. • The method can be used to simulate xenon adsorption in phoswich detectors.

  4. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  5. Study, construction and test of a liquid argon preshower detector for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahout, G.

    1995-01-01

    The CERN is planning the construction of a new particle collider, the LHC, a p-p collider which operational energies will be greater than 1 TeV. A position detector or preshower detector will form a part of the Atlas detector which will analyze the interaction products; it will be used to spatially identify the disintegration of the Higgs boson, the signature of the Higgs mechanism into two photons. It will also provide an energy correction for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This paper gives simulation results for its spatial and angular resolution as well as the energy resolution achieved for the electromagnetic calorimeter when the preshower's energy correction is applied. A prototype and beam tests are presented; results are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulations. 110 fig., 31 ref

  6. Sensitivity of gaseous xenon ionisation chambers (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhl, C.

    1960-01-01

    It seems advantageous to fill an ionization chamber with xenon gas when this chamber is used for measuring a low intensity and high energy electron or positron beam, or monitoring a gamma beam. In the study of 5 to 50 MeV electrons, xenon allows for the ionization chamber yield, an improvement of a factor 4,5. (author) [fr

  7. Xenon lighting adjusted to plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koefferlein, M.; Doehring, T.; Payer, H.D.; Seidlitz, H.K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The high luminous flux and spectral properties of xenon lamps would provide an ideal luminary for plant lighting if not excess IR radiation poses several problems for an application: the required filter systems reduce the irradiance at spectral regions of particular importance for plant development. Most of the economical drawbacks of xenon lamps are related to the difficult handling of that excess IR energy. Furthermore, the temporal variation of the xenon output depending on the oscillations of the applied AC voltage has to be considered for the plant development. However, xenon lamps outperform other lighting systems with respect to spectral stability, immediate response, and maximum luminance. Therefore, despite considerable competition by other lighting techniques, xenon lamps provide a very useful tool for special purposes. In plant lighting however, they seem to play a less important role as other lamp and lighting developments can meet these particular requirements at lower costs.

  8. Applications of Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector Diodes and the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    It presents a review on the determination of major types of organic pollutants in environmental samples by HPLC with diode array or fluorescence molecular detectors. Main objective has been to make a compilation of the analytical potential of the technique based on literature and our laboratory studies on the main aspects of analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  9. Liquid argon as an electron/photon detector in the energy range of 50 MeV to 2 GeV: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Denis, G.; Hall, M.; Karpovsky, A.; Wilson, R.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1980-12-01

    Monte Carlo techniques which have been used to study the characteristics of a proposed electron/photon detector based on the total absorption of electromagnetic showers in liquid argon have been investigated. The energy range studied was 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Results are presented on the energy and angular resolution predicted for the device, along with the detailed predictions of the transverse and longitudinal shower distributions. Comparisons are made with other photon detectors, and possible applications are discussed

  10. Determination of atmospheric concentrations of xenon radioisotopes. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, K.H.; Panisko, M.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    Determination of radioactive xenon concentrations in the atmosphere over a two year period has been performed as part of a research program to develop real-time measurement capabilities. The initial measurements were made to develop, prove, and validate the authors technical approach, while the longer-term measurements are being undertaken to establish natural background concentrations and variability with time. The results reported were made using noble gas fraction (typically 90% Kr and 10% Xe by weight) gas samples obtained from a commercial air-reduction plant in the northeastern US over a two-year interval beginning in the fall of 1993. The concentrated gas samples were typically obtained during a 6--8 hour interval at the commercial reduction plant and were shipped overnight to their laboratory. Analysis was typically completed approximately 24 hours after sampling. The analytical separation process typically took approximately 6 hours and gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were conducted for intervals ranging from 3 to 16 hours. The technical approach involved removal of potentially interfering radon daughter radionuclides using a molecular sieve at room temperature, followed by cryogenic concentration of noble gases using a chilled (-76 C) activated carbon molecular sieve. During initial measurements both molecular sieve materials were contained in 30 foot x 1/4 inch gas chromatography columns for analytical separations. Krypton was separated from Xenon during the analytical procedure by warming the activated carbon molecular sieve to room temperature after initial noble gas concentration and actively pumping it away. Xenon-133 adsorbed to the activated charcoal molecular sieve was then quantified via its 81 keV gamma-ray using initially a p-type intrinsic germanium detector and later a higher efficiency (64% relative to a 3 inch x 3 inch sodium iodide) n-type intrinsic germanium detector

  11. Cryogenics for Particle Accelerators and Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Vandoni, Giovanna; Wagner, U

    2002-01-01

    Cryogenics has become a key ancillary technology of particle accelerators and detectors, contributing to their sustained development over the last fifty years. Conversely, this development has produced new challenges and markets for cryogenics, resulting in a fruitful symbiotic relation which materialized in significant technology transfer and technical progress. This began with the use of liquid hydrogen and deuterium in the targets and bubble chambers of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. It developed more recently with increasing amounts of liquefied noble gases - mainly argon, but also krypton and even today xenon - in calorimeters. In parallel with these applications, the availability of practical type II superconductors from the early 1960s triggered the use of superconductivity in large spectrometer magnets - mostly driven by considerations of energy savings - and the corresponding development of helium cryogenics. It is however the generalized application of superconductivity in particle accelerators - RF ac...

  12. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  13. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV

  14. Calibration method of liquid zone controller using the ex-core detector signal of CANDU 6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.H.; Lee, E.K.; Shin, H.C.; Bae, S.M.; Hong, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new LZC calibration method and measurement system. ► Photo-neutron effect, reactor core size, and detector position were evaluated and tested. ► We applied the new method and system to Wolsong NPP Unit 1. ► The LZC calibration test was well completed, and the requirement of the test was satisfied. - Abstract: The Phase-B test (low-power reactor physics test) is one of the commissioning tests for Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors that ensures the safe and reliable operation of the core during the design lifetime. The Phase-B test, which includes the approach to the first criticality at low reactor powers, is performed to verify the feasibility of the reactor’s physics design and to ensure the integrity of the control and protection facilities. The commissioning testing of pressurized heavy water moderated reactors (PHWRs) is usually performed only once (at the initial commissioning after construction). The large-scale facilities of the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 have been gradually improved since May 2009 to extend its lifetime. The refurbishment was completed in April 2011 – then this NPP has been in operation again. We discusses the new methodology and measurement system that uses an ex-core detector signal for liquid zone controller (LZC) calibration of the Phase-B test instead of conventional methods. The inverse kinetic equation in the reactivity calculator is modified to treat the 17 delayed neutron groups including 11 photo-neutron fractions. The signal acquisition resolution of the reactivity calculator was enhanced and installed reactivity calculating module by each channel. The ex-core detector was confirmed to be applicable to a large reactor core, such as the CANDU 6 by comparison with the in-core flux detector signal. A preliminary test was performed in Wolsong NPP Unit 2 to verify the robustness of the reactivity calculator. This test convincingly demonstrated that the reactivity calculator

  15. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  16. Electron Drift Properties in High Pressure Gaseous Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simón, A.; et al.

    2018-04-05

    Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) are a very attractive detector technology for particle tracking. Characterization of both drift velocity and diffusion is of great importance to correctly assess their tracking capabilities. NEXT-White is a High Pressure Xenon gas TPC with electroluminescent amplification, a 1:2 scale model of the future NEXT-100 detector, which will be dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. NEXT-White has been operating at Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) since December 2016. The drift parameters have been measured using $^{83m}$Kr for a range of reduced drift fields at two different pressure regimes, namely 7.2 bar and 9.1 bar. The results have been compared with Magboltz simulations. Agreement at the 5% level or better has been found for drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and transverse diffusion.

  17. Analytical Issues on the Determination of Carotenoids in Microalgae by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of literature review on the determination of carotenoids in microalgae samples by HPLC with diode array detector is presented. Main objective has been focused to compile data from literature and based on the main aspects of the analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. The work is structured as follows and affecting major analytical difficulties: Procurement and commercial availability of standard solutions. Stage of sample treatment. Chromatographic analysis. (Author) 19 refs.

  18. Proportional gas scintillation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The principle is described of a gas proportional scintillation detector and its function. Dependence of Si(Li) and xenon proportional detectors energy resolution on the input window size is given. A typical design is shown of a xenon detector used for X-ray spetrometry at an energy of 277 eV to 5.898 keV and at a gas pressure of 98 to 270 kPa. Gas proportional scintillation detectors show considerable better energy resolution than common proportional counters and even better resolution than semiconductor Si(Li) detectors for low X radiation energies. For detection areas smaller than 25 mm 2 Si(Li) detectors show better resolution, especially for higher X radiation energies. For window areas 25 to 190 mm 2 both types of detectors are equal, for a window area exceeding 190 mm 2 the proportional scintillation detector has higher energy resolution. (B.S.)

  19. The atmosphere of Mars - Detection of krypton and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Biemann, K.; Biller, J. E.; Lafleur, A. L.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Krypton and xenon have been discovered in the Martian atmosphere with the mass spectrometer on the second Viking lander. Krypton is more abundant than xenon. The relative abundances of the krypton isotopes appear normal, but the ratio of xenon-129 to xenon-132 is enhanced on Mars relative to the terrestrial value for this ratio. Some possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Liquid scintillators and liquefied rare gases for particle detectors. Background-determination in Double Chooz and scintillation properties of liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Martin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for physics beyond the well-established standard model of particle physics is found in the sector of neutrino physics, in particular in neutrino oscillations, and in experimental hints requiring the presence of Dark Matter. Neutrino oscillations demand the neutrinos to be massive and at least four additional parameters, three mixing angles and one phase, are introduced. A non-vanishing value for the third mixing angle, θ 13 , has only recently been found, amongst others by the reactor antineutrino disappearance experiment Double Chooz. This experiment detects anti ν e 's by means of the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD), which has a clear signature that can very effectively be discriminated from most of the background. However, some background still survives the selection cuts applied to the data, partly induced by radioactivity. In order to determine the amount of radioimpurities in the detector, germanium spectroscopy measurements and neutron activation analyses have been carried out for various parts of the Double Chooz far detector. A dedicated Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to obtain the singles event rate induced by the identified radioimpurities in the fiducial volume of Double Chooz. In the present thesis, parts from the outer detector systems, as well as components of the inner detector liquids were measured. In sum, a singles rate of less than 0.35 Hz above the antineutrino detection threshold of 0.7 MeV has been found. This is by far below the design goal of Double Chooz of ∝ 20 Hz. The analysis of bismuth-polonium (BiPo) coincidences in the first Double Chooz data allows to directly determine the number of decays from the U- and the Th-decay chain in the active detector parts. Assuming radioactive equilibrium, concentrations of (1.71±0.08).10 -14 (g)/(g) for uranium and (8.16±0.49).10 -14 (g)/(g) for thorium have been found, which are also well below the design goal of Double Chooz (2.10 -13 (g)/(g)). Both gamma spectroscopy measurements and

  1. Liquid scintillators and liquefied rare gases for particle detectors. Background-determination in Double Chooz and scintillation properties of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Martin Alexander

    2012-11-27

    Evidence for physics beyond the well-established standard model of particle physics is found in the sector of neutrino physics, in particular in neutrino oscillations, and in experimental hints requiring the presence of Dark Matter. Neutrino oscillations demand the neutrinos to be massive and at least four additional parameters, three mixing angles and one phase, are introduced. A non-vanishing value for the third mixing angle, {theta}{sub 13}, has only recently been found, amongst others by the reactor antineutrino disappearance experiment Double Chooz. This experiment detects anti {nu}{sub e}'s by means of the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD), which has a clear signature that can very effectively be discriminated from most of the background. However, some background still survives the selection cuts applied to the data, partly induced by radioactivity. In order to determine the amount of radioimpurities in the detector, germanium spectroscopy measurements and neutron activation analyses have been carried out for various parts of the Double Chooz far detector. A dedicated Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to obtain the singles event rate induced by the identified radioimpurities in the fiducial volume of Double Chooz. In the present thesis, parts from the outer detector systems, as well as components of the inner detector liquids were measured. In sum, a singles rate of less than 0.35 Hz above the antineutrino detection threshold of 0.7 MeV has been found. This is by far below the design goal of Double Chooz of {proportional_to} 20 Hz. The analysis of bismuth-polonium (BiPo) coincidences in the first Double Chooz data allows to directly determine the number of decays from the U- and the Th-decay chain in the active detector parts. Assuming radioactive equilibrium, concentrations of (1.71{+-}0.08).10{sup -14}(g)/(g) for uranium and (8.16{+-}0.49).10{sup -14}(g)/(g) for thorium have been found, which are also well below the design goal of Double Chooz (2.10{sup -13

  2. Measurement of Yields and Fluctuations using Background and Calibration Data from the LUX Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Evan; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a 350-kg liquid xenon (LXe) time-projection chamber designed for the direct detection of weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. LUX operates on the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. Monoenergetic electronic recoil (ER) peaks in the WIMP search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the LUX detector have been used to measure ER light and charge yields in LXe between 5.2 keV and 662 keV. The energy resolution of the LUX detector at these energies will also be presented. Recombination fluctuations are observed to follow a linear dependence on the number of ions for the energies in this study, and this dependence is consistent with low-energy measurements made with a tritium beta source in the LUX detector. Using these results and additional measurements of the recoil bands from tritium and D-D neutron calibrations, I will compare recombination fluctuations in LXe response to electronic and nuclear recoils. The presenter is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program. The SCGSR program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the DOE under contract DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  3. Study of the material photon and electron background and the liquid argon detector veto efficiency of the CDEX-10 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jian; Zeng Zhi; Ma Hao

    2015-01-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (< 10 -2 events·kg 1 ·day -1 ·keV -1 (cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of the CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible. (authors)

  4. Precolumn derivatization followed by liquid chromatographic separation and determination of tramiprosate in rat plasma by fluorescence detector: application to pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Nageswara; Maurya, Pawan K; Shinde, Dhananjay D; Khalid, Sara

    2011-05-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by extracellular amyloid deposits composed of amyloid β (Aβ) protein. A simple and rapid method using HPLC with fluorescence detector was developed and validated for determination of tramiprosate in rat plasma. Pre-column derivatization of the deproteinized rat plasma was carried out using o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) as a fluorescent reagent in presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The liquid chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column using methanol:acetonitrile: 20 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (8.0:17.5:74.5 v/v/v) as a mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode. The eluents were monitored by a fluorescence detector set at 330 and 450 nm of excitation and emission wavelength respectively. Vigabatrin was used as an internal standard. The method was linear within the range 30.0-1000.0 ng/mL. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to evaluate the robustness of the method. The developed method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics of tramiprosate in rats. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Measurements of the proton light output function of the organic liquid scintillator NE213 in several detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Watkins, N

    2002-01-01

    When using an organic liquid scintillator such as NE213 for neutron spectrometry, the light output as a function of proton energy is needed in order to unfold the neutron spectrum from the scintillator's pulse height distribution. We have measured this function for several detectors over the range 1.5-16 MeV approximately, using monoenergetic neutrons from the Harwell 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Results were obtained for a wide variety of sizes and shapes of the scintillator cell, and were found to be essentially in agreement within errors. The results were also compared with those of several other workers (amongst whom there is considerable disagreement). Below 10 MeV, there is excellent agreement with one worker and moderate or poor agreement with others; above 10 MeV, agreement is moderate in all cases. We conclude that workers wishing to unfold neutron spectra from NE213 pulse height distributions would be advised to make measurements with their own particular detector configuration, rather than use published functions.

  6. Precision calibration of calorimeter electronics in the D0 liquid argon/uranium particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, D.L.

    1991-12-01

    The ability to cross calibrate thousands of channels of detector electronics is of prime importance. This paper will describe the system used to deliver and distribute a 300 nanosecond pulse across 50,000 channels of electronics with better than 0.25% difference between channels from a location more than 200 feet away. The system is used for both cross calibration and functionality checking, (i.e., missing channels). Design of a fixed width pulse generator of high stability is presented as a key ingredient in the system`s overall performance. In addition, the design of a controlled impedance distribution system is discussed. 2 refs.

  7. Precision calibration of calorimeter electronics in the D0 liquid argon/uranium particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, D.L.

    1991-12-01

    The ability to cross calibrate thousands of channels of detector electronics is of prime importance. This paper will describe the system used to deliver and distribute a 300 nanosecond pulse across 50,000 channels of electronics with better than 0.25% difference between channels from a location more than 200 feet away. The system is used for both cross calibration and functionality checking, (i.e., missing channels). Design of a fixed width pulse generator of high stability is presented as a key ingredient in the system's overall performance. In addition, the design of a controlled impedance distribution system is discussed. 2 refs.

  8. Modeling the Removal of Xenon from Lithium Hydrate with Aspen HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Phillip; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project mission is to provide a long-term, carbon-free source of sustainable energy, in the form of electricity. A conceptual xenon removal system has been modeled with the aid of Aspen HYSYS, a chemical process simulator. Aspen HYSYS provides excellent capability to model chemical flow processes, which generates outputs which includes specific variables such as temperature, pressure, and molar flow. The system is designed to strip out hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The base design bubbles plasma exhaust laden with x filled with liquid helium. The system separates the xenon from the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with a lithium hydrate and a lithium bubbler. After the removal of the hydrogen and its isotopes, the xenon is then purified by way of the process of cryogenic distillation. The pure hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are then sent to the isotope separation system (ISS). The removal of xenon is an integral part of the laser inertial fusion engine and Aspen HYSYS is an excellent tool to calculate how to create pure xenon.

  9. Simulations and Data analysis for the 35 ton Liquid Argon detector as a prototype for the DUNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, Thomas Karl [Sheffield U.

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation neutrino experiment which will be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and will receive a wide-band neutrino beam from Fermilab, 1300~km away. At this baseline DUNE will be able to study many of the properties of neutrino mixing, including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the value of the CP-violating complex phase ($\\delta_{CP}$). DUNE will utilise Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) (LArTPC) technology, and the Far Detector (FD) will consist of four modules, each containing 17.1~kt of LAr with a fiducial mass of around 10~kt. Each of these FD modules represents around an order of magnitude increase in size, when compared to existing LArTPC experiments. \\\\ The 35 ton detector is the first DUNE prototype for the single (LAr) phase design of the FD. There were two running periods, one from November 2013 to February 2014, and a second from November 2015 to March 2016. During t he second running period, a system of TPCs was installed, and cosmic-ray data were collected. A method of particle identification was developed using simulations, though this was not applied to the data due to the higher than expected noise level. A new method of determining the interaction time of a track, using the effects of longitudinal diffusion, was developed using the cosmic-ray data. A camera system was also installed in the detector for monitoring purposes, and to look for high voltage breakdowns. \\\\ Simulations concerning the muon-induced background rate to nucleon decay are performed, following the incorporation of the MUon Simulations UNderground (MUSUN) generator into the DUNE software framework. A series of cuts which are based on Monte Carlo truth information is developed, designed to reject simulated background events, whilst preserving simulated signal events in the $n \\rightarrow K^{+} + e^{-}$ decay channel. No background events are seen to survive the app lication of

  10. Exploring the three flavor effects with future superbeams using liquid argon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Prakash, Suprabh; Sankar, S. Uma

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurement of a moderately large value of θ 13 signifies an important breakthrough in establishing the standard three flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has provided an opportunity to explore the sub-dominant three flavor effects in present and future long-baseline experiments. In this paper, we perform a comparative study of the physics reach of two future superbeam facilities, LBNE and LBNO in their first phases of run, to resolve the issues of neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ 23 , and leptonic CP violation. We also find that the sensitivity of these future facilities can be improved significantly by adding the projected data from T2K and NOνA. Stand-alone LBNO setup with a 10 kt detector has a mass hierarchy discovery reach of more than 7σ, for the lowest allowed value of sin 2  θ 23 (true) = 0.34. This result is valid for any choice of true δ CP and hierarchy. LBNE10, in combination with T2K and NOνA, can achieve 3σ hierarchy discrimination for any choice of δ CP , sin 2  θ 23 , and hierarchy. The same combination can provide a 3σ octant resolution for sin 2  θ 23 (true) ≤ 0.44 or for sin 2  θ 23 (true) ≥ 0.58 for all values of δ CP (true). LBNO can give similar results with 10 kt detector mass. In their first phases, both LBNE10 and LBNO with 20 kt detector can establish leptonic CP violation for around 50% values of true δ CP at 2σ confidence level. In case of LBNE10, CP coverage at 3σ can be enhanced from 3% to 43% by combining T2K and NOνA data, assuming sin 2  θ 23 (true) = 0.5. For LBNO setup, CP violation discovery at 3σ is possible for 46% values of true δ CP if we add the data from T2K and NOνA

  11. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  12. Xenon as an adjunct in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, B.E.; Radue, E.W.; Zilkha, E.; Loh, L.

    1979-01-01

    Nonradioactive xenon was used for enhancement in computed tomography in a series of 18 patients requiring general anesthesia. The method and results are described. The properties of xenon are radically different from those of intravenous iodides, and the enhancement patterns demonstrate different aspects of both normal and abnormal tissues. In our limited experience, it has been of value in those isodense and low attenuation lesions that have not enhanced after intravenous Conray. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  13. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  14. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a common commercial Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilatory rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration

  15. Xenon-computed tomography of kidney transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutze, S.; Reichmuth, B.; Suess, C.; Lippert, J.; Ewert, R.

    1994-01-01

    Xenon-CT is an established method for determining cerebral perfusion, while applications in other organs are rare. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of measuring the regional Renal Blood Flow (rRBF) in 10 patients with transplanted kidneys by xenon-CT. We found significant differences in the rRBF between the renal medulla and the cortex. There were no differences between normal renal transplants and transplants with chronic rejection. (orig.) [de

  16. Xenon recovery from molybdenum-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.; Paviet, P.D.; Bresee, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors research and development on the recycle of used commercial nuclear fuel as an option for future nuclear fuel cycles that offers increased use of uranium and thorium resources and a possible reduction in the overall cost of nuclear waste management. The two alternatives, direct disposal of used fuel and fuel recycle, are broadly referred to as open and closed fuel cycles. One requirement of a closed fuel cycle is the safe management of radioactive off-gases, which includes 14 C, radioiodine and the noble gases, including radio-xenon. The longest lived relevant radio-xenon isotope is 127 Xe; with a half-life of just 36.35 days it is feasible to trap and hold the radio-xenon to allow for decay to safe environmental levels. However, the very weak chemical bonds of noble gases, in this case xenon, make them difficult to trap, which led to an extensive DOE-NE study of noble gas adsorption on various molecular sieves as an alternative to costly cryogenics processes. Preliminary results indicate that xenon adsorption at near room temperature on molecular sieves, both synthetic and natural, may have both cost and efficiency advantages over cryogenic processes. These results appear to have direct application in helping achieve the United Nations Security Council goal of reducing xenon emissions from medical isotope producers

  17. Xenon recovery from molybdenum-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN, 37931 (United States); Paviet, P.D.; Bresee, J.C. [U.S. Department of Energy,1000 Independence Ave, S.W., Washington DC, 20585-1290 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors research and development on the recycle of used commercial nuclear fuel as an option for future nuclear fuel cycles that offers increased use of uranium and thorium resources and a possible reduction in the overall cost of nuclear waste management. The two alternatives, direct disposal of used fuel and fuel recycle, are broadly referred to as open and closed fuel cycles. One requirement of a closed fuel cycle is the safe management of radioactive off-gases, which includes {sup 14}C, radioiodine and the noble gases, including radio-xenon. The longest lived relevant radio-xenon isotope is {sup 127}Xe; with a half-life of just 36.35 days it is feasible to trap and hold the radio-xenon to allow for decay to safe environmental levels. However, the very weak chemical bonds of noble gases, in this case xenon, make them difficult to trap, which led to an extensive DOE-NE study of noble gas adsorption on various molecular sieves as an alternative to costly cryogenics processes. Preliminary results indicate that xenon adsorption at near room temperature on molecular sieves, both synthetic and natural, may have both cost and efficiency advantages over cryogenic processes. These results appear to have direct application in helping achieve the United Nations Security Council goal of reducing xenon emissions from medical isotope producers.

  18. The atmosphere as particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...... motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025)....

  20. The Upgrade of the Control System for the CERN/NA62 Liquid Krypton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moraux, A; Bremer, J; Falaleev, V; Gonidec, A; Passardi, Giorgio; Pezzetti, M

    2009-01-01

    The NA62 experiment is a continuation of the CERN kaon research program and particularly of the NA48 experiment which was designed in the early 90’s to measure the direct CP violation with a very high precision. An important component of the experimental setup is an electromagnetic calorimeter filled with 9000 liters of high-purity liquid krypton at 120 K. Its associated cryogenic system aims at providing a very high reliability and stable thermal conditions with temperature stabilization better than 0.1 K. The upgrade of the cryogenic control system was motivated by the need of ensuring its durability and standardization for the long term fixed-target physics program at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This paper describes the adopted technical solutions to minimize the control shutdown and emphasizes the related safety issues.

  1. Surface Coatings as Xenon Diffusion Barriers for Improved Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon detection systems, used within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). One type of radioxenon detection systems used in this context is the Swedish SAUNA system. This system uses a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell to measure the beta decay from radioxenon isotopes. The detector cell also acts as a container...

  2. An analysis method for flavan-3-ols using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuqing Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins belong to a family of flavan-3-ols, which consist of monomers, (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, and their oligomers and polymers, and are distributed in many plant-derived foods. Procyanidins are reported to have many beneficial physiological activities, such as antihypertensive and anticancer effects. However, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well understood owing to a lack of convenient and high-sensitive analysis methods. The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for determining procyanidin content in both food materials and biological samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector was used in this study. The limits of detection (LODs of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2 were 3.0×10−3 ng, 4.0×10−3 ng, 14.0×10−3 ng, 18.5×10−3 ng, and 23.0×10−3 ng, respectively; the limits of quantification (LOQs were 10.0×10−3 ng, 29.0×10−3 ng, 28.5×10−3 ng, 54.1×10−3 ng, and 115.0×10−3 ng, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values indicated that the sensitivity of the fluorescence detector method was around 1000 times higher than that of conventional HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. We applied the developed method to measure procyanidins in black soybean seed coat extract (BE prepared from soybeans grown under three different fertilization conditions, namely, conventional farming, basal manure application, and intertillage. The amount of flavan-3-ols in these BEs decreased in the order intertillage > basal manure application > conventional farming. Commercially available BE was orally administered to mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, and we measured the blood flavan-3-ol content. Data from plasma analysis indicated that up to the tetramer oligomerization, procyanidins were detectable and flavan-3-ols mainly existed in conjugated forms in the plasma. In conclusion, we developed a highly

  3. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions < or similar 25 cm lateral to the reconstructed track were ascertained for these spots. The determined angular resolution of ∝1.4 at 1 GeV improves to ∝0.3 with rising muon energy. With the current analysis method

  4. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-15

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions

  5. Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2013-03-14

    Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation.

  6. A novel liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector for the determination of oleuropein in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2016-09-10

    A simple and fast chromatographic method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD) was developed for the automatic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of the title of oleuropein in a new dietary supplements in form of effervescent granules. The chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 core-shell column with detection at λ=232nm. The mobile phase consisted of deionized water with 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile under gradient conditions at a flow-rate of 0.8mL/min. Oleuropein and oleuroside present in the raw material were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical procedure has been performed determining the following parameters: specificity, linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), stability of the standard and sample solutions. Linear response was observed in fortified placebo solutions (determination coefficient: 0.9998). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤5.0% for peak area and for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) was about 5μg/mL and 9pmol/inject. Oleuropein recovery studies gave good results (99.9%) with a R.S.D. of 0.5%. The speed of analysis and the stability of the solutions with a fluctuation Δ (%) ≤2.0 at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed method is suitable for the quality control of oleuropein in raw material and industrial products. The method can be applied in any analytical laboratory not requiring a sophisticated instrumentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol concentration in 56 refillable electronic cigarettes liquid formulations determined by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; Peace, Michelle R

    2017-10-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavouring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine. Fifty-six commercially available e-liquids, purchased from various sources, contained a variety of flavours and active ingredients. A headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) method was used to analyze these e-liquids for volatiles content. Only one of the e-liquids listed ethanol as a component. The chromatographic separation of volatiles was performed on a Restek BAC-1 column. A linear calibration was generated for ethanol with limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) of 0.05 mg/mL. Ethanol concentrations in the 56 e-liquids ranged from none detected to 206 mg/mL. The ethanol determined in these products may have been used in flavourants or a solvent; the reason for inclusion cannot be fully ascertained. The implications of vaporizing ethanol as an e-liquid component are unknown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Six Food Additives in drinks by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 6 synthetic food additives (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine and sunset yellow) was developed. A EclipseXDB-C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.; 5 micro m) was used and the mobile phase contained methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) (30:70, v/v) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at room temperature. Successful separation conditions were obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 10 min. The diode array detector was used to monitor the food additives at 230 nm. The method was thoroughly validated, detection limits for all substances varied between 0.03 and 1.35 micro g/mg, the intra-day precision (as RSD) ranged from 1.57% to 4.72 %, the inter-day precision (as RSD) was between 2.05 % and 4.18 %. Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 90.00 % to 109.87 %, were obtained. The proposed system was applied to drink samples. (author)

  10. A charged aerosol detector/chemiluminescent nitrogen detector/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for regular and fragment compound analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutao; Hascall, Daniel; Li, Delia; Pease, Joseph H

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we introduce a high throughput LCMS/UV/CAD/CLND system that improves upon previously reported systems by increasing both the quantitation accuracy and the range of compounds amenable to testing, in particular, low molecular weight "fragment" compounds. This system consists of a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) added to a LCMS/UV system. Our results show that the addition of CAD and CLND to LCMS/UV is more reliable for concentration determination for a wider range of compounds than either detector alone. Our setup also allows for the parallel analysis of each sample by all four detectors and so does not significantly increase run time per sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of excited xenon atoms in a plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Byoung H.; Oh, Phil Y.; Choi, Eun H.

    2009-01-01

    The luminance efficiency of a plasma display panel is directly related to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that is emitted from excited xenon (Xe) atoms and molecules. It is therefore necessary to investigate the properties of excited xenon atoms. This study presents experimental data associated with the behavior of excited xenon atoms in a PDP discharge cell and compares the data with the theoretical results obtained using an analytical model. The properties of excited xenon atoms in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel are investigated by measuring the excited atom density through the use of laser absorption spectroscopy. The density of the excited xenon atoms increases from zero, reaches its peak, and decreases with time in the discharge cells. The profile of the excited xenon atoms is also studied in terms of the xenon mole fraction. The typical density of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable state is on the order of 10 13 atoms per cubic cm.

  12. Simultaneous separation of antihyperlipidemic drugs by green ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method: Improving the health of liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazi, Mansoor; Alanazi, Fars; Mohsin, Kazi; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul

    2017-04-01

    Statins in combination with fibrates show beneficial effects on the lipoprotein profile of patients because they have positive complimentary effects on lipid profile. A new green ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for simultaneous analysis of simvastatin (SMV) and fenofibrate (FNF) in standard form, marketed formulations, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations was developed and validated in the present investigation. The method utilized C 18 as stationary phase and a combination of methanol:water (8:2) as an eluent. It was found that selected eluent provided short run time (2.5 minutes), better peak symmetry and satisfactory values of other chromatographic parameters such as resolution (Rs=2.325), capacity factor (k, 3.0 and 4.2 for SMV and FNF, respectively), selectivity (α =1.4), and number of theoretical plates (N, 4265 and 5285 for SMV and FNF, respectively). An excellent linear relationship (r 2 0.998 and 0.997 for SMV and FNF, respectively) was observed for linear regression data for the calibration plots. The developed system was validated for accuracy, precision, robustness (˃ 2% for both drugs) and recovery (98-102% for both drugs). Results obtained from the statistical treatment of the values obtained for different parameters proved that the method is suitable, reproducible, and selective for the simultaneous analysis of SMV and FNF in bulk, marketed, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations. The replacement of commonly applied toxic solvents with innocuous and environmentally benign solvents provides a better option than the more toxic processes in drug analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. First Axion Results from the XENON100 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Colijn, A.P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A.D.; Fulgione, W.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L.W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R.F.; Calloch, M. Le; Lellouch, D.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F.V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-09-09

    We present the first results of searches for axions and axion-like-particles with the XENON100 experiment. The axion-electron coupling constant, $g_{Ae}$, has been tested by exploiting the axio-electric effect in liquid xenon. A profile likelihood analysis of 224.6 live days $\\times$ 34 kg exposure has shown no evidence for a signal. By rejecting $g_{Ae}$, larger than $7.7 \\times 10^{-12}$ (90% CL) in the solar axion search, we set the best limit to date on this coupling. In the frame of the DFSZ and KSVZ models, we exclude QCD axions heavier than 0.3 eV/c$^2$ and 80 eV/c$^2$, respectively. For axion-like-particles, under the assumption that they constitute the whole abundance of dark matter in our galaxy, we constrain $g_{Ae}$, to be lower than $1 \\times 10^{-12}$ (90% CL) for masses between 5 and 10 keV/c$^2$.

  14. Operation of Silicon, Diamond and liquid Helium Detectors in the range of Room Temperature to 1.9 K and after an Irradiation Dose of several Mega Gray

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Dehning, B; Eisel, T; Sapinski, M; Eremin, V

    2013-01-01

    At the triplet magnets, close to the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the current Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is sensitive to the debris from the collision points. For future beams, with higher energy and intensity the expected increase in luminosity implicate an increase of the debris from interaction products covering the quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams. The investigated option is to locate the detectors as close as possible to the superconducting coil, where the signal ratio of both is optimal. Therefore the detectors have to be located inside the cold mass of the superconducting magnets in superfluid helium at 1.9 Kelvin. Past measurements have shown that a liquid helium ionisation chamber, diamond and silicon detectors are promising candidates for cryogenic beam loss monitors. The carrier parameter, drift velocity, and the leakage current changes will be shown as a function of temperature. New high irradiation test beam measurements at room temperat...

  15. Spatial xenon oscillation control with expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alten, S.; Danofsky, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial power oscillations were attributed to the xenon transients in a reactor core in 1958 by Randall and St. John. These transients are usually initiated by a local reactivity insertion and lead to divergent axial flux oscillations in the core at constant power. Several heuristic manual control strategies and automatic control methods were developed to damp the xenon oscillations at constant power operations. However, after the load-follow operation of the reactors became a necessity of life, a need for better control strategies arose. Even though various advanced control strategies were applied to solve the xenon oscillation control problem for the load-follow operation, the complexity of the system created difficulties in modeling. The strong nonlinearity of the problem requires highly sophisticated analytical approaches that are quite inept for numerical solutions. On the other hand, the complexity of a system and heuristic nature of the solutions are the basic reasons for using artificial intelligence techniques such as expert systems

  16. Simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano quantity analyte detector

    OpenAIRE

    Honggen Zhang; Zhenyu Wang; Oscar Liu

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a nano quantitation analytical detector (UHPLC–NQAD). All components in kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 were well separated on an Acquity BEH C18 column. Mobile phase A was 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. A gradient elution sequence was programed initially with 60%...

  17. Activity measurements of radioactive solutions by liquid scintillation counting and pressurized ionization chambers and Monte Carlo simulations of source-detector systems for metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiot, Marie-Noelle

    2013-01-01

    The research works 'Activity measurements of radioactive solutions by liquid scintillation and pressurized ionization chambers and Monte Carlo simulations of source-detector systems' was presented for the graduation: 'Habilitation a diriger des recherches'. The common thread of both themes liquid scintillation counting and pressurized ionization chambers lies in the improvement of the techniques of radionuclide activity measurement. Metrology of ionization radiation intervenes in numerous domains, in the research, in the industry including the environment and the health, which are subjects of constant concern for the world population these last years. In this big variety of applications answers a large number of radionuclides of diverse disintegration scheme and under varied physical forms. The presented works realized within the National Laboratory Henri Becquerel have for objective to assure detector calibration traceability and to improve the methods of activity measurements within the framework of research projects and development. The improvement of the primary and secondary activity measurement methods consists in perfecting the accuracy of the measurements in particular by a better knowledge of the parameters influencing the detector yield. The works of development dealing with liquid scintillation counting concern mainly the study of the response of liquid scintillators to low energy electrons as well as their linear absorption coefficients using synchrotron radiation. The research works on pressurized ionization chambers consist of the study of their response to photons and electrons by experimental measurements compared to the simulation of the source-detector system using Monte Carlo codes. Besides, the design of a new type of ionization chamber with variable pressure is presented. This new project was developed to guarantee the precision of the amount of activity injected into the patient within the framework of diagnosis examination

  18. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  19. Mechanisms of Xenon Effect on Skin and Red Blood Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Rodin, V.; Gurevich, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    The usage of Xenon (Xe) is known in anesthesia and biobanking areas. It is considered preservation effect of Xe is associated either with clathrate formation - solid gaseous structures or dissolution of Xe molecules in liquid phase without physical state modification (so-called hyperbarium) [1......]. This study is addressed to establish differences between hyberbarium or clathrate Xe actions as well as its applications on various bioobjects with anaerobic - red blood cells (RBCs) and aerobic (skin fragments) metabolism. Xe clathrates and hyperbarium storage were simulated under 277 K and 620-725 k...... to control (15.68 ± 1.11, CI95%). Skin fragments were harvested from rat tails and divided on hyberbarium, clathrate and dimetylsulfoxide cryopreserved as control group and stored for 7 days. Assessment was performed by point-score method including epidermal-dermal integrity various assays and engraftment...

  20. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  1. Single-laboratory validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector-fluorescence detector/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 microm, 250 x 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLDIMS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration.

  2. Status of GENIUS-TF-II and TF-III-The long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: H.Klapdor@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Krivosheina, I.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    GENIUS-TF-II is a setup of six naked high purity Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso. It has been installed in October, 2004-after the first four naked Ge detectors had been installed on May 5, 2003 (GENIUS-TF-I). The GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) is the first and up to now only setup ever testing the novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays in particular underground. The goal of GENIUS-TF was to test some key operational parameters of the full GENIUS project proposal in 1997 [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Z. Phys. A 359 ( 1997) 351 and nucl-ex/9801004; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, M. Hirsch, Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, CERN Courier, November 1997, pp. 16-18]. Simultaneous physical goal is to search for the annual modulation of the Dark Matter signal [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149; C. Tomei, A. Dietz, I. Krivosheina, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 508 (2003) 343]. After operation of GENIUS-TF over three years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (1) Background from Rn222 diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (2) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen as result of increasing leakage current. None of the six detectors is running after three years with the nominal leakage current. Three of the six detectors do not work any more at all. The results of our three years of investigation of the long-term stability may cast doubt on the possibility to perform full GENIUS-like projects.

  3. Status of GENIUS-TF-II and TF-III-The long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Krivosheina, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    GENIUS-TF-II is a setup of six naked high purity Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso. It has been installed in October, 2004-after the first four naked Ge detectors had been installed on May 5, 2003 (GENIUS-TF-I). The GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) is the first and up to now only setup ever testing the novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays in particular underground. The goal of GENIUS-TF was to test some key operational parameters of the full GENIUS project proposal in 1997 [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Z. Phys. A 359 ( 1997) 351 and nucl-ex/9801004; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, M. Hirsch, Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, CERN Courier, November 1997, pp. 16-18]. Simultaneous physical goal is to search for the annual modulation of the Dark Matter signal [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149; C. Tomei, A. Dietz, I. Krivosheina, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 508 (2003) 343]. After operation of GENIUS-TF over three years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (1) Background from Rn222 diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (2) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen as result of increasing leakage current. None of the six detectors is running after three years with the nominal leakage current. Three of the six detectors do not work any more at all. The results of our three years of investigation of the long-term stability may cast doubt on the possibility to perform full GENIUS-like projects

  4. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  5. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS inner detector and liquid argon barrel calorimeter at the 2004 combined test beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abat, E.; et al., [Unknown; Ferrari, P.; Gorfine, G.; Liebig, W.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal

  6. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Design of Solid Form Xenon-124 Target for Producing I-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Kakavand, T.; Shokri Bonab, S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently in Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine Department of NRCAM, at Atomic Energy organization of Iran (AEOI), a system for producing 1-123 via Xe-124 gas target technology, has been constructed and installed. One of the major problems in this system is the highly expensive cost of the enriched Xenon-124 gas. Therefore, saving this gas inside the system is very important. Unfortunately, by accidental rupture of the window foil or bad function of O-rings, the whole Xenon gas will escape from the system immediately. In this paper, by using computer codes; ALICE91, SRIM and doing some calculations we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing I-123 with the above mentioned reactions, but using Xe-124 solid target instead. According to our suggested design, a conical shaped irradiation vessel made of copper with 1 mm thickness, 1 cm outlet diameter, 5 cm length and 12 deg. angle at summit can be fixed inside a liquid nitrogen housing chamber. The Xenon-124 gas will be sent to the inside of this very cold conical trap and eventually deposited on its surface in solid form. Our calculation shows that during bombardment with 17-28 MeV proton energy, the thickness of solidified Xenon layer will remain around .28 mm. Likewise; thermo-dynamical calculation shows that in order to prevent the evaporation of solidified Xenon, the maximum permissible proton beam current for this system should be less than 1.4 μA. According to these working conditions, the production yield of I-123 can be predicted to be around 150 mCi/μAh. (authors)

  9. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [Jaypee Hospital – Radiation Onology, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volume of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.

  10. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumaran, M; Manigandan, D; Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K; Vikraman, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volume of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.

  11. Thermodynamic consistency of vapor pressure and calorimetric data for argon, krypton, and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, L.A.; Crawford, R.K.; Chen, H.H.; Aziz, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new two-parameter vapor pressure equation has been derived which, unlike the Salter equation, is shown to be equally applicable to quantum or classical solids and even liquids. The condensed phase enthalpies and entropies are given directly by the fitted parameters with accuracies comparable to those which have been claimed for existing independent calorimetric measurements. Recent vapor pressure data for the solid and liquid phases of argon, krypton, and xenon are analyzed in this manner, and the results are compared with the available calorimetric data. New values for the cohesive energy at T=0 are also derived for these substances

  12. Optimization of Xenon Biosensors for Detection of Protein Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Ruiz, E.Janette; Wu, Tom; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; King, David S.; Schultz, Peter G.; Pines, Alex; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-08-01

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR can detect the presence of specific low-concentration biomolecular analytes by means of the xenon biosensor, which consists of a water-soluble, targeted cryptophane-A cage that encapsulates xenon. In this work we use the prototypical biotinylated xenon biosensor to determine the relationship between the molecular composition of the xenon biosensor and the characteristics of protein-bound resonances. The effects of diastereomer overlap, dipole-dipole coupling, chemical shift anisotropy, xenon exchange, and biosensor conformational exchange on protein-bound biosensor signal were assessed. It was found that optimal protein-bound biosensor signal can be obtained by minimizing the number of biosensor diastereomers and using a flexible linker of appropriate length. Both the linewidth and sensitivity of chemical shift to protein binding of the xenon biosensor were found to be inversely proportional to linker length

  13. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method development based on ultravioletvisible detector for the analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH biomarker) in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Atif; Gulfraz, Mohammad; Anwar, Mohammad Asad; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    1-hydroxypyrene is an important biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which appears in the urine of exposed human subjects. In developing countries, where advanced instruments are not available, the importance of this biomarker demands convenient and sensitive methods for determination purposes. This study aimed at developing a methodology to quantify 1-hydroxypyrene (a biomarker of PAHs exposure) based on the UV-visible detector in the reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 20 μl injection of sample was used for manual injection into the HPLC Shimadzu, equipped with the SPD-20 A UV-visible detector, the LC-20AT pump and the DGU-20A5 degasser. The C-18 column was used for the purpose of the analysis. The method showed a good linearity (the range: R2 = 0.979-0.989), and high detectability up to the nmol level. The average retention was 6.37, with the accuracy of 2%, and the percentage of recovery remained 108%. The overall performance of this method was comparable (in terms of detection sensitivity) and relatively better than previously reported studies using the HPLC system equipped with the UV-detector. This method is suitable and reliable for the detection/quantification of the 1-OHP in human urine samples, using the UV-detector, however, it is less sensitive as compared to the results of a florescence detector. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF XENON ANESTHESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bykov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at hemodynamic effects of xenon on operative interventions in children. Patients and methods: the study involved 30 5-17-year-old children – 10 (33.3% girls and 20 (66.7% boys with ASA score 1-3 admitted for surgical treatment. The children underwent endotracheal anesthesia with xenon-oxygen mixture (Xe:O2 = 60-65:30% and fentanyl (2.5‑3.5  mcg/kg per hour for the following operations: appendectomy – 10 (33.3% patients, herniotomy – 8 (26.7% patients, Ivanissevich procedure – 6 (20.0% patients, plastic surgery of posttraumatic defects of skin and soft tissues – 4 (13.3% patients, abdominal adhesiotomy – 2 (6.7% patients. Central hemodynamics was studied echocardiographically (Philips HD 11, the Netherlands using the Teichholz technique along the cephalocaudal axis (parasternal access. Results: the anesthesia was notable for hemodynamic stability during the operation: as a result, a statistically significant (p < 0.05 increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure by 10, 18 and 17%, respectively, was observed. Conclusion: the analysis demonstrated that xenon anesthesia improves lusitropic myocardial function statistically significantly increasing cardiac output by 12% by way of increasing stroke volume by 30%. 

  15. Facility for the separation of krypton and recuperation of xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boell-Djoa, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    A facility is described by means of which the fission inert gases krypton 85 and xenon from spent fuel particles can be separated by fractionated freezing-out and subsequent distillation to such an extent that the xenon contains less than 1 ppb krypton 85. Then, in accordance with the stringent regulations, the krypton can be conveyed to definitive storage in special bottles, whereas the xenon can be released for industrial uses. (orig.) [de

  16. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  17. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides in Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector with few markers to determine multicomponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hua Ge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A method with few markers to determine multicomponents was established and validated to evaluate the quality of Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. The separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm2, 1.7 μm column. Methanol and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides could be perfectly separated within 15 minutes. Ginsenoside Rg1 and benzoylmesaconine, the easily available active components, were employed as the maker components to calculate the relative correction factors of other components in Shenfu injection, Panax ginseng and Aconitum carmichaeli. The external standard method was also established to validate the feasibility of the method with few markers to determine multicomponents. Parameter p and the principal component analysis method were employed to investigate the disparities among batches for the effective quality control of Shenfu injection. The results demonstrated that the ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector method with few markers to determine multicomponents could be used as a powerful tool for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations.

  19. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of 3 He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors

  20. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abat, E; Arik, E [Bogazici University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, TR-80815 Bebek-Istanbul (Turkey); Abdallah, J M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, ES-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Addy, T N [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adragna, P [Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, DE-55099 (Germany); Ahmad, A [Insitute of Physics, Academia Sinica, TW-Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Akesson, T P A [Lunds universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysiska institutionen, Box 118, SE-221 00, Lund (Sweden); Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexa, C [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Bucharest -IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Andreazza, A; Banfi, D [INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Department of Physics, Panepistimiopouli Zografou, GR 15771 Athens (Greece); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, AU-Parkvill, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Baker, O K, E-mail: stathes.paganis@cern.ch [Yale University, Department of Physics, PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT06520-8121 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  1. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abat, E; Arik, E; Abdallah, J M; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Anghinolfi, F; Baron, S; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Banfi, D; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  2. MO-A-BRD-01: An Investigation of the Dynamic Response of a Novel Acousto-Optic Liquid Crystal Detector for Full-Field Transmission Ultrasound Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfield, J.R.; La Riviere, P.J.; Sandhu, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the dynamic response of a novel acousto-optic (AO) liquid crystal detector for high-resolution transmission ultrasound breast imaging. Transient and steady-state lesion contrast were investigated to identify optimal transducer settings for our prototype imaging system consistent with the FDA limits of 1 W/cm 2 and 50 J/cm 2 on the incident acoustic intensity and the transmitted acoustic energy flux density. Methods: We have developed a full-field transmission ultrasound breast imaging system that uses monochromatic plane-wave illumination to acquire projection images of the compressed breast. The acoustic intensity transmitted through the breast is converted into a visual image by a proprietary liquid crystal detector operating on the basis of the AO effect. The dynamic response of the AO detector in the absence of an imaged breast was recorded by a CCD camera as a function of the acoustic field intensity and the detector exposure time. Additionally, a stereotactic needle biopsy breast phantom was used to investigate the change in opaque lesion contrast with increasing exposure time for a range of incident acoustic field intensities. Results: Using transducer voltages between 0.3 V and 0.8 V and exposure times of 3 minutes, a unique one-to-one mapping of incident acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness in the AO detector was observed. A transfer curve mapping acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness shows a high-contrast region analogous to the linear portion of the Hurter-Driffield curves of radiography. Using transducer voltages between 1 V and 1.75 V and exposure times of 90 s, the lesion contrast study demonstrated increasing lesion contrast with increasing breast exposure time and acoustic field intensity. Lesion-to-background contrast on the order of 0.80 was observed. Conclusion: Maximal lesion contrast in our prototype system can be obtained using the highest acoustic field intensity and the longest breast

  3. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.M.; Addy, T.N.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2010), P04001/1-P04001/32 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * calorimeter * tracking detector * photon * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2010

  4. Stationary and through-flow radiochemical detectors in cooperation with high performance liquid chromatography: Application in biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, J.

    1986-01-01

    A review article is presented containing some original experimental data and discussing the usability of radiochemical detection of labelled compounds using high performance liquid chromatography. The stationary and through-flow types of detection are compared with respect to efficiency, chromatographic zone resolution, usability in biochemical research, and also to the current trends of development of liquid chromatography. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs

  5. Evaporative light scattering detector in normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of FAME oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Arturo; Marmesat, Susana; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Velasco, Joaquín

    2012-09-07

    The use of an ELS detector in NP-HPLC for quantitative analysis of oxidation products in FAME obtained from oils is evaluated in this study. The results obtained have shown that the ELS detector enables the quantitative determination of the hydroperoxides of oleic and linoleic acid methyl esters as a whole, and connected in series with a UV detector makes it possible to determine both groups of compounds by difference, providing useful complementary information. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found for hydroperoxides were respectively 2.5 and 5.7 μg mL⁻¹ and precision of quantitation expressed as coefficient of variation was lower than 10%. Due to a low sensitivity the ELS detector shows limitations to determine the low contents of secondary oxidation products in the direct analysis of FAME oxidized at low or moderate temperature. Analysis of FAME samples obtained either from high linoleic sunflower oil (HLSO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and oxidized at 80 °C showed that only ketodienes formed from methyl linoleate can be determined in samples with relatively high oxidation, being the LOD and LOQ 0.2 and 0.4 mg/g FAME, respectively, at the analytical conditions applied. The ELS detector also enabled the determination of methyl cis-9,10-epoxystearate and methyl trans-9,10-epoxystearate, which were resolved at the chromatographic conditions applied. Results showed that these compounds, which are formed from methyl oleate, were not detected in the high-linoleic sample, but occurred at non-negligible levels in the oxidized FAME obtained from HOSO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  7. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  8. An homeopathic cure to pure Xenon large diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C.D.R.; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J

    2016-02-03

    The NEXT neutrinoless double beta decay experiment will use a high- pressure gas electroluminescence-based TPC to search for the decay of Xe-136. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qbb. The rejection potential associated to the topology reconstruction is limited by our capacity to prop- erly reconstruct the original path of the electrons in the gas. This reconstruction is limited by different factors that include the geometry of the detector, the density of the sensors in the tracking plane and the separation among them, etc. Ultimately, the resolution is limited by the physics of electron diffusion in the gas. In this paper we present a series of molecular additives that can be used in Xenon gas at very low partial pressure to reduce both longitudinal and transverse diffusion. We will show the results of different Monte-Carlo simulations of electron transport in the gas mixtures from wich we have extracted the value of...

  9. Appropriate xenon-inhalation speed in xenon-enhanced CT using the end-tidal gas-sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Sadao; Toya, Shigeo; Kawase, Takeshi; Koyama, Hideki; Shiga, Hayao

    1986-01-01

    This report describes some problems when end-tidal xenon gas is substituted for the arterial xenon concentration in xenon-enhanced CT. The authors used a newly developed xenon inhalator with a xenon-gas-concentration analyzer and performed xenon-enhanced CT by means of the ''arterio-venous shunt'' method and the ''end-tidal gas-sampling'' method simultaneously. By the former method, the arterial build-up rate (K) was obtained directly from the CT slices of a blood circuit passing through the phantom. By the latter method, it was calculated from the xenon concentration of end-tidal gas sampled from the mask. The speed of xenon supply was varied between 0.6 - 1.2 L/min. in 11 patients with or without a cerebral lesion. The results revealed that rapid xenon inhalation caused a discrepancy in the arterial K between the ''shunt'' method and the ''end-tidal'' method. This discrepancy may be responsible for the mixing of inhalated gas and expired gas in respiratory dead space, such as the nasal cavity or the mask. The cerebral blood flow was underestimated because of the higher arterial K in the latter method. Too much slow inhalation, however, was timewasting, and it increased the body motion in the subanesthetic state. Therefore, an inhalation speed of the arterial K of as much as 0.2 was ideal to represent the end-tidal xenon concentration for the arterial K in the ''end-tidal gas-sampling'' method. When attention is given to this point, this method may offer a reliable absolute value in xenon-enhanced CT. (author)

  10. An Improved Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 370 kg (250 kg active mass) two-_phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The first absolute charge (Qy) and light (Ly) measurement performed in situ in the LUX detector with a D-D calibration technique for nuclear recoil spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV respectively have been reported in. The D-D calibration has subsequently been further improved by incorporating pulsing technique, i.e. the D-D neutron production is concentrated within narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz) with the timing information recorded. This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. Brown University, Large Underground Xenon(LUX) Collaboration.

  11. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Bin; Yang Weigeng; Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Zhang Xinjun; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  12. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  13. Development of diamond thin film-based alpha particle detectors for online assay of plutonium content in corrosive liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuwad, J.; Jain, Dheeraj; Manoj, N.; Sudarsan, V.; Panja, S.; Dhami, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, diamond thin films were prepared using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method and characterized using XRD, OES, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and I-V techniques. These films were subjected to annealing and chemical cleaning for further improving the film quality. Surface metallization was obtained by gold deposition using PVD. These films were configured in semiconductor-insulator-metal heterostructure and mounted in SS shells. Gold coated growth surface (detector's active area) was sealed by chemical resistant sealing. Suitable bias was applied between the front and back electrical contacts to enable charge collection generated upon alpha particle interaction with diamond. The photograph of developed detector in the lab is shown

  14. A high-resolution detector based on liquid-core scintillating fibres with readout via an electron-bombarded charge-coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianfarani, C.; Duane, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, A.M.; Harrison, K.; Kozarenko, E.N.; Kushnirenko, A.E.; Ladygin, E.A.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Nass, P.A.; Obudovski, V.P.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.P.; Siegmund, W.P.; Tyukov, V.E.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from tests in a 5 GeV/c hadron beam of detectors based on liquid-core scintillating fibres, each fibre consisting of a glass capillary filled with organic liquid scintillator. Fibre readout was performed via an Electron-Bombarded Charge-Coupled Device (EBCCD) image tube, a novel instrument that combines the functions of a high-gain, gated image intensifier and a Charge-Coupled Device. Using 1-methylnaphthalene doped with 3 g/l of R45 as liquid scintillator, the attenuation lengths obtained for light propagation over distances greater than 16 cm were 1.5 m in fibres of 20 μm core and 1.0 m in fibres of 16 μm core. For particles that crossed the fibres of 20 μm core at distances of ∼1.8 cm and ∼95 cm from the fibres' readout ends, the recorded hit densities were 5.3 mm -1 and 2.5 mm -1 respectively. Using 1-methylnaphthalene doped with 3.6 g/l of R39 as liquid scintillator and fibres of 75 μm core, the hit density obtained for particles that crossed the fibres at a distance of ∼1.8 cm from their readout ends was 8.5 mm -1 . With a specially designed bundle of tapered fibres, having core diameters that smoothly increase from 16 μm to 75 μm, a spatial precision of 6 μm was measured. (orig.)

  15. The MEG detector for {mu} {sup +}{yields}e{sup +} {gamma} decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.; Schneebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Bai, X.; Fujii, Y.; Hisamatsu, Y.; Iwamoto, T.; Kaneko, D.; Mori, T.; Natori, H.; Nishimura, Y.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Sawada, R.; Yamashita, S. [University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, ICEPP, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Baldini, A.M.; Cerri, C.; Del Frate, L.; Galeotti, S.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, ICEPP, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Corbo, M.; Curalli, N.; Gallucci, G.; Nicolo, D.; Pazzi, R.; Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Boca, G.; De Bari, A.; Nardo, R. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); Cattaneo, P.W.; Rossella, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cavoto, G.; Graziosi, A.; Piredda, G.; Voena, C.; Zanello, D. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); De Gerone, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Doke, S.; Suzuki, S. [Waseda University, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Dussoni, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Egger, J.; Hildebrandt, M.; Kettle, P.R.; Kiselev, O.; Ritt, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Fratini, K.; Gatti, F.; Valle, R. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Galli, L.; Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Golden, B.; Lim, G.; Molzon, W.; Topchyan, C.; Xiao, F. [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Grigoriev, D.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Maki, A.; Mihara, S.; Nishiguchi, H.; Yamada, S.; Yamamoto, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ignatov, F.; Khazin, B.I.; Popov, A.; Yudin, Yu.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Korenchenko, A.; Kravchuk, N.; Mzavia, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Panareo, M. [INFN Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Lecce (Italy); Renga, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Ripiccini, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Uchiyama, Y. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, ICEPP, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    The MEG (Mu to Electron Gamma) experiment has been running at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland since 2008 to search for the decay {mu} {sup +}{yields}e{sup +} {gamma} by using one of the most intense continuous {mu} {sup +} beams in the world. This paper presents the MEG components: the positron spectrometer, including a thin target, a superconducting magnet, a set of drift chambers for measuring the muon decay vertex and the positron momentum, a timing counter for measuring the positron time, and a liquid xenon detector for measuring the photon energy, position and time. The trigger system, the read-out electronics and the data acquisition system are also presented in detail. The paper is completed with a description of the equipment and techniques developed for the calibration in time and energy and the simulation of the whole apparatus. (orig.)

  16. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  17. Compressible Convection Experiment using Xenon Gas in a Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaut, R.; Alboussiere, T.; Corre, Y.; Huguet, L.; Labrosse, S.; Deguen, R.; Moulin, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present here an experiment especially designed to study compressible convection in the lab. For significant compressible convection effects, the parameters of the experiment have to be optimized: we use xenon gaz in a cubic cell. This cell is placed in a centrifuge to artificially increase the apparent gravity and heated from below. With these choices, we are able to reach a dissipation number close to Earth's outer core value. We will present our results for different heating fluxes and rotation rates. We success to observe an adiabatic gradient of 3K/cm in the cell. Studies of pressure and temperature fluctuations lead us to think that the convection takes place under the form of a single roll in the cell for high heating flux. Moreover, these fluctuations show that the flow is geostrophic due to the high rotation speed. This important role of rotation, via Coriolis force effects, in our experimental setup leads us to develop a 2D quasigeostrophic compressible model in the anelastic liquid approximation. We test numerically this model with the finite element solver FreeFem++ and compare its results with our experimental data. In conclusion, we will present our project for the next experiment in which the cubic cell will be replace by a annulus cell. We will discuss the new expected effects due to this geometry as Rossby waves and zonal flows.

  18. The LAGUNA design study-towards giant liquid based underground detectors for neutrino physics and astrophysics and proton decay searches

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, D; Autiero, D.; Apostu, A.; Badertscher, A.; Bennet, T.; Bertola, G.; Bertola, P.F.; Besida, O.; Bettini, A.; Booth, C.; Borne, J.L.; Brancus, I.; Bujakowsky, W.; Campagne, J.E.; Danil, G.Cata; Chipesiu, F.; Chorowski, M.; Cripps, J.; Curioni, A.; Davidson, S.; Declais, Y.; Drost, U.; Duliu, O.; Dumarchez, J.; Enqvist, T.; Ereditato, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fynbo, H.; Gamble, T.; Galvanin, G.; Gendotti, A.; Gizicki, W.; Goger-Neff, M.; Grasslin, U.; Gurney, D.; Hakala, M.; Hannestad, S.; Haworth, M.; Horikawa, S.; Jipa, A.; Juget, F.; Kalliokoski, T.; Katsanevas, S.; Keen, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kreslo, I.; Kudryastev, V.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Labarga, L.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazanu, I.; Lewke, T.; Loo, K.; Lightfoot, P.; Lindner, M.; Longhin, A.; Maalampi, J.; Marafini, M.; Marchionni, A.; Margineanu, R.M.; Markiewicz, A.; Marrodan-Undagoita, T.; Marteau, J.E.; Matikainen, R.; Meindl, Q.; Messina, M.; Mietelski, J.W.; Mitrica, B.; Mordasini, A.; Mosca, L.; Moser, U.; Nuijten, G.; Oberauer, L.; Oprina, A.; Paling, S.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pilecki, Z.; Piquemal, F.; Potzel, W.; Pytel, W.; Raczynski, M.; Rafflet, G.; Ristaino, G.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, R.; Roinisto, J.; Romana, M.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Rubbia, A.; Sadecki, Z.; Saenz, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salmelainen, J.; Sima, O.; Slizowski, J.; Slizowski, K.; Sobczyk, J.; Spooner, N.; Stoica, S.; Suhonen, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeglowski, T.; Temussi, M.; Thompson, J.; Thompson, L.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tippmann, M.; Tonazzo, A.; Urbanczyk, K.; Vasseur, G.; Williams, A.; Winter, J.; Wojutszewska, K.; Wurm, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zampaolo, M.; Zito, M.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of a next generation neutrino observatory in Europe is being considered within the LAGUNA design study. To accommodate giant neutrino detectors and shield them from cosmic rays, a new very large underground infrastructure is required. Seven potential candidate sites in different parts of Europe and at several distances from CERN are being studied: Boulby (UK), Canfranc (Spain), Fr\\'ejus (France/Italy), Pyh\\"asalmi (Finland), Polkowice-Sieroszowice (Poland), Slanic (Romania) and Umbria (Italy). The design study aims at the comprehensive and coordinated technical assessment of each site, at a coherent cost estimation, and at a prioritization of the sites within the summer 2010.

  19. Test of a liquid argon calorimeter for the H1-detector with investigations on compensation via software techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, E.

    1990-05-01

    In Summer '88 a pre-series model of the inner-forward-calorimeter for the H1-detector was tested using electrons and pions from a CERN test beam. The performance of the calorimeter was analysed, with emphasis on charge calibration, noise in the read-out chain, HV-curve, energy calibration and longitudinal shower shape. A special study was done on software techniques to achieve compensation (ε/h = 1) for a non-compensating calorimeter exploiting the fine granularity of the device to spot electromagnetic energy deposits. (orig.) [de

  20. Multi-Ton Argon and Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo; Balascuta, Septimiu; Alton, Drew; Aprile, Elena; Giboni, Karl-Ludwig; Haruyama, Tom; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio Jesus; Ni, Kaixuan; Plante, Guillaume; Choi, Bin [et al.

    2009-01-01

    There is a wide range of astronomical evidence that the visible stars and gas in all galaxies, including our own, are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous matter, typically an order of magnitude greater in total mass. The existence of this ''dark matter'' is consistent with evidence from large-scale galaxy surveys and microwave background measurements, indicating that the majority of matter in the universe is non-baryonic. The nature of this non-baryonic component is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the ''dark matter puzzle'' is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. A leading explanation, motivated by supersymmetry theory, is the existence of as yet undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), formed in the early universe and subsequently clustered in association with normal matter. WIMPs could, in principle, be detected in terrestrial experiments by their collisions with ordinary nuclei, giving observable low energy (< 100 keV) nuclear recoils. The predicted low collision rates require ultra-low background detectors with large (0.1-10 ton) target masses, located in deep underground sites to eliminate neutron background from cosmic ray muons. The establishment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory for large-scale experiments of this type would strengthen the current leadership of US researchers in this and other particle astrophysics areas. We propose to detect nuclear recoils by scintillation and ionization in ton-scale liquid noble gas targets, using techniques already proven in experiments at the 0.01-0.1 ton level. The experimental challenge is to identify these events in the presence of background events from gammas, neutrons, and alphas.

  1. Reliability and error analysis on xenon/CT CBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative error analysis of a simulation model of xenon/CT CBF in order to investigate the behavior and effect of different types of errors such as CT noise, motion artifacts, lower percentage of xenon supply, lower tissue enhancements, etc. A mathematical model is built to simulate these errors. By adjusting the initial parameters of the simulation model, we can scale the Gaussian noise, control the percentage of xenon supply, and change the tissue enhancement with different kVp settings. The motion artifact will be treated separately by geometrically shifting the sequential CT images. The input function is chosen from an end-tidal xenon curve of a practical study. Four kinds of cerebral blood flow, 10, 20, 50, and 80 cc/100 g/min, are examined under different error environments and the corresponding CT images are generated following the currently popular timing protocol. The simulated studies will be fed to a regular xenon/CT CBF system for calculation and evaluation. A quantitative comparison is given to reveal the behavior and effect of individual error resources. Mixed error testing is also provided to inspect the combination effect of errors. The experiment shows that CT noise is still a major error resource. The motion artifact affects the CBF results more geometrically than quantitatively. Lower xenon supply has a lesser effect on the results, but will reduce the signal/noise ratio. The lower xenon enhancement will lower the flow values in all areas of brain. (author)

  2. Optimization of the detector and associated electronics used for high-resolution liquid-scintillation alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.; Christian, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of various reflector geometries, light coupling liquids, photomultiplier tubes, preamplifiers and linear amplifiers were compared and the configuration found that optimized the combination of pulse-height resolution and pulse-shape discrimination. The best combination used a hemispherical reflector, filled with distilled water, coupled to an 8575 photomultiplier tube, the output of which was conditioned by a special integrating preamplifier and a double-delay-line linear amplifier. Careful choice of the scintillator, sample preparation procedures, and electronic apparatus can produce liquid-scintillation alpha spectroscopy with a pulse-height resolution of 300 keV, or less, and, by using pulse-shape discrimination, background levels as low as 0.01 counts/min. (author)

  3. The potential for large scale uses for fission product xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Of all fission products in spent, low enrichment, uranium, power reactor fuels xenon is produced in the highest yield - nearly one cubic meter, STP, per metric ton. In aged fuels which may be considered for processing in the U.S. radioactive xenon isotopes approach the lowest limits of detection. The separation from accompanying radioactive 85 Kr is the essential problem; however, this is state of the art technology which has been demonstrated on the pilot scale to yield xenon with pico-curie levels of 85 Kr contamination. If needed for special applications, such levels could be further reduced. Environmental considerations require the isolation of essentially all fission product krypton during fuel processing. Economic restraints assure that the bulk of this krypton will need to be separated from the much more voluminous xenon fraction of the total amount of fission gas. Xenon may thus be discarded or made available for uses at probably very low cost. In contrast with many other fission products which have unique radioactive characteristics which make them useful as sources of heat, gamma and x-rays and luminescence as well as for medicinal diagnostics and therapeutics fission product xenon differs from naturally occurring xenon only in its isotopic composition which gives it a slightly higher atomic weight, because of the much higher concentrations of the 134 X and 136 Xe isotopes. Therefore, fission product xenon can most likely find uses in applications which already exist but which can not be exploited most beneficially because of the high cost and scarcity of natural xenon. Unique uses would probably include applications in improved incandescent light illumination in place of krypton and in human anesthesia

  4. Threat detection of liquid explosives and precursors from their x-ray scattering pattern using energy dispersive detector technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) can be applied for identification of liquid threats in luggage scanning in security applications. To define the instrumental design, the framework for data reduction and analysis and test the performance of the threat detection in various scenarios....... Initial testing of the threat detection algorithms with this data set indicate the feasibility of detection levels of > 95 % true positive with

  5. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E; Rosendahl, S; Huhmann, C; Weinheimer, C; Kettling, H

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring trace amounts of krypton in xenon using a cold trap with a residual gas analyzer has been developed, which achieves an increased sensitivity by temporarily reducing the pumping speed while expending a minimal amount of xenon. By partially closing a custom built butterfly valve between the measurement chamber and the turbomolecular pump, a sensitivity of 40 ppt has been reached. This method has been tested on an ultra-pure gas sample from Air Liquide with an unknown intrinsic krypton concentration, yielding a krypton concentration of 330±200 ppt.

  6. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with the Xenon-133 inhalation procedure in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A.

    1985-10-01

    Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with inhalation of Xenon-133 and recording of regional clearance curves by stationary external detectors permits repeated estimation of bilateral cortical blood flow in resting position and after different activating procedures. Measurements can be performed on an outpatient basis, measurements in critical ill patients are possible as well. Compared to Xenon-133 single photon emission computerized tomography smaller doses can be used. Compared to Iodine-123 amphetamie SPECT actual flow calculation without arterial puncture is possible. Drawbacks of the technique are the two-dimensional imaging, unsufficient indication of the look through phenomenon and non-perfused tissue with zero-flow. However, measurement of rCBF with this technique are helpful in individual diagnosis of the following diseases: transient ischemic attacks with prolonged ischemia, communicating hydrocephalus with normal intracranial pressure, follow up studies in hemodilution, evaluation of patients with polyarterial vascular disease in respect to neurosurgical or vasculosurgical intervention, subarachnoid hemorrhage and head trauma. (orig.).

  7. Design and implementation of an array of micro-electrochemical detectors for two-dimensional liquid chromatography--proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Putnam, Joel; Mriziq, Khaled; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-03-05

    Simultaneous two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is an implementation of two-dimensional liquid chromatography which has the potential to provide very fast, yet highly efficient separations. It is based on the use of time x space and space x space separation systems. The basic principle of this instrument has been validated long ago by the success of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The construction of a pressurized wide and flat column (100 mm x 100 mm x 1 mm) operated under an inlet pressure of up to 50 bar was described previously. However, to become a modern analytical method, simultaneous 2D-LC requires the development of detectors suitable for the monitoring of the composition of the eluent of this pressurized planar, wide column. An array of five equidistant micro-electrochemical sensors was built for this purpose and tested. Each sensor is a three-electrode system, with the working electrode being a 25 microm polished platinum micro-electrode. The auxiliary electrode is a thin platinum wire and the reference electrode an Ag/AgCl (3M sat. KCl) electrode. In this first implementation, proof of principle is demonstrated, but the final instrument will require a much larger array. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  9. Advances in the sample preparation and the detector for a combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation method of low-level plutonium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Thorngate, J.H.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1976-07-01

    A combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation technique, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has many possible applications to the determination of low levels of plutonium and other alpha-emitting nuclides. Using these procedures, plutonium can be extracted from biological or environmental samples and introduced directly into a liquid scintillator. Quenching of the scintillator is thus minimized so that spectroscopic techniques may be employed. Existing chemical procedures and counting equipment were reviewed and improved. Purification of the di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (used as the actinide extractant) was found necessary. Destruction of organic material in the sample and control of the valence state of plutonium were found to be major sources of irreproducibility. Methods were developed to allow samples separated with commonly used ion exchange techniques to be extracted into the scintillator. Comparisons were made of a wide variety of the components and parameters of the detector system to find the best combination of pulse-height resolution and pulse-shape discrimination. When a single phototube was used, optimum performance was obtained using a hemispherical reflector-sample holder viewed sideways by an RCA 8575 photomultiplier tube used in conjunction with a special integrating preamplifier and a good quality linear amplifier that used delay lines to shape the pulses

  10. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  11. Actinide and xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D. L.; Sailor, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  12. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, M. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides.

  13. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  14. Xenon plasma with caesium as additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojilkovic, S.M.; Novakovic, N.V.; Zivkovic, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration dependence of xenon plasma with cesium as additive in the temperature range of 2000 K to 20,000 K is analyzed. Plasma is considered as weakly nonideal in complete local thermodynamic equilibrium and the interaction between plasma and vessel walls is not taken into account. The values of some of the parameters for nonideality of plasma with 1% of cesium (γ=0.01010) and 10% of cesium (γ=0.11111) are computed, for an initial pressure in plasma of p 0 =13,000 Pa and initial temperature T 0 =1000 K. The ratio of electric conductivity of plasma computed by Lorentz's formula and electric conductivity computed by Spitzer's formula in the same temperature interval is also analyzed. (author) 5 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs

  15. Xenon plasma with caesium as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojilkovic, S M; Novakovic, N V; Zivkovic, L M

    1986-01-01

    The concentration dependence of xenon plasma with cesium as additive in the temperature range of 2000 K to 20,000 K is analyzed. Plasma is considered as weakly nonideal in complete local thermodynamic equilibrium and the interaction between plasma and vessel walls is not taken into account. The values of some of the parameters for nonideality of plasma with 1% of cesium (..gamma..=0.01010) and 10% of cesium (..gamma..=0.11111) are computed, for an initial pressure in plasma of p/sub 0/=13,000 Pa and initial temperature T/sub 0/=1000 K. The ratio of electric conductivity of plasma computed by Lorentz's formula and electric conductivity computed by Spitzer's formula in the same temperature interval is also analyzed. (author) 5 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  16. Optimization of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detector (FLD) method for the quantitative determination of selected neurotransmitters in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stragierowicz, Joanna; Daragó, Adam; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main neurotransmitters in the central nervous system for excitatory and inhibitory processes, respectively. Monitoring these neurotransmitters is an essential tool in establishing pathological functions, among others in terms of occupational exposure to toxic substances. We present modification of the HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to the UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography) method for the simultaneous determination of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in a single injection. The isocratic separation of these neurotransmitter derivatives was performed on Waters Acquity BEH (ethylene bridged hybrid) C18 column with particle size of 1.7 μm at 35°C using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 6.0) and methanol (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. The analytes were detected with the fluorescence detector (FLD) using derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA), resulting in excitation at 340 nm and emission at 455 nm. Several validation parameters including linearity (0.999), accuracy (101.1%), intra-day precision (1.52-1.84%), inter-day precision (2.47-3.12%), limit of detection (5-30 ng/ml) and quantification (100 ng/ml) were examined. The developed method was also used for the determination of these neurotransmitters in homogenates of selected rat brain structures. The presented UPLC-FLD is characterized by shorter separation time (3.5 min), which is an adaptation of the similar HPLC methods and is an alternative for more expensive references techniques such as liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. Med Pr 2017;68(5):583-591. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Determination of ascorbic acid by high performance liquid chromatography (H. P. L. C.) using photodiode array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbashier, E. E.; Greenway, G. M; Townshend, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid method for the determination of vitamin C using H. P. L. C. A reversed phase C 1 8 column was used to perform ion pairing chromatography, the ion pairing agent tri-n-butylamine and mobile phase 90:10 phospate buffer (pH 4.5) to methanol. A diode array spectrophotometric detector facilitated method development allowing chromatograms to be obtained for range of wavelengths. A linear calibration curve was obtained in range 0-50 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and detection limit was 1.5 μg/ml and relative standard deviation was 1.8% for ten samples at 10μg/ml.(Author)

  18. Appropriate xenon-inhalation time in xenon-enhanced CT using the end-tidal gas-sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Hideo; Furuhata, Shigeru; Onozuka, Satoshi; Uchida, Koichi; Fujii, Koji; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Toya, Shigeo; Shiga, Hayao

    1988-12-01

    For the end-tidal gas-sampling method of xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT), the respective functional images of K, lambda, and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied and compared using the data at 7-, 10-, 15- and 25-minute inhalations. The most appropriate inhalation time of xenon gas was evaluated in 14 clinical cases. An end-tidal xenon curve which represents the arterial xenon concentration was monitored with a xenon analyzer; the xenon concentration was gradually increased to a level of 50% by using a xenon inhalator with a closed circuit to prevent the overestimation of the xenon concentration sampled from the mask. Serial CT scans were taken over a period of 25 minutes of inhalation. The functional images of K, lambda, and rCBF were calculated for serial CT scans for 7, 10, 15 and 25 minutes using Fick's equation. Those various images and absolute values were then compared. The rCBF value of a 15-minute inhalation was approximately 15% greater than that of 25 minutes, while the values of K, lambda, rCBF from a 15-minute inhalation were significantly correlated to those from 25 minutes. The regression line made it possible to estimate 25-minute inhalation values from those of 15 minutes. In imaging, the rCBF mapping of the 15-minute inhalation was found to be more reliable than that of 25 minutes. This study suggests that the minimal time of xenon inhalation is 15 minutes for the end-tidal gas-sampling method. A longer inhalation may be necessary for the estimation of rCBF in the low-flow area, such as the white matter or the pathological region.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in Bai-Hu-Tang using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Fang; Tong, Wing-Sum; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Yip, Ka-Man; Li, Song-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2017-10-01

    Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used for clearing heat and promoting body fluid, consists of four traditional Chinese medicines, i.e., Gypsum Fibrosum (Shigao), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhimu), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle (Zhigancao), and nonglutinous rice (Jingmi). The chemical composition of BHT still remains largely elusive thus far. To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in BHT, here a combination of analytical approaches using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector was developed and validated. A total of 42 secondary metabolites in BHT were tentatively or definitely identified, of which 10 major chemicals were quantified by the extracting ion mode of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides in BHT were also characterized via sample pretreatment followed by sugar composition analysis. The quantitative results indicated that the determined chemicals accounted for 35.76% of the total extract of BHT, which demonstrated that the study could be instrumental in chemical dissection and quality control of BHT. The research deliverables not only laid the root for further chemical and biological evaluation of BHT, but also provided a comprehensive analytical strategy for chemical characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in traditional Chinese medicine formulas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in Bai-Hu-Tang using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Fang Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula used for clearing heat and promoting body fluid, consists of four traditional Chinese medicines, i.e., Gypsum Fibrosum (Shigao, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhimu, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle (Zhigancao, and nonglutinous rice (Jingmi. The chemical composition of BHT still remains largely elusive thus far. To qualitatively and quantitatively characterize secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in BHT, here a combination of analytical approaches using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector was developed and validated. A total of 42 secondary metabolites in BHT were tentatively or definitely identified, of which 10 major chemicals were quantified by the extracting ion mode of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides in BHT were also characterized via sample pretreatment followed by sugar composition analysis. The quantitative results indicated that the determined chemicals accounted for 35.76% of the total extract of BHT, which demonstrated that the study could be instrumental in chemical dissection and quality control of BHT. The research deliverables not only laid the root for further chemical and biological evaluation of BHT, but also provided a comprehensive analytical strategy for chemical characterization of secondary metabolites and carbohydrates in traditional Chinese medicine formulas.

  1. Development of large-volume, high-resolution tracking detectors based on capillaries filled with liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Penso, G.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    Searches for the decay of short-lived particles require real time, high-resolution tracking in active targets, which in the case of neutrino physics should be of large volume. The possibility of achieving this by using glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator is being investigated in the framework of the CHORUS experiment at CERN. In this paper, after outlining the application foreseen, advances in the tracking technique are discussed and results from tests are reported. An active target of dimensions 180x2x2 cm 3 has been assembled from capillaries with 20 μm diameter pores. The readout scheme currently in operation allows the reading of similar 5x10 5 channels using a single chain of image intensifiers having a resolution of σ similar 20 μm. Following the development of new liquid scintillators and purification methods an attenuation length of similar 3 m has been obtained. This translates into a hit density of 3.5 per mm for a minimum-ionizing particle that crosses the active target at a distance of 1 m from the readout end. (orig.)

  2. XAS characterisation of xenon bubbles in uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bat. 130, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: martinp@drncad.cea.fr; Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Sabathier, C.; Valot, C. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bat. 130, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Nassif, V. [CEA Grenoble, DSM/DRFMC/SP2M/NRS, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Proux, O. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, UMR CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, 1381 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, 38400 Saint-Martin-D' Heres (France); Hazemann, J.-L. [Institut Neel, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-06-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were performed on a set of uranium dioxide samples implanted with 10{sup 17} xenon cm{sup -2} at 800 keV (8 at.% at 140 nm). EXAFS measurements performed at 12 K showed that during implantation the gas forms highly pressurised nanometre size inclusions. Bubble pressures were estimated at 2.8 {+-} 0.3 GPa at low temperature. Following the low energy xenon implantation, samples were annealed between 1073 and 1773 K for several hours. Stability of nanometre size highly pressurized xenon aggregates in UO{sub 2} is demonstrated up to 1073 K as for this temperature almost no modification of the xenon environment was observed. Above this temperature, bubbles will trap migrating vacancies and their inner pressure is seen to decrease substantially.

  3. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs

  4. Operating the GridPix detector in dark matter search experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, R.; Alfonsi, M.; Hemink, G.; Decowski, M.P.; van Bakel, N.; van der Graaf, H.

    2013-01-01

    The DARWIN (dark matter WIMP search with noble liquids) design study aims to use liquid argon and liquid xenon targets to look for nuclear recoils due to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). To measure the recoil energy in dual-phase noble gas time projection chambers the combination of

  5. Study of regional lung ventilation and perfusion by xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    The present work consists of a regional lung exploration after injection of xenon 133, dissolved in physiological serum, followed a few minutes later by that of 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres. The aim is three fold: first of all to study perfusion and ventilation by xenon 133, next to compare the results obtained after xenon 133 and 99 m Tc-labelled microsphere injection, lastly to establish the value of the technique and its routine application. This examination has not solved all problems of lung exploration by xenon 133. For example we deliberately kept to intraveinous injection of the gas dissolved in physiological serum, leaving aside the breathing test. Xenon 133 scintigraphy in our opinion will not tend to replace 99m Tc-labelled microsphere scintigraphy, which has irreplaceable morphological qualities, but will serve as an excellent complement. The basic advantage of xenon 133 is the regional ventilation estimate it provides allowing any anomaly of the lung parenchyma to be located immediately or conversely the functional value of the healthy lung to be established with a view to a surgical removal of a diseased zone [fr

  6. Exposure mode study to xenon-133 in a reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perier, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the external and internal dose assessment to xenon-133. During the nuclear reactor operation, fission products and radioactive inert gases, as 133 Xe, are generated and might be responsible for the exposure of workers in case of clad defect. Particle Monte Carlo transport code is adapted in radioprotection to quantify dosimetric quantities. The study of exposure to xenon-133 is conducted by using Monte-Carlo simulations based on GEANT4, an anthropomorphic phantom, a realistic geometry of the reactor building, and compartmental models. The external exposure inside a reactor building is conducted with a realistic and conservative exposure scenario. The effective dose rate and the eye lens equivalent dose rate are determined by Monte-Carlo simulations. Due to the particular emission spectrum of xenon-133, the equivalent dose rate to the lens of eyes is discussed in the light of expected new eye dose limits. The internal exposure occurs while xenon-133 is inhaled. The lungs are firstly exposed by inhalation, and their equivalent dose rate is obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. A biokinetic model is used to evaluate the internal exposure to xenon-133. This thesis gives us a better understanding to the dosimetric quantities related to external and internal exposure to xenon-133. Moreover the impacts of the dosimetric changes are studied on the current and future dosimetric limits. The dosimetric quantities are lower than the current and future dosimetric limits. (author)

  7. A programmable logic controller-based system for the recirculation of liquid C6F14 in the ALICE high momentum particle identification detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgura, I.; Cataldo, G. de; Franco, A.; Pastore, C.; Volpe, G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and the implementation of the Control System (CS) for the recirculation of liquid Perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) for the ALICE High Momentum Particle Identification detector (HMPID). The HMPID is a detector of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It uses liquid C 6 F 14 as Cherenkov radiator medium in twenty-one quartz vessels for the measurement of the charged particles velocity. The primary task of the Liquid Circulation System (LCS) is to ensure the highest transparency of C 6 F 14 to the ultraviolet light. In order to provide safe long term operation a Programmable Logic Controller-based CS has been implemented. CS provides both automatic and manual operating modes, remotely or locally. Its finite state machine design minimizes the possible operator errors and provides a hierarchical control structure allowing the operation and monitoring down to a single radiator vessel. LCS is protected against unsafe working conditions by both active and passive measures. The passive ones are intrinsically guaranteed whereas the active ones are ensured via the control software running in the PLC. The human interface and data archiving are provided via PVSS, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) framework which integrates the full detector control. LCS under CS control proved to meet all designed requirements thus enabling HMPID detector to successfully collect data since the very beginning of LHC operation. (authors)

  8. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems; Estudio bibliografico de la produccion de xenon-133 y problemas afines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, M; Ropero, M

    1980-07-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs.

  9. Sensitivity of gaseous xenon ionisation chambers (1961); Sensibilite des chambres d'ionisation a xenon gazeux (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhl, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It seems advantageous to fill an ionization chamber with xenon gas when this chamber is used for measuring a low intensity and high energy electron or positron beam, or monitoring a gamma beam. In the study of 5 to 50 MeV electrons, xenon allows for the ionization chamber yield, an improvement of a factor 4,5. (author) [French] Il apparait interessant d'utiliser du xenon comme gaz dans une chambre d'ionisation destinee a mesurer un faisceau d'electrons ou de positons de faible intensite et de grande energie ou pour monitorer un faisceau de gamma. Dans les etudes des electrons de 5 a 50 MeV, le xenon permet de gagner un facteur 4,5 sur l'air pour la sensibilite d'une chambre d'ionisation. (auteur)

  10. Search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe with the XMASS-I detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Double electron capture is a rare nuclear decay process in which two orbital electrons are captured simultaneously in the same nucleus. Measurement of its two-neutrino mode would provide a new reference for the calculation of nuclear matrix elements whereas observation of its neutrinoless mode would demonstrate lepton number violation. A search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe is performed using 165.9 days of data collected with the XMASS-I liquid xenon detector. No significant excess above background was observed and we set a lower limit on the half-life as 4.7×1021 years at 90% confidence level. The obtained limit has ruled out parts of some theoretical expectations. We obtain a lower limit on the 126Xe two-neutrino double electron capture half-life of 4.3×1021 years at 90% confidence level as well.

  11. Improvements in or relating to trapping and reuse of radioactive xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolmsjoe, M.S.; Persson, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described suitable for recovering, from a mixture of gases contaning radioactive xenon, a mixture of gases containing an increased concentration of radioactive xenon, which method comprises the steps of passing xenon-containing gas through a bed of activated charcoal to adsorb the xenon therein, thereafter heating the charcoal bed to a temperature within the range of from 200 to 400 0 C, passing a moisture-free sweep gas through the bed when heated to said temperature to desorb xenon therefrom and then collecting the xenon-containing gas thus formed. (author)

  12. Quality evaluation of mycelial Antrodia camphorata using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry (DAD-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Kelvin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antrodia camphorata (AC is an important fungus native to Taiwanese forested regions. Scientific studies have demonstrated that extracts of AC possess a variety of pharmacological functions. This study aims to identify the full profile fingerprint of nucleosides and nucleobases in mycelial AC and to assess the quality of two commercial mycelial AC products. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry was employed to identify the major components in mycelial AC. The chemical separation was carried out using a gradient program on a reverse phase Alltima C18 AQ analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with the mobile phase consisting of deionized water and methanol. Results Ten nucleosides and nucleobases, two maleimide derivatives, and a sterol were identified as the major constituents in mycelial AC. These groups of chemical compounds constitute the first chromatographic fingerprint as an index for quality assessment of this medicinal fungus. Conclusions This study provides the first chromatographic fingerprint to assess the quality of mycelial AC.

  13. Characterisation of nucleosides and nucleobases in Mactra veneriformis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Ji, Jing; Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Guo, Sheng; Wu, Hao

    2012-11-15

    Mactra veneriformis has been used as sea food and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years in China. In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) method was established for detection of the nucleosides and nucleobases in M. veneriformis from four aquaticultural area of Jiangsu during different harvest time of one year. The validated method was successfully applied to identifying 10 nucleosides and nucleobases in 48 M. veneriformis samples. Quantitative analysis showed that nucleosides and nucleobases are rich in all M. veneriformis samples. However, their contents vary in different areas and harvest times. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify the 48 samples based on the contents of the nucleosides and nucleobases. As a result, the samples could be mainly clustered into four groups, which was similar as aquaticultural areas classification. Based on the results, present method might be applicable for the quality control of M. veneriformis, or even other marine shellfish aquiculture and their products, and the quality of M. veneriformis might be more related with aquaticultural areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and validation of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for forensic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice

    2017-10-15

    Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of coumarins, flavonoids and limonoids in Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of eleven major bioactive components including six coumarins, three flavonoids and two limonoids in Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis. The analysis was performed on a Cosmosil 5 C(18)-MS-II column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) with water-acetonitrile gradient elution. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.9993) within the test ranges. The overall limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were less than 3.0 and 10.2 ng. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day repeatability were not more than 4.99% and 4.92%, respectively. The sample was stable for at least 48 h. The spike recoveries of eleven components were 95.1-104.9%. The established method was successfully applied to determine eleven components in three samples from different locations. The results showed that the newly developed HPLC-DAD method was linear, sensitive, precise and accurate, and could be used for quality control of Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Online extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for rapid flavonoid profiling of Fructus aurantii immaturus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Runna; Peng, Mijun; Tong, Chaoying; Guo, Keke; Shi, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    Chemical profiling of natural products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was critical for understanding of their clinical bioactivities, and sample pretreatment steps have been considered as a bottleneck for analysis. Currently, concerted efforts have been made to develop sample pretreatment methods with high efficiency, low solvent and time consumptions. Here, a simple and efficient online extraction (OLE) strategy coupled with HPLC-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was developed for rapid chemical profiling. For OLE strategy, guard column inserted with ground sample (2 mg) instead of sample loop was connected with manual injection valve, in which components were directly extracted and transferred to HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system only by mobile phase without any extra time, solvent, instrument and operation. By comparison with offline heat-reflux extraction for Fructus aurantii immaturus (Zhishi), OLE strategy presented higher extraction efficiency perhaps because of the high pressure and gradient elution mode. A total of eighteen flavonoids were detected according to their retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and compound 9, natsudaidain-3-O-glucoside, was discovered in Zhishi for the first time. It is concluded that the developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Simultaneous determination of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol in mouse plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Cifelli, Roberta; Di Legge, Cristina; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Costa, Nicola; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Capolupo, Carlo; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2015-04-03

    This paper reports the validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous analysis, in mouse plasma, of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol by protein precipitation using zinc sulphate-methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 μm particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 15 min, comprising re-equilibration, at 60°C (± 1°C). The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.5 to 25 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, in mouse plasma. Ciprofloxacin was used as Internal Standard. Results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.5 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, and matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity, up to 25 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2))≥ 0.9891. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ≤ 1.15% and ≤ 1.46% for eperisone hydrochloride, and ≤ 0.35% and ≤ 1.65% for paracetamol. For both analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (bias%) values ranged, respectively, from -5.33% to 4.00% and from -11.4% to -4.00%. The method was successfully tested in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration in mouse. Furthermore, the application of this method results in a significant reduction in terms of animal number, dosage, and improvement in speed, rate of analysis, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters related to serial blood sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Dawn; Magyar, Rudolph; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Mixtures of light and heavy elements arise in inertial confinement fusion and planetary science. We present results on the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT/QMD) at elevated-temperature and pressure is used to obtain the properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate the QMD simulations, we performed high-precision shock compression experiments using Sandia's Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis of the simulations correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with completion of dissociation in ethane. DFT-based simulation results compare well with experimental data and are used to provide insight into the dissociation as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for ethane, Xe-ethane, polymethyl-pentene, and polystyrene, suggesting that a limiting compression exists for C-C bonded systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng

    2008-01-01

    Xenon difluoride (XeF 2 ) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF 2 into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF 2 is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions (∼4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF 2 in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF 2 are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  20. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  1. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  2. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  3. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters ε 2 τ's are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs

  4. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  5. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  6. First direct detection limits on sub-GeV dark matter from XENON10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven; Manalaysay, Aaron; Mardon, Jeremy; Sorensen, Peter; Volansky, Tomer

    2012-07-13

    The first direct detection limits on dark matter in the MeV to GeV mass range are presented, using XENON10 data. Such light dark matter can scatter with electrons, causing ionization of atoms in a detector target material and leading to single- or few-electron events. We use 15  kg day of data acquired in 2006 to set limits on the dark-matter-electron scattering cross section. The strongest bound is obtained at 100 MeV where σ(e)dark-matter masses between 20 MeV and 1 GeV are bounded by σ(e)dark-matter candidates with masses well below the GeV scale.

  7. Intrinsic backgrounds from Rn and Kr in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Perio, P. de; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, LIBPhys, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Galloway, M.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Wang, Z. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. von [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Reichard, S. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, IMT Atlantique, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Messina, M. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Pienaar, J. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Physics, Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Ramirez Garcia, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Reuter, C. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lavina, L.S. [Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics, Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Weber, M. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Wei, Y. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2018-02-15

    In this paper, we describe the XENON100 data analyses used to assess the target-intrinsic background sources radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and krypton ({sup 85}Kr). We detail the event selections of high-energy alpha particles and decay-specific delayed coincidences. We derive distributions of the individual radionuclides inside the detector and quantify their abundances during the main three science runs of the experiment over a period of ∝ 4 years, from January 2010 to January 2014. We compare our results to external measurements of radon emanation and krypton concentrations where we find good agreement. We report an observed reduction in concentrations of radon daughters that we attribute to the plating-out of charged ions on the negatively biased cathode. (orig.)

  8. Intrinsic backgrounds from Rn and Kr in the XENON100 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Perio, P. de; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Galloway, M.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J.; Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B.; Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C.; Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Bruno, G.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Wang, Z.; Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N.; Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. von; Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Reichard, S.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D.; Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J.; Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Fulgione, W.; Lindemann, S.; Messina, M.; Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P.; Pienaar, J.; Ramirez Garcia, D.; Reuter, C.; Lavina, L.S.; Stein, A.; Wang, H.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Weber, M.; Wei, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the XENON100 data analyses used to assess the target-intrinsic background sources radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and krypton ( 85 Kr). We detail the event selections of high-energy alpha particles and decay-specific delayed coincidences. We derive distributions of the individual radionuclides inside the detector and quantify their abundances during the main three science runs of the experiment over a period of ∝ 4 years, from January 2010 to January 2014. We compare our results to external measurements of radon emanation and krypton concentrations where we find good agreement. We report an observed reduction in concentrations of radon daughters that we attribute to the plating-out of charged ions on the negatively biased cathode. (orig.)

  9. Output power characteristics of the neutral xenon long laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Space and Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    Lasers which oscillate within inhomogeneously broadened gain media exhibit spectral hole burning and concomitant reduction in output power compared with equivalent homogeneously-broadened laser gain media. By increasing the cavity length, it may be possible to demonstrate at least a partial transition from an inhomogeneous laser cavity mode spectrum to a homogeneous spectrum. There are a number of high gain laser lines which are inhomogeneously-broadened transitions in electric discharges of neutral xenon. In neutral xenon lasers, as in the cases of many other gas lasers, the inhomogeneous spectral broadening mechanism arises from Doppler shifts, {Delta}{nu}{sub D}, of individual atoms in thermal motion within the electric discharge comprising the laser gain medium. Optical transitions corresponding to these noble gas atoms have natural linewidths, {Delta}{nu}{sub n}{lt}{Delta}{nu}{sub D}. Simulations of the output power characteristics of the xenon laser were carried out as a function of laser cavity parameters, including the cavity length, L. These calculations showed that when the intracavity mode spacing frequency, c/2L{lt}{Delta}{nu}{sub n}, the inhomogeneously broadened xenon mode spectrum converted to a homogeneously broadened oscillation spectrum with an increase in output power. These simulations are compared with experimental results obtained for the long laser oscillation characteristics of the (5d[5/2]{degree}{sub 2}{r_arrow}6p[3/2]{sub 1}) transition corresponding to the strong, high-gain 3.508 {mu} line in xenon.

  10. Modeling Xenon Purification Systems in a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) is a proposed method to employ fusion energy to produce electricity for consumers. However, before it can be built and used as such, each aspect of a LIFE power plant must first be meticulously planned. We are in the process of developing and perfecting models for an exhaust processing and fuel recovery system. Such a system is especially essential because it must be able to recapture and purify expensive materials involved in the reaction so they may be reused. One such material is xenon, which is to be used as an intervention gas in the target chamber. Using Aspen HYSYS, we have modeled several subsystems for exhaust processing, including a subsystem for xenon recovery and purification. After removing hydrogen isotopes using lithium bubblers, we propose to use cryogenic distillation to purify the xenon from remaining contaminants. Aspen HYSYS allows us to analyze predicted flow rates, temperatures, pressures, and compositions within almost all areas of the xenon purification system. Through use of Aspen models, we hope to establish that we can use xenon in LIFE efficiently and in a practical manner.

  11. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokapanich, Wandared; Björneholm, Olle; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Tchaplyguine, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Binary rare gas clusters; xenon and neon which have a significant contrariety between sizes, produced by a co-expansion set up and have been studied using synchrotron radiation based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concentration ratios of the heterogeneous clusters; 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% were controlled. The core level spectra were used to determine structure of the mixed cluster and analyzed by considering screening mechanisms. Furthermore, electron binding energy shift calculations demonstrated cluster aggregation models which may occur in such process. The results showed that in the case of low mixing ratios of 3% and 5% of xenon in neon, the geometric structures exhibit xenon in the center and xenon/neon interfaced in the outer shells. However, neon cluster vanished when the concentration of xenon was increased to 10%. - Highlights: • Co-expansion setup is suitable for producing binary Xe/Ne clusters. • Appropriate temperature, pressure, and mixing ratios should be strictly controlled. • Low mixing ratio, Xe formed in the core and Xe/Ne interfacing in the outer shell. • High mixing ratio, only pure Xe clusters were detected.

  12. Converging xenon shock waves driven by megagauss magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Steinberg, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    We attempted to implode a conducting metal linear at high velocity, and our failure to do so led to switching, or rapidly transferring the field from pushing an aluminum conductor to snow-plowing a half-atmosphere of xenon gas. We successfully initiated convergent xenon gas shocks with the use of a magnetohydrodynamic switch and coaxial high-explosive, flux-compression generators. Principal diagnostics used to study the imploding xenon gas were 133 Xe radioactive tracers, continuous x-ray absorption, and neutron output. We compressed the xenon gas about five to sixfold at a velocity of 10 cm/μs at a radius of 4 cm. The snowplow efficiency was good; going from 13- to 4-cm radius, we lost only about 20% of the mass. The temperature of the imploded sheath was determined by mixing deuterium with the xenon and measuring the neutron output. Using reasonable assumptions about the amount, density, and uniformity of the compressed gas, we estimate that we reached temperatures as high as 155 eV. Energy-loss mechanisms that we encountered included wall ablation and Taylor instabilities of the back surface

  13. Muonium formation in xenon and argon up to 60 atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempton, J.R.; Senba, M.; Arseneau, D.J.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Pan, J.J.; Tempelmann, A.; Garner, D.M.; Fleming, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of muon polarization studies in xenon and argon up to 60 atm are reported. In argon for pressures up to 10 atm, the muon polarization is best explained by an epithermalcharge exchange model. Above this pressure, the decrease in P D and increase in P L are ascribed to charge neutralization and spin exchange reactions, respectively, in the radiolysis track. Measurements with Xe/He mixtures with a xenon pressure of 1 atm indicate that the lost polarization in the pure xenon at this pressure is due to inefficient moderation of the muon. As the pressure in pure xenon is increased above 10 atm, we find that P L remains roughly constant and P D begins to increase. The lost fraction may be due to the formation of a XeMu Van der Waals type complex, while P D is ascribed to XeMu + formation. This suggests that spur processes appear to be less important in xenon that in argon. (orig.)

  14. Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Chen, Q. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.

    2012-12-01

    The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ˜6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.

  15. Determination of Carotenoids in Human Serum and Breast Milk Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD for the identification and quantification of carotenoids, namely all-trans lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, in biological samples such as human serum and breast milk, has been developed and validated. Good chromatography separation was achieved using a binary mobile phase system on a YMC C30 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm at 30 °C. Owing to the smaller column particle size and diameter of the column, the separation was achieved in 18 min, which is significantly reduced from the typical 30–40 min of other methods. The diode array detector (DAD acquisition was set at a wavelength of 445 nm; 3D spectra ranging from wavelengths of 240–600 nm were also recorded. Peaks were identified by matching their retention time and spectra with those of standards. Quantification was achieved by internal standard calibration using echinenone as the internal standard. Good linearity was obtained for each compound (R2 > 0.9999. The method quantification limits (MQLs for serum and breast milk were 10 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL, in matrix, respectively. A spike recovery study and standard reference material (SRM from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 968e analysis has proven that the method has a high degree of accuracy, precision, and robustness. The stability study showed that the carotenoid standard and sample extracts could be stored in a chilled autosampler at 8 °C up to 48 h without being comprised, which provides guidance on re-test time frames. The freeze/thaw process was found to be detrimental to carotenoids, and should always be avoided. Most importantly, UV standardization of the stock standard is to be performed prior to each assay, and simply taking the values on Certificate of Analysis (CoA for calculation of the standard concentration is not recommended.

  16. Dense xenon nanoplasmas in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilse, P.; Moll, M.; Schlanges, M.; Bornath, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One reason for the on-going interest in laser-cluster interactions is the efficient absorption of the radiation energy of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses by clusters. Consequently, in laser-cluster experiments the emission of highly charged ions, very energetic electrons, higher harmonics, fast fragments as well at strong x-rays in the multi-keV range is observed. The cluster response is highly nonlinear. Different theoretical models and simulations indicate that resonant collective absorption plays a central role. The rapid expansion of irradiated clusters is essential as, at a certain time, the cluster reaches the density fulfilling the resonance condition. This can occur during a single pulse. A better control can be achieved by dual-pulse laser excitation with varying time delay between two pulses. A further optimization is possible by pulse shaping which is a modern tool in laser experiments. With pulse shaping, the dynamics of the system determined by heating, ionization and expansion can be specifically affected. For an understanding of the underlying physical processes in the dynamics of laser-cluster interaction, a theoretical description is presented using a genetic algorithm and basing on the relatively simple nanoplasma model. Recently, experiments as well as calculations were performed for silver clusters. Highly charged silver ions could be produced very efficiently with a pulse structure consisting of a smaller pre-pulse followed by a larger main pulse. The focus of the present contribution is on xenon clusters and their different behavior compared to metallic clusters as silver. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB 652.

  17. A novel approach to measure the electric dipole moment of 129Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, Florian; Feldmeier, Wolfhardt; Fierlinger, Peter; Taubenheim, Bernd [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDM) are promising systems to find new CP violation. The properties of the diamagnetic atom 129-Xe make it a particularly interesting candidate for an EDM search, as it enables new experimental strategies. Although the current experimental limit of d{sub Xe} < 4.0.10{sup -27} ecm is many orders of magnitude higher than the Standard Model (SM) prediction, theories beyond the SM usually require larger EDMs. Our experiment is based on microscopic hyper-polarized liquid xenon droplets, placed in a low-field NMR setup. Implementation of rotating electric fields enables a conceptually new EDM measurement technique, allowing thorough investigation of systematic effects. Still, a Ramsey-type spin precession experiment with static electric field can be realized at similar sensitivity within the same setup. Employing superconducting pick-up coils and highly sensitive LTc-SQUIDs, a large array of independent measurements can be performed simultaneously with different field configurations. With our novel approach we aim to be sensitive to an EDM of 129-Xe on the order of 10{sup -30} ecm. The talk gives an update on the current status of the xenon EDM experiment.

  18. Occupational exposure to xenon-133 among hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1984-11-01

    During procedures for pulmonary ventilation studies on patients in hospitals, xenon-133 may escape into ambient air. Measurements of air concentrations were required to permit an evaluation of the exposure to which hospital workers are subjected. Two complementary methods of in situ measurements of air concentrations were employed: a commercial air monitor and evacuated blood sampling tubes. Personal dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed simultaneously with the commercial air monitor, and the results were compared. This report presents the results of the measurements of air concentrations during studies on patients. Substantial leakage of xenon-133 was noted, but workers received less than the maximum permissible dose. Personal dosimeters do not permit accurate evaluation of the skin doses resulting from exposure to xenon-133; measurements of air concentrations are required for such evaluation. A number of procedures are recommended to minimize leakage and personnel exposure

  19. Simultaneous estimation of lisofylline and pentoxifylline in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector and its application to pharmacokinetics in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiya, Kishan S; Sharma, Saurabh; Kothari, Ishit; Chitkara, Deepak; Mittal, Anupama

    2017-09-01

    Lisofylline (LSF) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent with proven activity in serious infections associated with cancer chemotherapy, hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, autoimmune disorders including type-1 diabetes (T1DM) and islet rejection after islet transplantation. It is also an active metabolite of another anti-inflammatory agent, Pentoxifylline (PTX). LSF bears immense therapeutic potential in multiple pharmacological activities and hence appropriate and accurate quantification of LSF is very important. Although a number of analytical methods for quantification of LSF and PTX have been reported for pharmacokinetics and metabolic studies, each of these have certain limitations in terms of large sample volume required, complex extraction procedure and/or use of highly sophisticated instruments like LC-MS/MS. The aim of current study is to develop a simple reversed-phase HPLC method in rat plasma for simultaneous determination of LSF and PTX with the major objective of ensuring minimum sample volume, ease of extraction, economy of analysis, selectivity and avoiding use of instruments like LC-MS/MS to ensure a widespread application of the method. A simple liquid-liquid extraction method using methylene chloride as extracting solvent was used for extracting LSF and PTX from rat plasma (200μL). Samples were then evaporated, reconstituted with mobile phase and injected into HPLC coupled with photo-diode detector (PDA). LSF, PTX and 3-isobutyl 1-methyl xanthine (IBMX, internal standard) were separated on Inertsil® ODS (C18) column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisting of A-methanol B-water (50:50v/v) run in isocratic mode at flow rate of 1mL/min for 15min and detection at 273nm. The method showed linearity in the concentration range of 50-5000ng/mL with LOD of 10ng/mL and LLOQ of 50ng/mL for both LSF and PTX. Weighted linear regression analysis was also performed on the calibration data. The mean absolute recoveries were found to be 80

  20. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  1. Simultaneous quantification of six alkaloid components from commercial stemonae radix by solid phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Rong; Lu, Dan-Yi; Yang, Zhen-Ya; Zhao, Wen; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ma, Zhi-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stemonae radix has been applied in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Alkaloids are the main active ingredient in stemonae radix, so their composition and concentration levels are directly linked to clinic effects. Objective: The objective was to develop an analytical method with multiple markers for quality survey of commercial stemonae radix. Materials and Methods: A method for simultaneous determination of six compounds in commercial stemonae radix was performed using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector. The separation was carried out on an Agilent TC-C18 column with 0.1% acetonitrile solution of triethylamine aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient elution within 70 min. The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was successfully used to classify the samples in accordance with their chemical constituents. Results: Linearity (R2 > 0.9990), intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations <4%), limit of detection (0.011–0.086 μg/mL), limit of quantification (0.033–0.259 μg/mL) of the six alkaloids were determined, and the recoveries were between 96.6% and 103.7%. The method was successfully applied to analysis 36 batches of commercial stemonae radix. All the samples could be classified into five clusters by HCA. Conclusion: This article provides an accurate and simple analytical method for quality survey of commercial stemonae radix. Because of the significant chemical variations, careful selection of Stemona sources with obvious antitussive value but devoid of croomine followed by good agricultural practice and good manufacturing practice process is suggested. PMID:25829776

  2. Determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in fish by pressurized liquid extraction using aqueous solutions and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanqi; Deng, Yuehua; Yuan, Wenting; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2014-10-31

    A novel method was developed for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in fish. The method consists of a combination of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using aqueous solutions and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). The experimental parameters that influenced extraction efficiency were systematically evaluated. The optimal responses were observed by extracting 1g of fish meat with the solution of water:acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) at 150°C for 5min and acid-washed silica gel used as lipid sorbent. The obtained extract was then analyzed by SPME coupled with GC-FPD without any additional clean-up steps. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed procedure showed a wide linear range (0.90-5000ngg(-1)) obtained by analyzing the spiked fish samples with increasing concentrations of PFRs and correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.9900 to 0.9992. The detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.010-0.208ngg(-1) with standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.0% to 9.0%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 9.0% and 7.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PFRs in real fish samples with recoveries varying from 79.8% to 107.3%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is highly effective for analyzing PFRs in fish samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  5. Dual display of flow/lambda results in xenon CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenaver, L.M.; Dinewitz, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of cortical blood flow has always been limited by the unavoidable inclusion of white matter and sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in selected regions of interest. Xenon CT gives clear separation of anatomy, but precise ROI tracing is time consuming. CSF and gray and white matter have differing xenon solubilities (lambda), however, so the authors produce two-dimensional histograms of flow/lambda values within an ROI encompassing the desired anatomy and select lambda subregions for tissue-specific quantitative flow/lambda means and deviations. They report how this display is dynamic, allowing the physician to roam around the anatomy at will, with 1-second statistical updating

  6. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  7. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  8. Combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in systematic toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Sebastian; Pragst, Fritz; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Herre, Sieglinde; Tsokos, Michael

    2011-10-10

    Time of flight mass spectrometry provides new possibilities of substance identification by determination of the molecular formula from accurate molecular mass and isotope pattern. However, the huge number of possible isomers requires additional evidence. As a suitable way for routine performance of systematic toxicological analysis, a method for combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed and applied to blood samples from 77 death cases. The blood samples were prepared by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2) and by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (1:4 (v/v)). The evaporated extracts were reconstituted in 35% acetonitril/0.1% formic acid/H(2)O and aliquots were injected for analysis by LC-QTOF-MS (Agilent 6530) and HPLC-DAD (Agilent 1200). A valve switching system enabled simultaneous operation of both separated chromatographic lines under their respective optimal conditions using the same autosampler. The ESI-QTOF-MS instrument was run in data dependent acquisition mode with switching between MS and MS/MS (cycle time 1.1s) and measuring the full mass spectra and the collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra of all essential [M+H](+) ions. Libraries of accurate mass CID spectra (~2500 substances) and of DAD-UV spectra (~3300 substances) of the authors were used for substance identification. The application of this procedure is demonstrated in detail at four examples with multiple drug intake or administration. In the 77 cases altogether 198 substances were identified (87 by DAD and 195 by QTOF-MS) with a frequency between 1 and 20. In practical application, the sample preparation proved to be suitable for both techniques and for a wide variety of substances with different polarity. The automatic performance of the measurements was efficient and robust. Mutual confirmation, decrease of false positive and

  9. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  10. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  11. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  12. Transition from linear to nonlinear sputtering of solid xenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutkiewicz, L.; Pedrys, R.; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Self-sputtering of solid xenon has been studied with molecular dynamics simulations as a model system for the transition from dominantly linear to strongly nonlinear effects. The simulation covered the projectile energy range from 20 to 750 eV. Within a relatively narrow range from 30 to 250 e...

  13. On the spin-dependent sensitivity of XENON100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro; Pato, Miguel; Vogl, Stefan [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2012-11-15

    The latest XENON100 data severely constrains dark matter elastic scattering off nuclei, leading to impressive upper limits on the spin-independent cross-section. The main goal of this paper is to stress that the same data set has also an excellent spin-dependent sensitivity, which is of utmost importance in probing dark matter models. We show in particular that the constraints set by XENON100 on the spin-dependent neutron cross-section are by far the best at present, whereas the corresponding spin-dependent proton limits lag behind other direct detection results. The effect of nuclear uncertainties on the structure functions of xenon isotopes is analysed in detail and found to lessen the robustness of the constraints, especially for spin-dependent proton couplings. Notwith-standing, the spin-dependent neutron prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN are very encouraging. We apply our constraints to well-motivated dark matter models and demonstrate that in both mass-degenerate scenarios and the minimal supersymmetric standard model the spin-dependent neutron limits can actually override the spin-independent limits. This opens the possibility of probing additional unexplored regions of the dark matter parameter space with the next generation of ton-scale direct detection experiments.

  14. On the spin-dependent sensitivity of XENON100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Pato, Miguel; Vogl, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The latest XENON100 data severely constrains dark matter elastic scattering off nuclei, leading to impressive upper limits on the spin-independent cross-section. The main goal of this paper is to stress that the same data set has also an excellent spin-dependent sensitivity, which is of utmost importance in probing dark matter models. We show in particular that the constraints set by XENON100 on the spin-dependent neutron cross-section are by far the best at present, whereas the corresponding spin-dependent proton limits lag behind other direct detection results. The effect of nuclear uncertainties on the structure functions of xenon isotopes is analysed in detail and found to lessen the robustness of the constraints, especially for spin-dependent proton couplings. Notwith-standing, the spin-dependent neutron prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN are very encouraging. We apply our constraints to well-motivated dark matter models and demonstrate that in both mass-degenerate scenarios and the minimal supersymmetric standard model the spin-dependent neutron limits can actually override the spin-independent limits. This opens the possibility of probing additional unexplored regions of the dark matter parameter space with the next generation of ton-scale direct detection experiments.

  15. Improved Fluid Perturbation Theory: Equation of state for Fluid Xenon

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiong; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Gong-Mu; Zhao, Yan-Hong; Tian, Ming-Feng; Song, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The traditional fluid perturbation theory is improved by taking electronic excitations and ionizations into account, in the framework of average ion spheres. It is applied to calculate the equation of state for fluid Xenon, which turns out in good agreement with the available shock data.

  16. Xenon tissue/blood partition coefficient for pig urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    In four landrace pigs the tissue/blood partition coefficient (lambda) for xenon (Xe) for the urinary bladder was calculated after chemical analysis for lipid, water and protein content and determination of the haematocrit. The coefficients varied from bladder to bladder owing to small differences...

  17. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  18. Electric field measurements in a xenon discharge using Spark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of electric field distributions in a low-pressure xenon discharge are presented. The measurement technique is based on Stark spectroscopy, using a 2 + 1 excitation scheme with fluorescence dip detection. Electric fields can be measured by detecting Stark shifts of high-lying Rydberg

  19. Damage of copper by low energy xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad-Zakhryapin, A.A.; Popenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the copper crystal structure bombarded by xenon ions with 30-150 eV energy are studied. Foils of MOb copper mark, 10 mm in diameter and 100 μm thickness, are irradiated. The initial specimens are annealed in vacuum during 1 h at 900 K temperature. The specimens are bombarded by xenon ions in a water-cooled holder. A TE-O type accelerator serves as a xenon ion source. The ion energy varies within 30 to 150 eV range. The ion flux density is 8x10 16 ion/(cm 2 xs). It is shown that crystal structure variations at deep depths are observed not only at high (>1 keV), but at low ion energies down to several dozens of electronvolt as well. The crystal structure variation on copper irradiation by xenon ions with 30-150 eV energy is followed by formation of defects like dislocation loops, point defects in the irradiated target bulk

  20. Charge States of Krypton and Xenon in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Peter; Fludra, Andrzej; Giunta, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We calculate charge state distributions of Kr and Xe in a model for two different types of solar wind using the effective ionization and recombination rates provided from the OPEN_ADAS data base. The charge states of heavy elements in the solar wind are essential for estimating the efficiency of Coulomb drag in the inner corona. We find that xenon ions experience particularly low Coulomb drag from protons in the inner corona, comparable to the notoriously weak drag of protons on helium ions. It has been found long ago that helium in the solar wind can be strongly depleted near interplanetary current sheets, whereas coronal mass ejecta are sometimes strongly enriched in helium. We argue that if the extraordinary variability of the helium abundance in the solar wind is due to inefficient Coulomb drag, the xenon abundance must vary strongly. In fact, a secular decrease of the solar wind xenon abundance relative to the other heavier noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) has been postulated based on a comparison of noble gases in recently irradiated and ancient samples of ilmenite in the lunar regolith. We conclude that decreasing solar activity and decreasing frequency of coronal mass ejections over the solar lifetime might be responsible for a secularly decreasing abundance of xenon in the solar wind.

  1. A novel Kr-83m tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, R.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; Vénos, Drahoslav; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, OCT (2014), p10010 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : photon detectors for UV * visible and IR photons (gas) * gas systems and purification * scintillators, scintillation and light emission processes (solid, gas and liquid scintillators) * very low-energy charged particle detectors Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  2. Simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano quantity analyte detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggen Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a nano quantitation analytical detector (UHPLC–NQAD. All components in kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 were well separated on an Acquity BEH C18 column. Mobile phase A was 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA in water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. A gradient elution sequence was programed initially with 60% organic solvent, slowly increased to 100% within 8 min. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. Good linearity (r>0.95 was obtained in the range of 27.6–1381.1 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8–202.0 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride and 2.7–221.9 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. The relative standard deviations (RSD ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% for intra-day precision and from 0.4% to 2.7% for inter-day precision. The overall recoveries (accuracy were 99.7%–101.4% for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 96.7%–99.6% for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 94.1%–103.3% for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. Quantification limits (QL were determined as 27.6 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 2.7 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. No interferences were observed in the retention time ranges of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, QL, and robustness. The proposed method has been applied to microemulsion formulation analyses with good recoveries (82.2%–103.4%.

  3. Simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano quantity analyte detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggen; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Oscar

    2016-02-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a nano quantitation analytical detector (UHPLC-NQAD). All components in kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 were well separated on an Acquity BEH C 18 column. Mobile phase A was 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. A gradient elution sequence was programed initially with 60% organic solvent, slowly increased to 100% within 8 min. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. Good linearity ( r >0.95) was obtained in the range of 27.6-1381.1 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8-202.0 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride and 2.7-221.9 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. The relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% for intra-day precision and from 0.4% to 2.7% for inter-day precision. The overall recoveries (accuracy) were 99.7%-101.4% for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 96.7%-99.6% for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 94.1%-103.3% for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. Quantification limits (QL) were determined as 27.6 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 2.7 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. No interferences were observed in the retention time ranges of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, QL, and robustness. The proposed method has been applied to microemulsion formulation analyses with good recoveries (82.2%-103.4%).

  4. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, which can be investigated using 76 Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0νββ decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) 76 Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new 76 Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of ≤10 -2 events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of ≤10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced 60 Co is expected to be ∝2.5.10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV (λ=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for 60 Co and a factor 17 for 232 Th around Q ββ = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for 232 Th and 60 Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength shifter/reflector combination for the light detection has been developed, leading to a photo electron (pe) yield of as much as

  5. Development and validation of a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector method for Vitex agnus-castus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högner, C; Sturm, S; Seger, C; Stuppner, H

    2013-05-15

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of all classes of non-volatile phytochemicals (iridoids, flavonoids and diterpenes) in Vitex agnus-castus (Lamiaceae) fruits, a traditional medicinal plant used against premenstrual symptoms (PMS) and other disorders. Seven marker compounds, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, agnuside, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether, 1,2-dibenzoic acid glucose, methoxy-vitexilactone, and vitetrifolin D were isolated from the methanol extract of V. agnus-castus to be used as reference substances. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 (50mm×2.1mm) UHPLC column with 1.8μm particle size, within 20min. A solvent gradient from 0.5% acetic acid to acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min was used as mobile phase. Analyte detection and quantification was realized at 210nm and 260nm. The UHPLC-DAD assay was validated for the quantitative analysis of agnuside, isovitexin, casticin, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether and vitetrifolin D. It was found to be specific, accurate, precise, and reproducible for the quantification of these compound within a concentration range of 0.7-500.0μg/mL for casticin and 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether, 1.4-1000.0μg/mL for isovitexin and agnuside, and 12.4-1000.0μg/mL for vitetrifolin D. Intra- and inter-day variations showed relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 3.9% and 6.4%, respectively. Tentatively assignment of 62 chromatographic features found in the UHPLC-DAD assay was carried out by coupling the UHPLC instrument to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer via an electrospray ionization interface (ESI-QTOF-MS) operated in positive and negative ion mode. By using the established quantitative UHPLC-DAD assay to asses agnuside, isovitexin, casticin, 5-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,7,4'-tetramethylether and

  6. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  7. Search for double beta decay processes of {sup 124}Xe with XENON100 and XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieguth, Alexander [IKP, Westfaelische-Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Driven by the search for dark matter particles the XENON dark matter project recently installed its next stage multi-ton experiment XENON1T at the LNGS, which will probe the spin-indpendent-WIMP-Nucleon cross section down to 2.10{sup -47} cm{sup 2}. Besides its main purpose different particle physics topics can be addressed by the taken data. One example are the double beta decay processes of natural isotope {sup 124}Xe. This isotope is expected to decay via two-neutrino double electron capture (2νECEC) and due to its high Q-value of 2864 keV additionally through 2νβ{sup +}β{sup +}. Since these processes have not been detected so far, there is only a lower limit the respective half-life (e.g. > 4.7.10{sup 21} yr for 2νECEC). A detection of the 2νECEC is possible using XENON1T data by looking for its clear signature of secondary X-rays or Auger electrons and at least new lower half-life limits for all other decay channels can be obtained. While these processes are expected from standard model physics, a detection of a decay without neutrinos (e.g 0νECEC) would hint towards beyond the standard model physics and could derive conclusions on the neutrino mass. Until XENON1T is taking data, the search for all processes can be tested in the recorded data of its predecessor XENON100.

  8. Characterization of UV-enhanced SiPMs for Imaging in High Pressure Xenon Electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahlali, Nadia; Lorca, David; Fernandes, L.M.P.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of recording charged particle tracks in an electro-luminescent xenon gas TPC is investigated using a SiPM-based tracking system, operated in the demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 ββ decay experiment. The tracks of the ββ0ν events from the decay of the 136 Xe isotope have a distinctive topology, which allows their discrimination against single-electron events from the natural radioactivity that populates the region of interest of the neutrinoless decay in the ββ energy spectrum. Combined to the near-intrinsic energy resolution of the gaseous detector, this tracking capability provides a powerful background rejection tool for the search of the neutrinoless ββ decay aimed by the experiment. The NEXT-100 detector concepts and sensitivity and the first results of its demonstrator prototype are presented. The characterization studies relevant for the operation of UV-enhanced SiPMs used for imaging in an electro-luminescent TPC are reviewed. (authors)

  9. Xenon oscillation in a large PHWR core (Atucha II type): TRISIC code applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanilla, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    A three dimensional nuclear reactor simulation code (TRISIC) was developed many years ago to design a PHWR (pressurizer heavy water reactors - Atucha type) based in the 'source-sink model' (heterogeneous theory). The limited processor computational performance available at that time was the constraint of the code when a detailed reactor description was necessary. A modern PC (pentium) code version with a full reactor core representation (461 fuel channels) including diagonal control rod banks and flux-reading detectors with theirs tube guide was used in the present paper for simulation of the Xenon transient when a local asymmetric perturbation was produced in a large core (Atucha II type). The results obtained and the computer time required for the 70 hour's simulation with an adequate time step, established the potential of the code to deal with this kind of transients. The paper shows that the method of TRISIC allows to detect and control azimuthal, radial and axial oscillation. This code is a proper way to elaborate a program of control rods movement from the flux reading detectors to damp the oscillation. TRISIC could also be a accurate tool to supervise the full core flux distribution in real time during the operation of the reactor. (author)

  10. Spill-Detector-and-Shutoff Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Fulton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Overflow in liquid chromatography systems rapidly detected and stopped. Spill-detector-and-shutoff device incorporated into liquid-chromatography system. When liquid from output nozzle spills on liquid sensor, device automatically shuts off pump and releases solenoid to pinch off flow in tube. Device uses common type of alarm circuit reset manually before normal operation resumes.

  11. Application of cadmium telluride detectors to high energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.; Thomas, G.; Cuzin, M.; Verger, L.

    1991-01-01

    15 years ago, Cadmium Telluride detectors have been investigated in our laboratory as possible detectors for medical scanners [1]. Today most of these machines are using high pressure Xenon gas as multicells detectors, BGO or CdWO 4 scintillators for industrial computerized tomography. Xenon gas detectors are well suited for detection of 100 KeV X-rays and enables to build 1000 cells homogeneous detector with a dynamic range of 3 decades. BGO and CdWO 4 scintillators, associated with photomultipliers or photodiodes are used for higher energy (400 KeV). They present a low afterglow and a dynamic range of 4 to 5 decades. Non destructive testing of very absorbing objects (eg 2 m diameter solid rocket motor) by X-ray tomography requires much higher energy X-rays (16 MeV) and doses up to 12000 rads/min at 1 meter. For this application Cadmium Telluride detectors operating as photoconductors are well suited. A prototype of tomograph machine, able to scan 0.5 m diameter high density objects has been realized with 25 CdTe detectors (25x15x0.8 mm 3 ). It produces good quality 1024x1024 tomographic images

  12. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  13. Applications of Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector Diodes and the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants; Aplicaciones de la Cromatografia Liquida con Detector de Diodos y Fluorescencia al Analisis de Contaminantes Medioambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S; Perez, R M

    2012-04-11

    It presents a review on the determination of major types of organic pollutants in environmental samples by HPLC with diode array or fluorescence molecular detectors. Main objective has been to make a compilation of the analytical potential of the technique based on literature and our laboratory studies on the main aspects of analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  14. Detecting part of the transition radiation detector for the GINES installation at UNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhliarov, K.K.; Gavalian, V.G.; Aginian, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The detecting part of an X-ray transition radiation detector based on thin-walled mylar straws is considered in this paper. The performance of xenon-filled straws in the self-quenching mode is studied in detail. The measurements have been carried out both with radioactive sources and under the electron beam of the Yerevan synchrotron. (orig.)

  15. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbank, William

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long-sought-after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope "1"3"6Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world's best sensitivity of 1.9x10"2"5 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba"+ ions in gaseous xenon. Through

  16. Coincidence measurements in α/β/γ spectrometry with phoswich detectors using digital pulse shape discrimination analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis, B. de; Fuente, R. de la; Williart, A.; Celis Alonso, B. de

    2007-01-01

    A novel system has been developed for the detection of low radioactivity levels using coincidence techniques. The device combines a phoswich detector for α/β/γ ray recognition with a fast digital card for electronic pulse analysis. The detector is able to discriminate different types of radiation in a mixed α/β/γ field and can be used in a coincidence mode by identifying the composite signal produced by the simultaneous detection of β particles in a plastic scintillator and γ rays in an NaI(Tl) scintillator. Use of a coincidence technique with phoswich detectors was proposed recently to verify the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which made it necessary to monitor the low levels of xenon radioisotopes produced by underground nuclear explosions. Previous studies have shown that combining CaF 2 (Eu) for β ray detection and NaI(Tl) for γ ray detection makes it difficult to identify the coincidence signals because of the similar fluorescence decay times of the two scintillators. With the device proposed here, it is possible to identify the coincidence events owing to the short fluorescence decay time of the plastic scintillator. The sensitivity of the detector may be improved by employing liquid scintillators, which allow low radioactivity levels from actinides to be measured when present in environmental samples. The device developed is simpler to use than conventional coincidence equipment because it uses a single detector and electronic circuit, and it offers fast and precise analysis of the coincidence signals by employing digital pulse shape analysis

  17. Scintillators and other particle optical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipaux, R.

    2011-01-01

    The author reports and comments his researcher career in the field of particle optical detectors. He addresses the cases of organic scintillators (scintillating fibers, liquid scintillators), inorganic scintillators (crystals for electromagnetic calorimetry, crystals for solar neutrino spectroscopy), and Cherenkov Effect detectors. He also reports his works on Cd Te detectors and their modelling

  18. Two-photon resonant, stimulated processes in krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Both on-axis and conical emissions have been observed following two-photon pumping of the 5p states of krypton and the 6p', 7p, 8p, and 4f states of xenon. In the former case, coherent emissions from the 5p states to the 5s are observed, and in the latter case, many p→s, d→p, and f→d cascade emissions are observed. By analogy to the well-studied alkali and alkaline earth examples, the emissions are discussed in terms of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), stimulated hyper-Raman scattering, and parametric four-wave mixing. The physical processes responsible for the conical emission and for intensity anomalies in the xenon p→s emissions are not understood at present. Interference effects due to coherent cancellation between competing excitation pathways may be occurring. 4 refs., 3 figs

  19. Xenon NMR measurements of permeability and tortuosity in reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruopeng; Pavlin, Tina; Rosen, Matthew Scott; Mair, Ross William; Cory, David G; Walsworth, Ronald Lee

    2005-02-01

    In this work we present measurements of permeability, effective porosity and tortuosity on a variety of rock samples using NMR/MRI of thermal and laser-polarized gas. Permeability and effective porosity are measured simultaneously using MRI to monitor the inflow of laser-polarized xenon into the rock core. Tortuosity is determined from measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient using thermal xenon in sealed samples. The initial results from a limited number of rocks indicate inverse correlations between tortuosity and both effective porosity and permeability. Further studies to widen the number of types of rocks studied may eventually aid in explaining the poorly understood connection between permeability and tortuosity of rock cores.

  20. Modal analysis of temperature feedback in oscillations induced by xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.M. dos.

    1976-01-01

    The flux oscillations induced by Xenon distribution in homogeneous thermal reactors are studied treating the space dependence through the modal expansion technique and the stability limits against power oscillations and spatial oscillations are determined. The effect of the feedbacks due to Xenon and temperature coefficient on the linear stability of the free system is investigated employing several number of terms in the transient expansion, considering the various sizes of the reactor. The heat transfer model considered includes one term due to cooling proportional to the temperature. A PWR model reactor is utilized for numerical calculations. It is found that a slightly higher temperature feedback coefficient is necessary for stability against power oscillations when larger number of terms in the transient modal expansion is maintained. (author)

  1. Search for magnetic inelastic dark matter with XENON100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F.; Bruno, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Alfonsi, M. [Institut für Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D. [LIBPhys, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L. [Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B.; Calvén, J. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-10691 (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Bruenner, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Budnik, R. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Bütikofer, L., E-mail: lukas.buetikofer@lhep.unibe.ch, E-mail: xenon@lngs.infn.it [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-10-01

    We present the first search for dark matter-induced delayed coincidence signals in a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, using the 224.6 live days of the XENON100 science run II. This very distinct signature is predicted in the framework of magnetic inelastic dark matter which has been proposed to reconcile the modulation signal reported by the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration with the null results from other direct detection experiments. No candidate event has been found in the region of interest and upper limits on the WIMP's magnetic dipole moment are derived. The scenarios proposed to explain the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal by magnetic inelastic dark matter interactions of WIMPs with masses of 58.0 GeV/c{sup 2} and 122.7 GeV/c{sup 2} are excluded at 3.3 σ and 9.3 σ, respectively.

  2. Depth distribution of martensite in xenon implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of stress-induced martensite and its distribution in depth in xenon implanted austenitic stainless steel poly- and single crystals have been measured by Rutherford backscattering and channeling analysis, depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In low nickel 17/7, 304 and 316 commercial stainless steels and in 17:13 single crystals the martensitic transformation starts at the surface and develops towards greater depth with increasing xenon fluence. The implanted layer is nearly completely transformed, and the interface between martensite and austenite is rather sharp and well defined. In high nickel 310 commercial stainless steel and 15:19 and 20:19 single crystals, on the other hand, only insignificant amounts of martensite are observed. (orig.)

  3. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  4. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  5. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  6. Resonant four-wave mixing processes in xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiu, Y.M.; Bonin, K.D.; McIlrath, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two-photon resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing processes in xenon involving the intermediate states were utilized to generate coherent VUV radiation at several discrete wavelengths between 125.9 nm and 101.8 nm. Maximum efficiencies of the order of 10-4 were achieved. The use of these processes for producing tunable VUV output with Xe is given and generation of tunable VUV using two-photon resonances in other rare gases is discussed

  7. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  8. Application of xenon difluoride for surface modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsamyan, G.B.; Belokonov, K.V.; Vargasova, N.A.; Sokolov, V.B.; Chaivanov, B.B.; Zubov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical interaction between xenon difluoride (XeF 2 ) and polymeric materials was investigated. It was shown that the reaction occurs on the surface of solid polymer layer and brings to chemical modification of the surface properties of the polymer leaving the bulk properties unchanged. The results of various analysis of the fluorinated samples (IR, FTIR-ATR, ESCA, bulk analysis etc) are presented. The mechanism of reaction is proposed. 12 refs.; 13 figs

  9. Measurement of xenon reactivity in the reactor of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the measurement of reactivity changes caused by the increase and decrease of xenon concentration in the reactor core of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' after a change from long-term operation at 70 % to zero power. The change in xenon reactivity was compensated by control-rod movements and the compensated reactivity was measured using a digital reactivity meter. The xenon override peak was recognized five and half hours after the start of power reduction. The equilibrium and peak reactivities of xenon were estimated by reading the initial and peak values of a theoretical curve which was fitted to the measured variation in xenon reactivity. The xenon reactivity results obtained by the present method can be considered to be accurate since no control-rod worth data were used and the measured quantity was the reactivity itself. (author)

  10. Observation of a barium xenon exciplex within a large argon cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, M; Gaveau, M-A; Mestdagh, J-M

    2010-07-21

    Spectroscopic measurements provide fluorescence and excitation spectra of a single barium atom codeposited with xenon atoms on argon clusters of average size approximately 2000. The spectra are studied as a function of the number of xenon atoms per cluster. The excitation spectrum with approximately 10 xenon atoms per cluster is qualitatively similar to that observed when no xenon atom is present on the cluster. It consists of two bands located on each side of the 6s6p (1)P-6s(2) (1)S resonance line of the free barium. In contrast, the fluorescence spectrum differs qualitatively since a barium-xenon exciplex is observed, which has no counterpart in xenon free clusters. In particular an emission is observed, which is redshifted by 729 cm(-1) with respect to the Ba(6s6p (1)P-6s(2) (1)S) resonance line.

  11. Molecular MRI based on hyper-polarized xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassali, Nawal

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a high importance in medicine as it enables the observation of the organs inside the body without the use of radiative or invasive techniques. However it is known to suffer from poor sensitivity. To circumvent this limitation, a key solution resides in the use of hyper-polarized species. Among the entities with which we can drastically increase nuclear polarization, xenon has very specific properties through its interactions with its close environment that lead to a wide chemical shift bandwidth. The goal is thus to use it as a tracer. This PhD thesis focuses on the concept of 129 Xe MRI-based sensors for the detection of biological events. In this approach, hyper-polarized xenon is vectorized to biological targets via functionalized host systems, and then localized thanks to fast dedicated MRI sequences. The conception and set-up of a spin-exchange optical pumping device is first described. Then studies about the interaction of the hyper-polarized noble gas with new cryptophanes susceptible to constitute powerful host molecules are detailed. Also the implementation of recent MRI sequences optimized for the transient character of the hyper-polarization and taking profit of the xenon in-out exchange is described. Applications of this approach for the detection of metallic ions and cellular receptors are studied. Finally, our first in vivo results on a small animal model are presented. (author) [fr

  12. Build up of Radioactive Krypton and Xenon Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. K.; Choi, C. S.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, W.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, C. W.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to build up an analysis system to measure the activity of the atmospheric radioactive krypton and xenon in Korea. The work scopes of the project include the purchase and the installation of the analysis system to measure the activity of the radioactive krypton and xenon in air, and the establishment of the operation capability of the system through the training of the operator. The system consists of two air sampling systems, and one radioactivity analysis system, which incorporates the enrichment system, the gas chromatography to purify a mixture gas, and the gas proportional counter to count the activity of pure krypton and xenon gas. As planned originally, the establishment of the analysis system has been completed. At present, one air sampler is successfully being operated at a specific site of the South Korea to measure the background radioactivities of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in air. The other air sampler is being reserved at the KAERI in the Daejeon for a emergency like the second nuclear test of the North Korea. During the normal time, the reserved air sampler will be used to collect the air sample for the performance test of the analysis system and the cross analysis for the calibration of the system. The radioactivity analysis system has been installed at the KAERI, and is being used to measure the activity of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in the air sample from a domestic site

  13. Xenon adsorption on geological media and implications for radionuclide signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M J; Biegalski, S R; Haas, D A; Jiang, H; Daigle, H; Lowrey, J D

    2018-07-01

    The detection of radioactive noble gases is a primary technology for verifying compliance with the pending Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A fundamental challenge in applying this technology for detecting underground nuclear explosions is estimating the timing and magnitude of the radionuclide signatures. While the primary mechanism for transport is advective transport, either through barometric pumping or thermally driven advection, diffusive transport in the surrounding matrix also plays a secondary role. From the study of primordial noble gas signatures, it is known that xenon has a strong physical adsorption affinity in shale formations. Given the unselective nature of physical adsorption, isotherm measurements reported here show that non-trivial amounts of xenon adsorb on a variety of media, in addition to shale. A dual-porosity model is then discussed demonstrating that sorption amplifies the diffusive uptake of an adsorbing matrix from a fracture. This effect may reduce the radioxenon signature down to approximately one-tenth, similar to primordial xenon isotopic signatures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Process for recovering xenon from radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Tsuneo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To recover pure xenon economically and efficiently by amply removing radioactive krypton mixed in xenon without changing the rectifying capacity of an xenon rectifying system itself. Method: Xe containing radioactive Kr(Kr-85) is rectified to reduce the concentration of radioactive Kr. Thereafter, non-radioactive Kr or Ar is added to Xe and further the rectification is carried out. The raw material Xe from the Xe adsorption system of, for example, a radioactive gaseous waste disposal system is cooled to about 100 0 C by a heat-exchanger and thereafter supplied to a rectifying tower to carry out normal rectification of Xe thereby to reduce the concentration of Kr contained in Xe at the tower bottom to the rectification limit concentration. Then, non-radioactive Kr is supplied via a precooler to the tower bottom to continue the rectification, thus the Xe fractions at the tower bottom, in which the concentration of radioactive Kr is reduced, being compressed and recovered. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Qualification procedure of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector; Conception et mise au point de la procedure de qualification du calorimetre electromagnetique a argon liquide du detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, N

    2000-04-19

    LHC is the next collider based at CERN in Europe. The purpose of this machine is the Higgs boson and SUSY particles search. The detectors must have an excellent electromagnetic calorimetry to measure electron and photon energy. To maximize the signal to noise ratio for a low mass Higgs, it is fundamental to obtain a constant term as small as possible. LAPP is participating in the construction of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS collaboration. This technology is well adapted to the LHC experimental conditions. A systematic procedure to qualify the modules of this detector is an essential step to guarantee a 0,7% constant term, which is the collaboration objective. The procedure detailed in this thesis consists of quality monitoring during mechanical assembly and of a set of electrical tests such as electrical continuity, cell and cross-talk capacitance measurement, and high-voltage behaviour. For the whole test, it has been necessary to develop dedicated electronic cards, to develop measurement methods, and the whole operation software. Making the procedure automatic will guarantee the quality of each module during assembly, cabling, and test in liquid argon. (author)

  16. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  17. Analytical Issues on the Determination of Carotenoids in Microalgae by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector; Aspectos Analiticos sobre la Determinacion de Compuestos Carotenoides en Microalgas mediante Cromatografia de Liquidos con Detector de Diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2012-04-11

    A preliminary study of literature review on the determination of carotenoids in microalgae samples by HPLC with diode array detector is presented. Main objective has been focused to compile data from literature and based on the main aspects of the analytical methodology used in the determination of these compounds. The work is structured as follows and affecting major analytical difficulties: Procurement and commercial availability of standard solutions. Stage of sample treatment. Chromatographic analysis. (Author) 19 refs.

  18. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Cagniant, A.; Gross, P.; Achim, P.; Douysset, G.; Taffary, T.; Moulin, C.; Morelle, M.

    2013-01-01

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe and 135 Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX TM have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample

  19. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  20. Lambda-guided calculation method (LGC method) for xenon/CT CBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sase, Shigeru [Anzai Medical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Honda, Mitsuru; Kushida, Tsuyoshi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Machida, Keiichi; Shibata, Iekado [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-12-01

    A quantitative CBF calculation method for xenon/CT was developed by logically estimating time-course change rate (rate constant) of arterial xenon concentration from that of end-tidal xenon concentration. A single factor ({gamma}) was introduced to correlate the end-tidal rate constant (Ke) with the arterial rate constant (Ka) in a simplified equation. This factor ({gamma}) is thought to reflect the diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon. When an appropriate value is given to {gamma}, it is possible to calculate the arterial rate constant (Calculated Ka) from Ke. To determine {gamma} for each xenon/CT CBF examination, a procedure was established which utilizes the characteristics of white matter lambda; lambda refers to xenon brain-blood partition coefficient. Xenon/CT studies were performed on four healthy volunteers. Hemispheric CBF values (47.0{+-}9.0 ml/100 g/min) with use of Calculated Ka were close to the reported normative values. For a 27-year-old healthy man, the rate constant for the common carotid artery was successfully measured and nearly equal to Calculated Ka. The authors conclude the method proposed in this work, lambda-guided calculation method, could make xenon/CT CBF substantially reliable and quantitative by effective use of end-tidal xenon. (author)

  1. Lambda-guided calculation method (LGC method) for xenon/CT CBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Shigeru; Honda, Mitsuru; Kushida, Tsuyoshi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Machida, Keiichi; Shibata, Iekado

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative CBF calculation method for xenon/CT was developed by logically estimating time-course change rate (rate constant) of arterial xenon concentration from that of end-tidal xenon concentration. A single factor (γ) was introduced to correlate the end-tidal rate constant (Ke) with the arterial rate constant (Ka) in a simplified equation. This factor (γ) is thought to reflect the diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon. When an appropriate value is given to γ, it is possible to calculate the arterial rate constant (Calculated Ka) from Ke. To determine γ for each xenon/CT CBF examination, a procedure was established which utilizes the characteristics of white matter lambda; lambda refers to xenon brain-blood partition coefficient. Xenon/CT studies were performed on four healthy volunteers. Hemispheric CBF values (47.0±9.0 ml/100 g/min) with use of Calculated Ka were close to the reported normative values. For a 27-year-old healthy man, the rate constant for the common carotid artery was successfully measured and nearly equal to Calculated Ka. The authors conclude the method proposed in this work, lambda-guided calculation method, could make xenon/CT CBF substantially reliable and quantitative by effective use of end-tidal xenon. (author)

  2. Comparison of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector and with Tandem Mass Spectrometry methods for detection and quantification of Ochratoxin A in green and roasted coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte da Costa Cunha Bandeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical methods for the determination and confirmation of ochratoxin A (OTA in green and roasted coffee samples were compared. Sample extraction and clean-up were based on liquid-liquid phase extraction and immunoaffinity column. The detection of OTA was carried out with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined either with fluorescence detection (FLD, or positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS. The results obtained with the LC-ESI-MS/MS were specific and more sensitive, with the advantages in terms of unambiguous analyte identification, when compared with the HPLC-FLD.

  3. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  4. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  5. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  6. Detection and Quantification of Heme and Chlorophyll Precursors Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with Two Fluorescence Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilný, Jan; Kopečná, Jana; Noda, J. A.; Sobotka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-5 ISSN 2331-8325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fluorescence detector Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  8. Detectors for rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of photographic data retrieval with the flexibility of operation of conventional gaseous or liquid detectors operated with electronic data retrieval. Possible applications of the proposed detectors to such problems as nucleon decay, neutrinoelectron interaction, and the search for magnetic monopoles are examined. Topics considered include the photography of ionization patterns, the photography of ionization tracks with the multistep avalanche chambers, and exploiting the stimulated scintillation light. Two processes which give rise to the emission of light when ionizing electrons interact in gases under the influence of an electric field are described

  9. High efficiency scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

  10. Study, construction and test of a liquid argon preshower detector for the LHC; Etude, realisation et test d`un detecteur de pieds de gerbes a argon liquide pour le LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahout, G.

    1995-01-01

    The CERN is planning the construction of a new particle collider, the LHC, a p-p collider which operational energies will be greater than 1 TeV. A position detector or preshower detector will form a part of the Atlas detector which will analyze the interaction products; it will be used to spatially identify the disintegration of the Higgs boson, the signature of the Higgs mechanism into two photons. It will also provide an energy correction for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This paper gives simulation results for its spatial and angular resolution as well as the energy resolution achieved for the electromagnetic calorimeter when the preshower`s energy correction is applied. A prototype and beam tests are presented; results are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulations. 110 fig., 31 ref.

  11. Vapor equilibrium data for the systems Ar--N/sub 2/, Kr--Ar, Kr--N/sub 2/, and Xe--Kr, as well as the liquidus lines of solid xenon and of solid krypton in liquid air component mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastera, S J

    1977-01-15

    The knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of real gas mixtures makes possible a precise design of a low temperature distillation system. The noble gas isotopes Kr and Xe are formed as a result of nuclear fission. They reach the off-gas, where they must be separated by cryogenic methods, among others, in order to reduce radiological contamination of the environment. Consequently, an equilibrium apparatus was constructed inhouse, which worked according to a dynamical measurement method. The following low temperature measurements were performed with this apparatus: (1) to test the apparatus with the Ar--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100 degrees K; (2) with the Kr--Ar system, at temperatures of 115, 116.5, 120, and 125 degrees K; (3) with the Kr--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 100, 105, at 110 degrees K in the N/sub 2/-rich existence range of the liquid phase above the solubility limit, and at temperatures of 115, 120, and 125 degrees K in the entire concentration range. No data at all were previously known about this important system. (4) In the Xe-Kr system, at temperatures of 150, 155, and 160 degrees K, in the Kr-rich liquid existence range above the solubility limit, and at the temperature steps 165, 166, and 170 degrees in the entire concentration range. The consistency of the equilibrium data thus determined was tested with the computer program SYMFIT. These measurements were completed by determining the solubility limits (= liquidus lines) of solid Kr in a liquid Kr--Ar mixture or in a liquid Kr--N/sub 2/ mixture, as well as the solubility limit of solid Xe in a liquid Xe--Kr mixture. The measurement points for the liquidus lines were associated with the respective pressure and respective temperature over the entire concentration range. The experimentally determined data are displayed on tables and graphs. The utilized measurement equipment, with its glass equilibrium cell, is described.

  12. Calculation of xenon-oscillations in the HPLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, T.; Feher, S.; Czifrus, Sz.

    2009-01-01

    The European version of the Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is being developed under the name High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). In the most recent design, a three-pass core is foreseen with a heat-up of the coolant (supercritical pressure water) from 280degC to 500degC. Due to the operating pressure of 25 MPa, there is no phase change in the core but the density drop of the coolant can be as high as one order of magnitude. This results in a system which is sensitive to local temperature, power and density oscillations. This attribute is enhanced by the pseudocritical transformation of supercritical pressure water. Due to the relatively large dimensions of the core, xenon-oscillations are probable. The characteristic time of this process is several hours, thus a coupled quasi-stationary neutronics-thermohydraulics (CQNT) code completed with the xenon poisoning differential equations (XPDE) can predict the extent of xenon-oscillations. A program system is being developed at the Budapest University of Technology which is capable to perform full core CQNT calculations including the XPDE. The program system is designed to calculate one-pass (which was the first core proposal for HPLWRs, today called PWR-SC) and three-pass cores. The CQNT code is made up of an MCNP part (neutronics part) and of a thermohydraulics part developed at our Institute. Since full core MCNP calculations are very time consuming, upon symmetry considerations only one eighth of the core is modelled. On the other hand, this approach of modelling momentarily limits the phenomena which can be studied to axial oscillations. (author)

  13. Heat capacity of xenon adsorbed in nanobundle grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishko, K.A.; Sokolova, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    A model of one-dimensional real gas under external transverse force field is applied to interpret the experimentally observed thermodynamical properties of xenon deposited into groves on the surface of carbon nanobundles. This non-ideal gas model with pair interaction is not quite adequate to describe the dense adsorbates (especially at low temperature limit), but it makes possible to take into account easily the particle exchange between 1D adsorbate and 3D atmosphere which becomes an essential factor since intermediate (for xenon - of order 35 K) up to high (approx 100 K) temperatures. In this paper we treat the 1D real gas with only Lennard-Jones pair interaction, but at presence of exact equilibrium conditions on the atom numbers between low-dimensional adsorbate and three-dimensional atmosphere of the experimental cell. The low-temperature branch of the heat capacity has been fitted separately within the elastic atomic chain model to get the best agreement between theory and experiment in as wide as possible region just from zero temperature. The gas approximation is introduced from the temperatures where the chain heat capacity tends definitely to 1D equipartition law. In this case the principal parameters for both models can be chosen in such a way that the heat capacity C(T) of the chain goes continuously into the corresponding curve of the gas approximation. So, it seems to be expected that adequate interpretation for temperature dependences of the atomic adsorbate heat capacity can be obtained through a reasonable combination of 1D gas and phonon approaches. The principal parameters of the gas approximation (such a desorption energy) found from the fitting between theory and experiment for xenon heat capacity are in good agreement with corresponding data known in literature.

  14. Effect of capacitor loss on discharging characteristics of xenon flash lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chu; Lin Dejiang; Xu Chunmei; Shen Hongbin; Chen Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of storage capacitor's loss on the discharging characteristics of the xenon flash lamp was studied, and the xenon flash lamp discharging circuit was analyzed and improved. The capacitor can be equivalent to a series of an ideal capacitor and loss resistance. The improved formula of the xenon lamp discharging characteristics was given when actual capacitance loss is not zero, and the xenon lamp discharging current and discharging power are calculated and analyzed in detail with the increase of the capacitor loss. The results show that the increase of loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp discharging current and peak power and the xenon lamp flash time, and influence laser pumping efficiency. The loss will also lead to the capacitor inverse charging in LC discharging circuit; this will influence normal working of the capacitor and decrease the lift of the xenon lamp. The actual energy storage capacitor charging and discharging experiments show that the increase of capacitor loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp light-emitting waveform peak, shortening of the flash time and increase of the electrode sputter, thus verity, the reasonableness of theoretical analysis. In addition, the experiments show that environmental factors have very significant impact on the increase of the storage capacitor loss. (authors)

  15. Collision-induced light scattering in a thin xenon layer between graphite slabs - MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, A; Górny, K; Wojcieszyk, D; Dendzik, Z; Gburski, Z

    2014-08-14

    The collision-induced light scattering many-body correlation functions and their spectra in thin xenon layer located between two parallel graphite slabs have been investigated by molecular dynamics computer simulations. The results have been obtained at three different distances (densities) between graphite slabs. Our simulations show the increased intensity of the interaction-induced light scattering spectra at low frequencies for xenon atoms in confined space, in comparison to the bulk xenon sample. Moreover, we show substantial dependence of the interaction-induced light scattering correlation functions of xenon on the distances between graphite slabs. The dynamics of xenon atoms in a confined space was also investigated by calculating the mean square displacement functions and related diffusion coefficients. The structural property of confined xenon layer was studied by calculating the density profile, perpendicular to the graphite slabs. Building of a fluid phase of xenon in the innermost part of the slot was observed. The nonlinear dependence of xenon diffusion coefficient on the separation distance between graphite slabs has been found. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dynamic adsorption property of xenon on activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shujuan; Zhou Guoqing; Jin Yuren; Zhou Chongyang

    2010-01-01

    In order to select well adsorptive xenon adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption property of xenon on activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves (CMS) was studied by measuring the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient as a function velocity of gas, temperature, carrier gas, pressure and concentration of CO 2 . The results show that the highest value of xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient is on CMS1, and the second highest value is on CMS2; when the xenon concentration is less than 10 -5 mol/L or concentration of CO 2 is less than 5 x 10 -5 mol/L, the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient nearly keeps constant at the specific experimental flow rate. Then the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient would vary when it was mixed with different kind of carrier gas and become less at more than 5 x 10 -5 mol/L concentration of CO 2 . And the maximal effect factors are temperature and pressure. Therefore, the feasible measures to improve the xenon capability are to cool the adsorbent and increase adsorption pressure. (authors)

  17. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  18. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) for both NASA's human and science exploration missions combined with the technology investment from the Space Technology Mission Directorate have enabled the development of a 50kW-class SEP mission. NASA mission concepts developed, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30kW-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100's of kg up to 10,000 kg. A xenon propellant load of 10 metric tons represents greater than 10% of the global annual production rate of xenon. A single procurement of this size with short-term delivery can disrupt the xenon market, driving up pricing, making the propellant costs for the mission prohibitive. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper discusses approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 MT of xenon propellant considering realistic programmatic constraints to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for mission campaigns utilizing multiple high-power solar electric propulsion vehicles requiring 100's of metric tons of xenon over an extended period of time where a longer term acquisition approach could be implemented.

  19. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  20. Mechanism for transient migration of xenon in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-Y.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Andersson, D. A.; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we report recent work on atomistic modeling of diffusion migration events of the fission gas product xenon in UO 2 nuclear fuel. Under nonequilibrium conditions, Xe atoms can occupy the octahedral interstitial site, in contrast to the thermodynamically most stable uranium substitutional site. A transient migration mechanism involving Xe and two oxygen atoms is identified using basin constrained molecular dynamics employing a Buckingham type interatomic potential. This mechanism is then validated using density functional theory calculations using the nudged elastic band method. An overall reduction in the migration barrier of 1.6-2.7 eV is obtained compared to vacancy-mediated diffusion on the uranium sublattice.