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Sample records for liquid nitrogen cooling

  1. Polymerization, shock cooling and ionization of liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M; Rogers, F

    2005-07-21

    The trajectory of thermodynamic states passed through by the nitrogen Hugoniot starting from the liquid and up to 10{sup 6} GPa has been studied. An earlier report of cooling in the doubly shocked liquid, near 50 to 100 GPa and 7500 K, is revisited in light of the recent discovery of solid polymeric nitrogen. It is found that cooling occurs when the doubly shocked liquid is driven into a volume near the molecular to polymer transition and raising the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). By increasing the shock pressure and temperature by an order of magnitude, theoretical calculations predict thermal ionization of the L shell drives the compression maxima to 5-6 fold compression at 10 Mbar (T {approx} 3.5 10{sup 5} K) and at 400 Mbar (T {approx} 2.3 10{sup 6} K) from K shell ionization. Near a pressure of 10{sup 6} GPa the K shell ionizes completely and the Hugoniot approaches the classical ideal gas compression fourfold limit.

  2. Liquid nitrogen cooling in IR thermography applied to steel specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; Ferrarini, G.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Maldague, X.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed Thermography (PT) is one of the most common methods in Active Thermography procedures of the Thermography for NDT & E (Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation), due to the rapidity and convenience of this inspection technique. Flashes or lamps are often used to heat the samples in the traditional PT. This paper mainly explores exactly the opposite external stimulation in IR Thermography: cooling instead of heating. A steel sample with flat-bottom holes of different depths and sizes has been tested. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is sprinkled on the surface of the specimen and the whole process is captured by a thermal camera. To obtain a good comparison, two other classic NDT techniques, Pulsed Thermography and Lock-In Thermography, are also employed. In particular, the Lock-in method is implemented with three different frequencies. In the image processing procedure, the Principal Component Thermography (PCT) method has been performed on all thermal images. For Lock-In results, both Phase and Amplitude images are generated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Results show that all techniques presented part of the defects while the LN2 technique displays the flaws only at the beginning of the test. Moreover, a binary threshold post-processing is applied to the thermal images, and by comparing these images to a binary map of the location of the defects, the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are established and discussed. A comparison of the results indicates that the better ROC curve is obtained using the Flash technique with PCT processing method.

  3. Solutions for Liquid Nitrogen Pre-Cooling in Helium Refrigeration Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, U

    2000-01-01

    Pre-cooling of helium by means of liquid nitrogen is the oldest and one of the most common process features used in helium liquefiers and refrigerators. Its two principle tasks are to allow or increase the rate of pure liquefaction, and to permit the initial cool-down of large masses to about 80 K. Several arrangements for the pre-cooling process are possible depending on the desired application. Each arrangement has its proper advantages and drawbacks. The aim of this paper is to review the possible process solutions for liquid nitrogen pre-cooling and their particularities.

  4. Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting can be used to cut through thick concrete walls, floors, and structures without using water to cool the cutting wire. The diamond wire is cooled with liquid nitrogen in a 0.9-m (3-ft) long by 7.6-cm (3-in.) diameter pipe housing. The nitrogen evaporates, so no contaminated liquid waste is generated. Other than the use of liquid nitrogen, the system is a conventional diamond-wire saw assembly with remote hydraulic controls. Setup of the hydraulic-powered drive wheel and the diamond wire for cutting requires a relatively short period of time using people with minimal training. Concrete dust generated during the cutting is considerable and requires control. The production rate of this improved technology is 0.78 m{sup 2}/hr (8.4 ft{sup 2}/hr). The production rates of traditional (baseline) water-cooled diamond-wire cutting and circular saw cutting technologies are 1.11 m{sup 2}/hr (12 ft{sup 2}/hr), and 0.45 m{sup 2}/hr (4.8 ft{sup 2}/hr), respectively. The liquid nitrogen-cooled system costs 189% more than conventional diamond-wire cutting if contaminated liquid wastes collection, treatment, and disposal are not accounted for with the baseline. The new technology was 310% more costly than a conventional diamond circular saw, under the conditions of this demonstration (no wastewater control). For cutting a 0.9-m x 3.7-m (3-ft x 12-ft) wall, the improved technology costs $17,000, while baseline diamond-wire cutting would cost $9,000 and baseline circular-saw cutting would cost $5,500. The improved system may cost less than the baseline technologies or may be comparable in cost if wastewater control is included.

  5. Permeability evolution model and numerical analysis of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    Full Text Available How to quantitatively evaluate the permeability change of coalbed subjected to liquid nitrogen cooling is a key issue of enhanced-permeability technology of coalbed. To analyze the evolution process of permeability of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid introgen cooling, the coal is supposed as elastic, brittle and plastic material. Its deformation process includes elastic deformation stage, brittle strength degradation stage and residual plastic flow stage. Combined with strength degradation index, dilatancy index of the element and Mohr-Column strength criterion, the element scale constitutive model with the effects of confining pressure on peak-post mechanical behaviors is built. Based on the deformation process of coal rock, there exist two stages of permeability evolution of the element including decrease of permeability due to elastic contraction and increase due to coal rock element's failure. The relationships between the permeability and elastic deformation, shear failure and tension failure for coal are studied. The permeability will be influenced by the change of pore space due to elastic contraction or tension of element. Conjugate shear zones appear during the shear failure of the element, in which the flow follows so-called cubic law between smooth parallel plates. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the aperture of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. When tension failure criterion is satisfied with the rock element fails and two orthogonal fractures appear. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the width of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. Further, combined with the thermal conduction theory the permeability evolution model of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling is presented. Then Fish function method in FLAC is employed to perform the model. The permeability's evolution process for coal bed cryogenically stimulated

  6. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa;

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting power cables may be cooled by a forced flow of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. One way to do this is to circulate the liquid nitrogen (LN2) by means of a mechanical pump through the core of the cable and through a sub-cooler.Besides the cooling station, the cryogenics...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  7. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

  8. Mathematical Model-Based Temperature Preparation of Liquid-Propellant Components Cooled by Liquid Nitrogen in the Heat Exchanger with a Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pavlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Before fuelling the tanks of missiles, boosters, and spacecraft with liquid-propellant components (LPC their temperature preparation is needed. The missile-system ground equipment performs this operation during prelaunch processing of space-purpose missiles (SPM. Usually, the fuel cooling is necessary to increase its density and provide heat compensation during prelaunch operation of SPM. The fuel temperature control systems (FTCS using different principles of operation and types of coolants are applied for fuel cooling.To determine parameters of LPC cooling process through the fuel heat exchange in the heat exchanger with coolant, which is cooled by liquid nitrogen upon contact heat exchange in the coolant reservoir, a mathematical model of this process and a design technique are necessary. Both allow us to determine design parameters of the cooling system and the required liquid nitrogen reserve to cool LPC to the appropriate temperature.The article presents an overview of foreign and domestic publications on cooling processes research and implementation using cryogenic products such as liquid nitrogen. The article draws a conclusion that it is necessary to determine the parameters of LPC cooling process through the fuel heat exchange in the heat exchanger with coolant, which is liquid nitrogen-cooled upon contact heat exchange in the coolant reservoir allowing to define rational propellant cooling conditions to the specified temperature.The mathematical model describes the set task on the assumption that a heat exchange between the LPC and the coolant in the heat exchanger and with the environment through the walls of tanks and pipelines of circulation loops is quasi-stationary.The obtained curves allow us to calculate temperature changes of LPC and coolant, cooling time and liquid nitrogen consumption, depending on the process parameters such as a flow rate of liquid nitrogen, initial coolant temperature, pump characteristics, thermal

  9. Boiling effect in liquid nitrogen directly cooled Yb³⁺:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Chosrowjan, Haik; Furuse, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Seiji; Kitamura, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Masayuki; Ishii, Shinya; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2016-02-20

    Liquid nitrogen (LN2) behavior on the surface of excited Yb(3+):YAG is investigated using fluorometry. From the time-resolved temperature variations and integrated fluorescence spectra intensity on this directly cooled Yb(3+):YAG surface, we observe a phase transition of LN2 from nucleate boiling to film boiling. As a result of this pool boiling, good beam quality should occur when the temperature and heat flux at an excited surface of Yb(3+):YAG are below 95 K and 15.8  W/cm2, respectively. That is, the LN2 should remain in a steady state of nucleate boiling to produce good beam quality using pool boiling.

  10. Compact counter-flow cooling system with subcooled gravity-fed circulating liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Sasaki, A.; Watanabe, H.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2010-11-01

    A liquid nitrogen (LN2) is usually used to keep the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable low temperature. A pump is utilized to circulate LN2 inside the cryopipes. In order to minimize heat leakage, a thermal siphon circulation scheme can be realized instead. Here, we discuss the effectiveness of thermal siphon with counter-flow circulation loop composed of cryogen flow channel and inner cable channel. The main feature of the system is the existence of essential parasitic heat exchange between upwards and downwards flows. Feasibility of the proposed scheme for cable up to 500 m in length has been investigated numerically. Calculated profiles of temperature and pressure show small differences of T and p in the inner and the outer flows at the same elevation, which allows not worrying about mechanical stability of the cable. In the case under consideration the thermal insulating properties of a conventional electrical insulating material (polypropylene laminated paper, PPLP) appear to be sufficient. Two interesting effects were disclosed due to analysis of subcooling of LN2. In case of highly inclined siphon subcooling causes significant increase of temperature maximum that can breakup of superconductivity. In case of slightly inclined siphon high heat flux from outer flow to inner flow causes condensation of nitrogen gas in outer channel. It leads to circulation loss. Results of numerical analyses indicate that counter-flow thermosiphon cooling system is a promising way to increase performance of short-length power transmission (PT) lines, but conventional subcooling technique should be applied carefully.

  11. Temperature Distribution and Critical Current of Long HTS Cables Cooled with Subcooled Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatkin, V. S.; Ivanov, Y. V.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Cooling of the long HTS power transmission lines performs by pumping of subcooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) along the cable. The temperature of LN2 along the cable increases due to the heat losses of the cryostat and heat generation in the HTS cable. The experiment using test cable line in Ishikari shows that flow rate of 35 L/min retains increasing of LN2 temperature by 1 K per 1 km of length. The technology when the back flow of LN2 cools the radiation shield surrounding the cable pipe is also applied in Ishikari-2 project. In this case the ambient heat flow into cable pipe is 50 times less than that without radiation shield. Back flow of LN2 removes almost all heat coming from the environment. When transport current is close to the critical value the Joule heat of HTS cable is significant. This heat additionally increases the temperature of LN2 flowing along the HTS cable. Near the outlet the temperature of HTS cable is maximal and the local critical current is minimal. The current matching critical current criterion of average electrical field of E 0 = 10-4 V/m provides the voltage drop and significant Joule heat at the hot end of the cable. It can lead the damage of the cable. The present work contains analysis of temperature distribution along the cable and the way to achieve the fail-safe operation of long HTS cable cooled by subcooled LN2. We also performed extrapolation of obtained results for several times longer cable lines by decreasing the LN2 flow rate.

  12. Survival of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells Cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Sakai, A

    1974-11-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) which were immersed in liquid nitrogen after prefreezing to the temperatures from -30 to -50 C in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide and glucose as cryoprotective additive could proliferate vigorously when rewarmed rapidly in water at 40 C. For maintaining high viability of the cells after immersion in liquid nitrogen, it seems to be essential to use the cells at the later lag phase or the early cell division phase. This study provides a possibility for long term preservation in liquid nitrogen of plant-cultured lines.

  13. Cooling the dark energy camera CCD array using a closed-loop two-phase liquid nitrogen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Derylo, G.; Diehl, H. T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lathrop, A.; Schultz, K.; Reinert, R. J.; Schmitt, R. L.; Stefanik, A.; Zhao, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is the new wide field prime-focus imager for the Blanco 4m telescope at CTIO. This instrument is a 3 sq. deg. camera with a 45 cm diameter focal plane consisting of 62 2k × 4k CCDs and 12 2k × 2k CCDs and was developed for the Dark Energy Survey that will start operations at CTIO in 2011. The DECam CCD array is inside the imager vessel. The focal plate is cooled using a closed loop liquid nitrogen system. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype imager vessel has been constructed and is now being used for Multi-CCD readout tests. The cryogenic cooling system and thermal controls are described along with cooling results from the prototype camera. The cooling system layout on the Blanco telescope in Chile is described.

  14. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  15. Liquid nitrogen cooled integrated power electronics module with high current carrying capability and lower on resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua; Lee, Changwoo; Simon, Randy W.; Haldar, Pradeep; Hennessy, Michael J.; Mueller, Eduard K.

    2006-11-01

    This letter presents the development of high-performance integrated cryogenic power modules, where both driver components and power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors are integrated in a single package, to be used in a 50kW prototype cryogenic inverter operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The authors have demonstrated a compact high-voltage, cryogenic integrated power module that exhibited more than 14 times improvement in on-resistance and continuous current carrying capability exceeding 40A. The modules are designed to operate at liquid nitrogen temperature with extreme thermal cycling. The power electronic modules are necessary components that provide control and switching for second generation, yttrium barium copper oxide-based high temperature superconductor devices including cables, motors, and generators.

  16. Comparison of heat transfer in liquid and slush nitrogen by numerical simulation of cooling rates for French straws used for sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-05-01

    Slush nitrogen (SN(2)) is a mixture of solid nitrogen and liquid nitrogen, with an average temperature of -207 °C. To investigate whether plunging a French plastic straw (commonly used for sperm cryopreservation) in SN(2) substantially increases cooling rates with respect to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)), a numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was used to predict cooling rates. Calculations performed using heat transfer coefficients in the range of film boiling confirmed the main benefit of plunging a straw in slush over LN(2) did not arise from their temperature difference (-207 vs. -196 °C), but rather from an increase in the external heat transfer coefficient. Numerical simulations using high heat transfer (h) coefficients (assumed to prevail in SN(2)) suggested that plunging in SN(2) would increase cooling rates of French straw. This increase of cooling rates was attributed to a less or null film boiling responsible for low heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen when the straw is placed in the solid-liquid mixture or slush. In addition, predicted cooling rates of French straws in SN(2) tended to level-off for high h values, suggesting heat transfer was dictated by heat conduction within the liquid filled plastic straw.

  17. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  18. Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  19. Analysis of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Tri-Axial High-Temperature Superconducting Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, J. A.; Lue, J. W.; Gouge, M. J.; Fisher, P. W.; Lindsay, D.; Roden, M.

    2004-06-01

    This tri-axial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable design uses three concentric superconducting layers for the phase conductors, separated by a cold dielectric material. The design offers an efficient HTS cable configuration by reducing the amount of superconductor needed and places all three phases in a single cryostat. The tri-axial cable cooling circuit analyzed includes heat loads at the ends for the cable terminations and cable heat loads due to ac, dielectric, and thermal losses. The HTS cable critical current and ac loss are functions of the local temperature that must be determined by the analysis. The radial heat transfer also has an influence on these parameters due to the relatively low thermal conductivity of the dielectric material separating the HTS phases. The study investigates whether the tri-axial cable must be cooled both inside the former and outside of the cable. In this study, the range of operating parameters for a tri-axial HTS cable system and refrigeration requirements are determined based on expected HTS tape performance.

  20. Deformation behavior of two continuously cooled vanadium microalloyed steels at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Dragomir M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish deformation behaviour of two vanadium microalloyed medium carbon steels with different contents of carbon and titanium by tensile testing at 77 K. Samples were reheated at 1250°C/30 min and continuously cooled at still air. Beside acicular ferrite as dominant morphology in both microstructures, the steel with lower content of carbon and negligible amount of titanium contains considerable fraction of grain boundary ferrite and pearlite. It was found that Ti-free steel exhibits higher strain hardening rate and significantly lower elongation at 77 K than the fully acicular ferrite steel. The difference in tensile behavior at 77 K of the two steels has been associated with the influence of the pearlite, together with higher dislocation density of acicular ferrite. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174004

  1. Successful Production of Piglets Derived from Expanded Blastocysts Vitrified Using a Micro Volume Air Cooling Method without Direct Exposure to Liquid Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    MISUMI, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; EGAWA, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blasto...

  2. First signal from a broadband cryogenic preamplifier cooled by circulating liquid nitrogen in a 7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoung Choul; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Se Gyu; Choi, Sang Hwan; Choi, Yeon Suk; Lee, Kyung Jae; Kim, SeungYong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Stahl, Stefan

    2012-12-18

    Despite the outstanding performance of Fourier transform ion cyclotron/mass spectrometry (FTICR/MS), the complexity of the cellular proteome or natural compounds presents considerable challenges. Sensitivity is a key performance parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer. By improving this parameter, the dynamic range of the instrument can be increased to improve the detection signal of low-abundance compounds or fragment ion peaks. In order to improve sensitivity, a cryogenic detection system was developed by the KBSI (Korean Basic Science Institute) in collaboration with Stahl-Electronics (Mettenheim, Germany). A simple, efficient liquid circulation cooling system was designed and a cryogenic preamplifier implemented inside a FTICR mass spectrometer. This cooling system circulates a cryoliquid from a Dewar to the "liquid circulation unit" through a CF flange to cool a copper block and a cryopreamplifier; the cooling medium is subsequently exhausted into the air. The cryopreamplifier can be operated over a very wide temperature range, from room temperature to low temperature environments (4.2 K). First, ion signals detected by the cryopreamplifier using a circulating liquid nitrogen cooling system were observed and showed a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) about 130% better than that obtained at room temperature.

  3. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  4. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  5. Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young S.; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M.; Maas, Richard L.; Demirci, Utkan

    2010-01-01

    The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect. PMID:20176969

  6. Successful production of piglets derived from expanded blastocysts vitrified using a micro volume air cooling method without direct exposure to liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; Egawa, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-12-17

    This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN₂). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN₂ for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN₂.

  7. Electrically and Thermally Insulated Joint for Liquid Nitrogen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten; Jensen, Kim Høj; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1999-01-01

    A prototype of a superconducting cable is currently under construction. The cable conductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen in order to obtain superconductivity. The peripheral cooling circuit is kept at ground potential. This requires a joint which insulates both electrically and thermally. The des......A prototype of a superconducting cable is currently under construction. The cable conductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen in order to obtain superconductivity. The peripheral cooling circuit is kept at ground potential. This requires a joint which insulates both electrically and thermally...

  8. Operating characteristics of a single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with high cooling power at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-ce SUN; Marc DIETRICH; Li-min QIU; Guenter THUMMES

    2015-01-01

    The operating characteristics are important for design and optimization of pulse tube cryocoolers, in particular for those with high cooling power, which up to now have been seldom extensively investigated. In this study, the dependence of cooling performance on the charge pressure and operating frequency has been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model based on Sage software was established. Experiments were performed on a home-made single-stage high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) working at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The results revealed that each charge pressure corresponds to an optimum frequency with respect to compressor and regenerator efficiency. A lower charge pressure results in a higher cryocooler efficiency, but the delivered maximum pV power is significantly reduced due to the stroke limit of the pistons in the linear compressor. The influence of operating characteristics on the temperature non-uniformity in the regener-ator was also investigated. By optimizing the charge pressure and frequency, the minimum no-load temperature was decreased to 46.9 K at 56.5 Hz and 2.0 MPa. A cooling power of 300 W at 71.8 K was measured with an electrical input power of 8.9 kW.%题目:液氮温区单级大功率斯特林型脉管制冷机工作特性研究  目的:探索充气压和运行频率等工作特性对大功率脉管制冷机最低制冷温度、制冷量以及回热器温度不均匀性的影响,期望进一步提升制冷机工作性能。  方法:1.通过理论计算模拟工作频率在40–70 Hz,充气压力在1.5–2.5 MPa下工作特性对制冷机性能的影响;2.实验研究充气压力为1.7–2.4 MPa,并在谐振频率附近工作时制冷机性能以及回热器温度不均匀性随充气压力、运行频率以及输入功率的变化。  结论:1.制冷机运行在1.9–2.1 MPa充气压力下,因平衡了制冷温度和焓流损失,故能取得优异性能,且

  9. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  10. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  11. 液氮低温环境下电阻应变片测试性能的试验研究%EXPERIMENT STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES BASED ON RESISTANCE STRAIN GAUGE UNDER LIQUID NITROGEN COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关明智; 王省哲; 马力祯; 辛灿杰

    2012-01-01

    Based on a low-temperature strain gauge and an extension displacement transducer, this paper presents the strain measurement of a cantilevered beam soaked to liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the measurements was compared, and the corresponding calibration curves were obtained. Some factors including the strain gauge bonding, bridge connections, liquid nitrogen cooling and data acquisition influenced on the experimental results were discussed. The results show that low-temperature strain gauges can work well in liquid nitrogen cooling environment when the proper experimental conditions are considered such as temperature compensation, firm paste and good curing. The displacement transducer is little affected by low temperature environment, and it was convenient to measure the displacement of a structure under liquid nitrogen cooling environment. The present results may provide some basis measurements on mechanical properties of Lan Zhou Penning ion Traps 7T superconducting magnet developed at the Institute of Modem Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) in low temperature environment.%分别采用低温电阻应变片及拉线式位移传感器的电测技术,该文开展了液氮浸泡下的悬臂梁结构在静载条件下的应变测量。对两种实验测试结果和理论分析结果进行了对比和精度分析,给出了相应的实验标定曲线,并探讨了测量过程中应变片粘接、电桥连接方式、液氮冷却和数据采集对实验结果精度的影响因素等。结果表明:在采用温度补偿和应变片的正确粘贴和良好固化情形下,低温应变片能够在液氮低温区给出较高精度的应变测量:拉线式位移传感器几乎不受低温的影响,测量简单易行。相关技术和结果将为中科院近代物理研究所自主研制的兰州潘宁离子阱7T超导磁体的低温下应变测量提供方法和指导。

  12. Numerical modelling rock deformation subject to nitrogen cooling to study permeability evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhui Zhang; Laigui Wang; Jianhua Du; Yinghui Tian

    2015-01-01

    How to model the permeability evolution of rock subjected to liquid nitrogen cooling is a key issue. This paper proposes a simple but practical method to study the permeability evolution of rocks subject to liquid nitrogen cooling. FLAC with FISH function was employed to numerically model the rock behavior under cooling. The enhanced perme-ability of the volumetric strain was defined, and the permeability was directly evaluated based on element’s volumetric strain. Detailed procedures for implementing the evolution model of permeability in this paper were presented. A case study was carried out to simulate a coal bed where liquid nitrogen was injected in the bore hole. And a semi-submerged test of liquid nitrogen was performed. The method to model the permeability evolution of rocks subject to liquid nitrogen shock in this paper was proved to be right by the test results. This simulation results are discussed with the hope to provide some insight into understanding the nitrogen cooling practice.

  13. Liquid Nitrogen Zero Boiloff Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David; Feller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Wesley; Robinson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASAs future space exploration due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages suitable for transporting 10s to 100s of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit and for their return. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several months. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler to control tank pressure. The active thermal control technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center, in a vacuum chamber and cryo-shroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. Testing consisted of three passive tests with the active cryo-cooler system off, and 7 active tests, with the cryocooler powered up. The test matrix included zero boil-off tests performed at 90 full and 25 full, and several demonstrations at excess cooling capacity and reduced cooling capacity. From this, the tank pressure response with varied cryocooler power inputs was determined. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  14. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  15. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used

  16. Liquid cooled data center design selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-09-13

    Input data, specifying aspects of a thermal design of a liquid cooled data center, is obtained. The input data includes data indicative of ambient outdoor temperature for a location of the data center; and/or data representing workload power dissipation for the data center. The input data is evaluated to obtain performance of the data center thermal design. The performance includes cooling energy usage; and/or one pertinent temperature associated with the data center. The performance of the data center thermal design is output.

  17. Development of liquid nitrogen Centrifugal Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M; Sagiyama, R; Tsuchiya, H [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Takayama, T [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Torii, Y [OMNIX, 1-15-3 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 160-0023 (Japan); Nakamura, M [YN Nakamura Ltd, 3-9-25 Ohjima, Koto, Tokyo, 136-0072 (Japan); Hoshino, Y [JECC TORISHA Co. Ltd, 2-8-52 Yoshinodai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama, 350-0833 (Japan); Odashima, Y [Department of Basic Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)], E-mail: mirei@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Usually liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) transfer from a container to a laboratory equipment takes place by applying pressure to the container to push out liquid or pouring liquid into the cryostat directly by lifting the container. In order to overcome inconvenience of pressuring or lifting containers, we have been developing the Liquid Nitrogen Centrifugal Pump of a small electric turbine pump. Significant advantages that both reducing time to fill LN{sub 2}and controlling the flow rate of liquid into the cryostat are obtained by introducing this pump. We have achieved the lift of about 800mm with the vessel's opening diameter of 28mm.

  18. Regenerative Cooling for Liquid Rocket Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiFeng

    1995-01-01

    Heat transfer in the thrust chamber is of great importance in the design of liquid propellant rocket engines.Regenerative cooling is and advanced method which can ensure not only the proper running but also higher performance of a rocket engine.The theoretical model is complicated,it relates to fluid bynamics,heat transfer,combustion.etc…,In this paper,a regenerative cooling model is presented.Effects such as radiation,heat transfer to environment,variable thermal properties and coking are included in the model.This model can be applied to all kinds of liquid propellant rocket engines as well as similar constructions.The modularized computer code is completed in the work.

  19. Simulating and analyzing on temperature field of cold trap cooled by liquid nitrogen%液氮辅助冻干机冷阱室内温度场模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 李保国; 郑效东; 郑金旺; 陈智

    2011-01-01

    The cold-trap of freeze dryer cooled by liquid nitrogen was smulated and analyzed. The 3D geometric model of cold-trap and the control equation, edge conditions of fluid in the cold-trap were established. The fluent simulation software was used to simulate air temperature distribution inside the cold-trap. Through the analysis on the temperature field, it could be reference for restructuring the cold-trap design and enhancing the capacity of water-capture.%对液氮辅助制冷冻干机的冷阱进行数值模拟,建立冻干机冷阱的三维几何模型和冷阱内流体流动控制方程及边界条件.采用Fluent模拟软件对冷阱室内温度场模拟分析,得到了冷阱室内温度场分布图,通过对冷阱内部温度场分析,为指导冷阱室内结构设计,提高冷阱捕水能力提供参考.

  20. Automatic Transmission Of Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Mhatre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Nitrogen is one of the major substance used as a chiller in industry such as Ice cream factory Milk Diary Storage of blood sample Blood Bank etc. It helps to maintain the required product at a lower temperature for preservation purpose. We cannot fully utilise the LN2 so practically if we are using 3.75 litre LN2 for a single day then around 12 of LN2 450 ml is wasted due to vaporisation. A pressure relief valve is provided to create a pressure difference. If there is no pressure difference between the cylinder carrying LN2 and its surrounding it will results in damage of container as well as wastage of LN2.Transmission of LN2 from TA55 to BA3 is carried manually .So care must be taken for the transmission of LN2 in order to avoid its wastage. With the help of this project concept the transmission of LN2 will be carried automatically so as to reduce the wastage of LN2 in case of manual operation.

  1. Small Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, A; Ueda, N; Wade, D; Greenspan, E; Brown, N

    2005-11-02

    The Small Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor Safety Study documents results from activities conducted under Small Liquid Metal Fast Reactor Coordination Program (SLMFR-CP) Agreement, January 2004, between the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) of Japan and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)[1]. Evaluations were completed on topics that are important to the safety of small sodium cooled and lead alloy cooled reactors. CRIEPI investigated approaches for evaluating postulated severe accidents using the CANIS computer code. The methods being developed are improvements on codes such as SAS 4A used in the US to analyze sodium cooled reactors and they depend on calibration using safety testing of metal fuel that has been completed in the TREAT facility. The 4S and the small lead cooled reactors in the US are being designed to preclude core disruption from all mechanistic scenarios, including selected unprotected transients. However, postulated core disruption is being evaluated to support the risk analysis. Argonne National Laboratory and the University of California Berkeley also supported LLNL with evaluation of cores with small positive void worth and core designs that would limit void worth. Assessments were also completed for lead cooled reactors in the following areas: (1) continuing operations with cladding failure, (2) large bubbles passing through the core and (3) recommendations concerning reflector control. The design approach used in the US emphasizes reducing the reactivity in the control mechanisms with core designs that have essentially no, or a very small, reactivity change over the core life. This leads to some positive void worth in the core that is not considered to be safety problem because of the inability to identify scenarios that would lead to voiding of lead. It is also believed that the void worth will not dominate the severe accident analysis. The approach used by 4S requires negative void worth throughout

  2. INVESTIGATION STUDIES ON SUB-COOLING OF CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS USING HELIUM INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cryogenic propellants, the sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants contained in tanks is an important and effective method for bringing down the lift-off mass of launch vehicle and thus the performance of the rocket engine is greatly improved. This study presents the technical and experimental studies conducted on cryogenic liquids such as Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen using helium injection method. The influence of cooled Helium on the degree of sub-cooling and the variation in flow rate of Helium gas admitted are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the sub-cooling technique using helium injection is a very simple method and can be very well adopted in propellant tanks used for ground and launch vehicle applications. The overall cooling effect for rocket application is also discussed. The critical values of the non-dimensional parameters and injected helium temperatures are also estimated.

  3. Development of cooling system for 66/6.9kV-20MVA REBCO superconducting transformers with Ne turbo-Brayton refrigerator and subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, M.; Adachi, K.; Yun, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sato, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Umeno, T.; Konno, M.; Hayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a turbo-Brayton refrigerator with Ne gas as a working fluid for a 3 ϕ- 66/6.9kV-2MVA superconducting transformer with coated conductors which was bath-cooled with subcooled LN2. The two-stage compressor and expansion turbine had non-contact magnetic bearings for a long maintenance interval. In the future, we intend to directly install a heat exchanger into the Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics cryostat of a transformer and make a heat exchange between the working fluid gas and subcooled LN2. In this paper we investigate the behaviour of subcooled LN2 in a test cryostat, in which heater coils were arranged side by side with a flat plate finned-tube heat exchanger. Here a He turbo-Brayton refrigerator was used as a substitute for a Ne turbo-Brayton one. The pressure at the surface of LN2 in the cryostat was one atmosphere. Just under the LN2 surface, a stationary layer of LN2 was created over the depth of 20 cm and temperature dropped from 77 K to 65 K with depth while, in the lower level than that, a natural convection flow of LN2 was formed and temperature was almost uniform over 1 m depth. The boundary plane between the stationary layer and the natural convection region was visible.

  4. Directional Solidification Assisted by Liquid Metal Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Langhong LOU

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the development and current status of the directional solidification process assisted by liquid metal cooling (LMC) has been presented in this paper. The driving force of the rapid development of the LMC process has been analyzed by considering the demands of (1) newer technologies that can provide higher thermal gradients for alleviated segregation in advanced alloy systems, and (2) better production yield of the large directionally solidified superalloy components. The brief history of the industrialization of the LMC process has been reviewed, followed by the discussion on the LMC parameters including selection of the cooling media, using of the dynamic baffle, and the influence of withdrawal rates and so on. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the traditional superalloys processed by LMC, as well as the new alloys particularly developed for LMC process were then described. Finally, future aspects concerning the LMC process have been summarized.

  5. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including surface coolers and holding tank rooms, shall be kept clean and free from objectionable odors...

  6. Performance Studies on Sub-cooling of Cryogenic Liquids Used for Rocket Propulsion Using Helium Bubbling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants contained in tanks is an important and effective method for bringing down the lift-off mass of launch vehicle and thus the performance of the rocket engine is greatly improved. This paper presents the technical and experimental studies conducted on cryogenic liquids such as Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen, and Liquid Hydrogen using helium bubbling method. The influence of cooled Helium on the degree of sub-cooling and the variation in flow rate of Helium gas admitted are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the sub-cooling technique using helium injection is a very simple method and can be very well adopted in propellant tanks used for ground and launch vehicle applications.

  7. The authors reply to "The Joys of Liquid Nitrogen"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, William T.; Gish, Thaddeus J.

    1997-06-01

    We thank Ronald C. Blatchley for his interpretation of experiment 3, "The Mysterious Liquid Drop", and for pointing out that the drop is a mixture containing nitrogen as well as oxygen. The liquid drop that forms at the bottom of the tube has a temperature of about -196 °C, the temperature of the boiling liquid nitrogen used to cool the tube. The air in the tube above the drop is very cold, and contains a large number of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen molecules having low kinetic energies and low molecular speeds. In addition, the density of the air above the drop is high relative to the warmer air outside of the tube, and the frequency of collision of gaseous nitrogen molecules with the drop's surface is high. Therefore, a significant number of gaseous nitrogen molecules would be expected to condense at the surface of the drop and be retained by dispersion forces. In addition to nitrogen and oxygen, we would expect the drop to contain other condensed substances such as argon and traces of higher-boiling noble gases. Argon would boil at -183 °C, prior to the oxygen boiling at -183 °C, as the tube is allowed to warm. The chemical behavior of the burning wood splint described in Blatchley's experiment is precisely what we observe when experiment 4, "A Familiar Chemical Change", is performed. Timing is indeed important. The glowing splint is extinguished if the test tube containing the drop is not allowed to warm in air for a short time. However, if we first warm the tube in the air for a few seconds and then insert the splint, the splint bursts into flame. His interpretation nicely explains these observations.

  8. Liquid metal cooled reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Van Hoomissen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology basis for evaluation of liquid metal cooled space reactors is summarized. Requirements for space nuclear power which are relevant to selection of the reactor subsystem are then reviewed. The attributes of liquid metal cooled reactors are considered in relation to these requirements in the areas of liquid metal properties, neutron spectrum characteristics, and fuel form. Key features of typical reactor designs are illustrated. It is concluded that liquid metal cooled fast spectrum reactors provide a high confidence, flexible option for meeting requirements for SP-100 and beyond.

  9. A cryostat device for liquid nitrogen convection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Charles; Duchesne, Alexis; Caps, Herve

    2015-11-01

    When a horizontal layer of expansible fluid heated from below is submitted to a large vertical temperature gradient, one can observe convective cells. This phenomenon is the so-called Rayleigh-Bénard instability. In the literature, this instability is mainly studied when the entire bottom surface of a container heats the liquid. Under these conditions, the development of regularly spaced convective cells in the liquid bulk is observed. Cooling applications led us to consider this instability in a different geometry, namely a resistor immersed in a bath of cold liquid. We present here experiments conducted with liquid nitrogen. For this purpose, we developed a cryostat in order to be able to perform Particle Image Velocimetry. We obtained 2D maps of the flow and observed, as expected, two Rayleigh-Bénard convective cells around the heater. We particularly investigated the vertical velocity in the central column between the two cells. We compared these data to results we obtained with silicone oil and water in the same geometry. We derived theoretical law from classical models applied to the proposed geometry and found a good agreement with our experimental data. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liege.

  10. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  11. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzberg, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual design is for a liquid metal (LM) cooled nuclear reactor that would provide heat to a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion subsystem to provide electricity for electric propulsion thrusters and spacecraft power. The baseline power level is 100 kWe to the user. For long term power generation, UN pin fuel with Nb1Zr alloy cladding was selected. As part of the SP-100 Program this fuel demonstrated lifetime with greater than six atom percent burnup, at temperatures in the range of 1400-1500 K. The CBC subsystem was selected because of the performance and lifetime database from commercial and aircraft applications and from prior NASA and DOE space programs. The high efficiency of the CBC also allows the reactor to operate at relatively low power levels over its 15-year life, minimizing the long-term power density and temperature of the fuel. The scope of this paper is limited to only the nuclear components that provide heated helium-xenon gas to the CBC subsystem. The principal challenge for the LM reactor concept was to design the reactor core, shield and primary heat transport subsystems to meet mission requirements in a low mass configuration. The LM concept design approach was to assemble components from prior programs and, with minimum change, determine if the system met the objective of the study. All of the components are based on technologies having substantial data bases. Nuclear, thermalhydraulic, stress, and shielding analyses were performed using available computer codes. Neutronics issues included maintaining adequate operating and shutdown reactivities, even under accident conditions. Thermalhydraulic and stress analyses calculated fuel and material temperatures, coolant flows and temperatures, and thermal stresses in the fuel pins, components and structures. Using conservative design assumptions and practices, consistent with the detailed design work performed during the SP-100 Program, the mass of the reactor, shield, primary heat

  12. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  13. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  14. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  15. Thermohydraulic safety issues for liquid metal cooled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, Gunter; Stefani, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Eckert, Sven

    2016-05-15

    In this paper recent developments of various techniques for single-phase and two-phase flow measurements with relevance to liquid metal cooled systems will be presented. Further, the status of the DRESDYN platform for large-scale experiments with liquid sodium is sketched.

  16. Demonstrating superconductivity at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, E. A.; Seaman, C. L.; Yang, K. N.; Maple, M. B.

    1988-07-01

    This article describes two demonstrations of superconductivity at the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) using the 90 K superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ(δ≊0.2). Both demonstrations involve the repulsion of a permanent magnet by a superconductor due to the expulsion of the magnetic field from the interior of the latter. In the first demonstration, the repulsion is manifested in the separation of a permanent magnet and a superconductor that are suspended from separate threads, while in the second it results in the levitation of a permanent magnet above a flat superconducting disk.

  17. Liquid metal cooling in thermal management of computer chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Kunquan; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid improvement of computer performance,tremendous heat generation in the chip becomes a major serious concern for thermal management.Meanwhile,CPU chips are becoming smaller and smaller with almost no room for the heat to escape.The total power-dissipation levels now reside on the order of 100 W with a peak power density of 400-500 W/cm2,and are still steadily climbing.As a result,it is extremely hard to attain higher performance and reliability.Because the conventional conduction and forcedair convection techniques are becoming incapable in providing adequate cooling for sophisticated electronic systems,new solutions such as liquid cooling,thermoelectric cooling,heat pipes,vapor chambers,etc.are being studied.Recently,it was realized that using a liquid metal or its alloys with a low melting point as coolant could significantly lower the chip temperature.This new generation heat transfer enhancement method raised many important fundamentals and practical issues to be solved.To accommodate to the coming endeavor in this area,this paper is dedicated to presenting an overall review on chip cooling using liquid metals or their alloys as coolant.Much more attention will be paid to the thermal properties of liquid metals with low melting points or their alloys and their potential applications in the chip cooling.Meanwhile,principles of several typical pumping methods such as mechanical,electromagnetic or peristaltic pumps will be illustrated.Some new advancement in making a liquid metal cooling device will be discussed.The liquid metal cooling is expected to open a new world for computer chip cooling because of its evident merits over traditional coolant.

  18. Determination of heat transfer coefficients in plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Victoria; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamic process during the cooling of reproductive biological systems is important to assess and optimize the cryopreservation procedures. The time-temperature curve of a sample immersed in liquid nitrogen enables the calculation of cooling rates and helps to determine whether it is vitrified or undergoes phase change transition. When dealing with cryogenic liquids, the temperature difference between the solid and the sample is high enough to cause boiling of the liquid, and the sample can undergo different regimes such as film and/or nucleate pool boiling. In the present work, the surface heat transfer coefficients (h) for plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen were determined using the measurement of time-temperature curves. When straws filled with ice were used the cooling curve showed an abrupt slope change which was attributed to the transition of film into nucleate pool boiling regime. The h value that fitted each stage of the cooling process was calculated using a numerical finite element program that solves the heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions. In the cooling process corresponding to film boiling regime, the h that best fitted experimental results was h=148.12±5.4 W/m(2) K and for nucleate-boiling h=1355±51 W/m(2) K. These values were further validated by predicting the time-temperature curve for French straws filled with a biological fluid system (bovine semen-extender) which undergoes freezing. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and predicted temperature profiles, further confirming the accuracy of the h values previously determined for the ice-filled straw. These coefficients were corroborated using literature correlations. The determination of the boiling regimes that govern the cooling process when plunging straws in liquid nitrogen constitutes an important issue when trying to optimize cryopreservation procedures. Furthermore, this information can lead to

  19. Liquid cooling system for the vibro-tactile threshold device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Erin M; Redd, Christian; Gandhi, Minu S; Tuckett, Robert P; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2011-01-01

    Vibrotactile threshold testing has been used to investigate activation of human somatosensory pathways. A portable vibrotactile threshold testing device called the Vibrotactile Threshold Evaluator for the Workplace (VTEW) was designed for screening of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace, and initially contained a small fan for cooling. During subject testing, the device is operated intermittently, which causes the linear actuator to warm the tactile probe. The probe causes discomfort for some subjects. During testing, the probe heated to 42 °C within 90 seconds of continuous operation. A liquid cooling system was implemented to dissipate heat from the probe. The liquid cooling system maintains a steady state temperature of 36 °C for continuous actuation of the probe. The liquid cooling system is capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature, without adding erroneous vibrations to the device. However, the cooling system deters the portability of the device. Further research will investigate how to make the liquid cooling system portable and implements vibrotactile threshold testing in the workplace to quickly evaluate whether or not a person has early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  20. Studies of Breakdowns in Liquid Nitrogen at Different Pressures Between Rogowski Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaz, Michael; Kurrat, Michael

    The usage of superconducting machines in the power grid or other high energy application makes it necessary that the machine can withstand all electrical stresses which can occur during normal operation and at transient overload. To guarantee a sufficient insulation, it is essential to know the properties of the insulating material. For HTS applications liquid nitrogen is a possible cooling and insulation liquid. In this paper the influence of pressurized liquid nitrogen on the discharge voltage is observed. Therefore, a cryostat was used, that can be pressurized and the discharge voltages at 3 barabs and 5 barabs were investigated. The investigations were performed between Rogowski electrodes to guarantee a homogeneous electric field without discharges at the electrode edges. Experiments were done with gap distances up to 7 mm. The liquid nitrogen was stressed with lightning surge voltage of both polarities and AC ramp with a rise of 2000 V/s

  1. Microprocessor Control For Liquid-Cooled Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1990-01-01

    Automatic control system maintains temperature of water-cooled garment within comfort zone while wearer's level of physical activity varies. Uncomfortable overshoots and undershoots of temperature eliminated. Designed for use in space suit, adaptable to other protective garments and to enclosed environments operating according to similar principles.

  2. Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

  3. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  4. Correlation of liquid-film cooling mass transfer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, R. A.; L'Ecuyer, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    An empirical correlation proposed by Gater and Ecuyer (1970) for liquid-film cooling mass transfer, accounting for film roughness and entrainment effects, is extended to include liquid films of arbitrary length. A favorable comparison between the predicted results and the experimental data of Kinney et al. (1952) and Emmons and Warner (1964) shows the utility of the mass transfer correlation for predictions over a wide range of experimental parameters.

  5. DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR FRENCH PLASTIC SEMEN STRAW SUSPENDED IN STATIC NITROGEN VAPOR OVER LIQUID NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, M V; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2015-01-01

    The use of mathematical models describing heat transfer during the freezing process is useful for the improvement of cryopreservation protocols. A widespread practice for cryopreservation of spermatozoa of domestic animal species consists of suspending plastic straws in nitrogen vapor before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Knowledge of surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is mandatory for computational modelling; however, h values for nitrogen vapor are not available. In the present study, surface heat transfer coefficients for plastic French straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen was determined; vertical and horizontal positions were considered. Heat transfer coefficients were determined from the measurement of time-temperature curves and from numerical solution of heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions using finite elements. The h values experimentally obtained for horizontal and vertically placed straws were compared to those calculated using correlations based on the Nusselt number for natural convection. For horizontal straws the average obtained value was h=12.5 ± 1.2 W m(2) K and in the case of vertical straws h=16 ± 2.48 W m(2) K. The numerical simulation validated against experimental measurements, combined with accurate h values provides a reliable tool for the prediction of freezing curves of semen-filled straws immersed in nitrogen vapor. The present study contributes to the understanding of the cryopreservation techniques for sperm freezing based on engineering concepts, improving the cooling protocols and the manipulation of the straws.

  6. Interfacial condensation induced by sub-cooled liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2016-11-01

    When a sub-cooled liquid jet impinges on the free surface between a liquid and its vapor, vapor will condense at a rate dependent on the sub-cooling, the jet strength and fluid properties. In 1966 and during the examination of a different type of condensation flow, Shekriladeze found an approximate result, valid at large condensation rates, that decouples the flow in the liquid phase from that of the vapor, without putting it in the context of a formal asymptotic approximation. In this talk we will develop an asymptotic approximation that contains Shekriladze's result, and extend the calculations to the case when a non-condensable gas is present in the vapor phase.

  7. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-04-05

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  8. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-08-09

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  9. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  10. Structural and electronic properties of dense liquid and amorphous nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boates, B; Bonev, S A

    2011-02-11

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of liquid nitrogen in the pressure-temperature range of 0-200 GPa and 2000-6000 K. The molecular-polymerization and molecular-atomic liquid phase boundaries have been mapped over this region. We find the polymeric liquid to be metallic, similar to what has been reported for the higher-temperature atomic fluid. An explanation of the electronic properties is given based on the structure and bonding character of the transformed liquids. We discuss the structural and bonding differences between the polymeric liquid and insulating solid cubic-gauche nitrogen to explain the differences in their electronic properties. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism responsible for charge transport in polymeric nitrogen systems to explain the conductivity of the polymeric fluid and the semi-conducting nature of low-temperature amorphous nitrogen.

  11. Liquid Cooling System for CPU by Electroconjugate Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sakurai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated power of CPU for personal computer has been increased because the performance of personal computer becomes higher. Therefore, a liquid cooling system has been employed in some personal computers in order to improve their cooling performance. Electroconjugate fluid (ECF is one of the functional fluids. ECF has a remarkable property that a strong jet flow is generated between electrodes when a high voltage is applied to ECF through the electrodes. By using this strong jet flow, an ECF-pump with simple structure, no sliding portion, no noise, and no vibration seems to be able to be developed. And then, by the use of the ECF-pump, a new liquid cooling system by ECF seems to be realized. In this study, to realize this system, an ECF-pump is proposed and fabricated to investigate the basic characteristics of the ECF-pump experimentally. Next, by utilizing the ECF-pump, a model of a liquid cooling system by ECF is manufactured and some experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of this system. As a result, by using this system, the temperature of heat source of 50 W is kept at 60°C or less. In general, CPU is usually used at this temperature or less.

  12. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  13. Human platelets frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen: biological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herve, P; Potron, G; Droule, C; Beduchaud, M P; Masse, M; Coffe, C; Bosset, J F; Peters, A

    1981-01-01

    Platelets were frozen using glycerol (3% in plasma) as a cryoprotective agent, a rapid cooling rate, and liquid nitrogen for storage. The cryopreserved platelets were thawed at 42 C and infused without washing. The results indicate that the quality of the thawed platelets is equivalent to platelets stored for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature. The availability of HLA phenotyped leukocyte poor platelets can reduce the frequency of sensitization to strong antigens and provide clinically effective platelets for alloimmunized patients.

  14. Advanced Liquid-Cooling Garment Using Highly Thermally Conductive Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This design of the liquid-cooling garment for NASA spacesuits allows the suit to remove metabolic heat from the human body more effectively, thereby increasing comfort and performance while reducing system mass. The garment is also more flexible, with fewer restrictions on body motion, and more effectively transfers thermal energy from the crewmember s body to the external cooling unit. This improves the garment s performance in terms of the maximum environment temperature in which it can keep a crewmember comfortable. The garment uses flexible, highly thermally conductive sheet material (such as graphite), coupled with cooling water lines of improved thermal conductivity to transfer the thermal energy from the body to the liquid cooling lines more effectively. The conductive sheets can be layered differently, depending upon the heat loads, in order to provide flexibility, exceptional in-plane heat transfer, and good through-plane heat transfer. A metal foil, most likely aluminum, can be put between the graphite sheets and the external heat source/sink in order to both maximize through-plane heat transfer at the contact points, and to serve as a protection to the highly conductive sheets. Use of a wicking layer draws excess sweat away from the crewmember s skin and the use of an outer elastic fabric ensures good thermal contact of the highly conductive underlayers with the skin. This allows the current state of the art to be improved by having cooling lines that can be more widely spaced to improve suit flexibility and to reduce weight. Also, cooling liquid does not have to be as cold to achieve the same level of cooling. Specific areas on the human body can easily be targeted for greater or lesser cooling to match human physiology, a warmer external environment can be tolerated, and spatial uniformity of the cooling garment can be improved to reduce vasoconstriction limits. Elements of this innovation can be applied to other embodiments to provide effective heat

  15. Thermally safe operation of a cooled semi-batch reactor: slow liquid-liquid reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Thermally safe operation of a semi-batch reactor (SBR) implies that conditions leading to strong accumulation of unreacted reactants must be avoided. All thermal responses of a SBR, in which a slow liquid-liquid reaction takes place, can be represented in a diagram with the kinetics, cooling capacit

  16. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  17. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-11-10

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing: a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  18. Experimental study on natural circulation using liquid nitrogen for superconducting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    An experiment to investigate the natural circulation of a cryogen has been performed. The study is motivated mainly by our recent development of cryogenic cooling system for prototype superconducting cyclotron without any circulating pump. In the natural circulation loop system, a cooling channel is attached on the outer surface of the aluminium block and the liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the channel to cool the block indirectly. A cryocooler as a heat sink is located at the top to re-condense cryogenic vapor coming from the aluminium block in which electrical heater is installed as a heat source. The main dimensions are determined using the relevant analysis and the natural circulation loop is successfully fabricated. The temperature distributions in the loop are measured during initial cool-down process and in steady state, from which the modified Grashof numbers are calculated and compared with the existing correlation estimated with one-dimensional analysis for steady state flow.

  19. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    . Hattenschwiler, L. Olander, and S. Allison, “Nitrogen and nature,” Ambio, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 97–101, 2002. [2] J. J. MacIsaac and R. C. Dugdale, “Interactions of light and inorganic nitrogen in controlling nitrogen uptake in the sea,” Deep-Sea Research...

  20. Liquid Cooling Garment Technology Transfer: A Biomedical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lomax, W. Curtis; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid cooling garments (LCGs) are routinely used to remove the body heat generated in a space-suit during extravehicular activity (EVA). Garments based upon LCG design have been used in various biomedical situations. The objectives of this investigation is to describe one recent LCG application to provide relief of the pain associated with peripheral neuritis and to report the physiologic changes responsible for this relief.

  1. Evaluation of battery packs for liquid microclimate cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Walter B., Jr.; Avellini, Barbara A.

    1995-05-01

    The Navy clothing and Textile Research Facility conducted a literature and industry survey to determine the best commercially available battery technology for use with liquid microclimate cooling systems (MCS), and a laboratory evaluation of a battery pack utilizing that technology. Nickel/cadmium batteries were determined to be the best battery technology commercially available at the present time. However, several other battery technologies are nearing commercialization and may be available in the near future.

  2. Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling

    CERN Document Server

    Hua-Lin, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB+3g/L POPOP+ 15 mg Bis--MSB) was studied by measuring the light yield as the function of nitrogen bubbling time. it shows that the light yield of fully purged liquid scintillator would increase of nearly 11% in room temperature and room atmosphere pressure. A simple model of nitrogen bubbling was built to describe the relationship between relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and bubbling time.

  3. High Performance Mars Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Whitlock, David; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is enough of a challenge and in the gravity of Mars, improvements in mobility will enable the suited crew member to efficiently complete EVA objectives. The idea proposed is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area in order to free up the arms and legs by removing the liquid tubes currently used in the ISS EVA suit in the limbs. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased to provide the entire liquid cooling requirement and increase mobility by freeing up the arms and legs. Additional potential benefits of this approach include reduced LCVG mass, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development.

  4. A Small Transfer and Distribution System for Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Č. Šimáně

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for remotely controlled filling of small Dewars with liquid nitrogen from a central storage Dewar vessel is described, consisting of a plunger type pump with an electromechanical driver and electromechanical ball type valves for distribution of liquid nitrogen. The preset nitrogen level in the small Dewars is kept constant by automatic refilling. The delivery is adjustable in steps by frequency change from 2.5 to 25 cm3/s, and delivery height up to 2 meters is assured.

  5. Absorption and oxidation of nitrogen oxide in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Riisager, Anders

    2016-01-01

    . The nitric acid is absorbed in the ionic liquid up to approximately one mole HNO3 per mole of the ionic liquid due to the formation of hydrogen bonds. The nitric acid can be desorbed by heating, thereby regenerating the ionic liquid with excellent reproducibility. Here, time-resolved in-situ spectroscopic......A new strategy for capturing nitrogen oxide, NO, from the gas phase is presented. Dilute NO gas is removed from the gas phase by ionic liquids under ambient conditions. The nitrate anion of the ionic liquid catalyzes the oxidation of NO to nitric acid by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of water...

  6. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  7. Liquid nitrogen tests of a Torus coil for the Jefferson Lab 12GeV accelerator upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Ruben J. [JLAB; Ghoshal, Probir K. [JLAB; Bruhwel, Krister B. [JLAB; Kashy, David H. [JLAB; Machie, Danny [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Taylor, William; Fischer, John W. [JLAB; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Powers, Jacob R. [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    A magnet system consisting of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils is being built for the Jefferson Lab 12-GeV accelerator upgrade project. The magnet coils are wound with Superconducting Super Collider-36 NbTi strand Rutherford cable soldered into a copper channel. Each superconducting toroidal coil is force cooled by liquid helium, which circulates in a tube that is in good thermal contact with the inside of the coil. Thin copper sheets are soldered to the helium cooling tube and enclose the superconducting coil, providing cooling to the rest of the coil pack. As part of a rigorous risk mitigation exercise, each of the six coils is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) to 80 K to validate predicted thermal stresses, verify the robustness and integrity of electrical insulation, and evaluate the efficacy of the employed conduction cooling method. This paper describes the test setup, the tests performed, and the findings.

  8. Espresso coffee foam delays cooling of the liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho

    2017-04-01

    Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.

  9. Thermally safe operation of a cooled semi-batch reactor: slow liquid-liquid reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Steensma, M.; Westerterp, K R

    1988-01-01

    Thermally safe operation of a semi-batch reactor (SBR) implies that conditions leading to strong accumulation of unreacted reactants must be avoided. All thermal responses of a SBR, in which a slow liquid-liquid reaction takes place, can be represented in a diagram with the kinetics, cooling capacity and potential temperature rise as the keyfactors. Slow reactions taking place in the dispersed phase were found to be more prone to accumulation than reactions in the continuous phase. An overhea...

  10. Liquid lithium self-cooled breeding blanket design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Danilov, I.V.; Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, 101100 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mattas, R.F.; Hua, T.Q.; Smith, D.L. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Gohard, Y. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    To meet the technical objectives of the ITER extended performance phase (EPP) an advanced tritium breeding lithium/vanadium (Li/V) blanket was developed by two home teams (US and RF). The design is based on the use of liquid Li as coolant and breeder and vanadium alloy (V-Cr-Ti) as structural material. The first wall is coated with a beryllium protection layer. Beryllium is also integrated in the blanket for neutron multiplication and improved shielding. The use of tungsten carbide in the primary shield and in vacuum vessel provides adequate protection for toroidal field coils. A self-healing electrical insulator in the form of CaO or AlN coating layer is utilized to reduce MHD pressure drop in the system. To have a self-consistent ITER design, liquid metal cooling of the divertor and vacuum vessel is considered as well. (orig.) 16 refs.

  11. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Liquid-nitrogen cryopreservation of three kinds of autotrophicbioleaching bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-ling; XIN Xiao-hong; JIANG Ying; LIANG Ren-xing; YUAN Peng; FANG Cheng-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Three kinds of autotrophic bioleaching bacteria strains,including mesophilic and acidophilic ferrous ion-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A.ferrooxidans),mesophilic and acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A.thiooxidans),and moderately thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidianus brierleyi,were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and their ferrous ion- or sulfur-oxidizing activities were investigated and compared with the original ones.The results revealed that ferrous ion/sulfur oxidation activities of the strains were almost equal before and after cryopreservation.Glycerin was used as cryoprotective agent.In conclusion,liquid-nitrogen cryopreservation is a simple and effective method for autotrophic bioleaching microorganisms.

  13. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    the simulator and its parts.In the proposed algorithm of calculations a simulator consists of three blocks with data and intermediate results exchange with each other. Blocks contain subsimulator of heat gain in the LPC and heat carrier circulation loops, cooling-heating subsimulator of LPC and the heat carrier in the heat exchanger and heat exchange subsimulator of LPC and heat carrier in its tanks. Functional dependence of thermophysical properties of LPC and heat carrier and its temperatures, as well as characteristics of the pumps are taken into consideration in calculations. Pump heat gain subsimulator includes hydrauliccirculation loop calculation and the calculation of the heat flow emitted by pump. Subsimulator of the heat exchanger is based on differential equations of static heat exchange, where the integration variable is length coordinate of heat exchanger. The output data of these subsimulators are input data in heat exchange subsimulator of LPC and heat carrier in its tanks, which is based on the differential equations of quasi-stationary heat exchange.Simulation results are interpolated functions of LPC, heat carrier and the metal shells temperatures. Analyzing these functions graphs one can determine the performance indicators of the refrigerating system: refrigerating time and the relative costs of liquid nitrogen (mass of liquid nitrogen spent, referred to the weight of the refrigerated LPC. For example in the case of refrigerating portions 13260 kg and 3300 kg of high-boiling oxidizer with various combinations of design and functional parameters the refrigeration time is 2.8 ... 78.3 hours, and the relative costs of nitrogen amounted to 0,178 ... 0,322.Concluded the possibility of applying the proposed method for LPC refrigeration simulation with ground equipment systems using liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier to determine rational design and functional parameters of the system, which allow to achieve the lowest cost of liquid nitrogen.

  14. Experimental Evidence for a Liquid-Liquid Crossover in Deeply Cooled Confined Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  15. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  16. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  17. Absorption and oxidation of nitrogen oxide in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Riisager, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy for capturing nitrogen oxide, NO, from the gas phase is presented. Dilute NO gas is removed from the gas phase by ionic liquids under ambient conditions. The nitrate anion of the ionic liquid catalyzes the oxidation of NO to nitric acid by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of water...... investigations of the reaction and products are presented. The procedure reveals a new vision for removing the pollutant NO by absorption into a non-volatile liquid and converting it into a useful bulk chemical, that is, HNO3....

  18. Connection for transfer of Liquid Nitrogen from High Voltage to ground potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Hansen, Finn; Willén, Dag

    2001-01-01

    In order to operate a superconducting cable conductor it must be kept at a cryogenic temperature (e.g. using liquid nitrogen). The superconducting cable conductor is at high voltage and the cooling equipment is kept at ground potential. This requires a thermally insulating connection that is also...... strength. However, samples of ExpancelÒ (polymer foam) have recently proved to withstand large electrical fields at room temperature as well as at cryogenic temperatures. In this work, two prototype devices have been tested with respect to the partial discharge inception voltage, thermal insulation...

  19. Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, M; Tsujino, K; Sato, K; Sasaki, M

    2009-09-14

    Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si APDs) are novel photodetectors used as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), or multipixel photon counter (MPPC), because they have fast response, photon-number resolution, and a high count rate; one drawback, however, is the high dark count rate. We developed a system for cooling an MPPC to liquid nitrogen temperature and thus reduce the dark count rate. Our system achieved dark count rates of <0.2 cps. Here we present the afterpulse probability, counting capability, timing jitter, and photon-number resolution of our system at 78.5 K and 295 K.

  20. Lubricating-cooling liquid for cold working of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhanov, D.F.; Bykovskaya, Ye.Ye.; Chuprinina, A.I.; Gubanova, V.A.; Pigulskiy, A.A.; Stepanyants, S.A.

    1979-09-25

    A lubricating-cooling liquid with adequate adhesion to metals, good antioxidant and high antiwear properties with a wide range of application in metal processing consists of petroleum oil as the base and (in percent) 1.5-3.0 percent dibutyl ester of trichlormethylphosphine acid, 0.5-1.0 tributylphosphate, 20-25 SENZh products obtained by successive esterification, condensation and sulfurization of a mixture of synthetic fatty acids of fraction C10-C20, synthetic alcohols of fraction C10-C18 and polyfunctional oxygen containing compounds, and 3-5 percent odorizing additive (coriander oil). The functions of all components are examined and the stage-by-stage technology of producing the SENZh product with complex chemical composition is described.

  1. Development and fabrication of an advanced liquid cooling garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    A tube/fin concept liquid cooling garment head cooler was developed, fabricated and delivered to NASA-ARC. The head cooler was fabricated from polyurethane film which sandwiches the transport fluid tubing and a thermally conductive fin material. The head cooler garment is sewn to form a skull cap and covered with a comfort liner. In addition, two Neonate heating garments were fabricated and supplied to NASA for further finishing and use in medical tests. The resulting garment is flexible, elastic and conforms to the head comfortably. Tests on a tube/fin element of identical construction as the head cooler demonstrated good thermal effectiveness. Use of commercially available materials and development of relatively simple fabrication techniques give the potential for a low garment cost.

  2. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  3. Wicking of liquid nitrogen into superheated porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, Yulia; Dreyer, Michael E.

    2016-09-01

    Evaporation in porous elements of liquid-vapor separation devices can affect the vapor-free cryogenic propellant delivery to spacecraft engines. On that account, the capillary transport of a cryogenic liquid subjected to evaporation needs to be understood and assessed. We investigate wicking of liquid nitrogen at saturation temperature into superheated porous media. A novel test facility was built to perform wicking experiments in a one-species system under non-isothermal conditions. A setup configuration enabled to define the sample superheat by its initial position in a stratified nitrogen vapor environment inside the cryostat. Simultaneous sample weight and temperature measurements indicated the wicking front velocity. The mass of the imbibed liquid nitrogen was determined varying the sample superheat, geometry and porous structure. To the author's extent of knowledge, these are the first wicking experiments performed with cryogenic fluids subjected to evaporation using the weight-time measurement technique. A one-dimensional macroscopic model describes the process theoretically. Results revealed that the liquid loss due to evaporation at high sample superheats leads to only a slight imbibition rate decrease. However, the imbibition rate can be greatly affected by the vapor flow created due to evaporation that counteracts the wicking front propagation.

  4. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  5. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contract liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while there is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  6. Liquid cooled plate heat exchanger for battery cooling of an electric vehicle (EV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Rahman, H. Y.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Sheng, J. L. Y.

    2016-03-01

    A liquid cooled plate heat exchanger was designed to improve the battery life of an electric vehicle which suffers from premature aging or degradation due to the heat generation during discharging and charging period. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used as a tool to analyse the temperature distribution when a constant surface heat flux was set at the bottom surface of the battery. Several initial and boundary conditions were set based on the past studies on the plate heat exchanger in the simulation software. The design of the plate heat exchanger was based on the Nissan Leaf battery pack to analyse the temperature patterns. Water at different mass flow rates was used as heat transfer fluid. The analysis revealed the designed plate heat exchanger could maintain the surface temperature within the range of 20 to 40°C which is within the safe operating temperature of the battery.

  7. Thermal Performance Testing of EMU and CSAFE Liquid Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Bue, Grant; Hakam, Mark; Radford, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Future exploration missions require the development of a new liquid cooling garment (LCG) that offers greater system reliability, is more comfortable, and maximizes thermal performance. To inform the development of a future LCG a thermal performance test was conducted to evaluate three factors: (1) the effect of the thermal comfort undergarment (TCU) on tactile and thermal comfort, (2) the comparable thermal performance of an CSAFE developed engineering evaluation unit (EEU) LCG, which uses a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) wicking garment as the base, and (3) the performance of a torso or upper body only LCG configuration to evaluate a proposed auxiliary loop configuration. To evaluate the thermal performance of each configuration a metabolic suit test was conducted, utilizing suited subjects to generate metabolic heat by walking on a treadmill at various speeds. Three (3) test subjects of similar height and weight produced a metabolic load for five tests by either resting (300-600 BTU/hr), walking at a slow pace (1200 BTU/hr), and walking at a brisk pace (2200 BTU/hr). During the test, data was collected that would allow us to track the heat transfer to the LCG and ventilation system to determine the thermal performance of the LCG configurations. Four different test configurations were tested, with one configuration tested twice. The test results show that the CSAFE EEU LCG and EMU LCG had comparable performance. The testing also showed that an auxiliary loop LCG, sized similarly to the shirt-only configuration, should provide adequate cooling for contingency scenarios. Finally, the testing showed the previous analysis that assumed a UA deterioration from the TCU was too conservative and the TCU may prove to be acceptable for future development with additional analysis and testing.

  8. Removal of nitrogen compounds from Brazilian petroleum samples by oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, L.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: pergher@uricer.edu.br; Oliveira, J.V. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Souza, W.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-10-15

    This work reports liquid-liquid extraction of nitrogen compounds from oxidized and non-oxidized Brazilian petroleum samples. The experiments were accomplished in a laboratory-scale liquid-liquid apparatus in the temperature range of 303 K-323 K, using methanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF), and their mixtures as extraction solvents, employing solvent to sample volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1, exploring up to three separation stages. Results show that an increase in temperature, solvent to oil ratio, and number of equilibrium stages greatly improves the nitrogen removal from the oxidized sample (from 2600 to 200 ppm). The employed oxidation scheme is thus demonstrated to be an essential and efficient step of sample preparation for the selective liquid-liquid removal of nitrogen compounds. It is shown that the use of mixtures of DMF and NMP as well their use as co-solvents with methanol did not prove to be useful for selective nitrogen extraction since great oil losses were observed in the final process. (author)

  9. Methane, Ethane, and Nitrogen Liquid Stability on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jennifer; Thompson, Garrett Leland; Roe, Henry G.; Grundy, Will; Tegler, Stephen C.; Lindberg, Gerrick Eugene; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the lakes of Titan are composed of methane and/or ethane, but the relative proportions are mostly unclear. Understanding the past and current stability of these lakes requires characterizing the interactions of liquid methane and ethane, along with nitrogen. Previous studies have shown that the freezing point of methane is depressed when mixed with nitrogen. Our cryogenic laboratory setup allows us to explore ices down to 30 K through imaging and transmission spectroscopy. Recent work (see Thompson et al., this conference) discovered that although methane and ethane have similar freezing points, when mixed they can remain liquid down to 72 K. Concurrently with the freezing point measurements we acquire transmission spectra of these mixtures to understand how the spectral features change with concentration and temperature. Any mixing of these two species together will depress the freezing point of the lake below Titan's surface temperature, preventing them from freezing. Also, when ethane ice forms, it freezes on the bottom of the liquid, while methane ice freezes at the top of the liquid, implying ethane ice is denser than the solution, while methane ice is less dense; this holds for all concentrations. We will present new results exploring the ternary system of methane, ethane and nitrogen. In particular we will map out the N2-C2H6 liquidus, as has been done for CH4-N2, as well as explore the effect of nitrogen on the eutectic of the methane-ethane system. This behavior has implications for not only the lakes on the surface of Titan, but also for the evaporation/condensation/cloud cycle in the atmosphere. These results will help interpretation of future observational data, and guide current theoretical models.

  10. Inverse Leidenfrost Effect: Levitating Drops on Liquid Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adda-Bedia, M; Kumar, S; Lechenault, F; Moulinet, S; Schillaci, M; Vella, D

    2016-05-03

    We explore the interaction between a liquid drop (initially at room temperature) and a bath of liquid nitrogen. In this scenario, heat transfer occurs through film-boiling: a nitrogen vapor layer develops that may cause the drop to levitate at the bath surface. We report the phenomenology of this inverse Leidenfrost effect, investigating the effect of the drop size and density by using an aqueous solution of a tungsten salt to vary the drop density. We find that (depending on its size and density) a drop either levitates or instantaneously sinks into the bulk nitrogen. We begin by measuring the duration of the levitation as a function of the radius R and density ρd of the liquid drop. We find that the levitation time increases roughly linearly with drop radius but depends weakly on the drop density. However, for sufficiently large drops, R ≥ Rc(ρd), the drop sinks instantaneously; levitation does not occur. This sinking of a (relatively) hot droplet induces film-boiling, releasing a stream of vapor bubbles for a well-defined length of time. We study the duration of this immersed-drop bubbling finding similar scalings (but with different prefactors) to the levitating drop case. With these observations, we study the physical factors limiting the levitation and immersed-film-boiling times, proposing a simple model that explains the scalings observed for the duration of these phenomena, as well as the boundary of (R,ρd) parameter space that separates them.

  11. DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AT THE OUTER SURFACE OF A CRYOVIAL BEING PLUNGED INTO LIQUID NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Zhao, G; Tang, H Y; Jiang, Z D

    2015-01-01

    Cell survival upon cryopreservation is affected by the cooling rate. However, it is difficult to model the heat transfer process or to predict the cooling curve of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution due to the uncertainty of its convective heat transfer coefficient (h). To measure the h and to better understand the heat transfer process of cryovials filled with CPA solution being plunged in liquid nitrogen. The temperatures at three locations of the CPA solution in a cryovial were measured. Different h values were selected after the cooling process was modeled as natural convection heat transfer, the film boiling and the nucleate boiling, respectively. And the temperatures of the selected points are simulated based on the selected h values. h was determined when the simulated temperature best fitted the experimental temperature. When the experimental results were best fitted, according to natural convection heat transfer model, h(1) = 120 W/(m(2)·K) while due to film boiling and nucleate boiling regimes h(f) = 5 W/(m(2)·K) followed by h(n) = 245 W/(m(2)·K). These values were verified by the differential cooling rates at the three locations of a cryovial. The heat transfer process during cooling in liquid nitrogen is better modeled as film boiling followed by nucleate boiling.

  12. Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  13. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  14. Thermal Performance Testing of EMU and OSS Liquid Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Bue, Grant; Hakam, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate three factors influencing the thermal performance of liquid cooling garments (LCG): (1) the comparable thermal performance of an Oceaneering developed engineering evaluation unit (EEU) prototype LDG, (2) the effect of the thermal comfort undergarment (TCU), and (3) the performance of a torso or upper body only LCG configuration. To evaluate the thermal performance of each configuration a metabolic test was conducted, utilizing suited subjects to generate the metabolic heat. For this study three (3) test subjects of similar health and weight produced a metabolic load on the LDG configuration by either resting (300-600 BTU/hr), walking at a slow pace (1200 BRU/hr), and walking at a brisk pace (2200 BTU/hr), as outlined in Figure 1, the metabolic profile. During the test, oxygen consumption, heart rate, relative humidity, air flow, inlet and outlet air pressure, inlet and outlet air temperature, delta air temperature, water flow (100 lb/hr), inlet water temperature (64 F), delta water temperature, water pressure, core body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat loss data was recorded. Four different test configurations were tested, with one configuration tested twice, as outlined in Table 1. The test was conducted with the suit subjects wearing the Demonstrator Suit, pressurized to vent pressure (approximately 0.5 psig). The demonstrator suit has an integrated ventilation duct system and was used to create a relevant environment with a captured ventilation return, an integrated vent tree, and thermal insulation from the environment.

  15. Assessment of an active liquid cooling garment intended for use in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Dabrowska, Anna; Marszalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a designed active liquid cooling garment (LCG) that has been developed in order to reduce thermal discomfort of persons working in hot environments. It consists of clothing with a tube system distributing a cooling liquid, a sensor measuring the microclimate under the clothing, and a portable cooling unit with a module controlling the temperature of the cooling liquid depending on the microclimate temperature under the clothing. The LCG was validated through tests on volunteers in a climatic chamber at 30 °C, a relative humidity of 40%, and an air movement rate of 0.4 m/s. The obtained test results confirmed the beneficial effects of the cooling system used on mean weighted skin temperature, the physical parameters of the microclimate under the clothing, and the participants' subjective assessments, as well as confirmed that the functioning of the control system regulating liquid temperature in the LCG was correct.

  16. Laser and cavity cooling of a mechanical resonator with a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Luigi; Betzholz, Ralf; Kreiner, Laura; Bienert, Marc; Morigi, Giovanna

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically analyze the cooling dynamics of a high-Q mode of a mechanical resonator, when the structure is also an optical cavity and is coupled with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The NV center is driven by a laser and interacts with the cavity photon field and with the strain field of the mechanical oscillator, while radiation pressure couples the mechanical resonator and cavity field. Starting from the full master equation we derive the rate equation for the mechanical resonator's motion, whose coefficients depend on the system parameters and on the noise sources. We then determine the cooling regime, the cooling rate, the asymptotic temperatures, and the spectrum of resonance fluorescence for experimentally relevant parameter regimes. For these parameters, we consider an electronic transition, whose linewidth allows one to perform sideband cooling, and show that the addition of an optical cavity in general does not improve the cooling efficiency. We further show that pure dephasing of the NV center's electronic transitions can lead to an improvement of the cooling efficiency.

  17. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  18. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  19. CTE-Matched, Liquid-Cooled, High Thermal Conductivity Heat Sink Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a CTE-matched, liquid-cooled, high thermal conductivity heat sink for use in spacecraft thermal management applications. The material...

  20. A Liquid Hydrogen Cooler with a Cooling Capacity of 20 Watts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the future spaceport and long-term storage of liquid hydrogen NASA requires cryocoolers that can provide cooling power in the range of 20 watts at 20 K. The...

  1. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  2. Integrated design of cryogenic refrigerator and liquid-nitrogen circulation loop for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    A new concept of cryogenic cooling system is proposed and investigated for application to long-length HTS cables. One of major obstacles to the cable length of 1 km or longer is the difficulty in circulating liquid nitrogen (LN) along the cables, since the temperature rise and pressure drop of LN flow could be excessively large. This study attempts a breakthrough by integrating the refrigerator with the LN circulation loop in order to eliminate the cryogenic LN pumps, and generate a large LN flow with the power of compressors at ambient temperature. A variety of thermodynamic structures are investigated on standard and modified Claude cycles, where nitrogen is used as refrigerant and the LN circulation loop is included as part of the closed cycle. Four proposed cycles are fully analyzed and optimized with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS) to evaluate the FOM (figure of merit) and examine the feasibility. The modified dual-pressure cycle cooled with expander stream is recommended for long HTS cables.

  3. A liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode x-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Y; Hara, H; Minowa, M; Shimokoshi, F; Inoue, Yoshizumi; Moriyama, Shigetaka; Hara, Hideyuki; Minowa, Makoto; Shimokoshi, Fumio

    1995-01-01

    An x-ray detector using a liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode has been developed along with a tailor-made charge sensitive preamplifier whose first-stage JFET has been cooled. The operating temperature of the JFET has been varied separately and optimized. The x- and \\gamma-ray energy spectra for an \

  4. Experimental study on the explosive boiling in saturated liquid nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhaoyi; HUAI Xiulan; LIU Dengying

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the heat-transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen (LN2) have received increasing attention. When there is a transient high heatflux input to the LN2, explosive boiling may take place. In this paper, using the high-power short-duration pulsed laser heating method and the high-speed photography technology, the experimental result of explosive boiling in saturated LN2 is illustrated; and the two exclusive characteristics of explosive boiling in LN2: changeover time and the relative long-time adherence of the bubble cluster to the surface, are investigated.

  5. Effect of corrugated characteristics on the liquid nitrogen temperature field of HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. M.; Li, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Gao, C.; Qiu, M.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    In the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system, liquid nitrogen is usually chosen to be the coolant because of its low saturation temperature and large latent heat of vaporization. Thus, it is very important for superconducting cables that the liquid nitrogen temperature field keeps stable. However, the cryostat is usually made of flexible corrugated pipes and multi-layer insulation materials. The characteristics (e.g. wave pitch and wave depth) of corrugated pipes may have an effect on the heat exchange between cable and liquid nitrogen, even the whole temperature field of liquid nitrogen. In this paper, a two-dimensional model for 30 m long HTS cable has been modified to analyze the effect of corrugated characteristics on the temperature field of liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen temperature difference between the outlet and the inlet of passage gradually increases as the wave pitch of the corrugated tube decreases and the wave depth increases.

  6. The influence of cavitation on the flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen through spray nozzles: A CFD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rong; Ruan, Yixiao; Liu, Xiufang; Cao, Feng; Hou, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Spray cooling with cryogen could achieve lower temperature level than refrigerant spray. The internal flow conditions within spray nozzles have crucial impacts on the mass flow rate, particle size, spray angle and spray penetration, thereby influencing the cooling performance. In this paper, CFD simulations based on mixture model are performed to study the cavitating flow of liquid nitrogen in spray nozzles. The cavitation model is verified using the experimental results of liquid nitrogen flow over hydrofoil. The numerical models of spray nozzle are validated against the experimental data of the mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen flow through different types of nozzles including the pressure swirl nozzle and the simple convergent nozzle. The numerical studies are performed under a wide range of pressure difference and inflow temperature, and the vapor volume fraction distribution, outlet vapor quality, mass flow rate and discharge coefficient are obtained. The results show that the outlet diameter, the pressure difference, and the inflow temperature significantly influence the mass flow rate of spray nozzles. The increase of the inflow temperature leads to higher saturation pressure, higher cavitation intensity, and more vapor at nozzle outlet, which can significantly reduce mass flow rate. While the discharge coefficient is mainly determined by the inflow temperature and has little dependence on the pressure difference and outlet diameter. Based on the numerical results, correlations of discharge coefficient are proposed for pressure swirl nozzle and simple convergent nozzles, respectively, and the deviation is less than 20% for 93% of data.

  7. Relative Efficacy of Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizers in Dryland Spring Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Walsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in North Central and Western Montana (total of 6 site-years to evaluate the relative efficacy of three liquid nitrogen (N fertilizer sources, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 32-0-0, liquid urea (LU, 21-0-0, and High NRGN (HNRGN, 27-0-0-1S, in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In addition to at-seeding urea application at 90 kg N ha−1 to all treatments (except for the unfertilized check plot, the liquid fertilizers were applied utilizing an all-terrain vehicle- (ATV- mounted stream-bar equipped sprayer at a rate of 45 kg N ha−1 at Feekes 5 growth stage (early tillering. Three dilution ratios of fertilizer to water were accessed: 100/0 (undiluted, 66/33, and 33/66. The effects of N source and the dilution ratio (fertilizer/water on N uptake (NUp, N use efficiency (NUE, spring wheat grain yield (GY, grain protein (GP content, and protein yield (PY were assessed. The dilution ratios had no effect on GY, GP, PY, NUp, and NUE at any of the site-years in this study. Taking into account agronomic and economic factors, LU can be recommended as the most suitable liquid N fertilizer source for spring wheat cropping systems of the Northern Great Plains.

  8. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  9. Structural and phase transformations in Hadfield steel upon frictional loading in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, L. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Chernenko, N. L.

    2016-08-01

    Structural transformations that occur in 110G13 steel (Hadfield) upon sliding friction in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) have been investigated by metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray diffraction methods. The frictional action was performed through the reciprocating sliding of a cylindrical indenter of quenched 110G13 steel over a plate of the studied steel. A like friction pair was immersed into a bath with liquid nitrogen. It has been shown that the Hadfield steel quenched from 1100°C under the given temperature conditions of frictional loading retains the austenitic structure completely. The frictional action forms in a surface layer up to 10 μm thick the nanocrystalline structure with austenite grains 10-50 nm in size and a hardness 6 GPa. Upon subsequent low-temperature friction, the tempering of steel at 400°C (3 h) and at 600°C (5 min and 5 h) brings about the formation of a large amount (tens of vol %) of ɛ (hcp) martensite in steel. The formation of this phase under friction is supposedly a consequence of the reduction in the stacking fault energy of Hadfield steel, which is achieved due to the combined action of the following factors: low-temperature cooling, a decrease in the carbon content in the austenite upon tempering, and the presence of high compressive stresses in the friction-contact zone.

  10. Numerical Prediction for Subcooled Boiling Flow of Liquid Nitrogen in a Vertical Tube with MUSIG Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯民; 文键; 李亚梅; 杨辉著; 厉彦忠

    2013-01-01

    Multiple size group (MUSIG) model combined with a three-dimensional two-fluid model were em-ployed to predict subcooled boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical upward tube. Based on the mechanism of boiling heat transfer, some important bubble model parameters were amended to be applicable to the modeling of liquid nitrogen. The distribution of different discrete bubble classes was demonstrated numerically and the distribu-tion patterns of void fraction in the wall-heated tube were analyzed. It was found that the average void fraction in-creases nonlinearly along the axial direction with wall heat flux and it decreases with inlet mass flow rate and sub-cooled temperature. The local void fraction exhibited a U-shape distribution in the radial direction. The partition of the wall heat flux along the tube was obtained. The results showed that heat flux consumed on evaporation is the leading part of surface heat transfer at the rear region of subcooled boiling. The turning point in the pressure drop curve reflects the instability of bubbly flow. Good agreement was achieved on the local heat transfer coefficient against experimental measurements, which demonstrated the accuracy of the numerical model.

  11. Film boiling heat transfer from a wire to upward flow of liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, M.; Shirai, Y.; Horie, Y.; Shigeta, H.; Higa, D.; Tatsumoto, H.; Hata, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Naruo, Y.; Inatani, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients in liquid hydrogen were measured for the heater surface superheats to 300 K under pressures from 0.4 to 1.1 MPa, liquid subcoolings to 11 K and flow velocities to 8 m/s. Two test wires were both 1.2 mm in diameter, 120 mm and 200 mm in lengths and were made of PtCo alloy. The test wires were located on the center of 8 mm and 5 mm diameter conduits of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics). Furthermore film boiling heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen were measured only for the 200 mm long wire. The film boiling heat transfer coefficients are higher for higher pressure, higher subcooling, and higher flow velocity. The experimental data were compared with a conventional equation for forced flow film boiling in a wide channel. The data for the 8 mm diameter conduit were about 1.7 times and those for the 5 mm conduit were about 1.9 times higher than the predicted values by the equation. A new equation was presented modifying the conventional equation based on the liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen data. The experimental data were expressed well by the equation.

  12. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory's (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN2) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN2 cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 200,000 liters of LN2 to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN2 in steady operation. The LN2 system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the sub-contractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC's request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 70,000 liters to cool-down and less than 90,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  13. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory s (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 220,000 liters of LN to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN in steady operation. The LN system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the subcontractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC s request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 68,000 liters to cool-down and less than 91,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  14. Effect of Nitrogen Content and Cooling Rate on Transformation Characteristics and Mechanical Properties for 600 MPa High Strength Rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing

    2016-10-01

    To obtain appropriate chemical composition and thermo-mechanical schedules for processing the V-N microalloyed 600 MPa grade high strength rebar, the microstructure analysis during dynamic continuous cooling and tensile tests of three experimental steels with different nitrogen contents were conducted. The results show that increasing nitrogen content promotes ferrite transformation and broadens the bainite transformation interval, when the nitrogen content is in the range of 0.019-0.034 mass%. Meanwhile, the martensite start temperatures decrease and the minimal cooling rate to form martensite increases. To achieve a good combination of strength and ductility, the cooling rates should be controlled in the range of 0.5-3°C/s, leading to the microstructure of ferrite, pearlite and less than 10% bainite (volume fraction). Furthermore, all the experimental steels satisfy the performance requirement of 600 MPa grade rebar and the rebar with nitrogen content of 0.034 mass% shows the highest strength through systematically comparative investigation.

  15. Molecular dissociation and shock-induced cooling in fluid nitrogen at high densities and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radousky, H. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Ross, M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Radiative temperatures and electrical conductivities were measured for fluid nitrogen compressed dynamically to pressures of 18-90 GPa, temperatures of 4000-14,000 K, and densities of 2-3 g/cu cm. The data show a continuous phase transition above 30 GPa shock pressure and confirm that (delta-P/delta-T)v is less than 0, as indicated previously by Hugoniot equation-of-state experiments. The first observation of shock-induced cooling is also reported. The data are interpreted in terms of molecular dissociation, and the concentration of dissociated molecules is calculated as a function of density and temperature.

  16. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  17. Cooling rate dependence of solidification for liquid aluminium: a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z Y; Dong, K J; Tian, Z A; Liu, R S; Wang, Z; Wang, J G

    2016-06-29

    The effect of the cooling rate on the solidification process of liquid aluminium is studied using a large-scale molecular dynamics method. It is found that there are various types of short-range order (SRO) structures in the liquid, among which the icosahedral (ICO)-like structures are dominant. These SRO structures are in dynamic fluctuation and transform each other. The effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure is very weak at high temperatures and in supercooled liquids, and it appears only below the liquid-solid transition temperature. Fast cooling rates favour the formation of amorphous structures with ICO-like features, while slow cooling rates favour the formation of FCC crystalline structures. Furthermore, FCC and HCP structures can coexist in crystalline structures. It is also found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be achieved at appropriate cooling rates, and its formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated by tracing the evolution of nanoclusters. The arrangement of FCC and HCP atoms in the nanograins displays various twinned structures as observed using visualization analysis, which is different from the layering or phase separation structures observed in the solidification of Lennard-Jones fluids and some metal liquids.

  18. Experimental study on the lightning impulse dielectric strength of liquid nitrogen insulation medium according to various pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, J. B.; Kang, H.; Chang, K. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Chu, S. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, K.-J.; Lee, H. G.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    The lightning impulse breakdown characteristics of liquid nitrogen are necessarily considered for designing high voltage superconducting machines required high reliability. This paper investigates the dielectric capability of liquid nitrogen (LN2) to withstand lightning impulse. To gain the dielectric capability of LN2 cryogenic cooling system, lightning impulse was induced in sphere-plane electrode systems which have six different diameters of sphere electrode. The pressure is one of major condition to decide dielectric strength at LN2 cryogenic cooling system. Thus, the gaseous nitrogen was injected to control pressure in the cryostat, ranging from 100 kPa to 200 kPa. Moreover, field utilization factor was calculated between sphere and plane electrode systems by a finite element method analysis. The electric field criterion of LN2 as insulation media was calculated from correlation between the experimental results and the field utilization factor. In the future, these results can be applied as the design parameter of electrical insulation for developing high voltage superconducting machines.

  19. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  20. Theoretical study on the ideal open cycle of the liquid nitrogen engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞小莉; 元广杰; 苏石川; 蒋彦龙; 陈国邦

    2002-01-01

    This article described the characteristics of the liquid nitrogen engine's ideal open cycle.Using two interconnecting strokes to achieve the power output can mitigate the trade-off between high efficiency and the potential mechanical complexity of multiple-cylinder engines. The total specific energy of the binary media (methane-nitrogen) cycle system could be much higher than the unitary medium (liquid nitrogen) cycle system. By theoretical analysis, the reasonably acceptable driving range proved the feasibility of the liquid nitrogen engine used for supplying power for a lightweight car.

  1. Theoretical study on the ideal open cycle of the liquid nitrogen engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞小莉; 元广杰; 苏石川; 蒋彦龙; 陈国邦

    2002-01-01

    This article described the characteristics of the liquid nitrogen engine's ideal open cycle. Using two interconnecting strokes to achieve the power output can mitigate the trade-off between high efficiency and the potential mechanical complexity of multiple-cylinder engines. The total specific energy of the binary media (methane-nitrogen) cycle system could be much higher than the unitary medium (liquid nitrogen) cycle system. By theoretical analysis, the reasonably acceptable driving range proved the feasibility of the liquid nitrogen engine used for supplying power for a lightweight car.

  2. Development of a 4K/80K multiple operating type of GM refrigeration system for the superconducting magnet in maglev use. Cooling characteristics of the nitrogen self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield plate; Fujoshiki tetsudoyo chodendojishaku no 4K/80K ryoyo GM reito sisutemu no kaihatsu. Chisso shizen junkanhoshiki netsu shirudo no reikyaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Sanada, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamaji, Mutsuhiko [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Terai, Motoaki [Central Japan Railway Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Igarashi, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Mitsugu [Niigata Unviersity, Niigata (Japan)

    1999-02-25

    An onboard refrigeration system is one of the most important components in the superconducting magnetically levitated system (Maglev system). In the superconducting magnet, liquid helium and nitrogen are used to cool the superconducting coils and the radiation shields. At the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line, the operation of the superconducting magnet without a supplement of liquid helium has been achieved by the onboard 4 K Gifford-McMahon/Joule-Thomson (GM/JT) refrigerators- . As for the liquid nitrogen, it is supplied to the radiation shields periodically. Our final target for an onboard refrigeration system for commercial use is to operate magnets with no supplementation of cryogen. That is the operations of magnets should not depend on a helium liquefaction plant or a liquid nitrogen supplying system in the train depot, except for occasions of the magnet's precooling or when the vehicle is being overhauled. To meet these requirements, we have been developing a new type of onboard GM refrigeration (GM refrigerator application) system that features a combination of a 4K/80K multiple-operating type of GM refrigerator and a self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield. The nitrogen self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield plate was demonstrated by using the radiation shield plate mock-up. (author)

  3. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  4. Homogeneous nucleation in liquid nitrogen at negative pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakov, V. G., E-mail: baidakov@itp.uran.ru; Vinogradov, V. E.; Pavlov, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Thermal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The kinetics of spontaneous cavitation in liquid nitrogen at positive and negative pressures has been studied in a tension wave formed by a compression pulse reflected from the liquid–vapor interface on a thin platinum wire heated by a current pulse. The limiting tensile stresses (Δp = p{sub s}–p, where p{sub s} is the saturation pressure), the corresponding bubble nucleation frequencies J (10{sup 20}–10{sup 22} s{sup –1} m{sup –3}), and temperature induced nucleation frequency growth rate G{sub T} = dlnJ/dT have been experimentally determined. At T = 90 K, the limiting tensile stress was Δp = 8.3 MPa, which was 4.9 MPa lower than the value corresponding to the boundary of thermodynamic stability of the liquid phase (spinodal). The measurement results were compared to classical (homogeneous) nucleation theory (CNT) with and without neglect of the dependence of the surface tension of critical bubbles on their dimensions. In the latter case, the properties of new phase nuclei were described in terms of the Van der Waals theory of capillarity. The experimental data agree well with the CNT theory when it takes into account the “size effect.”.

  5. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  6. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  7. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  8. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of cyclic aliphatic dicarboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS has been used to measure for the first time the solid state vapour pressures of a series of aliphatic cyclic dicarboxylic acids with increasing ring size. Additionally the atmospherically important compounds; cis-pinonic acid and levoglucosan were also measured. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to measure melting points, enthalpies and entropies of fusion, which were used to determine sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures for the compounds. The sub-cooled liquid vapour pressure of straight chain, branched and cyclic dicarboxylic acids was compared to a selection of estimation methods.

  9. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar; A J Malyadri; S Muralithar; Ruby Shanti; S K Saini Kusum Rani; B P Ajith Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the high purity germanium detector cryostat. The temperature of the out-flowing gas/liquid from the cryostat is monitored using platinum resistor thermometer. The program allows for automatic filling at regular intervals with temperature monitoring from a remote terminal.

  10. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquids into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Men

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquids have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  11. Nano scale dynamics of bubble nucleation in confined liquid subjected to rapid cooling: Effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Mukut, K. M.; Tamim, Saiful Islam; Faisal, A. H. M.

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the occurrence of bubble nucleation in a liquid confined in a nano scale confinement and subjected to rapid cooling at one of its wall. Due to the very small size scale of the present problem, we adopt the molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The liquid (Argon) is confined within two solid (Platinum) walls. The temperature of the upper wall of the confinement is maintained at 90 K while the lower wall is being cooled rapidly to 50 K from initial equilibrium temperature of 90 K within 0.1 ns. This results in the nucleation and formation of nanobubbles in the liquid. The pattern of bubble nucleation has been studied for three different conditions of solid-liquid interfacial wettability such as hydrophilic, hydrophobic and neutral. Behavior of bubble nucleation is significantly different in the three case of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. In case of the hydrophobic confinement (weakly adsorbing), the liquid cannot achieve deeper metastability; vapor layers appear immediately on the walls. In case of the neutral confinement (moderately adsorbing), bubble nucleation is promoted by the walls where the nucleation is heterogeneous. In case of the hydrophilic walls (strongly adsorbing) bubbles are developed inside the liquid; that is the nucleation process is homogeneous. The variation in bubble nucleation under different conditions of surface wettability has been studied by the analysis of number density distribution, spatial temperature distribution, spatial number density distribution and heat flux through the upper and lower walls of the confinement. The present study indicates that the variation of heat transfer efficiency due to different surface wettability has significant effect on the size, shape and location of bubble nucleation in case rapid cooling of liquid in nano confinement.

  12. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.

  13. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25 K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30 K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.

  14. Liquid desiccant dehumidification and regeneration process to meet cooling and freshwater needs of desert greenhouses

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2016-04-19

    Agriculture accounts for ~70% of freshwater usage worldwide. Seawater desalination alone cannot meet the growing needs for irrigation and food production, particularly in hot, desert environments. Greenhouse cultivation of high-value crops uses just a fraction of freshwater per unit of food produced when compared with open field cultivation. However, desert greenhouse producers face three main challenges: freshwater supply, plant nutrient supply, and cooling of the greenhouse. The common practice of evaporative cooling for greenhouses consumes large amounts of fresh water. In Saudi Arabia, the most common greenhouse cooling schemes are fresh water-based evaporative cooling, often using fossil groundwater or energy-intensive desalinated water, and traditional refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling, largely powered by the burning of fossil fuels. The coastal deserts have ambient conditions that are seasonally too humid to support adequate evaporative cooling, necessitating additional energy consumption in the dehumidification process of refrigeration-based cooling. This project evaluates the use of a combined-system liquid desiccant dehumidifier and membrane distillation unit that can meet the dual needs of cooling and freshwater supply for a greenhouse in a hot and humid environment. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. Instrumentation for cryogenic magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization using 90L of liquid nitrogen per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Brice J; Pahng, Seong Ho; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L; Rand, Peter W; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Barnes, Alexander B

    2017-10-01

    Cryogenic sample temperatures can enhance NMR sensitivity by extending spin relaxation times to improve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and by increasing Boltzmann spin polarization. We have developed an efficient heat exchanger with a liquid nitrogen consumption rate of only 90L per day to perform magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 85K. In this heat exchanger implementation, cold exhaust gas from the NMR probe is returned to the outer portion of a counterflow coil within an intermediate cooling stage to improve cooling efficiency of the spinning and variable temperature gases. The heat exchange within the counterflow coil is calculated with computational fluid dynamics to optimize the heat transfer. Experimental results using the novel counterflow heat exchanger demonstrate MAS DNP signal enhancements of 328±3 at 81±2K, and 276±4 at 105±2K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  17. Studying Cu Alloy Corrosion Products in Cooling Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cooiing liquid used for heat exchangers on the Cu alloy corrosion products has been examined using potential-time measurements under applied current condition (anodizing), potentiodynamic polarization, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The corrosion products formed on the Cu alloy surface during anodizing, are Cu2O, Cu2(OH)3CI, and Cu2S. NaCI is detected in the corrosion products. The film formation depends on the applied current and the shift of potential to nobler direction indicates its formation progress.

  18. Thermal profile analysis of Doubly-Fed induction generator based wind power converter with air and liquid cooling methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    Today, wind power generation system keeps on moving from onshore to offshore and also upscaling in size. As the lifetime of the wind power converter is prolonged to 20–25 years, this paper will investigate and compare different cooling methods for power modules — the air cooling and the liquid...... cooling seen from a thermal profile assessment point of view. Firstly, an analytical approach from loss profile to thermal profile for the power semiconductor is proposed and verified in a 2 MW Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine system. Then, the typical air cooling and liquid...... cooling in wind power converter are analyzed and compared in terms of the mean junction temperature and the junction temperature fluctuation. It is concluded that the liquid cooling approach has a similar junction temperature fluctuation but gives a lower mean junction temperature than the air cooling...

  19. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  20. A pump driving liquid cooling circuit method for the aperture of an infrared cold optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, RongJian

    2017-06-01

    To enhance the optical recognition and wavelength filtering of an infrared cold optical system, some lens need to be maintained within a certain temperature range, which requires specific thermal management of the aperture. A 250K liquid cooling circuit designed for this purpose is introduced, and the experimental results established and operated in a vacuum environmental simulation chamber is carried out and analyzed. A practical cooling power source of radiation cooling equipment is adopted and the sun exposure heat load is imitated by array of planar membrane heaters attached on the specific designed structure of the aperture. Controlling the aperture temperature and improving the optical system performance are proved effective. Numerical optimization of the cooling circuit and simulation of the aperture are performed , and the factors affect the optical system performance in the mean time are also investigated.

  1. Effects of Temperature and [S] on the Kinetics of Nitrogen Removal from Liquid Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of denitrogenation from liquid steel was studied byusing an oxygen-nitrogen analysis system(LECO TC-436) under 1600℃~2813℃ conditions. The results show that when [S]=0.005%, nitrogen removal was controlled by nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer, when [S]=0.012% and 0.140%, it was controlled by both nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer and the chemical reaction at the liquid-gas interface below 2250℃, and by nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer under 2250℃~2813℃ conditions. The activation energy Ea was 57 k J/mol for 0.0050%[S], 95 k J/mol for 0.012%[S], 165 k J/mol for 0.140%[S]. The resistance of sulphur on nitrogen removal decreased with the temperature rose, and disappeared at 2630℃. Based on the results obtained, it has been answered why the nitrogen in liquid steel can be decreased rapidly by carbon-oxygen reaction under very high oxygen and sulphur content conditions during the BOF, EAF, VOD and AOD steelmaking processes.

  2. Research and Development Roadmaps for Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned the development of technology roadmaps for advanced (non-light water reactor) reactor concepts to help focus research and development funding over the next five years. The roadmaps show the research and development needed to support demonstration of an advanced (non-LWR) concept by the early 2030s, consistent with DOE’s Vision and Strategy for the Development and Deployment of Advanced Reactors. The intent is only to convey the technical steps that would be required to achieve such a goal; the means by which DOE will determine whether to invest in specific tasks will be treated separately. The starting point for the roadmaps is the Technical Readiness Assessment performed as part of an Advanced Test and Demonstration Reactor study released in 2016. The roadmaps were developed based upon a review of technical reports and vendor literature summarizing the technical maturity of each concept and the outstanding research and development needs. Critical path tasks for specific systems were highlighted on the basis of time and resources needed to complete the tasks and the importance of the system to the performance of the reactor concept. The roadmaps are generic, i.e. not specific to a particular vendor’s design but vendor design information may have been used as representative of the concept family. In the event that both near-term and more advanced versions of a concept are being developed, either a single roadmap with multiple branches or separate roadmaps for each version were developed. In each case, roadmaps point to a demonstration reactor (engineering or commercial) and show the activities that must be completed in parallel to support that demonstration in the 2030-2035 window. This report provides the roadmaps for two fast reactor concepts, the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The SFR technology is mature enough for commercial demonstration by the early 2030s

  3. Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic Material Production Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP017711 TITLE: Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic...NITROGEN AND WATER JET MILLING OF ENERGETIC MATERIAL PRODUCTION WASTES Roger L. Schneider Rho Sigma Associates, Inc. Whitefish Bay, WI 53217-5968 USA 414

  4. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  5. Investigations and experiments of a new multi-layer complex liquid-cooled mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Lu(陆宇灵); Zuhai Cheng(程祖海); Yaoning Zhang(张耀宁); Feng Sun(孙锋); Wenfeng Yu(余文峰)

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new multi-layer complex liquid-cooled Si mirror with 3 cooling ducts in Archimedes spirals. Utilizing the ANSYS program, the structure of the mirror is optimized and the thermal deformation model of the mirror is simulated. The simulation results show that the mirror has the following advantages:very small amount of surface deformation, uniform distribution of temperature and surface deformation,and fast surface shape restoration. The results of the experiments of thermal deformation and the surface restoration are accurately mapped to the simulation results.

  6. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  7. Comparative Experiments to Assess the Effects of Accumulator Nitrogen Injection on Passive Core Cooling During Small Break LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuquan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA, the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the

  8. Computational and experimental study on supersonic film cooling for liquid rocket nozzle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and computational investigation of supersonic film cooling (SFC was conducted on a subscale model of a rocket engine nozzle. A computational model of a convergent-divergent nozzle was generated, incorporating a secondary injection module for film cooling in the divergent section. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulations were run on the model and different injection configurations were analyzed. The CFD simulations also analyzed the parameters that influence film cooling effectiveness. Subsequent to the CFD analysis and literature survey an angled injection configuration was found to be more effective, therefore the hardware was fabricated for the same. The fabricated nozzle was later fixed to an Air-Kerosene combustor and numerous sets of experiments were conducted in order to ascertain the effect on film cooling on the nozzle wall. The film coolant employed was gaseous Nitrogen. The results showed substantial cooling along the walls and a considerable reduction in heat transfer from the combustion gas to the wall of the nozzle. Finally the computational model was validated using the experimental results. There was fairly good agreement between the predicted nozzle wall temperature and the value obtained through experiments.

  9. Transient state study of electric motor heating and phase change solid-liquid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellettre, J.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69 (France); Biais, F. [AUXILEC, Chatou, 78 (France)

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on modelling of an autosynchronous electric motor stator, operating at transient state. The developed model, of the modal type, includes around 20 nodes. The simulations showed that hot spots are localized on the winding heads and led to the choice of a solid-liquid phase change cooling system. The comparison between simulation and experiment permitted the identification of unknown parameters. The model gives a good accuracy during steady-state and in the rising temperature phase. The modelling of the phase change cooling is realized by the addition of two nodes. The sensitivity analysis to PCM properties shows that the hot spot temperature decreases with increasing conductivities, inertia and latent heat of melting of the PCM and with decreasing melting temperature. Gallium (metal melting at 30{sup o}C) is the best PCM for the cooling of hot spots and P116 paraffin is the best non-metallic PCM. (author)

  10. Supercritical supersaturations and ultrafast cooling of the growth solution in liquid-phase epitaxy of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. V.; Deryagin, N. G.; Tret'yakov, D. N.

    1996-04-01

    A method for accomplishing ultrafast cooling is proposed which makes possible supercritical supersaturations of the growth solution in liquid-phase epitaxy. Growth boat designs providing cooling rates as high as 0268-1242/11/4/025/img1 are considered. The temperatures of contact, 0268-1242/11/4/025/img2, of a GaAs substrate with a Ga-based solution and of a Si substrate with a Sn-based growth solution, calculated for various substrate 0268-1242/11/4/025/img3 and solution temperatures 0268-1242/11/4/025/img4, are in good agreement with experimental values. The maximum attainable supercooling is markedly increased to as high as 0268-1242/11/4/025/img5 for the Ga - As system, when the growth solution is subjected to ultrafast cooling. The prospects of using the method for fabricating heterostructures with a large lattice mismatch are discussed.

  11. Adaptive compensation of a direct liquid-cooled solid-state MOPA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lizhi; Chen, Shanqiu; Chen, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenjin; Hu, Ke; Lai, Boheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Shuai; He, Xing; Xu, Bing; Liu, Le; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Direct liquid-cooling is a promising way of power scaling and heat management for solid-state lasers. A side-pumped direct liquid-cooled solid-state pulsed zigzag MOPA system is established based on this advanced concept. However, its beam quality is degraded by the thermal distortions in the non-zigzag direction and the flowing coolant. We develop an adaptive optics system to improve its beam quality, which primarily includes a low-order aberration compensator and a 59-actuator deformable mirror. The beam is first corrected by the low-order aberration compensator to remove large defocus and astigmatism, and its size is reshaped simultaneously to fulfill the demands of applications. Then the beam is further corrected by the deformable mirror. With collaborative operation of the low-order aberration compensator and the deformable mirror, we have achieved average beam quality of β=2.8.

  12. Design and simulation of liquid cooled system for power battery of PHEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Xu, Haijun; Xu, Xiaojun; Pan, Cunyun

    2017-09-01

    Various battery chemistries have different responses to failure, but the most common failure mode of a cell under abusive conditions is the generation of heat and gas. To prevent battery thermal abuse, a battery thermal management system is essential. An excellent design of battery thermal management system can ensure that the battery is working at a suitable temperature and keeps the battery temperature diffenence at 2-3 °C. This paper presents a thermal-elcetric coupling model for a 37Ah lithium battery using AMESim. A liquid cooled system of hybrid electric vehicle power battery is designed to control the battery temperature.A liquid cooled model of thermal management system is built using AMESim, the simulation results showed that the temperature difference within 3°C of cell in the pack.

  13. Coolant and ambient temperature control for chillerless liquid cooled data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2017-08-29

    Cooling control methods and systems include measuring a temperature of air provided to one or more nodes by an air-to-liquid heat exchanger; measuring a temperature of at least one component of the one or more nodes and finding a maximum component temperature across all such nodes; comparing the maximum component temperature to a first and second component threshold and comparing the air temperature to a first and second air threshold; and controlling a proportion of coolant flow and a coolant flow rate to the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the one or more nodes based on the comparisons.

  14. Experimental facility for studying MHD effects in liquid metal cooled blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. B.; Picologlou, B. F.; Dauzvardis, P. V.

    The capabilities of a facility, brought into service to collect data on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, pertinent to liquid metal cooled fusion reactor blankets, are presented. The facility, design to extend significantly the existing data base on liquid metal MHD, employs eutectic NaK as the working fluid in a room temperature closed loop. The instrumentation system is capable of collecting detailed data on pressure, voltage, and velocity distributions at any axial position within the base of a 2 Tesla conventional magnet. The axial magnetic field distribution can be uniform or varying with either rapid or slow spatial variations.

  15. Coolant and ambient temperature control for chillerless liquid cooled data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2016-02-02

    Cooling control methods include measuring a temperature of air provided to a plurality of nodes by an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, measuring a temperature of at least one component of the plurality of nodes and finding a maximum component temperature across all such nodes, comparing the maximum component temperature to a first and second component threshold and comparing the air temperature to a first and second air threshold, and controlling a proportion of coolant flow and a coolant flow rate to the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the plurality of nodes based on the comparisons.

  16. Cryodeposition of nitrogen gas on a surface cooled by helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhuley, R. C.; Bosque, E. S.; Van Sciver, S. W. [Cryogenics Group, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 USA and Mechanical Engineering Department, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Catastrophic loss of beam tube vacuum in a superconducting particle accelerator can be simulated by sudden venting of a long high vacuum channel cooled on its outer surface by He II. The rapid rush of atmospheric air in such an event shows an interesting propagation effect, which is much slower than the shock wave that occurs with vacuum loss at ambient conditions. This is due to flash frosting/deposition of air on the cold walls of the channel. Hence to characterize the propagation as well as the associated heat transfer, it is first necessary to understand the deposition process. Here we attempt to model the growth of nitrogen frost layer on a cold plate in order to estimate its thickness with time. The deposition process can be divided into two regimes- free molecular and continuum. It is shown that in free molecular regime, the frost growth can be modeled reasonably well using cryopump theory and general heat transfer relations. The continuum regime is more complex to model, given the higher rate of gas incident on cryosurface causing a large heat load on helium bath and changing cryosurface temperature. Results from the continuum regime are discussed in the context of recent experiments performed in our laboratory.

  17. Liquid nitrogen in fluid dynamics: Visualization and velocimetry using frozen particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Enrico; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2012-08-01

    High-Reynolds-number flows are common both in nature and industrial applications, but are difficult to attain in laboratory settings using standard test fluids such as air and water. To extend the Reynolds number range, water and air have been replaced at times by low-viscosity fluids such as pressurized air, sulfur hexafluoride, and cryogenic nitrogen gas, as well as liquid and gaseous helium. With a few exceptions, liquid nitrogen has been neglected despite the fact that it has a kinematic viscosity of about a fifth of that of water at room temperature. We explore the use of liquid nitrogen here. In particular, we study the use of frozen particles for flow visualization and velocimetry in liquid nitrogen. We create particles in situ by injecting a gaseous mixture of room-temperature nitrogen and an additional seeding gas into the flow. We present a systematic study of potential seeding gases to determine which create particles with the best fidelity and optical properties. The technique has proven capable of producing sub-micrometer sized tracers that allow particle tracking and particle image velocimetry. We review possible high-Reynolds-number experiments using this technique, and discuss the merits and challenges of using liquid nitrogen as a test fluid.

  18. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  19. A low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system for residential cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Joel D., III

    The use of liquid desiccants for dehumidification of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) process air is becoming a more promising concept as the drive for energy conservation continues to grow. Recently, liquid desiccant systems have been implemented on the commercial level in conjunction with evaporative coolers and have recorded energy savings upwards of 50%. The aim of this research is to test the potential liquid desiccant systems have on the residential level when paired with a conventional vapor compression cycle and to construct a system that would overcome some of its barriers to the residential market. A complete low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system was designed, constructed, and tested in the Off-Grid Zero Emissions Building (OGZEB) at the Florida State University. Key design characteristics include turbulent process air flow through the conditioner and airside heating in the regenerator. The system was tested in the two following ways: (1) for the energy savings while maintaining a constant temperature over a twenty four hour period and (2) for the energy savings over a single cooling cycle. The liquid desiccant system achieved a maximum energy savings of 38% over a complete day and 52% over a single cooling cycle. It was projected that the system has the potential to save 1064 kWh over the course of a year. When combined with a renewable source of heat for regeneration, liquid desiccant systems become very cost effective. The levelized cost of energy for the combination of the liquid desiccant system and solar thermal collectors was calculated to be 7.06 C/kWh with a payback period of 4.4 years. This research provides evidence of the technology's potential on the residential sector and suggests ways for it to become competitive in the market.

  20. Use of volatile organic solvents in headspace liquid-phase microextraction by direct cooling of the organic drop using a simple cooling capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost and simple cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction device for the extraction and determination of 2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3 cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde (safranal) in Saffron samples, using volatile organic solvents, was fabricated and evaluated. The main part of the cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction system was a cooling capsule, with a Teflon microcup to hold the extracting organic solvent, which is able to directly cool down the extraction phase while the sample matrix is simultaneously heated. Different experimental factors such as type of organic extraction solvent, sample temperature, extraction solvent temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The optimal conditions were obtained as: extraction solvent, methanol (10 μL); extraction temperature, 60°C; extraction solvent temperature, 0°C; and extraction time, 20 min. Good linearity of the calibration curve (R(2) = 0.995) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 1.0 μg/mL of safranal was 10.7% (n = 6). The proposed cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction device was coupled (off-line) to high-performance liquid chromatography and used for the determination of safranal in Saffron samples. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results of the cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography method and those obtained by a validated ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction procedure.

  1. Development of an experimental system for characterization of high-temperature superconductors cooled by liquid hydrogen under the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

    2014-05-01

    An experimental system has been developed to investigate electro-magnetic properties of high-Tc superconductors cooled by liquid hydrogen under the external magnetic field of up to 7 T. A LH2 cryostat is concentrically mounted on the inside of a LHe cryostat to cool a NbTi superconducting magnet. The experimental system is installed in an explosion-proof room. Explosion proof electrical devices are used and current leads are covered with an enclosure filled with nitrogen gas. A remote control system has been developed. Furthermore, the effects of stray magnetic field on the existing and the new devices are investigated and electro-magnetic shielding panels and enclosure made of iron were designed. It is confirmed through the cryogenic test that the experimental system meets the design requirements.

  2. Needling versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the treatment of pedal warts a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J; Brimage, Jessica T; Naraghi, Reza N; Bower, Virginia M

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that needling of a pedal wart creates local inflammation and a subsequent cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) against human papillomavirus. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether needling to induce a CMIR against human papillomavirus is an effective treatment for pedal warts compared with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. A secondary objective was to investigate whether the CMIR induced by needling is effective against satellite pedal warts. Eligible patients with pedal warts were randomly allocated to receive either needling or liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Only the primary pedal wart was treated during the study. Follow-up was 12 weeks, with outcome assessments made independently under blinded circumstances. Of 37 patients enrolled in the study, 18 were allocated to receive needling and 19 to receive liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Regression of the primary pedal wart occurred in 64.7% of the needling group (11 of 17) and in 6.2% of the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group (1 of 16) (P =  .001). No significant relationship was found between needling of the primary pedal wart and regression of satellite pedal warts (P = .615) or complete pedal wart regression (P = .175). There was no significant difference in pain, satisfaction, or cosmesis between the two groups. The regression rate of the primary pedal wart was significantly higher in the needling group compared with the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group.

  3. Analysis and measurement of thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro

    2014-09-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) impregnated with subcooled liquid nitrogen. PPLP is widely used for the electrical insulation of high-Tc superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables. Although the thermal conductivity of PPLP is an important factor in the design of HTS cables, there has been very limited work on its measurement in subcooled liquid nitrogen. We prepared PPLP samples and symmetrically stacked them on both sides of a heater. The stacked samples were immersed in liquid nitrogen in an open cryostat. A cryocooler mounted on the cryostat was used to maintain the subcooled temperature of the liquid nitrogen. The thermal conductivity of the stacked PPLPs was measured by the steady state method at a bath temperature of 65-75 K and was found to be 0.23-0.26 W/m K, which is about five times that measured in a vacuum as presented in available literature. We also discuss possible mechanisms for boosting the thermal conductivity of PPLP by liquid nitrogen impregnation.

  4. Propagation speed of a pressure spike during the water-liquid nitrogen interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatchai Sumitra

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments on the interaction between the liquid nitrogen and the water were conducted in order to confirm its similarity with the interaction between the molten metal and the volatile liquid coolant,the Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI. For the experiments, the water was injected from a pressurized water bottle into a cylindrical interaction chamber to interact with the saturated liquid nitrogen that was filled from the bottom. From the experiments, some of the obtained pressure profiles showed relatively strong and sharp pressure spikes. This suggested the possibility of vapor explosion during the experiments. The propagation speeds of these pressure spikes could be calculated based on the time differences recorded by the transducers at the top and at the bottom of the interaction chamber. Based on the results from an experiment with the injection pressure of 4 bars and the volume ratio for the water and the liquid nitrogen of 0.10, the propagation speed was calculated to be between 22 m/s to 50 m/s. This speed was found to be comparable with the theoretical value for the sound speed in a mixture of liquid nitrogen and nitrogen gas. It was concluded that the observed pressure spikes were actually the movement of the shock wave and that vapor explosion had actually occurred in this particular experiment.

  5. Identification of Structural Motifs of Imidazolium Based Ionic Liquids from Jet-Cooled Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin W.; Booth, Ryan S.; Annesley, Christopher; Stearns, Jaime A.

    2016-06-01

    Highly variable and potentially revolutionary, ionic liquids (IL) are a class of molecules with potential for numerous Air Force applications such as satellite propulsion, but the complex nature of IL structure and intermolecular interactions makes it difficult to adequately predict structure-property relationships in order to make new IL-based technology a reality. For example, methylation of imidazolium ionic liquids leads to a substantial increase in viscosity but the underlying physical mechanism is not understood. In addition the role of hydrogen bonding in ILs, especially its relationship to macroscopic properties, is a matter of ongoing research. Here, structural motifs are identified from jet-cooled infrared spectra of different imidazolium based ionic liquids, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide. Measurements of the C-H stretches indicate three structural families present in the gas phase.

  6. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and cooled buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  7. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  9. 香菇菌种液氮保藏技术研究%Liquid Nitrogen Preservation Technology of Lentinula edodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新锐; 叶夏; 王玉青; 宋秀高; 陈传明; 谢宝贵

    2011-01-01

    液氮适合菌种的保藏.以香菇菌种为材料,从降温速率、保护剂浓度、解冻温度、培养基质和菌龄方面进行液氮保藏技术研究.研究结果表明:在4℃以下,以1 ℃/min的速率降至-40℃、添加10%甘油、35℃下解冻、木屑作培养基质和取生长旺盛的菌块作为香菇菌种的液氮保藏效果最好.%Liquid nitrogen preservation would play an important role in Lentinula edodes. Culture media, fungi age, protective agent concentration, cooling rate and thawing temperature of Lentinula edodes were analyzed in the study. The results showed that the best method of liquid nitrogen preservation of Lentinula edodes was pre treatment of 4 ℃ to - 40℃ at the rate of 1 ℃ per minute, 10% glycerol protector, thawing at 35 ℃, wood as the culture medium and vigorous mycelium as the material.

  10. Performance of a 10-kJ SMES model cooled by liquid hydrogen thermo-siphon flow for ASPCS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makida, Y.; Shintomi, T.; Hamajima, T.; Ota, N.; Katsura, M.; Ando, K.; Takao, T.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsujigami, H.; Fujikawa, S.; Hirose, J.; Iwaki, K.; Komagome, T.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new electrical power storage and stabilization system, called an Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and hydrogen energy storage, converged on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. A small 10- kJ SMES system, in which a BSCCO coil cooled by liquid hydrogen was installed, was developed to create an experimental model of an ASPCS. The SMES coil is conductively cooled by liquid hydrogen flow through a thermo-siphon line under a liquid hydrogen buffer tank. After fabrication of the system, cooldown tests were carried out using liquid hydrogen. The SMES coil was successfully charged up to a nominal current of 200 A. An eddy current loss, which was mainly induced in pure aluminum plates pasted onto each pancake coils for conduction cooling, was also measured.

  11. Influence of nitrogen loading and plant nitrogen assimilation on nitrogen leaching and N₂O emission in forage rice paddy fields fertilized with liquid cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, Shohei; Zhou, Sheng; Kobara, Yuso; Sagehashi, Masaki; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-04-01

    Livestock wastewater disposal onto rice paddy fields is a cost- and labor-effective way to treat wastewater and cultivate rice crops. We evaluated the influence of nitrogen loading rates on nitrogen assimilation by rice plants and on nitrogen losses (leaching and N2O emission) in forage rice fields receiving liquid cattle waste (LCW). Four forage rice fields were subjected to nitrogen loads of 107, 258, 522, and 786 kg N ha(-1) (N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively) using basal fertilizer (chemical fertilizer) (50 kg N ha(-1)) and three LCW topdressings (each 57-284 kg N ha(-1)). Nitrogen assimilated by rice plants increased over time. However, after the third topdressing, the nitrogen content of the biomass did not increase in any treatment. Harvested aboveground biomass contained 93, 60, 33, and 31 % of applied nitrogen in N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively. The NH4 (+) concentration in the pore water at a depth of 20 cm was less than 1 mg N L(-1) in N100, N250, and N500 throughout the cultivation period, while the NH4 (+) concentration in N750 increased to 3 mg N L(-1) after the third topdressing. Cumulative N2O emissions ranged from -0.042 to 2.39 kg N ha(-1); the highest value was observed in N750, followed by N500. In N750, N2O emitted during the final drainage accounted for 80 % of cumulative N2O emissions. This study suggested that 100-258 kg N ha(-1) is a recommended nitrogen loading rate for nitrogen recovery by rice plants without negative environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution and N2O emission.

  12. Cryogenic design of liquid-nitrogen circulation system for long-length HTS cables with altitude variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2017-04-01

    Liquid-nitrogen (LN2) circulation systems with altitude variation are investigated and designed for application to practical long-length HTS cables. This study is motivated by the KEPCO's immediate plan to install new HTS cables in existing utility tunnels including inclined and vertical sections. The distribution of pressure and temperature along the LN2 circulation loop is examined for various geographic conditions, taking into account the gravitational effect of altitude variation. The cryogenic cooling requirements are defined in terms of the pressure and temperature of LN2, and a design process is graphically demonstrated on phase diagram. It is concluded that the LN2 flow rate along the cable with altitude variation should be carefully determined with the constraints on pressure and temperature, and the proposed graphical method is useful in the design.

  13. Exploring the possibilities of cryogenic cooling in liquid chromatography for biological applications: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Hamed; Sandra, Koen; Tienpont, Bart; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Sandra, Pat; Desmet, Gert

    2012-02-21

    The possibilities to use cryogenic cooling to trap components in liquid chromatography was investigated. In a first step, van 't Hoff plots were measured with a reversed-phase column using the temperature control unit of a conventional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system to gain insight in the retention behavior of proteins at low temperatures. It was estimated that retention factors in the range of k = 10(4) could be achieved at T = -20 °C for lysozyme, indicating that temperature is a usable parameter to trap components in LC. In a next step, trapping experiments were carried out on a nano-LC system, equipped with a UV-detector, using a commercial reversed-phase column. An in-house built setup, allowing cooling of a segment of the column down to temperatures below T = -20 °C, was used to trap components. Experiments were conducted under isocratic and gradient conditions with methanol as organic solvent. It is demonstrated that, by thermally trapping and elution of components, an enhanced S/N ratio and decreased peak widths can be obtained. At the same time, a significant increase in pressure drop occurs during the cooling process. Limitations and benefits of the technique are further discussed.

  14. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  15. An experimental investigation of liquid methane convection and boiling in rocket engine cooling channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Abraham Gerardo

    In the past decades, interest in developing hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines for deep spaceflight missions has continued to grow. In particular, liquid methane (LCH4) has been of interest due to the weight efficiency, storage, and handling advantages it offers over several currently used propellants. Deep space exploration requires reusable, long life rocket engines. Due to the high temperatures reached during combustion, the life of an engine is significantly impacted by the cooling system's efficiency. Regenerative (regen) cooling is presented as a viable alternative to common cooling methods such as film and dump cooling since it provides improved engine efficiency. Due to limited availability of experimental sub-critical liquid methane cooling data for regen engine design, there has been an interest in studying the heat transfer characteristics of the propellant. For this reason, recent experimental studies at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have focused on investigating the heat transfer characteristics of sub-critical CH4 flowing through sub-scale cooling channels. To conduct the experiments, the csETR developed a High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) where all the channels are heated using a conduction-based thermal concentrator. In this study, two smooth channels with cross sectional geometries of 1.8 mm x 4.1 mm and 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm were tested. In addition, three roughened channels all with a 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm square cross section were also tested. For the rectangular smooth channel, Reynolds numbers ranged between 68,000 and 131,000, while the Nusselt numbers were between 40 and 325. For the rough channels, Reynolds numbers ranged from 82,000 to 131,000, and Nusselt numbers were between 65 and 810. Sub-cooled film-boiling phenomena were confirmed for all the channels presented in this work. Film-boiling onset at Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was correlated to a Boiling Number (Bo) of

  16. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  17. A Novel Kinetic Model of Liquid Nitrogen's Explosive Boiling at the Initial Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI Xiu-Lan; DONG Zhao-Yi; LI Zhi-Gang; YIN Tie-Nan; ZOU Yu

    2007-01-01

    The liquid nitrogen's explosive boiling characteristics under transient high heat flux have attracted increasing attentions of researchers over the world due to its wide applications. Although some experiments have been performed, the process and the characteristics at the initial stage, especially within 1μs, have not been described reasonably yet. Based on the related experiments and theoretical analysis, a novel kinetic model combined with quasi-fluid idea is presented to analyse the characteristics of liquid nitrogen's explosive boiling at the initial stage. The results indicate that the model can appropriately describe the liquid nitrogen's explosive boiling. The behaviour and the heat transfer characteristics of a single bubble are very different from those of the bubble cluster, thus the behaviour of individual bubbles could not be directly applied to describe the explosive boiling process at the initial stage.

  18. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax......-freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  19. Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward 0.5 and 1.0 mm micro-tubes: Visualization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Fu, X.

    2009-10-01

    Application of liquid nitrogen to cooling is widely employed in many fields, such as cooling of the high temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgery and so on, in which liquid nitrogen is generally forced to flow inside very small passages to maintain good thermal performance and stability. In order to have a full understanding of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen in micro-tube, high-speed digital photography was employed to acquire the typical two-phase flow patterns of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward micro-tubes of 0.531 and 1.042 mm inner diameters. It was found from the experimental results that the flow patterns were mainly bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow. And the confined bubble flow, mist flow, bubble condensation and flow oscillation were also observed. These flow patterns were characterized in different types of flow regime maps. The surface tension force and the size of the diameter were revealed to be the major factors affecting the flow pattern transitions. It was found that the transition boundaries of the slug/churn flow and churn/annular flow of the present experiment shifted to lower superficial vapor velocity; while the transition boundary of the bubbly/slug flow shifted to higher superficial vapor velocity compared to the results of the room-temperature fluids in the tubes with the similar hydraulic diameters. The corresponding transition boundaries moved to lower superficial velocity when reducing the inner diameter of the micro-tubes. Time-averaged void fraction and heat transfer characteristics for individual flow patterns were presented and special attention was paid to the effect of the diameter on the variation of void fraction.

  20. The Influence Of The Temperature Of Liquid Nitrogen On The Physical Properties Of Powder Magnetic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapelski D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the physical properties of soft magnetic iron composites and Nd-Fe-B bonded permanent magnets measured at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen. The objective of research was a determination of influence of liquid nitrogen temperature on the magnetic properties, resistivity and mechanical properties of different powder magnetic materials. Research was carried out for three powder materials: soft magnetic, i.e. Somaloy 700, AncorLam and hard magnetic powder MQP-B used for production of bonded magnets. Composite specimens were prepared by compression moulding technology.

  1. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  2. Corrosion development between liquid gallium and four typical metal substrates used in chip cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue-Guang; Liu, Jing

    2009-06-01

    The limitation of the currently available thermal management method has put an ever serious challenge for computer chip designers. A liquid metal with low melting point around room temperature was recently identified as a powerful coolant of driving heat away because of its superior thermo-physical properties and the unique ability to be driven efficiently by a completely silent electromagnetic pump. However, the adoption of gallium, one of the best candidates as metal coolant so far, may cause serious corrosion to the structure materials and subsequently affect the performance or even dangerous running of the cooling system. To address this emerging critical issue, here the compatibility of gallium with four typical metal substrates (6063 Aluminum-Alloy, T2 Copper-Alloy, Anodic Coloring 6063 Aluminum-Alloy and 1Cr18Ni9 Stainless Steel) was comprehensively investigated in order to better understand the corrosion mechanisms and help find out the most suitable structure material for making a liquid metal cooling device. To grasp in detail the dynamic corrosion behavior, an image acquisition and contrasting method was developed. Moreover, corrosion morphology analyses were performed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The chemical compositions of the corroded layers were evaluated using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). According to the experiments, it was found that, the corrosion of the 6063 Aluminum-Alloy was rather evident and serious under the temperature range for chip cooling. The loose corrosion product will not only have no protection for the inner substrate, but also accelerate the corrosion process. Compared to the 6063 Aluminum-Alloy, T2 Copper-Alloy showed a slow and general corrosion, but part of the corrosion product can shed from the substrate, which will accelerate corrosion action and may block the flowing channel. Anodic Coloring 6063 Aluminum-Alloy and 1Cr18Ni9 Stainless Steel were found to have excellent corrosion resistance among

  3. Real-time measurement of the average temperature profiles in liquid cooling using digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Mendez, Carlos; Anaya, Tonatiuh Saucedo; Araiza-Esquivel, M.; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl E.; Aranda-Espinoza, Said; López-Martínez, Alfonso; Olvera-Olvera, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    We present an alternative optical method to estimate the temperature during the cooling process of a liquid using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). We make use of phase variations that are linked to variations in the refractive index and the temperature property of a liquid. In DHI, a hologram is first recorded using an object beam scattered from a rectangular container with a liquid at a certain reference temperature. A second hologram is then recorded when the temperature is decreased slightly. A phase difference between the two holograms indicates a temperature variation, and it is possible to obtain the temperature value at each small point of the sensed optical field. The relative phase map between the two object states is obtained simply and quickly through Fourier-transform method. Our experimental results reveal that the temperature values measured using this method and those obtained with a thermometer are consistent. We additionally show that it is possible to analyze the heat-loss process of a liquid sample in dynamic events using DHI.

  4. Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Andriy A.; Waldman, Jerry; Light, Alexander R.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.; Qian, Xifeng; Chandrayan, Neelima; Goodhue, William D.; Nixon, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Operational temperature increase of CW THz QCLs to 77 K has enabled us to employ solid nitrogen (SN2) as the cryogen. A roughing pump was used to solidify liquid nitrogen and when the residual vapor pressure in the nitrogen reservoir reached the pumping system's minimum pressure the temperature equilibrated and remained constant until all the nitrogen sublimated. The hold time compared to liquid helium has thereby increased approximately 70-fold, and at a greatly reduced cost. The milliwatt CW QCL was at a temperature of approximately 60 K, dissipating 5 W of electrical power. To measure the long-term frequency, current, and temperature stability, we heterodyned the free-running 2.31 THz QCL with a CO2 pumped far-infrared gas laser line in methanol (2.314 THz) in a corner-cube Schottky diode and recorded the IF frequency, current and temperature. Under these conditions the performance characteristics of the QCL, which will be reported, exceeded that of a device mounted in a mechanical cryocooler.

  5. Recovery time of high temperature superconducting tapes exposed in liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Jie, E-mail: sjtushengjie@gmail.com; Zeng, Weina; Yao, Zhihao; Zhao, Anfeng; Hu, Daoyu; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel method based on a sequence of AC pulses is presented. • Liquid nitrogen temperature is used as criterion to judge whether the sample has recovered. • Recovery time of some tape doesn't increase with the amplitude of fault current. • This phenomenon is caused by boiling heat transfer process of liquid nitrogen. • This phenomenon can be used in optimizing both the limiting rate and reclosing system. - Abstract: The recovery time is a crucial parameter to high temperature superconducting tapes, especially in power applications. The cooperation between the reclosing device and the superconducting facilities mostly relies on the recovery time of the superconducting tapes. In this paper, a novel method is presented to measure the recovery time of several different superconducting samples. In this method criterion used to judge whether the sample has recovered is the liquid nitrogen temperature, instead of the critical temperature. An interesting phenomenon is observed during the testing of superconducting samples exposed in the liquid nitrogen. Theoretical explanations of this phenomenon are presented from the aspect of heat transfer. Optimization strategy of recovery characteristics based on this phenomenon is also briefly discussed.

  6. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense samples. Fluorescence

  7. Storage, retrieval, and inventory control of donor red cells in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R; Muir, W

    1972-06-01

    A system of identification and inventory control of donations and aliquots of human blood stored in liquid nitrogen is described. It is simple and easy to operate. Up to five adequate samples can be obtained from each donation at discrete intervals without the need to recover the main donation or, as is so often the case, the only single aliquot available.

  8. Recovery of valuable nitrogen compounds from agricultural liquid wastes: potential possibilities, bottlenecks and future technological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Klapwijk, A.; Willers, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural liquid livestock wastes are an important potential source of valuable nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and proteins. Large volumetric quantities of these wastes are produced in areas with a high livestock production density. Much technological research has been carried out

  9. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.mazzitelli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pericoli-Ridolfini, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m{sup 2} with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m{sup 2} for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  10. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B. J. P.; Chiu, C. S.; J. M. Conrad; Ignarra, C. M.; Katori, T.; Toups, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that n...

  11. Cryogenic Eyesafer Laser Optimization for Use Without Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    state laser system with an optimum operating temperature somewhat higher—ideally 125–150 K—can be identified, then a Stirling cooler can be used to...liquid cryogens. This calls for optimal performance around 125–150 K—high enough for reasonably efficient operation of a Stirling cooler . We...needed to optimize laser performance in the desired temperature range. This did not include actual use of Stirling coolers , but rather involved both

  12. A persistent-mode 0.5 T solid-nitrogen-cooled MgB2 magnet for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiayin; Voccio, John P.; Hahn, Seungyong; Qu, Timing; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents construction details and test results of a persistent-mode 0.5 T MgB2 magnet developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT. The magnet, of 276 mm inner diameter and 290 mm outer diameter, consisted of a stack of eight solenoidal coils with a total height of 460 mm. Each coil was wound with monofilament MgB2 wire, equipped with a persistent-current switch and terminated with a superconducting joint, forming an individual superconducting loop. Resistive solder joints connected the eight coils in series. The magnet, after being integrated into a testing system, immersed in solid nitrogen, was operated in a temperature range of 10-13 K. A two-stage cryocooler was deployed to cool a radiation shield and the cold mass that included mainly ˜60 kg of solid nitrogen and the magnet. The solid nitrogen was capable of providing a uniform and stable cryogenic environment to the magnet. The magnet sustained a 0.47 T magnetic field at its center persistently in a range of 10-13 K. The current in each coil was inversely calculated from the measured field profile to determine the performance of each coil in persistent-mode operation. Persistent-current switches were successfully operated in solid nitrogen for ramping the magnet. They were also designed to absorb magnetic energy in a protection mechanism; its effectiveness was evaluated in an induced quench.

  13. Position Reconstruction of Bubble Formation in Liquid Nitrogen using Piezoelectric Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Lenardo, Brian; Manalaysay, Aaron; Morad, James; Payne, Chrisman; Stephenson, Scott; Szydagis, Matthew; Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic liquids, particularly liquid xenon and argon, are of interest as detector media for experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Here we present a new detector diagnostic technique using piezoelectric sensors to detect bubbling of the liquid. Bubbling can indicate locations of excess heat dissipation e.g., in immersed electronics. They can also interfere with normal event evolution by scattering of light or by interrupting the drift of ionization charge. In our test apparatus, four sensors are placed in the vacuum space of a double-walled dewar of liquid nitrogen and used to detect and locate a source of bubbling inside the liquid volume. Utilizing the differences in transmitted frequencies through the different media present in the experiment, we find that sound traveling in a direct path from the source to the sensor can be isolated with appropriate filtering. The location of the source is then reconstructed using the time difference of arrivals (TDOA) information. The reconstruction algorithm is ...

  14. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated.

  15. Formation and evolution properties of clusters in liquid metal copper during rapid cooling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xue-hua; LIU Rang-su; TIAN Ze-an; HOU Zhao-yang; LI Xiao-yang; ZHOU Qun-yi

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quantum Sutton-Chen many-body potential, a molecular dynamics simulation was performed to investigate the formation and evolution properties of clusters in liquid Cu with 50 000 atoms. The cluster-type index method(CTIM) was used to describe the complex microstructure transitions. It is demonstrated that the amorphous structures are mainly formed with the three bond-types of 1551, 1541 and 1431 in the system, and the icosahedral cluster (12 0 12 0) and other basic polyhedron clusters of (12 2 8 2), (13 1 10 2), (13 3 6 4), (14 1 10 3), (14 2 8 4) and (14 3 6 5) play a critical and leading role in the transition from liquid to glass. The nano-clusters formed in the system consist of some basic clusters and middle cluster configurations by connecting to each other, and distinguish from those obtained by gaseous deposition and ionic spray. From the results of structural parameter pair distribution function g(r), bond-types and basic cluster-types, it is found that the glass transition temperature Tg for liquid metal Cu is about 673 K at the cooling rate of 1.0×1014 K/s.

  16. Experimental Investigation of a Cryogenic Filter for Separating Solid Carbon Dioxide Particles from Liquid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; SHI Yu-mei; WANG Rong-shun; LI Xiang-dong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a new method of purifying cryogenic liquid using sintered metallic wire-mesh filter, which has the advantages of high purifying efficiency and preferred strength at absolutely low temperature. Experiments are conducted to purify solid CO2 particles from liquid nitrogen. Temperature and pressure in the upstream and downstream of the filter, and the flow rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and liquid nitrogen are measured, with the gas content of filtrate analyzed using a CO2 concentration detector. It is illustrated that after filtration, the purity of liquid nitrogen (volume fraction) is higher than 99.99%, which means that the volume fraction of CO2 is less than 0.01%. Effects of operation parameters on the performance of the filter, such as pressure drop △p and filtration efficiency E are analyzed quantitatively. The present conclusions will provide a guideline to the optimumal design and operation of sintered metallic wire-mesh filter in cryogenic application.

  17. NaK-nitrogen liquid metal MHD converter tests at 30 kw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of electrical power generation with an ambient temperature liquid-metal MHD separator cycle is demonstrated by tests in which a NaK-nitrogen LM-MHD converter was operated at nozzle inlet pressures ranging from 100 to 165 N/sq cm, NaK flow rates from 46 to 72 kg/sec, and nitrogen flow rates from 2.4 to 3.8 kg/sec. The generator was operated as an eight-phase linear induction generator, with two of the eight phases providing magnetic field compensation to minimized electrical end losses at the generator channel inlet and exit.

  18. Cooling a mechanical resonator with nitrogen-vacancy centres using a room temperature excited state spin-strain interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, E. R.; Otten, M.; Gray, S. K.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2017-02-01

    Cooling a mechanical resonator mode to a sub-thermal state has been a long-standing challenge in physics. This pursuit has recently found traction in the field of optomechanics in which a mechanical mode is coupled to an optical cavity. An alternate method is to couple the resonator to a well-controlled two-level system. Here we propose a protocol to dissipatively cool a room temperature mechanical resonator using a nitrogen-vacancy centre ensemble. The spin ensemble is coupled to the resonator through its orbitally-averaged excited state, which has a spin-strain interaction that has not been previously studied. We experimentally demonstrate that the spin-strain coupling in the excited state is 13.5+/-0.5 times stronger than the ground state spin-strain coupling. We then theoretically show that this interaction, combined with a high-density spin ensemble, enables the cooling of a mechanical resonator from room temperature to a fraction of its thermal phonon occupancy.

  19. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  20. ANTEO+: A subchannel code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of liquid metal cooled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodi, F., E-mail: francesco.lodi5@unibo.it [DIN – Laboratory of Montecuccolino, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grasso, G., E-mail: giacomo.grasso@enea.it [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mattioli, D., E-mail: davide.mattioli@enea.it [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sumini, M., E-mail: marco.sumini@unibo.it [DIN – Laboratory of Montecuccolino, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The code structure is presented in detail. • The performed validation is outlined. • Results are critically discussed assessing code accuracy. • Conclusions are drawn and ground for future work identified. - Abstract: Liquid metal cooled fast reactors are promising options for achieving the high degrees of safety and sustainability demanded by the Generation IV paradigm. Among the critical aspects to be addressed in the design process, thermal-hydraulics is one of the most challenging; in order to embed safety in the core conceptualization, these aspects are to be considered at the very beginning of the design process, and translated in a design perspective. For achieving these objectives the subchannel code ANTEO+ has been conceived, able to simulate pin bundle arrangements cooled by liquid metals. The main purposes of ANTEO+ are simplifying the problem description maintaining the required accuracy, enabling a more transparent interface with the user, and having a clear and identifiable application domain, in order to help the user interpreting the results and, mostly, defining their confidence. Since ANTEO+ relies on empirical correlations, the validation phase is of paramount importance along with a clear discussion on the simplifications adopted in modeling the conservation equations. In the present work a detailed description of ANTEO+ structure is given along with a thorough validation of the main models implemented for flow split, pressure drops and subchannel temperatures. The analysis confirmed the ability of ANTEO+ in reproducing experimental data in its anticipated validity domain, with a relatively high degree of accuracy when compared to other classical subchannel tools like ENERGY-II, COBRA-IV-I-MIT and BRS-TVS.

  1. Weakly doped InP layers prepared by liquid phase epitaxy using a modulated cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukovskyi, R.; Mykhashchuk, Y.; Kost, Y.; Krukovskyi, S.; Saldan, I.

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial structures based on InP are widely used to manufacture a number of devices such as microwave transistors, light-emitting diodes, lasers and Gunn diodes. However, their temporary instability caused by heterogeneity of resistivity along the layer thickness and the influence of various external or internal factors prompts the need for the development of a new reliable technology for their preparation. Weak doping by Yb, Al and Sn together with modulation of the cooling rate applied to prepare InP epitaxial layers is suggested to be adopted within the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. The experimental results confirm the optimized conditions created to get a uniform electron concentration in the active n-InP layer. A sharp profile of electron concentration in the n+-InP(substrate)/n-InP/n+-InP epitaxial structure was observed experimentally at the proposed modulated cooling rate of 0.3 °С-1.5 °С min-1. The proposed technological method can be used to control the electrical and physical properties of InP epitaxial layers to be used in Gunn diodes.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii from liquid nitrogen for continuous cell culture: methods to maximise efficient retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Evans, R; Chatterton, J M W; Ashburn, D; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to increase the efficiency of continuous growth of Toxoplasma gondii in HeLa cells from tachyzoite stocks frozen in liquid nitrogen. Freezing and retrieval of tachyzoites for continuous cell culture requires more stringent protocols than those published for animal culture. The freezing and retrieval conditions are optimised so that a quality harvest (> or = 1 x 10(6) tachyzoites/mL, > or = 90% viability) can be produced using T. gondii recovered from liquid nitrogen as fast and reliably as possible. Retrieval success rate increased from 36% to 100%. An improved freezing procedure using chilled reagents and freshly harvested parasites, and adoption of an effective recovery protocol with retrieval of 3 x 10(7) tachyzoites into 75 cm2 flasks, change of maintenance media after six hours and subsequent blind passage all contributed to this success. The result is faster and more dependable production of T. gondii for diagnostic and experimental use.

  3. Investigation of radiologic lung fine structure. Pt. 2. Freezing of inflated specimens in liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, W.S.; Hauenstein, K.; Volk, P.; Mittermayer, C.

    1980-10-01

    Radiologic patholozic correlation of lung specimens requires a gas content identical to intravital conditions. Methods of air drying and formalin steam fixation are well known but time consuming. A new, quick method is presented: The lungs are inflated with compressed air, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and cut into slices. Radiographs taken in soft tissue technique will demonstrate structural details down to 200-300 ..mu... The excellent state of preservation enables unusual quality of microscopic slides, as well.

  4. Two-Dimensional Metrology with Flatbed Scanners at Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We study the capability of the commercial flatbed scanner as a measuring instrument of two-coordinate sample both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. We describes simple procedure to calibrate the scanner, and the most adequate standard configuration to carry out the measurements. To illustrate the procedure, we measure the relative positions of the conductors in a cross-section of a superconducting magnet of CERN. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Soares, B. F.; Zheludev, N. I.; Guignard, C.; Mihaescu, A.; Besnard, P.

    2003-08-01

    We report that a bubble with a radius of a few micrometers may be created at a precise location on a metal-coated optical fiber tip immersed in liquid nitrogen by microsecond optical pulses with peak powers of less than 20 mW. Dynamic optical measurements reveal that after termination of the optical pulse the bubble exhibits stable oscillations for several tens of microseconds, at frequencies up to several megahertz, as it slowly collapses.

  6. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  7. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  8. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  9. Measurement of boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath by inverse heat conduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIN; Jian-ping HONG; Hao ZHENG; Ke TANG; Zhi-hua GAN

    2009-01-01

    Inverse heat conduction method (IHCM)is one of the most effective approaches to obtaining the boiling heat transfer coefficient from measured results.This paper focuses on its application in cryogenic boiling heat transfer.Experiments were conducted on the heattransfer of a stainless steel block in a liquid nitrogen bath.with the assumption of a ID conduction condition to realize fast acquisition of the temperature of the test points inside the block.With the inverse-heat conduction theory and the explicit finite difference model,a solving program was developed to calculate the heat flux and the boiling heat transfer coefficient of a stainless steel block in liquid nitrogen bath based on the temperature acquisition data.Considering the oscillating data and some unsmooth transition points in the inverse-heat-conduction calculation result of the heat-transfer coefficient,a two-step data-fitting procedure was proposed to obtain the expression for the boiling heat transfer coefficients.The coefficient was then verified for accuracy by a comparison between the simulation results using this expression and the verifying experimental results of a stainless steel block.The maximum error with a revised segment fitting iS around 6%.which verifies the feasibility of using IHCM to measure the boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath.

  10. Detection of the liquid-liquid transition in the deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 with elastic neutron scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Ito, Kanae; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a review on our recent experimental investigations into the phase behavior of the deeply cooled water confined in a nanoporous silica material, MCM-41, with elastic neutron scattering technique. Under such strong confinement, the homogeneous nucleation process of water is avoided, which allows the confined water to keep its liquid state at temperatures and pressures that are inaccessible to the bulk water. By measuring the average density of the confined heavy water, we observe a likely first-order low-density liquid (LDL) to high-density liquid (HDL) transition in the deeply cooled region of the confined heavy water. The phase separation starts from 1.12±0.17{ kbar} and 215±1{ K} and extends to higher pressures and lower temperatures in the phase diagram. This starting point could be the liquid-liquid critical point of the confined water. The locus of the Widom line is also estimated. The observation of the liquid-liquid transition in the confined water has potential to explain the mysterious behaviors of water at low temperatures. In addition, it may also have impacts on other disciplines, because the confined water system represents many biological and geological systems in which water resides in nanoscopic pores or in the vicinity of hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Model-Based Fault Detection and Isolation of a Liquid-Cooled Frequency Converter on a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peng; Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    system is derived based on energy balance equation. A fault analysis is conducted to determine the severity and occurrence rate of possible component faults and their end effects in the cooling system. A method using unknown input observer is developed in order to detect and isolate the faults based......With the rapid development of wind energy technologies and growth of installed wind turbine capacity in the world, the reliability of the wind turbine becomes an important issue for wind turbine manufactures, owners, and operators. The reliability of the wind turbine can be improved by implementing...... advanced fault detection and isolation schemes. In this paper, an observer-based fault detection and isolation method for the cooling system in a liquid-cooled frequency converter on a wind turbine which is built up in a scalar version in the laboratory is presented. A dynamic model of the scale cooling...

  12. CUTTING REGULARITY AND DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS BY USING COMPOSITE COOLING LIQUID IN WIRE CUT ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINE WITH HIGH WIRE TRAVELING SPEED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of cutting regularity is provided through using and comparing two typical cooling liquids. It is proved that cutting regularity is greatly affected by cooling liquid's washing ability. Discharge characteristics and theoretic analysis between two electrodes are also discussed based on discharge waveform. By using composite cooling liquid which has strong washing ability, the efficiency in the first stable cutting phase has reached more than 200 mm2/min, and the roughness of the surface has reached Ra<0.8 μm after the fourth cutting with more than 50 mm2/min average cutting efficiency. It is pointed out that cutting situation of the wire cut electrical discharge machine with high wire traveling speed (HSWEDM) is better than the wire cut electrical discharge machine with low wire traveling speed (LSWEDM) in the condition of improving the cooling liquid washing ability. The machining indices of HSWEDM will be increased remarkably by using the composite cooling liquid.

  13. Hydrogen film cooling with incident and swept-shock interactions in a Mach 6.4 nitrogen free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, George C.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of slot film cooling of a flat plate in a Mach 6.4 flow with and without incident and swept oblique shock interactions was experimentally investigated. Hydrogen was the primary coolant gas, although some tests were conducted using helium as the coolant. Tests were conducted in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel with a nitrogen flow field to preclude combustion of the hydrogen coolant gas. A two-dimensional highly instrumented model developed in a previous test series was used. Parameters investigated included coolant mass flow rate, coolant gas, local free-stream Reynolds number, incident oblique shock strength, and a swept oblique shock. Both gases were highly effective coolants in undisturbed flow; however, both incident and swept shocks degraded that effectiveness.

  14. Receptivity of a Cryogenic Coaxial Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    experimentally. Liquid nitrogen in the inner jet and cooled helium in the outer annular jet were used to simulate an oxygen/hydrogen liquid rocket...been explored ex- perimentally. Liquid nitrogen in the inner jet and cooled helium in the outer annular jet were used to simulate an oxygen/hydrogen...at off-node locations using an as- sumed mode shape, and the maximum acoustic velocity magnitude is estimated from the linear acoustics equa- tion

  15. Data center cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  16. Preperation and characterization of a phosphorous free and non-nitrogen antiscalant in industrial cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C. [Southeast Univ., School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China); Nanjing College of Chemical Technology, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Y.; Huang, J.; Xie, H.; Liu, G. [Southeast Univ., School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China); Wu, W.; Sun, W. [Jiangsu Jianhai Chemcial Co., Ltd., Changzhou (China)

    2011-01-15

    A novel nonpolluting type of calcium phosphate and iron(III) antiscalant MCn was synthesized. The observation shows that MCn causes a disordered calcium phosphate. Furthermore, both calcium phosphate and iron(III) inhibition increase with increasing degree of polymerization of MCn from 5 to 13, and the dosage of MCn plays an important role on calcium phosphate and iron(III) inhibition. Inhibition mechanism is proposed the interactions between calcium or iron ions and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the fundamental impetus to restrain the formation of the scale in cooling water systems. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R&D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns.

  18. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  19. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber and Quercus ilex embryonic axes: in vitro culture, desiccation and cooling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M Elena; Prieto, Roberto-Moreno; Herradon, Esther; Martin, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This study examines different factors included in the cryopreservation protocols for Quercus ilex and Q. suber embryonic axes. In vitro incubation temperature played an important role in the appropriate development of Q. ilex axes, as 15 degrees C was superior to 25 degrees C. Q. suber axes proved to be more sensitive to desiccation and cooling. Poor survival (35%) was observed when axes were included into cryovials and then in liquid nitrogen, and none when immersed in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (-210 degrees C). Q. ilex axes showed poorly organised development in vitro (c. 50% of non-cooled axes showed shoot development). However, c. 80% survival was observed after cryopreservation (either in liquid nitrogen or sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at 0.34 g water / g dry weight), of which c. 15% showed shoot development.

  20. A high-resolution NMR probe in which the coil and preamplifier are cooled with liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, P.; Soffe, N. F.; Scott, C. A.; Cragg, D. A.; Row, F.; White, D. J.; White, P. C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In a well designed NMR spectrometer, the noise originates predominantly from the resistance of the receiver coil. Significant improvements in sensitivity can be achieved by cooling the coil to cryogenic temperatures, provided that a preamplifier can be designed to match the coil's performance. A probe is described in which the coil and preamplifier are cooled with liquid helium, but the sample is maintained at room temperature. Carbon-l3 spectra at 45 MHz demonstrate improved sensitivity over conventional probes at the same field.

  1. Experimental and analytical studies on a foam insulated rigid type transfer line for use with liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Jyotish; Sumanth, R. A.; Behera, Upendra; Kasthurirengan, Srinivasan

    2017-02-01

    The transfer line is one of the important components of any cryogenic system needed to transport the cryogenic fluid from one location to another. Towards our efforts to develop a long rigid-type transfer line for liquid nitrogen (LN2) to transfer this fluid from a 5000 litre capacity vertical storage tank to the Helium liquefier (Linde Model 1610) located at a distance of nearly 50 m, we designed and fabricated several units of straight section transfer lines of length ≈ 6.5 m and they were integrated to make the long length transfer line. Each unit was fabricated with 0.5 inch dia. copper inner tube supported by spacers within 2 inch dia. PVC outer tube. Each section was foam insulated after the necessary instrumentation for temperature measurements. The individual sub units were integrated together with a small bellow section in between to take care of thermal contraction during use. We present here the analytical and experimental studies of the cool down and mass flow characteristics of a single foam insulated unit. These experimental studies are representative results of the performances of the long length rigid foam insulated transfer line.

  2. An experimental investigation on liquid methane heat transfer enhancement through the use of longitudinal fins in cooling channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Manuel de Jesus

    In the past years, hydrocarbon fuels have been the focus of attention as the interest in developing reusable, high-performing liquid rocket engines has grown. Liquid methane (LCH4) has been of particular interest because of the cost, handling, and storage advantages that it presents when compared to currently used propellants. Deep space exploration requires thrusters that can operate reliably during long-duration missions. One of the challenges in the development of a reliable engine has been providing adequate combustion chamber cooling to prevent engine failure. Regenerative (regen) cooling has presented itself as an appealing option because it provides improved cooling and engine efficiency over other types of cooling, such as film or dump cooling. Due to limited availability of experimental sub-critical liquid methane cooling data for pressure-fed regen engine design, there has been an interest in studying the heat transfer characteristics of the propellant. For this reason, recent experimental studies at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have focused on investigating the heat transfer characteristics of sub-critical CH4 flowing through smooth sub-scale cooling channels. In addition to investigating smooth channels, the cSETR has conducted experiments to investigate the effects of internal longitudinal fins on the heat transfer of methane. To conduct the experiments, the cSETR developed a conduction-based thermal concentrator known as the High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) in which the channels are heated. In this study, a smooth channel and three channels with longitudinal fins all with cross sectional geometries of 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm were tested. The Nusselt numbers ranged from 70 and 510, and Reynolds numbers were between 50,000 and 128,000. Sub-cooled film-boiling phenomena were discovered in the data pertaining to the smooth and two finned channels. Sub-cooled film-boiling was not

  3. Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  4. Design and evaluation of automatic control for human/liquid cooling garment thermal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Karen Lujean

    An automatic control system was designed and developed to control the thermal comfort of an astronaut wearing a liquid cooling garment (LCG). Experimental trials were run with test subjects performing arm cranking exercise in an environmental chamber. The thermal control algorithm incorporates the use of carbon dioxide production as a measure of metabolic rate to initiate the control response and mean body temperature, as a function of ear canal and skin temperatures, to provide feedback of the human thermal state to the controller. Nine test subjects each completed three, ninety-minute tests in three different environmental temperatures. Subjective comfort levels were obtained from the subjects throughout each test. Evaluation of subjective comfort level and quantitative energy storage indicates good performance of the controller in maintaining thermal neutrality for the subject over a wide range of environmental and transient metabolic states. The Wissler human thermoregulation model was utilized in the control design process and was used to further analyze the experimental results following testing. Subsequent application of the model allowed evaluation of additional protocols for which the LCG thermal controller may be used in the future.

  5. REVIEW OF REACTOR SAFETY ANALYSES OF FAST AND LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, R. E.; Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1967-11-01

    Safety analysis reports on United States fast and liquid metal cooled reactors were reviewed to gain a better understanding of the safety philosophy applied to the design of these facilities. This information was compiled to help guide the design and safety analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility. No attempt was made to draw conclusions concerning the relative merit of different approaches and philosophies used by different reactor design teams. The facilities reviewed were; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant (FERMI) Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HALLAM) Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor (SEFOR) Fast Reactor Test Facility (FARET) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) Fast Reactor Zero Power Experiment (ZPR - III). The information gathered from the safety analysis reports is tabulated under these headings: Control and Safety Systems; Reactor Protection Systems; Backup Systems; Containment or Confinement Systems; Inherent Reactivity Effects and Important Physics Parameters; Fuel and Fuel Handling; Accidents Considered and Chemical Problems; Site; Exhaust Ventilation System; and Waste Effluents.

  6. Real-Time, Non-Intrusive Detection of Liquid Nitrogen in Liquid Oxygen at High Pressure and High Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Harrison, Louie

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic Raman sensor has been designed for real-time, nonintrusive detection of liquid nitrogen in liquid oxygen (LOX) at high pressures and high flow rates in order to monitor the quality of LOX used during rocket engine ground testing. The integrated sensor employs a high-power (3-W) Melles Griot diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSS), frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532- nm laser; a modified Raman probe that has built-in Raman signal filter optics; two high-resolution spectrometers; and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with selected bandpass filters to collect both N2 and O2 Raman signals. The PMT detection units are interfaced with National Instruments Lab- VIEW for fast data acquisition. Studies of sensor performance with different detection systems (i.e., spectrometer and PMT) were carried out. The concentration ratio of N2 and O2 can be inferred by comparing the intensities of the N2 and O2 Raman signals. The final system was fabricated to measure N2 and O2 gas mixtures as well as mixtures of liquid N2 and LOX

  7. CooLN2Car: An Experimental Car Which Uses Liquid Nitrogen as Its Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M. E.; Plummer, M. C.; Ordonez, C. A.

    1997-10-01

    A ``cryogenic" heat engine which operates using the atmosphere as a heat source and a cryogenic medium as a heat sink has been incorporated as the power system for an automobile. A 1973 Volkswagen Beetle has been converted and uses liquid nitrogen as its ``fuel." A Dewar was mounted in the car and provides nitrogen under pressure to two heat exchangers connected in parallel which use atmospheric heat to heat the nitrogen. The heat exchangers deliver compressed nitrogen gas to a vane-type pneumatic motor mounted in place of the original gasoline engine. Pressure in the tank is maintained internally at 1.2 MPa and is reduced to 0.7 MPa before the motor by a pressure regulator. A throttle, composed of a butterfly valve, is mounted between the regulator and the motor and is connected to the driver's accelerator peddle. The vehicle has good acceleration, a maximum range of 15 miles, and a maximum speed of 25 mph. A demonstration with the vehicle is planned.

  8. Comparative CFD analyses of liquid metal cooled reactor for lunar surface power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriener, Timothy M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, Mohamed S., E-mail: mgenk@unm.edu [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Performed 3-D thermal-hydraulics analyses of a NaK-56 cooled, sector core reactor for lunar surface power. • Investigated effects mesh refinements and choice of two-layer k–ε and SST k–ω models on results. • Choice of turbulence model slightly affects calculated temperatures and velocities. • Estimates of pressure losses require a finer mesh for convergence than temperature and velocities fields. • SST k–ω model provides more details of mixing eddies, but requires more computation time. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of comparative CFD and thermal-hydraulics analyses of the Solid Core–Sectored Compact Reactor (SC-SCoRe) for lunar surface power. This fast-neutron spectrum, liquid NaK-56 cooled reactor is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel. It nominally generates 1.0 MW{sub th} for ∼21 full-power years at NaK-56 inlet and exit temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. The analyses examine the realizable two-layer k–ε and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k–ω turbulence models, with different numerical mesh refinements, for simulating the performance of the SC-SCoRe core during nominal operation as well as investigate the effect on the computation time and calculated parameters. In addition, the results calculated for a single tri-lobe flow channel are compared to those obtained using the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), a hybrid LES and RANS turbulence model. The numerical mesh refinement beyond 2 × 10{sup 7} cells in the flow channels and the choice of turbulence model slightly affect the calculated fuel, core structure, and liquid metal temperatures. They more strongly affect the pressure losses and the intensity of flow mixing and the formation of turbulence eddies in the inlet and exit plenums and exit duct. With the same numerical mesh refinements, the total computation time with the k–ω model is 40–120% longer than with the k-ε model, while the calculated operation parameters are almost identical. The flow

  9. Hotspot Liquid Microfluidic Cooling: Comparing The Efficiency between Horizontal Flow and Vertical Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yuki; Ryoson, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Koji; Honjo, Keiji; Ohba, Takayuki; Mita, Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a novel cooling method for a local high-temperature block in an integrated circuit, which is called a “hotspot”. The method is to cool the chip in out-of-plane (3-D) direction to overcome efficiency limit of traditional horizontal (2-D) cooling. Our result indicates that high-temperature (over 180 °C) circuit block such as a phase-locked-loop (PLL), which is a performance limiting block in a modern CPU, can more efficiently be cooled by the vertical (3-D) cooling scheme.

  10. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  11. Feasibility of refreezing human spermatozoa through the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Verza Jr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of refreezing human semen using the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor with static phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty samples from 16 subjects who required disposal of their cryopreserved semen were thawed, corresponding to 6 cancer patients and 10 participants in the assisted reproduction (AR program. Samples were refrozen using the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor with static phases, identical to the one used for the initial freezing, and thawed again after 72 hours. We assessed the concentration of motile spermatozoa, total and progressive percent motility and spermatic vitality, according to criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, as well as spermatic morphology according to the strict Kruger criterion, after the first and after the second thawing. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in all the parameters evaluated between the first and the second thawing. Median values for the concentration of motile spermatozoa decreased from 2.0x10(6/mL to 0.1x10(6/mL (p < 0.01; total percent motility from 42% to 22.5% (p < 0.01; progressive percent motility from 34% to 9.5% (p < 0.01; vitality from 45% to 20% (p < 0.01; and morphology from 5% to 5% (p = 0.03. There was no significant difference in the spermatic parameters between the cancer and assisted reproduction groups, both after the first and after the second thawing. We observed that in 100% of cases there was retrieval of motile spermatozoa after the second thawing. CONCLUSIONS: Refreezing of human semen by the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor allows the retrieval of viable spermatozoa after thawing.

  12. Amination Reactions of Aryl Halides with Nitrogen-Containing Reagents Catalyzed by Cul in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN,Jin-Can; ZHOU,Li; WANG,Lei

    2008-01-01

    CuI-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl iodides and electron-deficient aryl bromides with nitrogen-containing reagents, such as imidazole, benzimidazole, aliphatic primary and secondary amines, aniline, primary and secondary amides, in ionic liquid were developed. The reaction conditions involved the use of[Bmim][BF4] as the solvent,potassium phosphate as the base, and CuI as the catalyst. The CuI and[Bmim][BF4] could be recovered and recycled for five consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  13. Metered Cryospray™: a novel uniform, controlled, and consistent in vivo application of liquid nitrogen cryogenic spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Thomas I; Coad, James E; Fan, Wei Li; Grasso, Daniel J; Hanley, Brian M; Hawkes, Heather V; McDermott, Sean A; O’Connor, John P; Sheets, Ellen E; Vadala, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a novel cryotherapy approach using a uniform, controlled, and consistent in vivo application of liquid nitrogen (LN2) spray as a Metered Cryospray™ (MCS) process is described. Although MCS may be used for many potential clinical applications, this paper focuses on the development that led to the controlled and consistent delivery of radial LN2 cryogen spray in order to generate a uniform circumferential effect and how the amount of MCS can be adapted to specifically ablate targeted diseases within a patient’s lumen such as an airway or esophagus. PMID:28255257

  14. Effect of ice contamination of liquid-nitrogen drops in film boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.; Baumeister, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Previously reported vaporization time data of liquid nitrogen drops in film boiling on a flat plate are about 30 percent shorter than predicted from standard laminar film boiling theory. This theory, however, had been found to successfully correlate the data for conventional fluids such as water, ethanol, benzene, or carbon tetrachloride. Experimental evidence that some of the discrepancy for cryogenic fluids results from ice contamination due to condensation is presented. The data indicate a fairly linear decrease in droplet evaporation time with the diameter of the ice crystal residue. After correcting the raw data for ice contamination along with convection, a comparison of theory with experiment shows good agreement.

  15. Effect of ice contamination on liquid-nitrogen drops in film boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.; Baumeister, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Previously reported vaporization time data of liquid nitrogen drops in film boiling on a flat plate are about 30 percent shorter than predicted from standard laminar film boiling theory. This theory, however, had been found to successfully correlate the data for conventional fluids such as water, ethanol, benzene, or carbon tetrachloride. This paper presents experimental evidence that some of the discrepancy for cryogenic fluids results from ice contamination due to condensation. The data indicate a fairly linear decrease in droplet evaporation time with the diameter of the ice crystal residue. After correcting the raw data for ice contamination along with convection, a comparison of theory with experiment shows good agreement.

  16. Modeling of the filling and cooling processes of hot fuel mains in Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisnyakov, V. F.; Pokrishkin, V. V.; Serebryansky, V. N.

    A mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes during filling and cooling of hot fuel mains of the Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP), which allows to define a mass consumption and distribution of two-phase flow parameters by the length of pipeline. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, taken during filling of the main with a supply of liquid oxygen from the tank into the combustion chamber. Also, the results of modeling of hydrogen main dynamic characteristics of LFRPP in the same conditions are given.

  17. Cooling unit for the AmpaCity project - One year successful operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Friedhelm; Kutz, Thomas; Stemmle, Mark; Kugel, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 °C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because at 63 K (-210 °C) nitrogen becomes solid. To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS-power cable. Liquid nitrogen is circulated through the superconducting cable to take out the heat, and afterward it is pumped through the subcooler to be recooled. In the circulation system liquid nitrogen is used as a dielectric fluid and as a heat transfer medium. It stays always liquid (subcooled) and does not vaporize. On the secondary side of the subcooler liquid nitrogen from the storage vessel is used as refrigerant. It is vaporized under a pressure of 150 mbar to achieve the desired low temperatures. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cooling unit cools a 10 kV concentric HTS cable (40 MV A) with a length of 1000 m. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014. After more than one year of practical operation many important figures from cable and cooling unit are available. These figures are discussed and a total energy balance is shown to compare liquid nitrogen cooling with alternative mechanical cooling systems.

  18. Design of a rapidly cooled cryogenic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Ron; Hsu, Ike

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a rapidly cooled beryllium cryogenic mirror, which is the primary mirror in the four-element optical system for the Long Wavelength Infrared Advanced Technology Seeker. The mirror is shown to meet the requirement of five minutes for cooling to cryogenic operating temperature; it also maintains its optical figure and vacuum integrity and meets the nuclear specification. Results of a detailed thermal analysis on the mirror showed that, using nitrogen gas at 80 K as coolant, the front face of the mirror can be cooled from an initial temperature of 300 K to less than 90 K within five minutes. In a vacuum chamber, using liquid nitrogen as coolant, the mirror can be cooled to 80 K within 1.5 min. The mirror is well thermally insulated, so that it can be maintained at less than its operating temperature for a long time without active cooling.

  19. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety

  20. Neutronic assessment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactors using thorium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, Stevan [Electricite de France R et D, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau 91406 Orsay (France)

    2009-06-15

    The long-term sustainability of atomic fission energy will require the development of new types of reactors, able to exceed the limits of the existing ones in terms of optimal use of natural resources, which clearly necessitates breeding of fissile material. In this context, fast reactors using uranium-plutonium fuel are the most mature solution from an industrial viewpoint. In addition to the obvious interest in terms of fuel resources, there is a major incentive to consider the use of the {sup 232}Th- {sup 233}U fuel cycle as an alternative to the traditional {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle for fast reactors: it is an effective way of addressing the safety issue of the highly positive void reactivity effect, which is a well-known problem for liquid-metal cooled fast reactors of commercial size [1]. This work investigates the performance of liquid-metal cooled fast reactors in {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle and draws a comparison with the traditional {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle. Four coolants have been considered: Na, Pb, Mg(17%at.)-Pb and Li(17%at.)-Pb; a simulation of their use in cores ranging from 700 MWth to 3600 MWth has been performed in two-dimensional diffusion theory using the European system of codes ERANOS [2,3] developed at CEA. The performance parameters such as the breeding ratio have been computed for each concept, alongside safety-related parameters: the delayed neutron fraction, the cycle reactivity swing, the Doppler constant and other thermal feedbacks. More specifically, the issue of void reactivity is studied in detail using perturbation theory. These calculations are performed at equilibrium fuel composition and are complemented by the study of the initial fuel loading at start-up which is a mixture of {sup 232}Th-{sup 239}Pu. The isotopic composition of the fissile corresponds to the plutonium available from French reactors in 2035. The conclusions of this work are that near-zero to large negative void reactivity effects can be achieved in

  1. Equation of state of initially liquid carbon monoxide and nitrogen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The modified liquid perturbation variational theory and the improved vdW-1f model were applied to calculating the equation of the state of liquid CO-N2 mixture with the ratio of 1:1, 4:1 and 1:4, respectively, in the shock pressure range of 9-49 GPa. It was shown that the calculated result for CO-N2 mixture with the ratio of 1:1 is well consistent with the earlier experimental data. The thermodynamics equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and phase equilibrium were all considered in detail. It was found that Hugoniot of liquid CO-N2 mixture is moderately softened in the pressure range of 20-30 GPa and 30-49 GPa for different initial proportions, and that the Hugoniot is more softened in the latter pressure range, which means that the structural phase transition occurs near 20 GPa and 30 GPa. Since the shock pro-ductions may absorb a plenty of systematic energy, the shock temperature and pressure decline compared with the case of no chemical reaction. Pressures and temperatures increase gradually with the increase in the mole fraction of nitrogen composition. The results for the 1:1 CO-N2 mixture lie in the middle of two others. Therefore, it was shown that the modified Lorentz-Berthelor rule used in the scheme is effective to study shock-compression properties of liquid CO-N2 mixture under high temperatures and high pressures.

  2. The Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billica, Roger; Kraft, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Post space flight orthostatic intolerance among Space Shuttle crew members following exposure to extended periods of microgravity has been of significant concern to the safety of the shuttle program. Following the Challenger accident, flight crews were required to wear launch and entry suits (LES). It was noted that overall, there appeared to be a higher degree of orthostatic intolerance among the post-Challenger crews (approaching 30%). It was hypothesized that the increased heat load incurred when wearing the LES, contributed to an increased degree of orthostatic intolerance, possibly mediated through increased peripheral vasodilatation triggered by the heat load. The use of liquid cooling garments (LCG) beneath the launch and entry suits was gradually implemented among flight crews in an attempt to decrease heat load, increase crew comfort, and hopefully improve orthostatic tolerance during reentry and landing. The hypothesis that the use of the LCG during reentry and landing would decrease the degree of orthostasis has not been previously tested. Operational stand-tests were performed pre and post flight to assess crewmember's cardiovascular system's ability to respond to gravitational stress. Stand test and debrief information were collected and databased for 27 space shuttle missions. 63 crewpersons wearing the LCG, and 70 crewpersons not wearing the LCG were entered into the database for analysis. Of 17 crewmembers who exhibited pre-syncopal symptoms at the R+O analysis, 15 were not wearing the LCG. This corresponds to a 21% rate of postflight orthostatic intolerance among those without the LCG, and a 3% rate for those wearing LCG. There were differences in these individual's average post-flight maximal systolic blood pressure, and lower minimal Systolic Blood pressures in those without LCG. Though other factors, such as type of fluid loading, and exercise have improved concurrently with LCG introduction, from this data analysis, it appears that LCG usage

  3. Traction Drive Inverter Cooling with Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement on Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S.; Narumanchi, S.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Jet impingement is one means to improve thermal management for power electronics in electric-drive traction vehicles. Jet impingement on microfin-enhanced surfaces further augments heat transfer and thermal performance. A channel flow heat exchanger from a commercial inverter was characterized as a baseline system for comparison with two new prototype designs using liquid jet impingement on plain and microfinned enhanced surfaces. The submerged jets can target areas with the highest heat flux to provide local cooling, such as areas under insulated-gate bipolar transistors and diode devices. Low power experiments, where four diodes were powered, dissipated 105 W of heat and were used to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the baseline and prototype designs. Experiments and modeling used typical automotive flow rates using water-ethylene glycol as a coolant (50%-50% by volume). The computational fluid dynamics model was used to predict full inverter power heat dissipation. The channel flow and jet impingement configurations were tested at full inverter power of 40 to 100 kW (output power) on a dynamometer, translating to an approximate heat dissipation of 1 to 2 kW. With jet impingement, the cold plate material is not critical for the thermal pathway. A high-temperature plastic was used that could eventually be injection molded or formed, with the jets formed from a basic aluminum plate with orifices acting as nozzles. Long-term reliability of the jet nozzles and impingement on enhanced surfaces was examined. For jet impingement on microfinned surfaces, thermal performance increased 17%. Along with a weight reduction of approximately 3 kg, the specific power (kW/kg) increased by 36%, with an increase in power density (kW/L) of 12% compared with the baseline channel flow configuration.

  4. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  5. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city.

  6. Unsteady High Turbulence Effects on Turbine Blade Film Cooling Heat Transfer Performance Using a Transient Liquid Crystal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. C.; Ekkad, S. V.; Du, H.; Teng, S.

    2000-01-01

    Unsteady wake effect, with and without trailing edge ejection, on detailed heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness distributions is presented for a downstream film-cooled gas turbine blade. Tests were performed on a five-blade linear cascade at an exit Reynolds number of 5.3 x 10(exp 5). Upstream unsteady wakes were simulated using a spoke-wheel type wake generator. Coolant blowing ratio was varied from 0.4 to 1.2; air and CO2 were used as coolants to simulate different density ratios. Surface heat transfer and film effectiveness distributions were obtained using a transient liquid crystal technique; coolant temperature profiles were determined with a cold wire technique. Results show that Nusselt numbers for a film cooled blade are much higher compared to a blade without film injection. Unsteady wake slightly enhances Nusselt numbers but significantly reduces film effectiveness versus no wake cases. Nusselt numbers increase only slic,htly but film cooling, effectiveness increases significantly with increasing, blowing ratio. Higher density coolant (CO2) provides higher effectiveness at higher blowing ratios (M = 1.2) whereas lower density coolant (Air) provides higher 0 effectiveness at lower blowing ratios (M = 0.8). Trailing edge ejection generally has more effect on film effectiveness than on the heat transfer, typically reducing film effectiveness and enhancing heat transfer. Similar data is also presented for a film cooled cylindrical leading edge model.

  7. Model-Based Fault Detection and Isolation of a Liquid-Cooled Frequency Converter on a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wind energy technologies and growth of installed wind turbine capacity in the world, the reliability of the wind turbine becomes an important issue for wind turbine manufactures, owners, and operators. The reliability of the wind turbine can be improved by implementing advanced fault detection and isolation schemes. In this paper, an observer-based fault detection and isolation method for the cooling system in a liquid-cooled frequency converter on a wind turbine which is built up in a scalar version in the laboratory is presented. A dynamic model of the scale cooling system is derived based on energy balance equation. A fault analysis is conducted to determine the severity and occurrence rate of possible component faults and their end effects in the cooling system. A method using unknown input observer is developed in order to detect and isolate the faults based on the developed dynamical model. The designed fault detection and isolation algorithm is applied on a set of measured experiment data in which different faults are artificially introduced to the scaled cooling system. The experimental results conclude that the different faults are successfully detected and isolated.

  8. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Yasugi, Takuya; Majima, Yatsuse; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth's magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS), an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2) temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  9. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Tsukada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth’s magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS, an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2 temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  10. Testing of a vacuum insulated flexible line with flowing liquid nitrogen during the loss of insulating vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Long length vacuum insulated lines are used to carry flowing liquid nitrogen in several high temperature superconducting cable projects. An important, but rare, failure scenario is the abrupt or catastrophic loss of the thermal insulating vacuum producing a rapid increase in heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen stream. In this experimental investigation, a vacuum superinsulated 3 inch by 5 inch NPS (88.9 mm by 141.3 mm) flexible cryostat is subjected to an abrupt loss of vacuum in order to measure the thermal response of a flowing liquid nitrogen stream and the temperature response of the cryostat. The measured outlet stream temperature has a slight peak shortly after the loss of vacuum incident and decreases as the cryostat warms up. The heat loads measured before and after the vacuum loss event are reported. Measurements of the temperatures in the multi-layer superinsulation are also discussed.

  11. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B. J.P. [MIT, LNS; Chiu, C. S. [MIT, LNS; Conrad, J. M. [MIT, LNS; Ignarra, C. M. [MIT, LNS; Katori, T. [MIT, LNS; Toups, M. [MIT, LNS

    2013-07-24

    Here we report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm)level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source.The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of (1.51±0.15) × 10$-$4 cm$-$1ppm$-$1, correspondingto an absorption cross section of (4.99±0.51) × 10$-$21 cm2 molecule$-$1.We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogenconcentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implicationsfor the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC)detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, wherea concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuationlength due to nitrogen will be 30±3 meters.

  12. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Litt, Robert D.; Dongming, Qiu; Silva, Laura J.; Lamont, Micheal Jay; Fanelli, Maddalena; Simmons, Wayne W.; Perry, Steven

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  13. Glass transition with decreasing correlation length during cooling of Fe50Co50 superlattice and strong liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Shuai; Busch, Ralf; Angell, C Austen

    2010-01-01

    The glass transition GT is usually thought of as a structural arrest that occurs during the cooling of a liquid, or sometimes a plastic crystal, trapping a metastable state of the system before it can recrystallize to stabler forms1. This phenomenon occurs in liquids of all classes, most recently in bulk metallic glassformers2. Much theoretical interest has been generated by the dynamical heterogeneity observed in cooling of fragile liquids3, 4, and many have suggested that the slow-down is caused by a related increasing correlation length 5-9. Here we report both kinetics and thermodynamics of arrest in a system that disorders while in its ground state, exhibits a large !Cp on arrest (!Cp = Cp,mobile - Cp,arrested), yet clearly is characterized by a correlation length that is decreasing as GT is approached from above. We show that GT kinetics in our system, the disordering superlattice Fe50Co50, satisfy the kinetic criterion for ideally 'strong' glassformers10, and since !Cp behavior through Tg also correlat...

  14. Modelling of phenomena in solid state for the steel casting cooled by liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical model of cooling process for steel castings is presented. Effect of convective motion of the coolant onmaterial structure after cooling process is investigated. Mathematical and numerical model based on Generalized Difference Method for axysimmertric elements is used. To solve the Navier-Stokes equation the characteristic based split scheme (CBS has been applied. The solution of the heat transport equation with the convective term has been obtained by a stabilized meshless method. To determine of the phase transformation the macroscopic model built on the basis of Time Temperature Transformation diagrams for continuous cooling of medium-carbon steel has been used. The temporary temperature fields, the phase transformation, thermal and structural strains for the cooled element and the fields of temperature and velocity for the coolant have been determined.

  15. Mathematical prediction of freezing times of bovine semen in straws placed in static vapor over liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2013-02-01

    A widespread practice in cryopreservation is to freeze spermatozoa by suspending the straws in stagnant nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen (N(2)V/LN(2)) for variable periods of time before plunging into liquid nitrogen (-196°C) for indefinite storage. A mathematical heat transfer model was developed to predict freezing times (phase change was considered) required for bull semen and extender packaged in 0.5ml plastic straws and suspended in static liquid nitrogen vapor. Thermophysical properties (i.e. thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, initial freezing temperature) of bovine semen and extender as a function of temperature were determined considering the water change of phase. The non-stationary heat transfer partial differential equations with variable properties (nonlinear mathematical problem) were numerically solved considering in series thermal resistances (semen suspension-straw) and the temperature profiles were obtained for both semen suspension and plastic straw. It was observed both the external heat transfer coefficient in stagnant nitrogen vapor and its temperature (controlled by the distance from the surface of liquid nitrogen to the straw) affected freezing times. The accuracy of the model to estimate freezing times of the straws was further confirmed by comparing with experimental literature data. Results of this study will be useful to select "safe" holding times of bull semen in plastic straws placed N(2)V/LN(2) to ensure that complete freezing of the sample has occurred in the nitrogen vapor and avoid cryodamage when plunging in LN(2). Freezing times predicted by the numerical model can be applied to optimize freezing protocols of bull semen in straws.

  16. Equation of state of initially liquid carbon monoxide and nitrogen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JinWen; SUN Dong; SUN Yue; SHI ShangChun

    2008-01-01

    Academy of Engineering Physics,Mianyang 621900,ChinaThe modified liquid perturbation variational theory and the improved vdW-1f model were applied to calculating the equation of the state of liquid CO-N2 mixture with the ratio of 1:1,4:1 and 1:4,respectively,in the shock pressure range of 9-49 Gpa.It was shown that the calculated result for CO-N2 mixture with the ratio of 1:1 is well consistent with the earlier experimental data.The thermodynamics equilibrium,chemical equilibrium and phase equilibrium were all considered in detail.It was found that Hugoniot of liquid CO-N2 mixture is moderately softened in the pressure range of 20-30 Gpa and 30-49 Gpa for different initial proportions,and that the Hugoniot is more softened in the latter pressure range,which means that the structural phase transition occurs near 20 Gpa and 30 Gpa.Since the shock pro-ductions may absorb a plenty of systematic energy,the shock temperature and pressure decline compared with the case of no chemical reaction.Pressures and temperatures increase gradually with the increase in the mole fraction of nitrogen composition.The results for the 1:1 CO-N2 mixture lie in the middle of two others.Therefore,it was shown that the modified Lorentz-Berthelor rule used in the scheme is effective to study shock-compression properties of liquid CO-N2 mixture under high temperatures and high pressures.

  17. Fast cooling techniques for gravitational wave antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Furtado, S R

    2002-01-01

    The resonant-mass technique for the detection of gravitational waves may involve, in the near future, the cooling of very large masses (about 100 tons) from room temperature (300 K) to extreme cryogenic temperatures (20 mK). To cool these detectors to cryogenic temperatures an exchange gas (helium) is used, and the heat is removed from the antenna to the cold reservoir by thermal conduction and natural convection. With the current technique, cooling times of about 1 month can be obtained for cylindrical bar antennas of 2.5 tons. Should this same technique be used to cool a 100 ton spherical antenna the cooling time would be about 10 months, making the operation of these antennas impracticable. In this paper, we study the above-mentioned cooling technique and others, such as thermal switching and forced convection from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) using an aluminium truncated icosahedron of 19 kg weight and 25 cm diameter.

  18. Design and development of a helium injection system to improve external leakage detection during liquid nitrogen immersion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    The testing of assemblies for use in cryogenic systems commonly includes evaluation at or near operating (therefore cryogenic) temperature. Typical assemblies include valves and pumps for use in liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen rocket engines. One frequently specified method of cryogenic external leakage testing requires the assembly, pressurized with gaseous helium (GHe), be immersed in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and allowed to thermally stabilize. Component interfaces are then visually inspected for leakage (bubbles). Unfortunately the liquid nitrogen will be boiling under normal, bench-top, test conditions. This boiling tends to mask even significant leakage. One little known and perhaps under-utilized property of helium is the seemingly counter-intuitive thermodynamic property that when ambient temperature helium is bubbled through boiling LN2 at a temperature of -195.8 °C, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen will reduce. This paper reports on the design and testing of a novel proof-of-concept helium injection control system confirming that it is possible to reduce the temperature of an LN2 bath below boiling point through the controlled injection of ambient temperature gaseous helium and then to efficiently maintain a reduced helium flow rate to maintain a stabilized liquid temperature, enabling clear visual observation of components immersed within the LN2. Helium saturation testing is performed and injection system sizing is discussed.

  19. Liquid nitrogen historical and current usage of the central helium liquefier at SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2015-12-01

    The main cryogenic system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is comprised of a 4-K cold box, a 2-K cold box, six warm compressors, and ancillary support equipment. This system has been cold and operating with little disruption since 2005. Design and operation of liquid nitrogen (LN2) supplied from a single 20,000-gallon supply Dewar will be discussed. LN2 used to precool the 4-K cold box heat exchanger started to increase around 2011. LN2 Consumption during 2012 and 2013 was almost double the nominal usage rate. Studies of this data, plant parameter changes to respond to this information, and current interpretations are detailed in this paper. The usage rate of LN2 returned to normal in late 2013 and remained there until recent additional changes. Future study plans to understand potential causes of this including contamination migration within the 4-K cold box will also be addressed.

  20. Mechanical characterization of selected adhesives and bulk materials at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, C.M.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of mechanical tests on selected adhesives and bulk materials. The materials tested are of general interest to designers of magnets for cryogenic service and include several epoxies, a varnish, a B-stage glass cloth, insulation papers, and commercially available fiber-reinforced composites. These tests were performed at room temperature (293 K) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The tests include both simple tension tests and lap shear tests with various adherends. The parameters critical to tensile or bond strength were varied as part of the test program. The procedures used to manufacture and test these specimens and the results of the tests are reported in this paper.

  1. Development and fundamental characteristics of a YBCO superconducting induction/synchronous motor operated in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishimura, T.; Ogama, Y.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Suzuki, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A high Tc superconducting induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM) is designed, fabricated and tested with the use of YBCO coated conductors for rotor bars. The structure of this motor is the same with that of the squirrel-cage induction motor. The YBCO coated conductor, 10 mm in width, is produced by means of the MOCVD process, and then such tape is divided into four pieces by using a laser cutting machine. Four cut tapes are bundled for one rotor bar, and commercialized Bi-2223/Ag tapes are utilized for end rings. The fabricated HTS rotor is installed in a conventional stator, and then various tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen. It is successfully observed that the fabricated YBCO HTS-ISM has a synchronous torque. The motor also has an almost constant torque curve because of the steep take-off of the electric field versus current density property. Detailed test results are reported and discussed.

  2. Reed's Syndrome: A Case of Multiple Cutaneous Leiomyomas Treated with Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Basendwh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reed's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing benign smooth muscle tumors in the skin and uterus. In this article, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented to our dermatology clinic complaining of painful skin lesions on her right arm, left forearm and trunk. The patient had a past medical history of uterine leiomyomatosis for which she underwent hysterectomy 17 years ago. The patient's family history revealed that her mother, 2 sisters and 2 maternal aunts also had uterine leiomyomas. The diagnosis of Reed's syndrome was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the patient's dermal lesion in conjunction with her surgical and family histories. Five years after the initial presentation, the patient underwent treatment with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the dermal leiomyomas. After the treatment, marked improvement was noticed with regard to the pain and size of the skin lesions.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE VIABILITY OF PLEUROTUS SPP. STRAINS AFTER LIQUID NITROGEN CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Herrera Isabel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Viability of 6 mushroom strains of the Pleurotus genus (2 from P. djamor var. djamor, 1 from P. ostreatus var. ostreatus, 2 from P. ostreatus var. columbinus and 1 from P. pulmonarius after liquid nitrogen cryopreservation (-196º was evaluated. The contact time for the mycelia of these strains with the cryoprotectant (glycerol was studied 1, 2 and 3 hours before freezing. We also tested the effect of different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes and temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC of the thawing system for mycelial recovery. The results showed a marked tendency toward faster mycelial recovery when samples were thawed at 30ºC, while at 60ºC no recovery was observed. A change in thawing and contact times with the cryoprotectant did not affect the results significantly, as the thawing temperature and strain employed affected.

  4. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and initial pH on the growth of nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Minghe; Xu, Chuankun; Zhang, Keqin

    2005-04-01

    The effects of carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) and initial pH value on the growth and sporulation of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in liquid culture were examined. Among the 21 carbon sources and 15 nitrogen compounds tested, the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for mycelial growth were sweet potato and L: -tyrosine, and for sporulation were sweet potato and casein peptone. A C:N ratio of 10:1 at pH 3.7 gave the maximum yield of conidia and a C:N ratio of 40:1 at pH 6.8 gave the maximum biomass. The initial pH value had a significant effect on mycelial growth and conidial production, with the optimal ranges being 3.5-4.5 for sporulation and 5-6 for growth. Maximum conidial production was obtained at an initial pH of 4.0 and the maximum biomass at pH 6.0. The results also showed that the final pH after 7 days cultivation was always higher than the initial value. The variability in growth and sporulation of seven strains of P. chlamydosporia in liquid culture was also compared and discussed.

  5. Effects of long term storage of semen in liquid nitrogen on the viability, motility and abnormality of frozen thawed Frisian Holstein bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul MALIK

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Based on the results in these experiments, it may be concluded that concentration sperm during one year storage in liquid nitrogen resulted in similar concentration storage as long as six years. However, the viability and motility sperm thawed storage in liquid nitrogen during six years was lower than storage on the 1 and 2 years.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances in urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhua; Huang, Dongqun; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Shiru; Feng, Shun

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was proposed to simultaneously determine four common nonprotein nitrogen substances, including creatine (Cr), creatinine (Cn), uric acid (Ua) and pseudouridine (Pu) in urine. After proteins being removed by acetone precipitation method, freeze drying and redissolving, the urine samples were analyzed by HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters RP18 Column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, 3.5 microm) in gradient elution mode using 10.0 mmol/L KH2PO4 solution (pH 4.78) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The samples were detected at 220 nm. Rapid separation was achieved within 7 min. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities of four common nonprotein nitrogen substances were obtained in the range of 0.1-250 mg/L. The detection limits were 9.31 (Cr), 26.19 (Cn), 4.70 (Ua), an 6.30 (Pu) microg/L and the recoveries were in the range of 81%-111% with the relative standar deviations of 0.23%-2.78% (n = 3). The results demonstrate that this method is simple, rapid and accurate with good reproducibility, and can provide early diagnosis and preliminary judgment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with renal damage.

  7. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Katori, T; Toups, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of $\\left(1.51\\pm 0.15\\right)\\times10^{-4} \\;\\mathrm{cm^{-1} ppm^{-1}}$, corresponding to an absorption cross section of $\\left(4.99 \\pm 0.51 \\right)\\times10^{-21}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{2} molecule^{-1}}$. We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a ...

  8. Expressions for the evaporation of sessile liquid droplets incorporating the evaporative cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-12-15

    The evaporation along the surface of pinned, sessile droplets is investigated numerically by using the combined field approach. In the present model, the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface which leads to a reduction in the evaporation is taken into account. Simple, yet accurate analytical expressions for the local evaporation flux and for the total evaporation rate of sessile droplets are obtained. The theoretical analyses indicate that the reduction in the evaporation becomes more pronounced as the evaporative cooling number Ec increases. The results also reveal that the variation of total evaporation rate with contact angle will change its trend as the intensity of the evaporative cooling changes. For small values of Ec, the total evaporation rate increases with the contact angle, the same as predicted by Deegan et al. and by Hu and Larson in their isothermal models in which the evaporative cooling is neglected. Contrarily, when the evaporative cooling effect is strong enough, the total evaporation rate will decrease as the contact angle increases. The present theory is corroborated experimentally, and found in good agreement with the expressions proposed by Hu and Larson in the limiting isothermal case.

  9. Test of Topmetal-II{sup −} in liquid nitrogen for cryogenic temperature TPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Huang, Guangming; Liu, Jun; Pei, Hua; Sun, Xiangming, E-mail: xmsun@phy.ccnu.edu.cn; Yang, Ping; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Le; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Wei

    2016-09-11

    Topmetal-II{sup −} is a highly pixelated direct charge sensor that contains a 72×72 pixel array of 83 μm pitch size. The key feature of Topmetal-II{sup −} is that it can directly collect charges via metal nodes of each pixel to form two-dimensional images of charge cloud distributions. Topmetal-II{sup −} was proved to measure charged particles without amplification at room temperature. To measure its performance at cryogenic temperature, a Topmetal-II{sup −} sensor is embedded into a liquid nitrogen dewar. The results presented in this paper show that Topmetal-II{sup −} can also operate well at this low temperature with a noise (ENC) of 12 e{sup −} lower than that at room temperature (13 e{sup −}). From the noise perspective, Topmetal-II{sup −} is a promising candidate for the next generation readout of liquid argon and xenon time projection chamber (TPC) used in experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter.

  10. Test of Topmetal-${II}^-$ In Liquid Nitrogen For Cryogenic Temperature TPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Shuguang; An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Huang, Guangming; Li, Xiaoting; Liu, Jun; Pei, Hua; Sun, Xiangming; Yang, Ping; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Le; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a highly pixelated direct charge sensor that contains a 72${\\times}$72 pixel array of 83${\\mu}$m pitch size. The key feature of \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is that it can directly collect charges via metal nodes of each pixel to form two-dimensional images of charge cloud distribution. It's been demonstrated that \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} has good performance at room temperature and can measure charged particle tracks without any gas amplification. In order to apply \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} at cryogenic temperature, a \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor is put into a liquid nitrogen dewar. The results show that \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} can operate well under such a low temperature with lower electronic noise and equivalent noise charge (ENC 12 e$^-$) than that (13 e$^-$) at room temperature. Thus \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} makes a competitive candidate for the next generation gas and liquid argon or xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout for applications including neutrino...

  11. Data center cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  12. An alternative solution for heavy liquid metal cooled reactors fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale Di Maio, Damiano, E-mail: damiano.vitaledimaio@uniroma1.it [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Cretara, Luca; Giannetti, Fabio [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Peluso, Vincenzo [“ENEA”, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Gandini, Augusto [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy); Manni, Fabio [“SRS Engineering Design S.r.l.”, Vicolo delle Palle 25-25/b, 00186 Rome (Italy); Caruso, Gianfranco [“SAPIENZA” University of Rome – DIAEE, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new fuel assembly locking system for heavy metal cooled reactor is proposed. • Neutronic, mechanical and thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the system behavior have been performed. • A comparison with other solutions has been presented. - Abstract: In the coming future, the electric energy production from nuclear power plants will be provided by both thermal reactors and fast reactors. In order to have a sustainable energy production through fission reactors, fast reactors should provide an increasing contribution to the total electricity production from nuclear power plants. Fast reactors have to achieve economic and technical targets of Generation IV. Among these reactors, Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs) have the greatest possibility to be developed as industrial power plants within few decades. Both SFRs and LFRs require a great R and D effort to overcome some open issues which affect the present designs (e.g. sodium-water reaction for the SFRs, erosion/corrosion for LFRs, etc.). The present paper is mainly focused on LFR fuel assembly (FA) design: issues linked with the high coolant density of lead or lead–bismuth eutectic cooled reactors have been investigated and an innovative solution for the core mechanical design is here proposed and analyzed. The solution, which foresees cylindrical fuel assemblies and exploits the buoyancy force due to the lead high density, allows to simplify the FAs locking system, to reduce their length and could lead to a more uniform neutron flux distribution.

  13. Separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen or methane by supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs): influence of the cation charge of the ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojniak, Sandra D; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kirchner, Barbara; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-12-05

    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are promising tools for the separation of carbon dioxide from other gases. In this paper, new imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, and morpholinium ionic liquids with a triethylene glycol side chain and tosylate anions, as well as their symmetrical dicationic analogues, have been synthesized and incorporated into SILMs. The selectivities for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 separations have been measured. The selectivities exhibited by the dicationic ionic liquids are up to two times higher than the values of the corresponding monocationic ionic liquids. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to investigate the difference in the interaction of carbon dioxide with monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids. The reason for the increased gas separation selectivity of the dicationic ionic liquids is two-fold: (1) a decrease in permeance of nitrogen and methane through the ionic liquid layer, presumably due to their less favorable interactions with the gases, while the permeance of carbon dioxide is reduced much less; (2) an increase in the number of interaction sites for the interactions with the quadrupolar carbon dioxide molecules in the dicationic ionic liquids, compared to the monocationic analogues.

  14. Failure detection of liquid cooled electronics in sealed packages. [in airborne information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.

  15. Study on Membrane Microstructures and Characteristics of Infrared Spectra and Nitrogen Release of Solid-Liquid Reaction Coated Urea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; FENG Xin; WANG De-han; SUN Ke-jun; LIAO Zong-wen

    2004-01-01

    The membrane microstructures and the mechanism of two coated ureas formed through solidliquid reaction were observed by scanning electron microscope and infrared spectra, the relation of the structural characteristics with the nitrogen release feature was also discussed by combining with nitrogen dissolution in water. The results showed that the membranes were made of solid particles tightly connected to each other and were piled up layer by layer through liquid glue. Porosity and aperture of membrane were determined by compactness of piled layers and the particles in a single layer and also related to the characteristics of coating materials. Research of the infrared spectra of membrane, made of a solid powder and a liquid glue, proved that O-H on the solid surface was bonded with the double bond of the liquid glue, thus forming membrane and keeping it stable. It was found that the two coated ureas showed obvious differences in nitrogen releasing due to their membrane structures, the porosity and aperture of membrane were the critical factors for nitrogen releasing.

  16. Mathematical and experimental modeling of nucleate boiling heat transfer in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Ciro

    The investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer, because of its complexity, is usually carried out experimentally and by using phenomenological approximations. The purpose of this work is to capture the essential features of nucleate boiling heat transfer in liquid nitrogen and to formulate a theoretical description useful for the prediction of the temperature fluctuations and beat flux. Experimental analysis was coupled with mathematical modeling to elucidate nucleate boiling heat transfer. The experimental setting consists of a platinum wire immersed in liquid nitrogen. A current is passed through the wire while the resistance is measured. The orientation of the wire can be changed from horizontal to vertical. The fluctuations of the wire temperature are measured. Using high-speed analysis, we characterized nucleate boiling heat transfer from the wire as occurring in two distinct phases or regimes: discrete nucleate boiling and transition boiling. We defined discrete nucleate boiling as the phase during which the active nucleation sites are clearly distinguishable from one another with no bubble coalescence occurring between adjacent sites. The high-speed analysis helped also to compute the frequencies, diameters, and nucleation density of departing bubbles as well as the energy loss by a single bubble during the discrete nucleate boiling regime. These parameters were subsequently used to formulate a mathematical model to simulate by discrete time steps the discrete nucleate boiling heat transfer from the platinum wire. The average temperature of the wire can be adequately modeled with only one variable, the power input. In addition to predicting the average temperature of the wire in the discrete nucleate boiling regime the model predicts well the average temperature of the wire in the conduction and convection regime and the transition regime. The model also reproduces the fluctuation of temperature in the discrete nucleate boiling regime. The mathematical

  17. γ-CuI crystal growth in ionic liquids by the oxygen-free cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bingqian; Zhang, Jingfu; Luo, Hong; Pan, Jingen; Pan, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    A novel method is applied to grow γ-CuI crystal by the oxygen-free cooling method with solvent of [BMIm]Br. The solubility curve of CuI solution of [BMIm]Br at different temperatures is measured by means of the improved weight analysis. The γ-CuI single crystals with dimensions of 10×7×2 mm3 are obtained. The growth temperature is from 170 °C to 120 °C. Stirring speed is 60 r/min. Cooling rate is 1.5-2 °C/d. The effect of oxygen on the stability of solution has been studied by UV-vis spectra and XRD. The γ-CuI crystals are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry.

  18. Direct Evaporatrive Coolers of Gases and Liquids with Lowered Limit of Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed main technical solutions solution of indirect evaporative water and air coolers with reduced cooling limit. Packed part of heat-mass transfer devices is made of the film type based monoblock compositions of polymer materials. A mathematical model describing the processes of joint heat and mass transfer in evaporative coolers is executed. A comparative analysis of the possibilities of coolers designed based on experimental data on the efficiency of processes of heat and mass transfer.

  19. The effects of carbon and nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of type 316 stainless steel to liquid lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. G.; Frankham, S. A.

    1982-06-01

    Type 316 stainless steel plates have been exposed at 600°C to liquid lithium containing carbon and nitrogen at various chemical activities for periods of up to 672 h. The corrosion products Li 9CrN 5 and M 23C 6 have been identified on the plate surfaces and in the grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscopy has shown preferential nickel and chromium depletion at the steel surface in lithium with high nitrogen content. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in type 316 stainless steel from a lithium source was found to be 6.5 × 10 t 1¯5 m 2/s.

  20. Simulation study on the formation and transition properties of cluster structures in liquid metals during rapid cooling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑采星; 刘让苏; 董科军; 彭平; 刘海蓉; 徐仲榆; 卢小勇

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a molecular dynamics simulation study has been performed for a liquid metal system consisting of 50000 atoms to deeply investigate the transitions of microstructure configurations dudng the rapid cooling processes. Especially, the cluster-type index method has been adopted to analyze the transforming and evolving processes of clusters and cluster configurations from liquid metal atoms. It has been found that the bigger cluster configurations in the system are formed by means of connecting some small clusters (they are combined by several smaller clusters), and not taken on the multi-shells configuration accumulated with an atom as the center and the surrounding atoms arranged according to some fixed pattern. With the decrease in temperature, the probability of repetitive appearance for clusters increases largely, which reveals that clusters are indeed possessing a certain relative stability and continuity (namely hereditary effect). These results will give us an important enlightenment to understand not only the forming mechanisms and microscopic processes of the short-order sections and disorder sparse sections in amorphous structures but also the freezing processes of liquid metals.``

  1. Low-enrichment and long-life Scalable LIquid Metal cooled small Modular (SLIMM-1.2) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S., E-mail: mgenk@unm.edu [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palomino, Luis M.; Schriener, Timothy M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed low enrichment and natural circulation cooled SLIMM-1.2 SMR for generating 10–100 MW{sub th}. • Neutronics analyses estimate operation life and temperature reactivity feedback. • At 100 MW{sub th}, SLIMM-1.2 operates for 6.3 FPY without refueling. • SLIMM-1.2 has relatively low power peaking and maximum UN fuel temperature < 1400 K. - Abstract: The Scalable LIquid Metal cooled small Modular (SLIMM-1.0) reactor with uranium nitride fuel enrichment of 17.65% had been developed for generating 10–100 MW{sub th} continuously, without refueling for ∼66 and 5.9 full power years, respectively. Natural circulation of in-vessel liquid sodium (Na) cools the core of this fast energy spectrum reactor during nominal operation and after shutdown, with the aid of a tall chimney and an annular Na/Na heat exchanger (HEX) of concentric helically coiled tubes. The HEX at the top of the downcomer maximizes the static pressure head for natural circulation. In addition to the independent emergency shutdown (RSS) and reactor control (RC), the core negative temperature reactivity feedback safely decreases the reactor thermal power, following modest increases in the temperatures of UN fuel and in-vessel liquid sodium. The decay heat is removed from the core by natural circulation of in-vessel liquid sodium, with aid of the liquid metal heat pipes laid along the reactor vessel wall, and the passive backup cooling system (BCS) using natural circulation of ambient air along the outer surface of the guard vessel wall. This paper investigates modifying the SLIMM-1.0 reactor design to lower the UN fuel enrichment. To arrive at a final reactor design (SLIMM-1.2), the performed neutronics and reactivity depletion analyses examined the effects of various design and material choices on both the cold-clean and the hot-clean excess reactivity, the reactivity shutdown margin, the full power operation life at 100 MW{sub th}, the fissile production and depletion, the

  2. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment.

  3. Real Time, Non-intrusive Detection of Liquid Nitrogen in Liquid Oxygen (LOX) at High Pressure and High Flow Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technical Abstract The Stennis Space Center (SSC) needs the sensors that are capable and can be operated in liquid oxygen (LOX) and or liquid hydrogen (LH2)...

  4. Real time, Non-intrusive Detection of Liquid Nitrogen in Liquid Oxygen (LOX) at High Pressure and High Flow Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC needs the sensors that are capable and can be operated in liquid oxygen (LOX) and or liquid hydrogen (LH2) cryogenic environment to improve SSC cryogenic...

  5. Tensile strengths of polyamide based 3D printed polymers in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P.; Shoemake, E. D.; Adam, P.; Leachman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technology have made 3D printing a viable solution for many industries, allowing for the manufacture of designs that could not be made through traditional subtractive methods. Applicability of additive manufacturing in cryogenic applications is hindered, however, by a lack of accurate material properties information. Nylon is available for printing using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). We selected 5 SLS (DuraForm® EX, DuraForm® HST, DuraForm® PA, PA 640-GSL, and PA 840-GSL) and 2 FDM (Nylon 12, ULTEM) nylon variants based on the bulk material properties and printed properties at room temperature. Tensile tests were performed on five samples of each material while immersed in liquid nitrogen at approximately 77 Kelvin. Samples were tested in XY and, where available, Z printing directions to determine influence on material properties. Results show typical SLS and FDM nylon ultimate strength retention at 77 K, when compared to (extruded or molded) nylon ultimate strength.

  6. Ac and Impulse Breakdown of Liquid Nitrogen at 77 K for Quasi-Uniform Field Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. R.; Sauers, I.; Ellis, A. R.; Schwenterly, S. W.; Tuncer, E.; Pleva, E.

    2008-03-01

    Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is commonly used both as a coolant and electrical insulation in high temperature superconductor (HTS) equipment for power applications. Hence it is necessary to know the electrical breakdown characteristics of LN2 under a variety of practical conditions. The ac breakdown and positive and negative polarity breakdown results for lightning impulse (1.2 microsecond rise time/50 microsecond fall time) are presented for LN2 using sphere to plane electrode geometry for sphere diameters of 50.8 and 101.6 mm over a gap range of 1 to 15 mm. Voltages up to 110 kVrms were studied for ac breakdown and up to 500-kV peak for impulse. In this work both the ac and impulse breakdown voltages scale approximately with distance over the limited gaps studied which is indicative of a quasi-uniform (near-uniform) electric field between sphere and plane. These measurements were conducted in a dewar which could be pressurized from 1 to 2 bar absolute which greatly reduces the spontaneous formation of bubbles that can occur in open LN2 bath experiments and thus potentially reduce the breakdown strength. Results from the pressurized system and near atmospheric pressure similar to an open bath are compared.

  7. Blending materials composed of boron, nitrogen and carbon to transform approaches to liquid hydrogen stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, Sean M.; Bowden, Mark; Karkamkar, Abhijeet; Parab, Kshitij; Neiner, Doinita; Autrey, Tom; Ishibashi, Jacob S. A.; Chen, Gang; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Dixon, David A.

    2015-12-02

    Energy storage remains a key challenge for the advancement of fuel cell applications. Because of this, hydrogen has garnered much research attention for its potential as an energy carrier. This can be attributed to its abundance from non-petroleum sources, and its energy conversion efficiency. Our group, among others, has been studying the use of ammonia borane as a chemical hydrogen storage material for the past several years. Ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3), a solid state complex composed of the light weight main group elements of nitrogen and boron, is isoelectronic with ethane and as such is an attractive hydrogen storage material with a high gravimetric capacity of H2 (19.6 wt%). However, the widespread use of AB as a chemical hydrogen storage material has been stalled by some undesirable properties and reactivity. Most notably, AB is a solid and this presents compatibility issues with the existing liquid fuel infrastructure. The thermal release of H2 from AB also results in the formation of volatile impurities (borazine and ammonia) that are detrimental to operation of the fuel cell. Additionally, the major products in the spent fuel are polyborazylene and amine borane oligomers that present challenges in regenerating AB. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  8. A Solid Film Lubricant Composition for Use at High Sliding Velocities in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisander, D. W.; Johnson, R. L.

    1960-01-01

    Solid-lubricant-containing compositions can be of value as films and solid bodies for bearing and seal surfaces in low-temperature liquefied gases. An experimental composition including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), an epoxy resin, and lithium-alumina-silicate was studied in friction, wear, and endurance experiments in liquid nitrogen (-320 F). This composition was formulated to approximate the thermal expansion of metals used in cryogenic systems. Hemisphere (3/6-in. radius) rider specimens were used and in most experiments the load was 1000 g. Films (0.005-in. thick) on disk specimens gave good endurance life, low rider wear, and desirable friction (f = 0.02 to 0.07). They functioned at a higher sliding velocity (no failure at 16, 000 ft/min) with copper rider specimens than with stainless steel riders (failure at 9000 ft/min). Solid rider material of the experimental composition had good friction and wear properties at sliding velocities above 4000 ft/min. It is important to use the experimental composition with mating materials having good thermal conductivity.

  9. Characterization of CaWO{sub 4} scintillator at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)]. E-mail: marek@ipj.gov.pl; Balcerzyk, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Czarnacki, W. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Nassalski, A. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Szczesniak, T. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kraus, H. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mikhailik, V.B. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Solskii, I.M. [Institute of Materials SRC ' Carat' , Lviv 790031 (Ukraine)

    2005-11-21

    The properties of CaWO{sub 4} (CaWO) crystals in {gamma}-spectrometry were studied at room and liquid nitrogen(LN{sub 2}) temperatures. Two small samples of 10x10x4 mm{sup 3} and 10x10x8 mm{sup 3} size were tested, coupled to a Photonis XP3212 photomultiplier at room temperature and a large area avalanche photodiode at LN{sub 2} temperature. Light pulse shape and light output at room and LN{sub 2} temperatures were measured. Energy resolution and non-proportionality of the CaWO response versus {gamma}-ray energy were studied and compared with those of small BGO and CdWO{sub 4} crystals to discuss further the origin of the intrinsic resolution of undoped scintillating crystals. A high light output of 4800{+-}200 phe/MeV and a good energy resolution of 6.6{+-}0.2% for 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source were measured for the small samples coupled to the XP3212 photomultiplier.

  10. Operation of high- Tc SFQ devices at near liquid nitrogen temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kang, J. H.; Lee, J. M.; Hahn, T. S.; Choi, S. S.; Park, S. J.

    1997-02-01

    As the operating temperature of the SFQ logic circuits gets higher by using high- Tc superconductors, the effect of noise on switching a Josephson junction to the voltage state becomes more important. In this paper, we report our work on high- Tc SFQ RS flip-flop which was made with YBCO thin film deposited on a SrTiO 3 bi-crystal. The circuit operated correctly at 71 K over the 200 computer-generated clock cycles without making errors, where a reset or a set operation was made over one clock cycle. Good agreement between the measured data and the calculation based on the thermal activation theory was obtained. The effective noise temperature used to fit the data was much higher than the physical temperature. This could be due to the instrument noise. Improvement in the measurement set-up might reduce the effective noise temperature. Also our measurement results indicate that the elevation of the operating temperature near the liquid nitrogen temperature may not affect the margin of the circuit.

  11. Direct estimation of carbaryl by gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Raminderjit Singh; Mandal, Kousik; Urvashi; Pandher, Suneet; Takkar, Reenu; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-07-01

    A simple and efficient analytical method was standardized for the estimation of residues of carbaryl in various substrates comprising grape berries, kinnow pulps, kinnow rind and soil. The samples were refluxed using mixture of methanol: 0.5 N HCl (1:1 v/v); diluted with brine solution, partitioned into chloroform and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Further the samples were treated with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and primary secondary amine. Final clear extracts were concentrated under vacuum and reconstituted the volume into acetone. The residues were estimated directly on gas liquid chromatograph equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detection system equipped with a capillary column packed with 5 % diphenyl 95 % dimethyl polysiloxane non-polar phase. A consistent recovery from 82 % to 97 % for carbaryl was observed when samples were spiked at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification of the method was worked out to be 0.05 mg kg(-1) for grape berries, kinnow pulp, kinnow rind and soil.

  12. Pulse-Width Dependence of the Cooling Effect on Sub-Micrometer ZnO Spherical Particle Formation by Pulsed-Laser Melting in a Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Shota; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yoshie; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2017-05-05

    Sub-micrometer spherical particles can be synthesized by irradiating particles in a liquid with a pulsed laser (pulse width: 10 ns). In this method, all of the laser energy is supposed to be spent on particle heating because nanosecond heating is far faster than particle cooling. To study the cooling effect, sub-micrometer spherical particles are fabricated by using a pulsed laser with longer pulse widths (50 and 70 ns). From the increase in the laser-fluence threshold for sub-micrometer spherical particle formation with increasing pulse width, it is concluded that the particles dissipate heat to the surrounding liquid, even during several tens of nanoseconds of heating. A particle heating-cooling model considering the cooling effect is developed to estimate the particle temperature during laser irradiation. This model suggests that the liquid surrounding the particles evaporates, and the generated vapor films suppress heat dissipation from the particles, resulting in efficient heating and melting of the particles in the liquid. In the case of small particle sizes and large pulse widths, the particles dissipate heat to the liquid without forming such vapor films. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Gas Hydrate Production at Injection of Liquid Nitrogen into Water with Bubbles of Freon 134A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleshkin Anton V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic processes during the injection of the cryogenic liquid into the volume of water with bubbles of gas freon 134a are studding experimentally. A processes during the explosive boiling of liquid nitrogen in the volume of water are registered. Video recording of identified gas hydrate flakes formed during this process is carried out by high speed camera. These results may be useful for the study of the new method of producing gas hydrates, based on the shock-wave method.

  14. Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holowczak, J.

    2002-03-01

    With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.

  15. Effect of sintering columns on the heat transfer and flow characteristics of the liquid cooling vapor chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphon, Paisarn; Wiriyasart, Songkran

    2016-09-01

    The results of the heat and flow characteristics of working fluid inside the vapor chamber with different sintering columns of 20, 81, 225 are presented. The vapor chambers with one inlet port and four outlet ports are tested by using water as coolant. Parametric studies including different heat fluxes, number and size of wick columns, and flow rate of coolants on the cooling performance are considered. A three-dimensional heat and mass transfer model for vapor chamber with wick and without sintering plate and sintering columns are developed. The numerical simulation results show the velocity and pressure distribution of liquid and vapor phases of the working fluid inside the vapor chamber. It is found that the number of wick column have an important influence to the velocity and pressure phenomena of working fluid which results in thermal performance of vapor chamber. Reasonable agreement is obtained from the comparison between the measured data and the predicted results.

  16. Thermal Manikin Evaluation of Liquid Cooling Garments Intended for Use in Hazardous Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, J. P.; Semeniuk, K.; Makris, A.; Teal, W.; Laprise, B.

    2003-02-26

    Thermal manikins are valuable tools for quantitatively evaluating the performance of protective clothing ensembles and microclimate cooling systems. The goal of this investigation was to examine the performance of Coretech personal cooling systems, designed to reduce the effects of physiological and environmental heat stress, using a sweating thermal manikin. A sweating manikin takes into account the effective physiological evaporative heat transfer. Three tubesuits containing different densities of tubing were evaluated on the thermal manikin in conjunction with body armor and two Chemical-Biological suits (SPM and JSLIST). The experiments were carried out in an environmental chamber set at a temperature of 35 C with a relative humidity of 30%. For the tubesuits, two flow rates were tested and the heat removal rates were obtained by measuring the amount of power required to maintain the manikin's surface at a constant temperature of 35 C. The sweating rates were adjusted to maintain a fully wetted manikin surface at the above environmental conditions. For fluid flow rates ranging from approximately 250 to 750 ml/min, and inlet temperatures to the tubesuit ranging from 7 to 10 C, heat removal rates between 220 W to 284 W were measured, indicating the effectiveness of tubesuits at removing excessive body heat. This research was performed at the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM) in Natick, Massachusetts.

  17. Fabrication and Properties of Micro-Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Internally-Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Yufeng; Liu, Tao

    2017-04-29

    Micro-nanoencapsulated phase change materials (M-NEPCMs) are proposed to be useful in liquid desiccant dehumidification by restraining the temperature rise in the moisture-removal process and improving the dehumidification efficiency. In this paper, the n-octadecane M-NEPCMs with desirable thermal properties for internally-cooled dehumidification were fabricated by using compound emulsifiers through the in-situ polymerization method. Melamine-formaldehyde resin was used as the shell material. The effects of the mixing ratio, emulsification methods and amount of the compound emulsifiers on the morphology, size and thermal properties of the M-NEPCMs were investigated experimentally. The optimum weight mixing ratio of the compound emulsifiers is SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate):Tween80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate):Span80 (sorbitan monooleate) = 0.1:0.6:0.3, which achieves the best stability of the n-octadecane emulsion. When the compound emulsifiers are 10 wt. % of the core material, the melting enthalpy of M-NEPCMs reaches its maximum of 145.26 J/g of capsules, with an encapsulation efficiency of 62.88% and a mean diameter of 636 nm. The sub-cooling of the prepared M-NEPCMs is lower than 3 °C, with an acceptable thermal reliability after the thermal cycling test. A pre-emulsification prior to the addition of deionized water in the emulsification is beneficial to the morphology of the capsules, as the phase change enthalpy can be increased by 123.7%.

  18. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. RESULTS: The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  19. THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF A LIQUID-METAL-COOLED NEUTRON SPALLATION TARGET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. GREGORY; R. MARTIN; T. VALACHOVIC

    2000-07-01

    We have carried out numerical simulations of the thermal hydraulic behavior of a neutron spallation target where liquid metal lead-bismuth serves as both coolant and as a neutron spallation source. The target is one of three designs provided by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Russia. This type of target is proposed for Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) to eliminate plutonium from hazardous fission products. The thermal hydraulic behavior was simulated by use of a commercial CFD computer code called CFX. Maximum temperatures in the diaphragm window and in the liquid lead were determined. In addition the total pressure drop through the target was predicted. The results of the CFX analysis were close to those results predicted by IPPE in their preliminary analysis.

  20. The injection of liquid cool CO2 in a warm depleted gas reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, C.; Maas, J.H.; Loeve, D.

    2013-01-01

    The P18-4 compartment (operated by TAQA Energy B.V.) would be injected by CO2 at a minimum temperature of 12 degrees C. At these temperatures, the CO2 phase will either be a gas or a liquid. As the initial temperature of the reservoir is 120 oC, the CO2 will eventually be the gaseous or (at higher

  1. Advanced Liquid Cooling for a Traction Drive Inverter Using Jet Impingement and Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S. K.; Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Moreno, G.; Bennion, K.; Jeffers, J.

    2014-08-01

    Jet impingement on plain and micro-finned enhanced surfaces was compared to a traditional channel flow configuration. The jets provide localized cooling to areas heated by the insulated-gate bipolar transistor and diode devices. Enhanced microfinned surfaces increase surface area and thermal performance. Using lighter materials and designing the fluid path to manage pressure losses increases overall performance while reducing weight, volume, and cost. Powering four diodes in the center power module of the inverter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to characterize the baseline as well as jet-impingement-based heat exchangers. CFD modeling showed the thermal performance improvements should hold for a fully powered inverter. Increased thermal performance was observed for the jet-impingement configurations when tested at full inverter power (40 to 100 kW output power) on a dynamometer. The reliability of the jets and enhanced surfaces over time was also investigated. Experimentally, the junction-to- coolant thermal resistance was reduced by up to 12.5% for jet impingement on enhanced surfaces s compared to the baseline channel flow configuration. Base plate-to-coolant (convective) resistance was reduced by up to 37.0% for the jet-based configuration compared to the baseline, suggesting that while improvements to the cooling side reduce overall resistance, reducing the passive stack resistance may contribute to lowering overall junction-to-coolant resistance. Full inverter power testing showed reduced thermal resistance from the middle of the module baseplate to coolant of up to 16.5%. Between the improvement in thermal performance and pumping power, the coefficient of performance improved by up to 13% for the jet-based configuration.

  2. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  3. Status of Physics and Safety Analyses for the Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, DT

    2005-12-15

    A study has been completed to develop a new baseline core design for the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) that is better optimized for liquid coolant and that satisfies the top-level operational and safety targets, including strong passive safety performance, acceptable fuel cycle parameters, and favorable core reactivity response to coolant voiding. Three organizations participated in the study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Although the intent was to generate a new reference LS-VHTR core design, the emphasis was on performing parametric studies of the many variables that constitute a design. The results of the parametric studies not only provide the basis for choosing the optimum balance of design options, they also provide a valuable understanding of the fundamental behavior of the core, which will be the basis of future design trade-off studies. A new 2400-MW(t) baseline design was established that consists of a cylindrical, nonannular core cooled by liquid {sup 7}Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) salt. The inlet and outlet coolant temperatures were decreased by 50 C, and the coolant channel diameter was increased to help lower the maximum fuel and vessel temperatures. An 18-month fuel cycle length with 156 GWD/t burnup was achieved with a two-batch shuffling scheme, while maintaining a core power density of 10 MW/m{sup 3} using graphite-coated uranium oxicarbide particle fuel enriched to 15% {sup 235}U and assuming a 25 vol-% packing of the coated particles in the fuel compacts. The revised design appears to have excellent steady-state and transient performance. The previous concern regarding the core's response to coolant voiding has been resolved for the case of Flibe coolant by increasing the coolant channel diameter and the fuel loading. Also, the LSVHTR has a strong decay heat removal performance and appears capable of surviving a loss of forced

  4. Over Current Properties of HTC Superconducting Wire Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Takegami, Taiki; Hikawa, Kyosuke; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Kinoshita, Katsuhiko

    An experimental setup which can energize superconducting wires immersed in LH2 was designed and made. Over current tests were carried out using MgB2 wire. Critical current and resistivity of a test MgB2 wire submerged in liquid hydrogen were measured for exponentially increasing heat input, while the transport current exceeded the critical current. The resistivity of the conductor was obtained as a function of current and the temperature of the conductor by using the transient heating method. The distribution ratio of the current through the superconductor and the sheath, and the resistivity of the MgB2 conductor itself were estimated.

  5. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  6. Investigation on heavy liquid metal cooling of ADS fuel pin assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litfin, K.; Batta, A.; Class, A. G.; Wetzel, Th.; Stieglitz, R.

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of accelerator driven sub-critical reactor systems heavy liquid metals are considered as coolant for the reactor core and the spallation target. In particular lead or lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) exhibit efficient heat removal properties and high production rate of neutrons. However, the excellent heat conductivity of LBE-flows expressed by a low molecular Prandtl number of the order 10 -2 requires improved modeling of the turbulent heat transfer. Although various models for thermal hydraulics of LBE flows are existing, validated heat transfer correlations for ADS-relevant conditions are still missing. In order to validate the sub-channel codes and computational fluid dynamics codes used to design fuel assemblies, the comparison with experimental data is inevitable. Therefore, an experimental program composed of three major experiments, a single electrically heated rod, a 19-pin hexagonal water rod bundle and a LBE rod bundle, has been initiated at the Karlsruhe Liquid metal Laboratory (KALLA) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to quantify and separate the individual phenomena occurring in the momentum and energy transfer of a fuel assembly.

  7. Cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  8. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Natural Circulation Liquid Cooling System for Electronic Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正国; 李倩侠; 方晓明; 本田博司

    2004-01-01

    The present research is an experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of a natural circulation cooling system for electronic components. A smooth chip and two micro-pin-finned chips were tested. The chip is mounted on the base of a rectangular horizontal duct located at the bottom of 250 mm high natural circulation loop.FC-72 is used as a coolant. The test conditions are set that the operation pressure of experimental system is 1. 013× 105 Pa, the flow rate of FC-72 is 150 g/min and the subcoolings are 10 K, 25 K and 35 k, respectively. Effect of the subcooling on nucleate boiling and critical heat flux(CHF) were investigated. The results show that subcoolingis found to significantly affect CHF for all chips and micro-pin-finned chips sharply enhanced the boiling heat transfer, CHF of micro-pin-finned chips are 2.5~3 times as large as that of smooth chip at the same subcooling.

  9. Nitrogen-gas-stream cryostat for general X-ray diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosier, J.; Glazer, A.M.

    1986-04-01

    A continuous nitrogen-flow cooling device, generally applicable to X-ray diffraction studies, is described. The device works in the range 77.4 to 323.0 K with a precision of +-0.1 K and a liquid-nitrogen constant consumption rate of 0.5 l h/sup -1/ over the whole temperature range. The supply vessel is unpressurised, so that refilling can be done without any observable influence on the cooling of the sample.

  10. Intermediate strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane Francis; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2017-06-20

    An alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6 to 8.5 Cr, 5.5 to 13.5 Mo, 0.4 to 7.5 W, 1 to 2 Ti, 0.7 to 0.85 Mn, 0.05 to 0.3 Al, up to to 0.1 Co, 0.08 to 0.5 C, 1 to 5 Ta, 1 to 4 Nab, 1 to 3 Hf, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 36 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 40 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 72.1 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm2sec)].times.10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 8 to 25.

  11. Intermediate strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane Francis; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2017-06-20

    An alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6 to 8.5 Cr, 5.5 to 13.5 Mo, 0.4 to 7.5 W, 1 to 2 Ti, 0.7 to 0.85 Mn, 0.05 to 0.3 Al, 0.08 to 0.5 C, 0 to 1 Nb, with the balance Ni, the alloy being characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 25 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 30 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 45 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2 sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 6 to 39.

  12. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  13. Fabrication and Properties of Micro-Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Internally-Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Niu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nanoencapsulated phase change materials (M-NEPCMs are proposed to be useful in liquid desiccant dehumidification by restraining the temperature rise in the moisture-removal process and improving the dehumidification efficiency. In this paper, the n-octadecane M-NEPCMs with desirable thermal properties for internally-cooled dehumidification were fabricated by using compound emulsifiers through the in-situ polymerization method. Melamine-formaldehyde resin was used as the shell material. The effects of the mixing ratio, emulsification methods and amount of the compound emulsifiers on the morphology, size and thermal properties of the M-NEPCMs were investigated experimentally. The optimum weight mixing ratio of the compound emulsifiers is SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate:Tween80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate:Span80 (sorbitan monooleate = 0.1:0.6:0.3, which achieves the best stability of the n-octadecane emulsion. When the compound emulsifiers are 10 wt. % of the core material, the melting enthalpy of M-NEPCMs reaches its maximum of 145.26 J/g of capsules, with an encapsulation efficiency of 62.88% and a mean diameter of 636 nm. The sub-cooling of the prepared M-NEPCMs is lower than 3 °C, with an acceptable thermal reliability after the thermal cycling test. A pre-emulsification prior to the addition of deionized water in the emulsification is beneficial to the morphology of the capsules, as the phase change enthalpy can be increased by 123.7%.

  14. Thermodynamic, Structural and Transport Properties of Lennard-Jones Liquid Systems. A Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Liquid Helium, Neon, Methane and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ould Kadour

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Molecular dynamics calculations are carried out in order to find the properties of Lennard Jones liquids in different state points of their phase diagram. The spherical shape and the stability of the helium, neon, methane and nitrogen make the liquids easily accessible to numerical simulation. Thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties are studied and compared with both experimental data and recent theoretical investigations. In the present work, up to 22 state points are covered, some of which are near or at the triple point. It will be shown that the classical approach leads to data that are in very good agreement with experiments and other types of calculations. At high temperatures and low densities, we observe a decrease in the uncertainties in the stress autocorrelation function by increasing the number of iterations.

  15. A Cryogen Recycler with Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Recondensing Helium and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Lichtenwalter, B.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a cryogen recycler using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler for recondensing helium and nitrogen in a NMR magnet. The liquid helium cooled NMR magnet has a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. The magnet boils off 0.84 L/day of liquid helium and 6 L/day of liquid nitrogen. The recycler is designed with both a liquid helium return tube and a liquid nitrogen return tube, which are inserted into the fill ports of liquid helium and nitrogen. Therefore the recycler forms closed loops for helium and nitrogen. A two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler, Cryomech model PT407 (0.7W at 4.2 K), is selected for the recycler. The recycler was first tested with a Cryomech's test cryostat and resulted in the capacities of recondensing 8.2 L/day of nitrogen and liquefying 4 L/day of helium from room temperature gas. The recycler has been installed in the NMR magnet at University of Sydney since August, 2014 and continuously maintains a zero boil off for helium and nitrogen.

  16. Liquid methane gelled with methanol and water reduces rate of nitrogen absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwall, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Dilution of gelant vapor with inert carrier gas accomplishes gelation. Mixture is injected through heated tube and orifice into liquid methane for immediate condensation within bulk of liquid. Direct dispersion of particles in liquid avoids condensation on walls of vessel and eliminates additional mixing.

  17. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  18. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  19. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  20. Effects of carbon and nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of type 316 stainless steel to liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, M.G.; Frankham, S.A. (Nottingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1982-06-01

    Type 316 stainless steel plates have been exposed at 600/sup 0/C to liquid lithium containing carbon and nitrogen at various chemical activities for periods of up to 672 h. The corrosion products Li/sub 9/CrN/sub 5/ and M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ have been identified on the plate surfaces and in the grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscopy has shown preferential nickel and chromium depletion at the steel surface in lithium with high nitrogen content. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in type 316 stainless steel from a lithium source was found to be 6.5 x 10/sup -15/ m/sup 2//s.

  1. Optimized nested Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling: application to the liquid nitrogen Hugoniot using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Milton Sam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coe, Joshua D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sewell, Thomas D [UNIV OF MISSOURI-COLUMBIA

    2009-01-01

    An optimized version of the Nested Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method is applied to the calculation of the Hugoniot for liquid nitrogen. The 'full' system of interest is calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with a 6-31 G* basis set for the configurational energies. The 'reference' system is given by a model potential fit to the anisotropic pair interaction of two nitrogen molecules from DFT calculations. The EOS is sampled in the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble with a trial move constructed from many Monte Carlo steps in the reference system. The trial move is then accepted with a probability chosen to give the full system distribution. The P's and T's of the reference and full systems are chosen separately to optimize the computational time required to produce the full system EOS. The method is numerically very efficient and predicts a Hugoniot in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  2. Effects of long term storage of semen in liquid nitrogen on the viability, motility and abnormality of frozen thawed Frisian Holstein bull spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul MALIK; Muhammad LAILY; Muhammad Irwan ZAKIR

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of long term storage of semen in liquid nitrogen on the motility, concentration, viability, and abnormality of frozen-thawed. Methods: A total of four Friesian Holstein bulls were used for this study. One hundred forty semen straws with produced during period from 2008 to 2013 and stored in the liquid nitrogen at the AI center were used in the research. The sample straw was divided into six groups;each group consist 20 semen straws. For group one all straw semen was produced on the 2013 with storage in liquid nitrogen as long as one year, the group 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were produced on the 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008 with storage in liquid nitrogen as long as 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 year, respectively. Results:The viability of thawed sperm was not significantly different decreased (P>0.05) between storage on the 1 year and storage on the 2 years. Whereas, the viability was significantly different (P0.05) on the storage 1, 2 and 3 years. Whereas, the motility was significantly different (P0.05) on the storage 1, 2 and 3 years. Whereas, the abnormality was significantly increased (P0.05) during storage in liquid nitrogen as long as six years. Conclusions:Based on the results in these experiments, it may be concluded that concentration sperm during one year storage in liquid nitrogen resulted in similar concentration storage as long as six years. However, the viability and motility sperm thawed storage in liquid nitrogen during six years was lower than storage on the 1 and 2 years.

  3. 一种小型液冷系统的设计研究%Development of a miniature liquid cooling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨叶; 王爱辉; 陶明春; 林兰

    2014-01-01

    设计了一种用于冷却实验室设备的小型液冷系统,采用了压缩制冷和空气冷却复合的形式.该系统通过电磁阀的通断切换压缩制冷和强迫风冷模式,并运用各种传感器对温度、压力、流量进行调节和控制.该系统具有节能、可靠性高、结构紧凑、维护方便、换热效率高等优点.%A small-scaled liquid cooling system which combined compressed refrigeration mode together with air cooling mode for a experimental device was presented.The hand off between the two modes could be controlled by the solenoid valve in the system.And the temperature,pressure,flow rate could be adjusted and controlled by using various sensors in the system.Therefore,this system had great advantages of energy-saving,high reliability,compact structure,easy maintenance,and nice heat exchange efficiency.This paper presented anminiature cooling equipment for laboratory with liquid-cooling system,which used a compressor refrigeration and air cooling in the form of complex.In cooling mode,the system used the electromagnetic on -off value to control the compressor and the cooling fan,and used various sensors to adjustment and control the temperature,pressure and flow rate.With a result,the system has a lot of advantages of energy-saving,high-reliability,compact structure,easy maintenance,high efficiency heat exchanger and so on.

  4. Lap shear strength of selected adhesives (epoxy, varnish, B-stage glass cloth) in liquid nitrogen and at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, K.J.; Fitzpatrick, C.M.

    1976-12-01

    The adhesives included several epoxy resins, a varnish, and a B-stage glass cloth (a partially cured resin in a fiberglass cloth matrix). Several parameters critical to bond strength were varied: adhesive and adherend differences, surface preparation, coupling agents, glass cloth, epoxy thickness, fillers, and bonding pressure and temperature. The highest lap shear strengths were obtained with the B-shear glass cloth at both liquid nitrogen and room temperatures with values of approximately 20 MPa (3000 psi) and approximately 25.5 MPa (3700 psi) respectively.

  5. Single-Photon Emission at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature from a Single InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Xiu-Ming; SUN Bao-Quan; CHANG Xiu-Ying; XIONG Yong-Hua; HUANG She-Song; NI Hai-Qiao; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the single photon emission from single InAs/GaAs self-assembled Stranski-Krastanow quantum dots up to 80 K under pulsed and continuous wave excitations. At temperature 80 K, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay, g(2)(0), is measured to be 0.422 for pulsed excitation. At the same temperature under continuous wave excitation, the photon antibunching effect is observed. Thus, our experimental results demonstrate a promising potential application of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots in single photon emission at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  6. A Simple Method to Measure the Thermal contraction Percentage of a Solid Between Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We described how to build a simple device for measuring, with a reasonable good accuracy, the thermal contraction of a flat sample between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The contraction percentage of the sample is determined by the dimensional comparison of two images taken through the bottom of a transparent quartz tray. Instead of a photo or video camera, a high-resolution flatbed scanner is utilized to avoid the correction of perspectives. The so-called Grueneisen approximation are applied to evaluate the contraction percentages for intermediate temperatures. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of

  8. Drying, reacting and cooling system in nitrogenous flame retardant unit%含氮阻燃剂装置的干燥反应冷却系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永鹏; 韩志侃; 路原睿

    2011-01-01

    The design considerations and main equipment structure were introduced for the drying,reacting and cooling system in a nitrogenous flame retardant unit.The equipments were selected on the basis of design conditions.Compared with the hot air drying mode of spin flash drying and vibrated fluidized drying, the system had a lot of special advantages, so that it had been applied to industrial production successfully, thus providing an available method for the drying reaction of nitrogenous flame retardant.%介绍了含氮阻燃剂的干燥反应冷却工艺流程设计思路和主要设备结构.根据设计条件,进行了系统设备选型.与旋转闪蒸干燥、振动流化干燥等热风型干燥方式相比,桨叶干燥反应装置具有诸多优点.装置在工业生产中成功投用,为含氮阻燃剂的干燥反应提供了可供选择的途径.

  9. 液体火箭发动机液膜冷却研究综述%Review of Research on Liquid Film Cooling for Liquid-propellant Rocket Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红玲; 杨成虎; 刘犇

    2012-01-01

    液膜冷却对降低燃烧室和喷注器头部温度有显著作用,而且通道结构比较简单,因此在载人航天液体推进系统用姿轨控发动机中得到了广泛应用。液膜冷却的传热过程主要包括对流传热和沸腾传热两种形式,传质过程主要包括液膜的蒸发和中心主气流对液膜的携带。对液膜冷却过程的研究工作进行了综述,讨论了液膜冷却的异常升温现象和发生机理。%Liquid film cooling is widely used in attitude and ahitude liquid rocket engine for manned spaceflight propulsion sys- tem. With a comparatively simple channel structure, it is an effective method to protect the combustor and injector from high temperature. The two main heat transfer patterns in liquid film cooling are convection transfer and boiling heat transfer, while the process of mass transfer mainly includes liquid film evaporating and the carrying of the film by main flow. Research on the heat and mass transfer during liquid film cooling is reviewed, and the phenomenon and mecha- nism of abnormal temperature rise of liquid film cooling are discussed.

  10. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    This dissertation treats system design, modeling of transient system response, and characterization of individual phenomena and demonstrates a framework for integration of these three activities early in the design process of a complex engineered system. A system analysis framework for prioritization of experiments, modeling, and development of detailed design is proposed. Two fundamental topics in thermal-hydraulics are discussed, which illustrate the integration of modeling and experimentation with nuclear reactor design and safety analysis: thermal-hydraulic modeling of heat generating pebble bed cores, and scaled experiments for natural circulation heat removal with Boussinesq liquids. The case studies used in this dissertation are derived from the design and safety analysis of a pebble bed fluoride salt cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (PB-FHR), currently under development in the United States at the university and national laboratories level. In the context of the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) methodology, new tools and approaches are proposed and demonstrated here, which are specifically relevant to technology in the early stages of development, and to analysis of passive safety features. A system decomposition approach is proposed. Definition of system functional requirements complements identification and compilation of the current knowledge base for the behavior of the system. Two new graphical tools are developed for ranking of phenomena importance: a phenomena ranking map, and a phenomena identification and ranking matrix (PIRM). The functional requirements established through this methodology were used for the design and optimization of the reactor core, and for the transient analysis and design of the passive natural circulation driven decay heat removal system for the PB-FHR. A numerical modeling approach for heat-generating porous media, with multi-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The application of this modeling

  11. Identification of multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters by liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Kailasa, Suresh; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-08-15

    The development of liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (LNASI MS) for the analysis of multiply charged proteins (insulin, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, α-lactalbumin, myoglobin and BSA), peptides (glutathione, HW6, angiotensin-II and valinomycin) and amino acid (arginine) clusters is described. The charged droplets are formed by liquid nitrogen assisted sample spray through a stainless steel nebulizer and transported into mass analyzer for the identification of multiply charged protein ions. The effects of acids and modifier volumes for the efficient ionization of the above analytes in LNASI MS were carefully investigated. Multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters were effectively identified by LNASI MS. The present approach can effectively detect the multiply charged states of cytochrome c at 400 nM. A comparison between LNASI and ESI, CSI, SSI and V-EASI methods on instrumental conditions, applied temperature and observed charge states for the multiply charged proteins, shows that the LNASI method produces the good quality spectra of amino acid clusters at ambient conditions without applied any electric field and heat. To date, we believe that the LNASI method is the most simple, low cost and provided an alternative paradigm for production of multiply charged ions by LNASI MS, just as ESI-like ions yet no need for applying any electrical field and it could be operated at low temperature for generation of highly charged protein/peptide ions.

  12. IMPACT OF LIQUID NITROGEN EXPOSURE ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF HYDRATED Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Inaudis; Rivas, Maribel; Nápoles, Lelurlys; Marrero, Pedro; Yabor, Lourdes; Aragón, Carlos; Pérez, Aurora; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cryopreserving seeds with high water content is detrimental to survival, but biochemical and structural parameters of cryostored hydrated common bean seeds have not been published. The objective of this work was to study the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on selected biochemical and structural parameters of hydrated Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. We cryopreserved seeds at various moisture contents and evaluated: germination; electrolyte leakage; fresh seed weight; levels of chlorophyll pigments, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics and proteins; thickness of cotyledon epidermis, parenchyma, and starch storage parenchyma; and radicle and plumule lengths. Germination was totally inhibited when seeds were immersed in water for 50 min (moisture content of 38%, FW basis) before cryopreservation. The combined effects of seed water imbibition and cryostorage decreased phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total), chlorophyll a and protein content. By contrast, electrolyte leakage and levels of chlorophyll b and other aldehydes increased as a result of the combination of these two experimental factors. These were the most significant effects observed during exposure of humid seed to liquid nitrogen. Further studies are still required to clarify the molecular events taking place in plant cells during cryostorage.

  13. Controllable synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres using ionic liquids as template for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aibing; Li, Yunqian; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Xia, Kechan; Wang, Yuying; Li, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and controllable synthesis of monodispersed nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres (N-HMCSs) using resorcinol/formaldehyde resin as a carbon precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a structure-assistant agent, ionic liquids (ILs) as soft template, partial carbon sources, and nitrogen sources. The sizes and the architectures including hollow and yolk-shell of resultant carbon spheres can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the content of ILs. Alkyl chain length of the ILs also has an important effect on the formation of N-HMCSs. With proper alkyl chain length and content of ILs, the resultant N-HMCSs show monodispersed hollow spheres with high surface areas (up to 1158 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (up to 1.70 cm3 g-1), and uniform mesopore size (5.0 nm). Combining the hollow mesoporous structure, high porosity, large surface area, and nitrogen functionality, the as-synthesized N-HMCSs have good supercapacitor performance with good capacitance (up to 159 F g-1) and favorable capacitance retention (88% capacitive retention after 5000 cycles).

  14. Two side liquid-cooled and passively Q-switched disk oscillator with nanosheets in flowing CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    A passively Q-switched and two side liquid-cooled Nd:YAG disk oscillator is demonstrated, which is operated at a pump pulse width of 300 μs and a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. The coolant flows over the two large surfaces of the disk and will be passed through by laser beam, so it can also serve as a saturable absorber. For the unmodulated laser, the pure CCl4 was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 15 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 795 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 27.4 % and the slope efficiency of 30 %; for the graphene Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with graphene nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 40 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 376 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 13 % and the slope efficiency of 18 %. The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 385 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 116 ns; for the MoS2 Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with MoS2 nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 30 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 486 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 17 % and the slope efficiency of 22 %.The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 470 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 137 ns.

  15. Load maximization of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor for nitrogen removal from synthetic municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2008-03-01

    A novel liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB) configured with anoxic and aerobic columns and lava rock as the biofilm carrier was used to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Four different empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.82, 0.65, 0.55, and 0.44 h were examined to optimize nutrient removal capability of the system. The LSCFB demonstrated tertiary effluent quality organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Effluent characteristics of the LSCFB were soluble biological oxygen demand (SBOD)10 mg l(-1) and total nitrogen (TN)<10 mg l(-1) at organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 kg m(-3)d(-1) and nitrogen loading rate of 0.54 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). Remarkably low yields of 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.21 g VSS g(-1)COD were observed at OLR of 2.6, 3.2, 4.1 and 5.3 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), where increment of biomass growth and detachment rate were also experienced with increasing OLR. However the system demonstrated only 30% phosphorus removal, and mass balances along the anoxic and aerobic columns showed biological phosphorus removal in the system. Organic mass balance showed that approximately 40% of the influent COD was utilized in the anoxic column and the remaining COD was oxidized in the aerobic column. The system is very efficient in nitrification-denitrification, with more than 90% nitrification of ammonium and overall nitrogen removal in the LSCFB was 70+/-11% even at an EBCT of 0.44 h.

  16. 混合动力轿车电池包液冷系统设计%A Hybrid Car Battery Thermal Management of Liquid Cooling System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵久志; 宋军; 张宝鑫; 王诗铭; 武文杰

    2016-01-01

    高效的热管理系统对控制电池组工作温度范围,提升续驶里程及改善安全性起到至关重要的作用。本文提出了一种混合动力轿车电池液冷方案,基于整车开发需求,明确热管理系统性能目标及制冷与加热部件开启阀值。利用三维计算流体动力学数值计算建立整个液冷板模型,通过数值分析获取液冷板内速度与压力等关键参数分布,最后对电池液冷系统进行了试验测试。结果表明,该液冷系统设计方案能够满足该混合动力轿车的行驶要求,传热效率高,能够有效控制温差,保证电池包工作处在最优温度范围内。%Efficient thermal management system has a crucial rule in controlling the temperature range of the battery pack, enhancing miles and improving safety. This paper describes the liquid cooling system design of hybrid vehicles, based on the demand of vehicle development, it makes the target of thermal management system and the heating and cooling part opening threshold clear. CFD simulation software is used to build the liquid cooling plate simulation model.Using CFD simulation software establish the battery pack simulation model , Through this method, the key parameters such as the speed and pressure of the liquid cooling plate,then we test the battery cooling system.Results show that the liquid cooling system can meet the requirements of the hybrid car, high heat transfer efficiency, can effectively control the temperature to ensure battery work in the optimal range.

  17. Performance test of the cryogenic cooling system for the superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; In, Sehwan; Yeom, Han-Kil; Kim, Heesun; Kim, Hye-Rim

    2015-12-01

    A Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is an electric power device which limits the fault current immediately in a power grid. The SFCL must be cooled to below the critical temperature of high temperature superconductor modules. In general, they are submerged in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for their stable thermal characteristics. To cool and maintain the target temperature and pressure of the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, the cryogenic cooling system should be designed well with a cryocooler and coolant circulation devices. The pressure of the cryostat for the SFCL should be pressurized to suppress the generation of nitrogen bubbles in quench mode of the SFCL. In this study, we tested the performance of the cooling system for the prototype 154 kV SFCL, which consist of a Stirling cryocooler, a subcooling cryostat, a pressure builder and a main cryostat for the SFCL module, to verify the design of the cooling system and the electric performance of the SFCL. The normal operation condition of the main cryostat is 71 K and 500 kPa. This paper presents tests results of the overall cooling system.

  18. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. E. Denisov; A. V. Zolin; V. V. Chugunkov

    2014-01-01

    Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC) before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes...

  19. Provisioning cooling elements for chillerless data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-12-13

    Systems and methods for cooling include one or more computing structure, an inter-structure liquid cooling system that includes valves configured to selectively provide liquid coolant to the one or more computing structures; a heat rejection system that includes one or more heat rejection units configured to cool liquid coolant; and one or more liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers that include valves configured to selectively transfer heat from liquid coolant in the inter-structure liquid cooling system to liquid coolant in the heat rejection system. Each computing structure further includes one or more liquid-cooled servers; and an intra-structure liquid cooling system that has valves configured to selectively provide liquid coolant to the one or more liquid-cooled servers.

  20. Fundamental studies in cryogenic cooling of power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Sehmbey, M. S.; Hahm, O. J.; Chui, C. J.

    1994-09-01

    This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during liquid nitrogen spray cooling and pool boiling from a heater array. Four different nozzles at various pressures were used to study the variation in spray cooling heat transfer at liquid nitrogen temperature. Effect of nozzle and flow rate on the critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient are presented. This study also provides empirical correlations for the spray cooling characteristics. The critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient have been correlated using nondimensional numbers. The study also shows the importance of surface roughness for spray cooling with liquid nitrogen. The rougher surfaces were shown to have significantly higher heat transfer rates and similar critical heat fluxes occurring at lower temperatures. The results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer from a vertical array with flush mounted heat sources are also presented. The lower heaters were found to enhance the heat transfer from the upper heaters due to bubble pumped convection.

  1. Investigation of structure of superconducting power transmission cables with LN2 counter-flow cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Higuchi, Noboru

    2003-04-01

    Establishment of long-distance cooling techniques and design of a compact cross section are required for development of HTC superconducting underground power cables. To save space of return coolant, a counter-flow cooling system appears promising. However, it is difficult to cool down long cables because of heat exchange between counter-flows due to high thermal conductivity of dielectric materials which separate both flows in range of liquid nitrogen temperature. We estimated temperature distributions analytically along model HTS power cables with counter-flow. Results of calculation showed that when liquid-nitrogen-impregnated polypropylene laminated paper was chosen for a dielectric material, great thickness was required to reduce heat exchange between counter-flows. We investigated various cable structures to optimize the counter-flow cooling system and cable size.

  2. New methods for cooling and storing oocytes and embryos in a clean environment of -196°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Yehudit; Levi-Setti, Paolo Emanuele; Menduni, Francesca; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that oocyte vitrification using open systems provides better results than closed systems. However, its use is limited owing to risks of contamination posed by direct exposure to liquid nitrogen and cross-contamination when stored in liquid nitrogen tanks. A device that produces clean liquid air (CLAir) having similar a temperature as liquid nitrogen and a sterile storage canister device (Esther) that keeps samples sealed in their own compartment while in regular liquid nitrogen tanks were developed. The following experiments were performed: temperature measurements, bioburden tests, vitrification and storage experiments with mice embryos and human oocytes. Results showed similar cooling rates for liquid nitrogen and liquid air. Bioburden tests of CLAir and Esther showed no contamination, while massive contamination was found in "commercial" liquid nitrogen and storage canisters. Mice blastocysts had a survival rate of over 90%, with 80% hatching rate after vitirification in CLAir and 1 week storage in Esther, similar to the fresh (control) results. Human oocytes vitrified in CLAir and in liquid nitrogen for three consecutive vitrification/warming cycles showed 100% survival, seen as re-expansion in both groups. These new systems represent a breakthrough for safe vitrification using open systems and a safe storage process generally.

  3. Fundamental studies on the switching in liquid nitrogen environment using vacuum switches for application in future high-temperature superconducting medium-voltage power grids; Grundsatzuntersuchungen zum Schalten in Fluessigstickstoff-Umgebung mit Vakuumschaltern zur Anwendung in zukuenftigen Hochtemperatur-Supraleitungs-Mittelspannungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Karsten

    2016-06-24

    By means of superconducting equipment it is possible to reduce the transmission losses in distribution networks while increasing the transmission capacity. As a result even saving a superimposed voltage level would be possible, which can put higher investment costs compared to conventional equipment into perspective. For operation of superconducting systems it is necessary to integrate all equipment in the cooling circuit. This also includes switchgears. Due to cooling with liquid nitrogen, however, only vacuum switching technology comes into question. Thus, the suitability of vacuum switches is investigated in this work. For this purpose the mechanics of the interrupters is considered first. Material investigations and switching experiments at ambient temperature and in liquid nitrogen supply information on potential issues. For this purpose, a special pneumatic construction is designed, which allows tens of thousands of switching cycles. Furthermore, the electrical resistance of the interrupters is considered. Since the contact system consists almost exclusively of copper, a remaining residual resistance and appropriate thermal losses must be considered. Since they have to be cooled back, an appropriate evaluation is given taking environmental parameters into account. The dielectric strength of vacuum interrupters is considered both at ambient temperature as well as directly in liquid nitrogen. For this purpose different contact distances are set at different interrupter types. A distinction is made between internal and external dielectric strength. Conditioning and deconditioning effects are minimized by an appropriate choice of the test circuit. The current chopping and resulting overvoltages are considered to be one of the few drawbacks of vacuum switching technology. Using a practical test circuit the height of chopping current is determined and compared for different temperatures. Due to strong scattering the evaluation is done using statistical methods. At

  4. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  5. Inorganic chemistry: Direct syntheses from pure liquid SO3 and from trivalent and pentavalent nitrogen derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, B.; Heubel, J.

    1977-01-01

    From pure liquid SO3 direct synthesis reactions were carried out with N2O5, NO2Cl, NOCl which yielded N2O54SO3, 3SO3, 2SO3-NO2Cl2SO3-NOCl2SO3 and NOCl2SO3, the latter being obtained for the first time in the pure state. In all cases the crystallized product was obtained by separating the constituents of the mixture and then going through a single viscous liquid phase.

  6. Histopathological analysis of the therapeutic response to cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen in patients with multiple actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marina Câmara de; Trevisan, Flávia; Pinto, Clovis Antônio Lopes; Xavier, Célia Antônia; Pinto, Jaqueline Campoi Calvo Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions of the skin caused by excessive sun exposure. Lesions may become mainly squamous cell carcinoma. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is one of the main treatments. In order to evaluate the response of actinic keratosis to cryotherapy by histopathology, two lesions were selected in each of 14 patients with multiple actinic keratoses. In one lesion a biopsy was performed and in the other lesion a biopsy was performed after cryotherapy. Subsequently, both biopsies were compared histologically. Of the thirteen patients who completed the study, the best results were obtained in lesions undergoing cryotherapy concerning the atypia of keratinocytes, epithelial thickness and corneal layer and lymphocytic infiltrate. Despite the small number of patients, it was concluded that, if performed correctly, cryotherapy has high efficacy in the treatment of actinic keratoses.

  7. Single photon emission up to liquid nitrogen temperature from charged excitons confined in GaAs-based epitaxial nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusanowski, Ł., E-mail: lukasz.dusanowski@pwr.edu.pl; Syperek, M.; Maryński, A.; Misiewicz, J.; Sęk, G. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Li, L. H. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Höfling, S. [Technische Physik and Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, KY16 9SS St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Kamp, M. [Technische Physik and Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fiore, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-06-08

    We demonstrate a non-classical photon emitter at near infrared wavelength based on a single (In,Ga)As/GaAs epitaxially grown columnar quantum dot. Charged exciton complexes have been identified in magneto-photoluminescence. Photon auto-correlation histograms from the recombination of a trion confined in a columnar dot exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics with an antibunching dip yielding g{sup (2)}(0) values of 0.28 and 0.46 at temperature of 10 and 80 K, respectively. Our experimental findings allow considering the GaAs-based columnar quantum dot structure as an efficient single photon source operating at above liquid nitrogen temperatures, which in some characteristics can outperform the existing solutions of any material system.

  8. Experimental Study and Heat Transfer Analysis on the Boiling of Saturated Liquid Nitrogen under Transient Pulsed Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyi DONG; Xiulan HUAI

    2005-01-01

    The boiling behavior of the liquid nitrogen (LN2) under the transient high heat flux urgently needs to be researched systematically. In this paper, the high power short pulse duration laser was used to heat the saturated LN2 rapidly, and the high-speed photography aided by the spark light system was employed to take series of photos which displayed the process of LN2's boiling behavior under such conditions. Also, a special temperature measuring system was applied to record the temperature variation of the heating surface. The experiments indicated that an explosive boiling happened within LN2 by the laser heating, and a conventional boiling followed up after the newly-defined changeover time. By analyzing the temperature variation of the heating surface, it is found that the latent heat released by the crack of the bubbles in the bubble cluster induced by the explosive boiling is an important factor that greatly influences the boiling heat transfer mechanism.

  9. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  10. Comparison of Surgical Blade and Cryosurgery with Liquid Nitrogen Techniques in Treatment of Physiologic Gingival Pigmentation: Short Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahmati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is a crucial esthetic problem. A variety of methods have been used for gingival depigmentation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two treatment modalities: scalpel technique and cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen in treatment of gingival pigmentation. Materials and Method: Twenty patients with chief complaint of gingival pigmentation participated in our study. 10 patients were treated with cryotherapy and remaining 10 participants were undergone the scalpel technique surgery. We evaluated acquiescence and comfort of the patients, degree of depigmentation, based on the area of pigmentation shown by gridlines option in Microsoft Paint software, and the presence or absence of gingival recession before and one month after treatment. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests. A significance level of p≤ 0.05 was adopted. Results: Mean value and standard deviation of depigmentation for group A and group B was 96.17±2.51 and 95±2.48, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.225. There was no association between the treatment modality and the gingival recession (p= 0.303 or the treatment modality and the patient satisfaction (p= 0.346. No significant difference was found between gingival recession measures before and after the operation in the two treatment modalities. Conclusion: Surgical blade and cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen had no significant difference in treatment of physiologic gingival pigmentation. Both Techniques are acceptable in the treatment of gingival pigmentation.

  11. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbons from Ionic Liquids@MOF: Remarkable Adsorbents for Both Aqueous and Nonaqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Panja, Tandra; Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Sarker, Mithun; Yu, Jong-Sung; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2017-03-22

    Porous carbons were prepared from a metal-organic framework (MOF, named ZIF-8), with or without modification, via high-temperature pyrolysis. Porous carbons with high nitrogen content were obtained from the calcination of MOF after introducing an ionic liquid (IL) (IL@MOF) via the ship-in-bottle method. The MOF-derived carbons (MDCs) and IL@MOF-derived carbons (IMDCs) were characterized using various techniques and used for liquid-phase adsorptions in both water and hydrocarbon to understand the possible applications in purification of water and fuel, respectively. Adsorptive performances for the removal of organic contaminants, atrazine (ATZ), diuron, and diclofenac, were remarkably enhanced with the modification/conversion of MOFs to MDC and IMDC. For example, in the case of ATZ adsorption, the maximum adsorption capacity of IMDC (Q0 = 208 m(2)/g) was much higher than that of activated carbon (AC, Q0 = 60 m(2)/g) and MDC (Q0 = 168 m(2)/g) and was found to be the highest among the reported results so far. The results of adsorptive denitrogenation and desulfurization of fuel were similar to that of water purification. The IMDCs are very useful in the adsorptions since these new carbons showed remarkable performances in both the aqueous and nonaqueous phases. These results are very meaningful because hydrophobic and hydrophilic adsorbents are usually required for the adsorptions in the water and fuel phases, respectively. Moreover, a plausible mechanism, H-bonding, was also suggested to explain the remarkable performance of the IMDCs in the adsorptions. Therefore, the IMDCs derived from IL@MOF might have various applications, especially in adsorptions, based on high porosity, mesoporosity, doped nitrogen, and functional groups.

  12. Changes in transcript expression patterns as a result of cryoprotectant treatment and liquid nitrogen exposure in Arabidopsis shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Henk, Adam D; Bonnart, Remi; Volk, Gayle M

    2017-03-01

    Transcripts related to abiotic stress, oxidation, and wounding were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoot tips in response to cryoprotectant and liquid nitrogen treatment. Cryopreservation methods have been implemented in genebanks as a strategy to back-up plant genetic resource collections that are vegetatively propagated. Cryopreservation is frequently performed using vitrification methods, whereby shoot tips are treated with cryoprotectant solutions, such as Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3); these solutions remove and/or replace freezable water within the meristem cells. We used the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to identify suites of transcripts that are up- or downregulated in response to PVS2 and PVS3 treatment and liquid nitrogen (LN) exposure. Our results suggest that there are many changes in transcript expression in shoot tips as a result of cryoprotection and that these changes exceed the number detected as a result of LN exposure. In total, 180 transcripts showed significant changes in expression level unique to treatment with either the cryoprotectant or cryopreservation followed by recovery. Of these 180 transcripts, 67 were related to stress, defense, wounding, lipid, carbohydrate, abscisic acid, oxidation, temperature (cold/heat), or osmoregulation. The responses of five transcripts were confirmed using qPCR methods. The transcripts responding to PVS2 + LN suggest an oxidative response to this treatment, whereas the PVS3 + LN treatment invoked a more general metabolic response. This work shows that the choice of cryoprotectant can have a major influence on the patterns of transcript expression, presumably due to the level and extent of stress experienced by the shoot tip. As a result, there may be divergent responses of study systems to PVS2 and PVS3 treatments.

  13. Hydrophobic recovery of repeatedly plasma-treated silicone rubber .2. A comparison of the hydrophobic recovery in air, water, or liquid nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, EP; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Surfaces of medical grade silicone rubber (Q7-4750, Dow Coming) were modified by repeated (six times) RF plasma treatments using various discharge gases: oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The treated samples were stored for a period of 3 months in ambient air, water, or liquid nitrogen. Su

  14. Ionization signals from electrons and alpha-particles in mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen - perspectives on protons for Gamma Resonant Nuclear Absorption applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zeller, M; Delaquis, S; Ereditato, A; Janos, S; Kreslo, I; Messina, M; Moser, U; Rossi, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a detailed study of ionization signals produced by Compton electrons and alpha-particles in a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) flled with different mixtures of liquid Argon and Nitrogen. The measurements were carried out with Nitrogen concentrations up to 15% and a drift electric feld in the range 0-50 kV/cm. A prediction for proton ionization signals is made by means of interpolation. This study has been conducted in view of the possible use of liquid Ar-N2 TPCs for the detection of gamma-rays in the resonant band of the Nitrogen absorption spectrum, a promising technology for security and medical applications.

  15. Design and implementation of liquid cooling system based on PAC%基于PAC的液体冷却系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全祥; 苟婷婷; 兰莎莎

    2012-01-01

    为了满足特定项目循环冷却的目的,采用了PAC控制的方法,设计了一种基于PAC的液体冷却控制系统.由于温度系统的非线性、时变、时滞等特性,设计结合了模糊控制系统鲁棒性强的特点,并利用PAC的优秀计算能力和控制性能解决了液体冷却系统的调节问题.通过大量实验,获得了循环冷却的良好控制结果.系统具有可靠性高、控制效果好的特点,满足了循环冷却设计的要求.%In order to meet the purpose of specific cycle cooling project, a programmable automation controller(PAC) control method was used, a liquid cooling system based on PAC was designed. Since the nonlinear, time-varying delay and other features of temperature system, the system combined the robustness of fuzzy control and used the excellent computing power and control performance, solved the regulation problem of the liquid cooling control system. Through a large number of experiments, a good control result of cycle cooling can be gained. The system has high reliability and good control effect, the design meets the basic requirements.

  16. Cryogenic System for the Test Facilities of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Chalifour, M; Haug, F; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    1998-01-01

    To perform cold tests on the different modules of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, a cryogenic system has been constructed and is now operated at the CERN North Experimental Area. Three different test cryostats will house the modules, which can also be exposed to particle beams for calibration purposes. The three cryostats share a common liquid argon and liquid nitrogen distribution system. The system is rather complex since it has to allow operations of the three cryostats at the same time. Liquid nitrogen is used as cold source for both the cool-down of the cryostats and for normal operation of the cryostats filled with liquid argon.

  17. Chemical bonding between antimony and ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon for sodium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Si, Ling; Zhou, Xiaosi; Tu, Fengzhang; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Bao, Jianchun

    2017-05-01

    Antimony has received a great deal of attention as a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 660 mAh g-1. However, this application is significantly hampered by inherent large volume change and sluggish kinetics. To address these issues, an antimony-cyano-based ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon (Sbsbnd CNC) hybrid is proposed and synthesized by ball-milling and subsequent pyrolysis treatment. As an anode material for SIBs, the as-synthesized Sbsbnd CNC hybrid delivers reversible capacities of 475 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 203 mAh g-1 at 5000 mA g-1, and a 92.4% capacity retention based on the first-cycle capacity after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1. Using ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental mapping techniques, we attribute the good structural integrity to the formation of Sbsbnd Nsbnd C bonds between Sb and the cyano-based ionic liquid-derived N-doped carbon matrix. Moreover, the presence of N-doped carbon network in the hybrid material serves as a robust protective cover and an electrical highway, buffering the substantial volume expansion of Sb nanoparticles and ensuring the fast electron transport for stable cycling operation.

  18. Long-term preservation of leptospiras by liquid nitrogen Conservación de leptospiras en nitrógeno líquido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid nitrogen freezing is recommended for long-term preservation of Leptospira serovars. However, there is no standard protocol to follow for this methodology. We herein report a simple procedure to preserve well-characterized Leptospira serovars unaltered for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. Forty-three (43 leptospira strains, cryoprotected with 10% (v/v glycerol were rapidly frozen in a dry-ice methanol bath and immediately submerged in liquid-nitrogen. Viability was retained in 100%, 93% and 83% of the frozen cultures after 6, 18 and 54 months, following freezing and storage in liquid nitrogen, respectively. Motility and agglutinability were not altered. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this protocol for long-term storage of genus Leptospira in liquid nitrogen.Se recomienda la congelación en nitrógeno líquido para el mantenimiento de cepas de leptospiras a largo plazo. Sin embargo, no existe para ello una metodología de trabajo estandarizada. En este trabajo se presenta y evalúa un protocolo simple para conservar inalteradas cepas de leptospiras en nitrógeno líquido durante largo tiempo. Cuarenta y tres (43 cepas de leptospiras crioprotegidas con glicerol al 10% (v/v fueron rápidamente congeladas en un baño de metanol y hielo seco, e inmediatamente sumergidas en nitrógeno líquido. Fue posible recuperar el 100%, 93% y 83% de los cultivos congelados a los 6, 18 y 54 meses poscongelación, respectivamente, sin observarse alteración en la movilidad ni en la aglutinabilidad de las cepas recuperadas. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad del protocolo presentado para conservar cepas del género Leptospira en nitrógeno líquido durante largos períodos de tiempo.

  19. High efficiency linear compressor driven pulse tube cryocooler operating in liquid nitrogen temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU JianYing; WANG XiaoTao; DAI Wei; LUO ErCang; HUANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    The inertance tube is one of the key components of a pulse tube cryocooler. It has great influence not only on the efficiency of the pulse tube cryocooler, but also on the efficiency of the linear compressor. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to predict the impedance of an inertance tube because of the turbulent flow. In this paper, using a quasi-turbulent model, the inertance tube is optimized to match a linear compressor driven pulse tube cryocooler. Experimental results show that this model can predict the impedance quite well. With 127 W input electric power, the pulse tube cryocooler obtains 9.4 W cooling power at a temperature of 77 K. The relative Carnot efficiency of the whole system reaches 19.8%.

  20. Evaluation of a method for heat transfer measurements and thermal visualization using a composite of a heater element and liquid crystals. [thermal performance of turbine blade cooling configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Russell, L. M.; Stepka, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Commercially available elements of a composite consisting of a plastic sheet coated with liquid crystal, another sheet with a thin layer of a conducting material (gold or carbon), and copper bus bar strips were evaluated and found to provide a simple, convenient, accurate, and low-cost measuring device for use in heat transfer research. The particular feature of the composite is its ability to obtain local heat transfer coefficients and isotherm patterns that provide visual evaluation of the thermal performances of turbine blade cooling configurations. Examples of the use of the composite are presented.

  1. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of substituted dicarboxylic acids using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid state vapour pressures of a selection of substituted dicarboxylic acids have been measured using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS. Enthalpies of fusion and melting points obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to obtain sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures. They have been compared to estimation methods used on the E-AIM website. These methods are shown to poorly represent -OH groups in combination with COOH groups. Partitioning calculations have been performed to illustrate the impact of the different estimation methods on organic aerosol mass compared to the use of experimental data.

  2. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of substituted dicarboxylic acids using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid state vapour pressures of a selection of atmospherically important substituted dicarboxylic acids have been measured using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS over a range of 20 K (298–318 K. Enthalpies of fusion and melting points obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to obtain sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures. They have been compared to estimation methods used on the E-AIM website. These methods are shown to poorly represent – OH groups in combination with COOH groups. Partitioning calculations have been performed to illustrate the impact of the different estimation methods on organic aerosol mass compared to the use of experimental data.

  3. Numerical investigation into thermal effects of pre-cooling zone in vitrification-based cryopreservation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wu, Wei-Te; Chen, Fu-Zen; Chiang, Pei-Ju

    2015-02-01

    Most studies on ultra-fast cryopreservation assume an immediate placement of the cryopreservation tube in the liquid nitrogen tank. However, in practice, before the tube is placed into the liquid nitrogen, it passes through a space containing gaseous nitrogen (pre-cooling zone) formed via the evaporation of the bulk liquid nitrogen. Comparing with ultra-fast cryopreservation, the cooling rate is insufficiently high during the falling transition to vitrify the liquid. As the tube passes through this region, its temperature may fall to the temperature required for the formation of ice crystals, and thus cell damage may occur. Consequently, in optimizing the cryopreservation process, the effects of this transition region should be properly understood. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a thermal model to investigate the temperature variation in the tube as it falls through the pre-cooling region. The simulation results show that the cooling rate within the tube increases with an increasing tube velocity. Furthermore, the results reveal that the cooling rate at the front end of the tube is higher than that at any other position of the tube. Thus, to prevent the formation of ice crystals, the material used to seal the front end of the tube should have a low thermal conductivity. In addition, a streamlined design of the front end of the tube is advised. Finally, the cooling rate within the tube depends on the tube material as well as the falling speed. The height of the pre-cooling zone needs to be carefully designed based on the tube material and falling speed, thus the ice crystal formation can be prevented.

  4. High-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria in the (nitrogen + n-heptane) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: fgarcias@imp.mx; Eliosa-Jimenez, Gaudencio [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Oliver, Guadalupe [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Godinez-Silva, Armando [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this work, new (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the (N{sub 2} + n-heptane) system were experimentally measured over a wide temperature range from (313.6 to 523.7) K and pressures up to 50 MPa. A static-analytic apparatus with visual sapphire windows and pneumatic capillary samplers was used in the experimental measurements. Equilibrium phase compositions and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium ratios are reported. The new results were compared with those reported by other authors. The comparison showed that the pressure-composition data reported in this work are less scattered than those determined by others. Hence, the results demonstrate the reliability of the experimental apparatus at high temperatures and pressures. The experimental data were represented with the PR and PC-SAFT equations of state by using one-fluid mixing rules and a single temperature independent interaction parameter. Results of the representation showed that the PC-SAFT equation was superior to the PR equation in correlating the experimental data of the (N{sub 2} + n-heptane) system.

  5. New Technique for Cryogenically Cooling Small Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Karen M.; Henderson, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat removal techniques to rapidly cool small test articles to Earth-Moon L2 temperatures of 77 K were accomplished through the use of liquid nitrogen (LN2). By maintaining a selected pressure range on the saturation curve, test articles were cooled below the LN2 boiling point at ambient pressure in less than 30 min. Difficulties in achieving test pressures while maintaining the temperature tolerance necessitated a modification to the original system to include a closed loop conductive cold plate and cryogenic shroud

  6. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

    2014-07-01

    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  7. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  8. Distribution and recovery of nitrogen-15-labeled liquid anhydrous ammonia among various soil fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, R.J.; Kurtz, L.T.; Stevenson, F.J.

    Since liquid anhydrous ammonia (LAA) is a major N fertilizer, information was sought about the proportions of LAA that enter into various combinations in soils. Liquid anhydrous NH/sub 3/, labeled with /sup 15/N was injected into three soils (Drummer, Typic Haplaquoll; Blount, Aeric Ochraqualf; Cisne, Mollic Albaqualf) in the laboratory at a rate equivalent to a field application of 206 kg N ha /sup 1/ in 76.2 cm knife-spacings. At 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 112 d after application, fertilizer N present in different soil fractions was determined in five concentric zones with radii of 0 to 1.5, 1.5 to 3.0, 3.0 to 4.5, 4.5 to 6.0, and 6.0 to 7.0 cm around the point of application. Depending on the soil, from 68 to 83% of the applied /sup 15/N was accounted for as (exchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NO/sub 2//sup -/)-N by the 112th day following application, the remainder being accounted for as clay-fixed NH/sub 4//sup +/ (1.9-4.9%), organic matter-fixed NH/sub 3/ (4.0-6.0%), and biologically immobilized organic N (3.9-9.3%). From 50 to 70% of the organic matter-fixed NH/sub 3/-N was released by hydrolysis with dilute KOH solution as compared to 10 to 15% for the immobilized N. Total recovery of /sup 15/N at 112 d ranged from 77% for the Cisne soil to about 97% for the Drummer and Blount soils. Lateral distributions and transformations of NH/sub 4//sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ and pH trends after LAA applications were similar to those reported by previous investigators.

  9. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  10. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  11. A Peltier cooled single pass amplifier for Titanium:Sapphire laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, A.; Schneider, W.; Najafi, F.; Hänsch, T. W.; Udem, Th.; Hommelhoff, P.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a Peltier cooled single pass amplifier for high repetition rate Titanium:sapphire laser pulses. Pumped with 14 W and seeded with around 400 mW, the output reaches 1.1 W with good beam quality. This amplifier is very user-friendly, easy to maintain and set up and thus represents a device situated between more complicated liquid-nitrogen cooled amplifiers that can operate at higher pump power, and very simple near to room temperature amplifiers that can only be pumped with less power. In addition, we show the results of a finite element simulation on the temperature distribution in a liquid nitrogen cooled amplifier setup designed for highest output powers.

  12. Thermodynamic models for vapor-liquid equilibria of nitrogen + oxygen + carbon dioxide at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Jadran; Kedia, Gaurav Kumar; Buchhauser, Ulrich; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Hasse, Hans

    2009-02-01

    For the design and optimization of CO 2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N 2 + O 2 + CO 2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N 2 and O 2 in CO 2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO 2-rich region.

  13. Thermodynamic Models for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Nitrogen+Oxygen+Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vrabec, J; Buchhauser, U; Meyer-Pittroff, R; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01

    For the design and optimization of CO2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N2+O2+CO2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N2 and O2 in CO2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO2-rich region.

  14. Transient boiling heat transfer in saturated liquid nitrogen and F113 at standard and zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, E.; Merte, H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Transient and steady state nucleate boiling in saturated LN2 and F113 at standard and near zero gravity conditions were investigated for the horizontal up, vertical and horizontal down orientations of the heating surface. Two distinct regimes of heat transfer mechanisms were observed during the interval from the step increase of power input to the onset of nucleate boiling: the conduction and convection dominated regimes. The time duration in each regime was considerably shorter with LN2 than with F113, and decreased as heat flux increased, as gravity was reduced, and as the orientation was changed from horizontal up to horizontal down. In transient boiling, boiling initiates at a single point following the step increase in power, and then spreads over the surface. The delay time for the inception of boiling at the first site, and the velocity of spread of boiling varies depending upon the heat flux, orientation, body force, surface roughness and liquid properties, and are a consequence of changes in boundary layer temperature levels associated with changes in natural convection. Following the step increase in power input, surface temperature overshoot and undershoot occur before the steady state boiling temperature level is established.

  15. Thermal Performance of Low Layer Density Multilayer Insu1ation Using Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.

    2011-01-01

    In order to support long duration cryogenic propellant storage, the Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) Project of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) is investigating the long duration storage propertie$ of liquid methane on the lunar surface. The Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control (MLSTC) testing is using a tank of the approximate dimensions of the Altair ascent tanks inside of a vacuum chamber to simulate the environment in low earth orbit and on the lunar surface. The thermal performance testing of multilayer insulation (MLI) coupons that are fabricated identically to the tank applied insulation is necessary to understand the performance of the blankets and to be able to predict the performance of the insulation prior to testing. This coupon testing was completed in Cryostat-100 at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. The results showed the properties of the insulation as a function of layer density, number of layers, and warm boundary temperature. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters o fMLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

  16. Research on Flow Pattern of Nitrogen Tetroxide Liquid in the Different Bend Radii Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available N2O4 is a common rocket fuel propellants, it has the characteristics of low boiling point and a large viscosity , the friction between viscosity fluids and pipeline dramatic leads to a huge sticky heat, therefore, the vaporization phenomenon often occurs in the pipeline, particularly in bending of the viscous heat. For this reason, the research of the different bending radii vaporized fluid conditions for optimizing the piping and precise the filling flow is significant. In this paper, the MIXTURE mixed flow model is used to achieve the numerical simulation the pipelines filling of the three different bending radii, it still have not solved the mass transfer problem between the different phases. Therefore, the custom functions are needed to define the mass transfer problems from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. Though the contrast among the volume phase cloud of six different elbow models , we have the following conclusions: 1 In the entire pipeline transportation, the distribution vaporization rate from the inlet pipe to the outlet pipe follows the distribution of the first increasing and then decreasing, the gas rates of the elbow area is highest; 2Analyzing the sticky heat for different bend radii, we have the conclusion that the lowest bending vaporization the of the optimal radius is 0.45m. The above conclusions are drawn in good agreement with the actual law, can effectively guide the engineering practice, have important significance for the future design for the optimization of the fuel pipeline transportation.

  17. Comparison of recurrent rate of gingival pigmentation after treatment by liquid nitrogen and cryoprob in 18 months follows-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Amini Sedeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryosurgery is one of the simplest, most effective gingival depigmentation methods. Repigmentation may happen after a while in each method. The aim of this study is to compare the recurrence rate after treatment by liquid nitrogen swap and a cryoprob in 18 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 patients with physiologic gingival pigmentation were selected. The anterior sextant was divided into left and right segments; each segment was treated randomly by swap technique or cryoprob. Standard photos were evaluated with photoshop software (Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black [RGB, CMYK] before and at 2 week, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months after the treatment. The results were compared, by the independent t-test and repeated measure ANOVA thereafter least significant difference post-hoc. The viewpoints of patients and physicians regarding the treatment outcomes were obtained by a questionnaire and consequently evaluated qualitatively by McNemar test (P 0.05. The mean values of CMYK significantly decreased after 2 weeks in both methods (P 0.05. Qualitative evaluation showed the preference of the cryosurgery with swap method (P < 0.001. No significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up. Conclusion: Both methods of cryosurgery are appropriate in treatment of gingival depigmentation because no significant recurrence was observed during 18 months follow-up.

  18. A liquid nitrogen-free preconcentration unit for measurements of ambient N2O isotopomers by QCLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Emmenegger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Important information about the biogeochemical cycle of nitrous oxide (N2O can be obtained by measuring its three main isotopic species, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N16O, and the respective site-specific relative isotope ratio differences δ15Nα and δ15Nβ. Absorption laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared is a direct method for the analysis of the 15N isotopic composition of N2O, yet not sensitive enough for atmospheric N2O mixing ratios (320 ppb. To enable a fully-automated high precision analysis of N2O isotopic species at ambient mixing ratios, we built and optimized a liquid nitrogen-free preconcentration unit to be coupled to a quantum cascade laser (QCL based spectrometer. During standard operation 10 l of ambient air are preconcentrated on a HayeSep D trap and desorbed in 50 ml of synthetic air. Rigorous tests were conducted, using FTIR, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, GC-FID and component-specific ozone and oxygen analysers to investigate recovery rates, conservation of isotopic signatures and spectral interferences after preconcentration. We achieve quantitative N2O recovery of >99% with only minor, statistically not significant isotopic fractionation and no relevant spectral interferences from other atmospheric constituents. The developed preconcentration unit also has the potential to be applied to other trace gases and their isotopic composition.

  19. Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Robert M; Mesner, Larry D; Hamlin, Joyce L; Buck, Michael J; Huberman, Joel A

    2011-11-16

    Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls.

  20. Integrity of chromatin and replicating DNA in nuclei released from fission yeast by semi-automated grinding in liquid nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givens Robert M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of nuclear function in many organisms, especially those with tough cell walls, are limited by lack of availability of simple, economical methods for large-scale preparation of clean, undamaged nuclei. Findings Here we present a useful method for nuclear isolation from the important model organism, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To preserve in vivo molecular configurations, we flash-froze the yeast cells in liquid nitrogen. Then we broke their tough cell walls, without damaging their nuclei, by grinding in a precision-controlled motorized mortar-and-pestle apparatus. The cryo-ground cells were resuspended and thawed in a buffer designed to preserve nuclear morphology, and the nuclei were enriched by differential centrifugation. The washed nuclei were free from contaminating nucleases and have proven well-suited as starting material for genome-wide chromatin analysis and for preparation of fragile DNA replication intermediates. Conclusions We have developed a simple, reproducible, economical procedure for large-scale preparation of endogenous-nuclease-free, morphologically intact nuclei from fission yeast. With appropriate modifications, this procedure may well prove useful for isolation of nuclei from other organisms with, or without, tough cell walls.

  1. A liquid nitrogen-free preconcentration unit for measurements of ambient N2O isotopomers by QCLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Emmenegger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Important information about the biogeochemical cycle of nitrous oxide (N2O can be obtained by measuring its three main isotopomers, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N16O, and the respective site-specific isotope ratios δ15Nα and δ15Nβ. Absorption laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared is a direct method for N2O isotopomer analysis, yet not sensitive enough for atmospheric N2O concentrations (320 ppb. To enable a fully-automated high precision N2O isotopomer analysis at ambient concentrations, we built and optimized a liquid nitrogen-free preconcentration unit to be coupled to a quantum cascade laser (QCL based spectrometer. Rigorous tests were conducted, using FTIR and quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, to investigate recovery rates, conservation of isotopic signatures and spectral interferences after preconcentration. We achieve quantitative N2O recovery of >99% with only minor, statistically not significant isotopic fractionation and no relevant spectral interferences from other atmospheric constituents. The developed preconcentration unit also has the potential to be applied to other trace gases and their isotopic composition.

  2. Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ken; Akiyoshi, Miyako; Ishizaki, Keiko; Sato, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    2014-08-15

    Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.8 mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant area; then, two minutes later the solution exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cover, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct were broken by the blast wave. Thus, we have conducted 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion tests under various conditions (solution concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, etc.) to investigate the causes for such an explosion. When solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are mixed in the presence of platinum black, explosions result. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case where it is necessary to mix these 2 solutions (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) in the presence of platinum black, the following conditions would reduce a probability of explosion; the initial concentration of NH4(+) should be less than 3 mol/L and the pH should be higher than 6. The hypochlorite solution (in 1/10 in volume) to be added at room temperature is recommended to be less than 0.6 mol/L.

  3. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-09-27

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories.

  4. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Chen, Sow-Hsin, E-mail: sowhsin@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Leão, Juscelino B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tyagi, Madhusudan [National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  5. 液相性质对新型洗涤冷却室内液滴夹带的影响%Effects of Liquid Properties on Liquid Entrainment in a New Scrubbing-cooling Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林岚; 王亦飞; 郭强强; 王辅臣

    2011-01-01

    采用等速取样法对床层气液鼓泡区上方分离空间的液滴夹带进行了实验测定,研究了液相性质对液滴夹带的影响.结果表明,同一静态液位下,随气速增加,气液分离空间高度逐渐减小,液滴夹带量增大;出口处液滴夹带量E在径向上总体变化不大,贴近壁面处偏小,主要受气体出口处气体回流流动的影响;液滴夹带量随液相物质表面张力减小而增大,随液体粘度增大而增大,表面张力从72.8 mN/m减小到25.8 mN/m液滴夹带量增大2.5倍,液体粘度从1 mPa.s增加到2.3 mPa.s液滴夹带量增大1倍.液体物性对液滴夹带量的影响较显著,由此建立了液滴夹带量与物性参数的经验关联式,为改善洗涤冷却室内部结构提供了理论依据.%The effects of liquid properties on liquid entrainment in separation space above the bubbling zone in a new scrubbing-cooling chamber were investigated by isokinetic sampling method. The experimental results showed that at the same static liquid level, with the increased of gas velocity, the height of gas-liquid separation space decreased and the amount of liquid entrainment E increased. E generally changed little at the outlet, while it changed a little smaller near the wall, which was mainly influenced by gas circumfluence flow. E increased with the decrease of surface tension and decreased with the increase of viscosity. E increased 2.5 times when surface tension decreased from 72.8 to 25.8 mN/m, and increased 1 time when the viscosity increased from 1 to 2.3 mPa-s. Liquid properties had a significant impact on the amount of liquid entrainment. An empirical formula for E and physical parameters was also established, which provided theoretical basis for improving interior structure in scrubbing-cooling chamber.

  6. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    to determine what parameters drive unsteadiness in fuel films, and how these parameters affect wall temperature profiles. Parametric studies performed...temperature profiles. Parametric studies performed in 2D suggest that a Helmholtz resonator exists for simple slot geometries. Frequencies in 3D were...effect on film cooling effectiveness. In general, the heat flux exhibits complex trends and did not scale well with chamber pressure. ∗Aerospace

  7. Influence of the post-annealing cooling rate on the superconducting and mechanical properties of LFZ textured Bi-2212 rods

    CERN Document Server

    Natividad, E; Angurel, L A; Salazar, A; Pastor, J Y; Llorca, J

    2002-01-01

    Laser floating zone textured Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta (Bi-2212) thin rods were manufactured and subjected to a two-step annealing process at 870 deg C and 801 deg C in air. It was found that the subsequent cooling process led to marked changes in electrical properties. Three cooling rates were tested: (i) quenching in liquid nitrogen, (ii) cooling in air inside an alumina tube and (iii) cooling inside the furnace. The results showed that the faster the cooling rate, the higher the normal state resistivity. The T sub c distribution across the rods was also affected by the cooling rate, but no large differences were observed in the magnitude of the critical current at 77 K since the homogeneity of furnace-cooled samples compensated for the higher outer J sub c values of fast-cooled ones. The mechanical properties (elastic modulus and flexure strength) were not influenced by the cooling rate, but the samples quenched in liquid nitrogen were often cracked by thermal shock. The elastic m...

  8. Synthesis and mechanistic study of in situ halogen/nitrogen dual-doping in graphene tailored by stepwise pyrolysis of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Lee, Dong Su; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hoonkyung; Yu, Jong-Sung; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-03-01

    New halogen/nitrogen dual-doped graphenes (X/N-G) with thermally tunable doping levels are synthesized via the thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) with stepwise-pyrolyzed ionic liquids. The doping process of halogen and nitrogen into the graphene lattice proceeds via substitutional or covalent bonding through the physisorption or chemisorption of in situ pyrolyzed dopant precursors. The doping process is performed by heating to 300-400 °C of ionic liquid, and the chemically assisted reduction of GO is facilitated by ionic iodine, resulting in I/N-G materials possessing about three and two orders of magnitude higher conductivity (˜22 200 S m-1) and charge carrier density (˜1021 cm-3), compared to those of thermally reduced GO. The thermally tunable doping levels of halogen in X/N-G significantly increase the conductivity of doped graphene to ˜27 800 S m-1.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  10. Oligomerization of ethylene catalysed by nickel complexes associated with nitrogen ligands in ionic liquids; Oligomerisation de l'ethylene catalysee par des complexes du nickel associes a des ligands azotes dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, V.

    2003-09-01

    We report here the use of a new class of catalytic systems based on a nickel active center associated with nitrogen ligands, such as di-imines, or imino-pyridines, for the oligomerization of ethylene in a biphasic medium using ionic liquids as the catalyst solvent. The nickel catalyst is immobilized in the ionic liquid phase in which the olefinic reaction products are poorly miscible. This biphasic system makes possible an easy separation and recycle of the catalyst. Numerous di-imine and imino-pyridine ligands with different steric and electronic properties have been synthesized and their corresponding nickel complexes isolated and characterized. Different ionic liquids, based on chloro-aluminates or non-chloro-aluminates anions, have also been prepared and characterized. The effect of the nature of the ligand, the ionic liquid, the nickel precursor and its mode of activation have been studied and correlated with the selectivity and activity of the transformation of ethylene. (author)

  11. 液氮冻结应用于冰淇淋工业化生产%Industrial Application of Liquid Nitrogen Freezing Technology in Production of Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余保宁

    2011-01-01

    论文阐述了传统冰淇淋生产中存在的问题和可用于冰淇淋工业化生产的液氮快速冻结设备.分析了液氮冻结技术及其设备结构,液氮冻结在冰淇淋生产中体现的优越性.通过开发液氮冻结设备和技术,使液氮应用于冰淇淋工业化生产成为现实,从而提高冰淇淋产品质量和生产效率,降低生产过程的能耗及成本,并有助于生态环保.%The paper discussed the problems in traditional manufacture and production of ice cream. Liquid nitrogen freezing technology was then introduced, including the equipments and the advantage of this technology in ice cream production. Developments in the technology and equipments of liquid nitrogen freezing make it possible to use liquid nitrogen in the industrial production of ice cream. It can improve the quality of ice cream products, enhance the productivity, reduce the productive energy consumption and benefit to environmental protection.

  12. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  13. Cryogenic Cooling for Myriad Applications-A STAR Is Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenics, the science of generating extremely low temperatures, has wide applicability throughout NASA. The Agency employs cryogenics for rocket propulsion, high-pressure gas supply, breathable air in space, life support equipment, electricity, water, food preservation and packaging, medicine, imaging devices, and electronics. Cryogenic liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen systems are also replacing solid rocket motor propulsion systems in most of the proposed launch systems, a reversion to old-style liquid propellants. In the late 1980s, NASA wanted a compact linear alternator/motor with reduced size and mass, as well as high efficiency, that had unlimited service life for use in a thermally driven power generator for space power applications. Prior development work with free-piston Stirling converters (a Stirling engine integrated with a linear actuator that produces electrical power output) had shown the promise of that technology for high-power space applications. A dual use for terrestrial applications exists for compact Stirling converters for onsite combined heat and power units. The Stirling cycle is also usable in reverse as a refrigeration cycle suitable for cryogenic cooling, so this Stirling converter work promised double benefits as well as dual uses. The uses for cryogenic coolers within NASA abound; commercial applications are similarly wide-ranging, from cooling liquid oxygen and nitrogen, to cryobiology and bio-storage, cryosurgery, instrument and detector cooling, semiconductor manufacturing, and support service for cooled superconducting power systems.

  14. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5 kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly.

  15. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly.

  16. Gas and Liquid Entrainment in Recirculating Cooling Water System%循环冷却水系统的气液夹带问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玉颖

    2012-01-01

    Water-saving and emission reduction was an important portion as well as the irresistible trend of industrial development.The recirculating cooling water system and water source was briefly introduced according to the industrial practice.The phenomenon of gas and liquid entrainment and its mechanism and influencing factors were analyzed,and the novel control techniques were reviewed.%节水减排是工业发展的必然趋势和重要组成部分。本文从生产实际出发,在对循环冷却水系统及水源进行介绍的基础上,对气体液滴夹带现象及其机理、影响因素进行了分析,并对新型气液夹带控制技术进行了综述。

  17. Microstructure Evolution of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb Alloy in the Liquid-Metal-Cooling (LMC) Directional-Solidification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhixia; ZHENG Lijing; WANG Lei; YANG Lili; ZHANG Hu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was investigated on liquid metal cooling type directional solidified apparatus at high temperature gradient. The analysis shows that it is solidified with primaryβ cells/dendrites, and then α phase is formed through peritectic reaction.Once the columnar grains grow into the steady state, the lameilar orientation inclined with the angle of 45° to the withdrawal direction is more favored than that with parallel to the withdrawal direction. In addition, α phase grain nucleates from β-interdendrite regions, and grows up to the dendritic trunk. If no other α grain hinders its growth, it would occupy the whole dendrite, or it would stop at the dendritic trunk for the weakened motivating drive in theβ dendritic core.

  18. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  19. Fertilizer performance of liquid fraction of digestate as synthetic nitrogen substitute in silage maize cultivation for three consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurnjak, I; Vaneeckhaute, C; Michels, E; Ryckaert, B; Ghekiere, G; Tack, F M G; Meers, E

    2017-12-01

    Following changes over recent years in fertilizer legislative framework throughout Europe, phosphorus (P) is taking over the role of being the limiting factor in fertilizer application rate of animal manure. This results in less placement area for spreading animal manure. As a consequence, more expensive and energy demanding synthetic fertilizers are required to meet crop nutrient requirements despite existing manure surpluses. Anaerobic digestion followed by mechanical separation of raw digestate, results in liquid fraction (LF) of digestate, a product poor in P but rich in nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). A 3-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of using the LF of digestate as a (partial) substitute for synthetic N fertilizer. Two different fertilization strategies, the LF of digestate in combination with respectively animal manure and digestate, were compared to the conventional fertilization regime of raw animal manure with synthetic fertilizers. Results from the 3-year trial indicate that the LF of digestate may substitute synthetic N fertilizers without crop yield losses. Through fertilizer use efficiency assessment it was observed that under-fertilization of soils with a high P status could reduce P availability and consequently the potential for P leaching. Under conditions of lower K application, more sodium was taken up by the crop. In arid regions, this effect might reduce the potential risk of salt accumulation that is associated with organic fertilizer application. Finally, economic and ecological benefits were found to be higher when LF of digestate was used as a synthetic N substitute. Future perspectives indicate that nutrient variability in bio-based fertilizers will be one of the greatest challenges to address in the future utilization of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Cryogenic Dc-Dc Power Converter for a 100 kW Synchronous HTS Generator at Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Wendell; Wen, Hauming; Yang, Yifeng; Forsyth, Andrew; Jia, Chungjiang

    A dc-dc converter has been developed for retrofitting inside the vacuum space of the HTS rotor of a synchronous generator. The heavy copper sections of the current leads used for energising the HTS field winding were replaced by cryogenic power electronics; consisting of the converter and a rotor control unit. The converter board was designed using an H-bridge configuration with two 5A rated wires connecting the cryogenic boards to the stator control board located on the outside of the generator and drawing power from a (5A, 50 V) dc power source. The robustness of converter board was well demonstrated when it was powered up from a cold start at 82K. When charging the field winding with moderate currents (30A), the heat in-leak to the 'cold' rotor core was only 2W. It continued to function down to 74K, surviving several quenches. However, the quench protection function failed when injecting 75A into the field winding, resulting in the burn out of one of the DC-link capacitors. The magnitudes of the critical currents measured with the original current leads were compared to the quench currents, which was defined as the current which triggered quench protection protocol. The difference between the two currents was rather large, (∼20A). However, additional measurements using a single HTS coil in liquid nitrogen found that this reduction should not be so dramatic and in the region of 4A. Our conclusions identified the converter's switching voltage and its operating frequency as two parameters, which could have contributed to lowering the quench current. Magnetic fields and eddy currents are expected to be more prominent the field winding and its impact on the converter also need further investigation.

  1. [Development of a liquid fermentation system and encystment for a nitrogen-fixing bacterium strain having biofertilizer potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Rusinque, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Bonilla-Buitrago, Ruth

    The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers has contributed to the deterioration of the biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil, resulting in the loss of its productive capacity. For this reason, the use of biofertilizers has emerged as a technological alternative. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable liquid fermentation system and encystment for the multiplication of Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 strain, a bacterium employed in a biofertilizer formulation produced at present by CARPOICA, Colombia. Sequential statistical designs were used to determine the conditions in the fermentation system. The interaction between agitation, aeration and pH was evaluated on the viable biomass (CFU/ml) of AC1. In addition, the encystment ability of the strain was evaluated using two encystment agents and the potential plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activity was assessed by different techniques, such as nitrogen fixation by ARA, phosphate solubilization by the phospho-molybdenum-blue reaction and indolic compound production by colorimetric reaction using the Salkowski reagent. Results showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the viable biomass in the three conditions (pH, aeration and agitation) tested individually, in one dual interaction and one tripartite interaction, were demonstrated to have a positive effect on the response variable aeration and agitation. The addition of the two encystment agents evaluated, AE01 and AE02, demonstrated the ability of AC1 to form cysts under stress conditions. Likewise, fermentation and encystment conditions did not affect the biological activities tested. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  3. Cryogenic mechanical property testing system directly cooled by G-M cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R. J.; Liu, Q.; Li, L. F.; Gong, L. H.; Liu, H. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic mechanical properties are generally considered to be some of the most important parameters in cryogenic engineering. Therefore, it is very important to test and investigate mechanical properties at low temperatures. Most systems for cryogenic mechanical property testing are cooled using liquid nitrogen (300 K-77 K) or liquid helium (77 K-4.2 K). As we know, liquid helium is relatively rare and thus expensive. In this study, to attain accurate and stable intermediate temperatures and reduce testing cost, a cryogenic mechanical property testing system cooled by a G-M cryocooler was studied and developed. In this system, the sample can be cooled down to 10.5 K after about 10 hours of running. The tension, bending and compression testing (load range up to 50 kN) can be carried out.

  4. Post-scram Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) heat transport system dynamics and steam generator control: Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukx, J. F. L. M.

    1982-06-01

    Dynamic modeling of LMFBR heat transport system is discussed. Uncontrolled transient behavior of individual components and of the integrated heat transport system are considered. For each component, results showing specific dynamic features of the component and/or model capability were generated. Controlled dynamic behavior for alternative steam generator control systems during forced and natural sodium coolant circulation was analyzed. Combined free and forced convection of laminar and turbulent vertical pipe flow of liquid metals was investigated.

  5. Cooling performance test of the superconducting fault current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, H.; Hong, Y. J.; Ko, J.; In, S.; Kim, H. B.; Park, S. J. [Korea Institute ofMachinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.; Kim, H. R. [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is an electrical power system device that detects the fault current automatically and limits the magnitude of the current below a certain safety level. The SFCL module does not have any electrical resistance below the critical temperature, which facilitates lossless power transmission in the electric power system. Once given the fault current, however, the superconducting conductor exhibits extremely high electrical resistance, and the magnitude of the current is accordingly limited to a low value. Therefore, SFCL should be maintained at a temperature below the critical temperature, which justifies the cryogenic cooling system as a mandatory component. This report is a study which reported on the cooling system for the 154 kV-class hybrid SFCL owned by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Using the cryocooler, the temperature of liquid nitrogen (LN2) was lowered to 71 K. The cryostat was pressurized to 5 bars to improve the dielectric strength of nitrogen and suppress nitrogen bubble foaming during operation of SFCL. The SFCL module was immersed in the liquid nitrogen of the cryostat to maintain the superconducting state. The performance test results of the key components such as cryocooler, LN2 circulation pump, cold box, and pressure builder are shown in this paper.

  6. A magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy system using a microfluidically cryo-cooled planar coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chiwan; Godley, Richard F; Park, Jaewon; McDougall, Mary P; Wright, Steven M; Han, Arum

    2011-07-07

    We present the development of a microfluidically cryo-cooled planar coil for magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. Cryogenically cooling radiofrequency (RF) coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the experiment. Conventional cryostats typically use a vacuum gap to keep samples to be imaged, especially biological samples, at or near room temperature during cryo-cooling. This limits how close a cryo-cooled coil can be placed to the sample. At the same time, a small coil-to-sample distance significantly improves the MR imaging capability due to the limited imaging depth of planar MR microcoils. These two conflicting requirements pose challenges to the use of cryo-cooling in MR microcoils. The use of a microfluidic based cryostat for localized cryo-cooling of MR microcoils is a step towards eliminating these constraints. The system presented here consists of planar receive-only coils with integrated cryo-cooling microfluidic channels underneath, and an imaging surface on top of the planar coils separated by a thin nitrogen gas gap. Polymer microfluidic channel structures fabricated through soft lithography processes were used to flow liquid nitrogen under the coils in order to cryo-cool the planar coils to liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 °C). Two unique features of the cryo-cooling system minimize the distance between the coil and the sample: (1) the small dimension of the polymer microfluidic channel enables localized cooling of the planar coils, while minimizing thermal effects on the nearby imaging surface. (2) The imaging surface is separated from the cryo-cooled planar coil by a thin gap through which nitrogen gas flows to thermally insulate the imaging surface, keeping it above 0 °C and preventing potential damage to biological samples. The localized cooling effect was validated by simulations, bench testing, and MR imaging experiments. Using this cryo-cooled planar coil system inside a 4.7 Tesla MR system

  7. The Influence of the Silicon Component in the Paste for Processor Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Koren

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer coolers foreseen for the processors keeps step with the processors for PC platform. There are still working and development areas where one could find new technologies and the kinds of the alternative cooling which give better results that the existing classical methods. There are several kinds of alternative cooling, from cooling with the mixture of water and methanol to the usage of freon and liquid nitrogen as the cooling media. The purpose of this work is to point at some new alternative cooling methods and to compare them with the classical ones as well as to stress the problems in classical - mechanically treated cooler and additives of chemically prepared pastes for better heat conductivity from the core surface of the processor.

  8. Development of mathematical modeling technology for flow boiling of liquid nitrogen%液氮流动沸腾数值模拟研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雪锋; 李祥东; 汪荣顺

    2011-01-01

    对已有的针对低温流体的数值模拟进行了总结,比较了可用于液氮流动沸腾的数学模型,指出数值模拟液氮流动沸腾中尚待解决的问题,并对垂直环行管道中的液氮流动沸腾进行了数值模拟.%Some known mathematical modeling technologies for cryogenic fluid were summarized. Mathematical models that can be used to simulate flow boiling of liquid nitrogen were compared, some problems to be resolved were pointed out. Simulation for flow boiling of nitrogen in a vertical annular channel was performed.

  9. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. B.; Liu, S. X.; Gu, K. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper.

  10. 液氮洗工艺的多目标遗传算法优化%Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Liquid Nitrogen Wash Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 颜立伟; 李云; 张早校

    2011-01-01

    为了优化大化肥中的液氮洗关键流程以提高能量效率、控制CO2排放,在使用Aspen Plus软件对某低温液氮洗工艺进行模拟分析的基础上,结合多目标遗传算法和二次规划法(MOGA-QP)来解决局部极值和大规模优化问题.根据超结构方法,构建了液氮洗工艺流程总结构,即在原流程中加入了一个减压阀和一个分离器,由此可以增补29.546 KJ/kg冷量,使得液氮洗涤塔出口净化气中的CO体积分数为0.55×10-6.利用MOGA-QP求解了超结构,即在进化过程中用二次规划法来模拟流程表单的各个子模块,在最终收敛的环节用二次规划法求解子问题,从而对遗传算法产生的Pareto解做进一步的精细优化.实际应用显示:在满足工艺指标的前提下,优化后的液氮入口流量减至0.131 2 kmol/s,出口CO体积分数降至0.25×10-6,液氮入口流量减少了1.7%,(火用)损失减少了15.7%,表明改进流程更佳,MOGA-QP算法有效.%A multi-objective genetic algorithm with quadratic programming (MOGA-QP) was proposed to optimize the liquid-nitrogen washing process in large fertilizer plants based on the simulation by using Aspen Plus software. According to the superstructure method, the flowsheet of liquid-nitrogen washing process was constructed by adding a throttle valve and a separator.The proposed algorithm MOGA-QP was employed to solve the superstructure of the liquid-nitrogen washing process. The results of the case study show that the optimization of the liquid-nitrogen washing process reduced the inlet flow rate of liquid-nitrogen and the CO volume fraction at the exit to 0. 131 2 kmol/s and 0.25× 10-6, respectively. Moreover, the inlet flow rate of liquid nitrogen and the exergy loss decreased by 1.7% and 15. 7%, respectively. It appears that the improved process is much better and the MOGA-QP algorithm is effective.

  11. Application of ATHLET/DYN3D coupled codes system for fast liquid metal cooled reactor steady state simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V.; Samokhin, A.; Danicheva, I.; Khrennikov, N.; Bouscuet, J.; Velkov, K.; Pasichnyk, I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the approaches used for developing of the BN-800 reactor test model and for validation of coupled neutron-physic and thermohydraulic calculations are described. Coupled codes ATHLET 3.0 (code for thermohydraulic calculations of reactor transients) and DYN3D (3-dimensional code of neutron kinetics) are used for calculations. The main calculation results of reactor steady state condition are provided. 3-D model used for neutron calculations was developed for start reactor BN-800 load. The homogeneous approach is used for description of reactor assemblies. Along with main simplifications, the main reactor BN-800 core zones are described (LEZ, MEZ, HEZ, MOX, blankets). The 3D neutron physics calculations were provided with 28-group library, which is based on estimated nuclear data ENDF/B-7.0. Neutron SCALE code was used for preparation of group constants. Nodalization hydraulic model has boundary conditions by coolant mass-flow rate for core inlet part, by pressure and enthalpy for core outlet part, which can be chosen depending on reactor state. Core inlet and outlet temperatures were chosen according to reactor nominal state. The coolant mass flow rate profiling through the core is based on reactor power distribution. The test thermohydraulic calculations made with using of developed model showed acceptable results in coolant mass flow rate distribution through the reactor core and in axial temperature and pressure distribution. The developed model will be upgraded in future for different transient analysis in metal-cooled fast reactors of BN type including reactivity transients (control rods withdrawal, stop of the main circulation pump, etc.).

  12. 凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用%Application of cool liquid cushion in operative position placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪清; 左育涛; 刘燕梅; 刘金秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the application effect of cool liquid cushion in the placement of operation po-sition.Methods:Each 60 cases of patients were selected whose surgical positions in operating room in our hospi-tal were respectively supine position,lateral position,lithotomy position,prone position and the placed time more than 4 hours,a total of 240 cases.They were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 120 cases in each.The patients in control group were treated by routine methods to put the operation position, and the conventional cushion protection was given in compressed sponge.In experimental group,different speci-fications of cool liquid cushion was placed in pressure areas to protect,then to compare the pressure ulcer condi-tions and required physiological bending in posture compliance between two groups of patients.Results:The in-cidence of pressure sores in experimental group patients was lower than that in control group,the compliance rate of physiological curve required for position was higher than that in control group,and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion:The cool liquid cushion applied for protecting pressured parts in position placement of operation patients can reded the incidence of pressure sore and increase the compliance rate of patient’s posture physiology bending and improve patients’comfort.%[目的]探讨凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用效果。[方法]选取在我院手术室手术体位分别是仰卧位、侧卧位、截石位、俯卧位且摆放时间超过4 h的病人各60例,共240例,随机分为对照组和试验组各120例。对照组按常规方法摆放手术体位,受压处常规给予海绵垫保护;试验组应用不同规格的凉液垫放置在受压部位进行保护,比较两组病人压疮发生情况及体位所需的生理弯曲符合情况。[结果]试验组病人压疮发生率低于对照组,体位所需的生理弯曲符合率高

  13. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-02ER86145 Pressurized RF Cavities for Muon Ionization Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland Johnson

    2006-07-13

    This project was to design and build an RF test cell (TC), which could be operated at 800 MHz, filled with high pressure gases including hydrogen, at temperatures down to that of liquid nitrogen, in strong magnetic fields, in a strong radiation environment, and with interchangeable electrodes, in order to examine the use of high-pressure RF cavities for muon beam cooling.

  14. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  15. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated.

  16. Shock initiation of the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502 cooled to 77 Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, B. C.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Bartram, B. D.

    2014-05-01

    We present gas-gun driven plate impact shock initiation experiments on the explosive PBX 9502 (95 weight percent triaminotrinitrobenzene, 5 weight percent Kel-F 800 binder) cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, 77K. PBX 9502 samples were cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen through a sample mounting plate and surrounding coil. Temperatures were monitored using embedded and surface mounted thermocouples. Reactive flow was measured with embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Wave profiles from the particle velocity gauges show that, even at 77K, shock initiation in PBX 9502 retains a heterogeneous or "hot-spot" character. The "Pop-plot," or distance to detonation, xD, vs. impact pressure, P, is log10(xD) = 4.9 - 3.3log10(P).

  17. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  18. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  19. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  20. A sensitive and efficient method for trace analysis of some phenolic compounds using simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction from human urine and plasma samples followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    In present study, a simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection has been developed for the determination of some phenolic compounds in biological samples. The analytes are derivatized and extracted simultaneously by a fast reaction with 1-flouro-2,4-dinitrobenzene under mild conditions. Under optimal conditions low limits of detection in the range of 0.05-0.34 ng mL(-1) are achievable. The obtained extraction recoveries are between 84 and 97% and the relative standard deviations are less than 7.2% for intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 4) precisions. The proposed method was demonstrated to be a simple and efficient method for the analysis of phenols in biological samples.

  1. Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Transformations in a High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Studied from the Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Thomas; Stanford, Nicole; Taylor, Adam; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phase transformation and precipitation in a high-strength low-alloy steel have been studied over a large range of cooling rates, and a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram has been produced. These experiments are unique because the measurements were made from samples cooled directly from the melt, rather than in homogenized and re-heated billets. The purpose of this experimental design was to examine conditions pertinent to direct strip casting. At the highest cooling rates which simulate strip casting, the microstructure was fully bainitic with small regions of pearlite. At lower cooling rates, the fraction of polygonal ferrite increased and the pearlite regions became larger. The CCT diagram and the microstructural analysis showed that the precipitation of NbC is suppressed at high cooling rates, and is likely to be incomplete at intermediate cooling rates.

  2. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  3. Humble Opinion about Liquid Ammonia and Nitrogen Solution Fertilizer%关于我国推广液氨和氮溶液肥料之管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯元琦

    2012-01-01

    Author has analyzed the category, characteristic and manure spreading superiority for liquid fertilizers-liquid ammonm, ammonmm ni-trate and urea solutions ; has introduced the production, manure spreading quantity of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and the scale/expense for piping transport ; has discussed the developing progress, present technical situation of liquid ammonia product, manure spreading area and production increasing rate of plants by manure spreading in China ; has presented the suggestion that the kinds of liquid fertilizer should be greatly developed and applied from aspects of demonstration base, suggesting kinds, process technology and preferential policy and so on, in order to realize the food production increasing and energy saving in a wider extent.%分析了液体氮肥——液氨、硝铵尿素溶液的分类、性质和施用优势;介绍了美国液体氮肥的产量、施用量以及管道输送的规模和费用;论述了我国液氨产品的发展历程、技术现状、施用面积和施用作物增产率:从示范基地、推荐品种、工艺技术和政策优惠等方面提出了我国应加快研发、推广和使用液体氮肥的建议,以更大程度地实现粮食的增产与能源的节约。

  4. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  5. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  6. Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Maldonado, Ivan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The research performed in this project addressed the issue of low heavy metal loading and the resulting reduced cycle length with increased refueling frequency, inherent to all FHR designs with solid, non-movable fuel based on TRISO particles. Studies performed here focused on AHTR type of reactor design with plate (“plank”) fuel. Proposal to FY12 NEUP entitled “Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors” was selected for award, and the 3-year project started in August 2012. A 4-month NCE was granted and the project completed on December 31, 2015. The project was performed by Georgia Tech (Prof. Bojan Petrovic, PI) and University of Tennessee (Prof. Ivan Maldonado, Co-PI), with a total funding of $758,000 over 3 years. In addition to two Co-PIs, the project directly engaged 6 graduate students (at doctoral or MS level) and 2 postdoctoral researchers. Additionally, through senior design projects and graduate advanced design projects, another 23 undergraduate and 12 graduate students were exposed to and trained in the salt reactor technology. We see this as one of the important indicators of the project’s success and effectiveness. In the process, 1 journal article was published (with 3 journal articles in preparation), together with 8 peer-reviewed full conference papers, 8 peer-reviewed extended abstracts, as well as 1 doctoral dissertation and 2 master theses. The work included both development of models and methodologies needed to adequately analyze this type of reactor, fuel, and its fuel cycle, as well as extensive analyses and optimization of the fuel and core design.

  7. Thermochemistry and Dynamics of Reactive Species: Nitrogen-Rich Substituted Heterocycles and Anionic Components of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    of a wide variety of organic and inorganic species, utilizing the flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube- triple quadrupole (FA- SIFT-TQ...chemistry techniques (negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and flow/drift selected ion flow kinetics) together with state-of-the-art quantum... technique . This powerful and versatile approach has allowed the study of the chemistry of many nitrogenous ions and compounds. An arsenal of ionization and

  8. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, Brent R [ORNL; Smith, Steven E [ORNL; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Morgan, James B [ORNL; MayerII, Richard L. [USEC, Inc.; Montgomery, J. Brent [U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

  9. Ac loss in Ag/Bi-2223 tape cooled by GM cryocooler; Dendo reikyaku Ag/Bi-2223 tepu no koryu sonshitsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasugi, K.; Murakami, T.; Natsume, K.; Naito, F.; Murase, S.; Shimamoto, S. [Tohoku Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-11-10

    It expects the application to electric power field the superconductivity is shown at the liquid nitrogen temperature the Bi system high temperature oxidation thing superconductor. Though it has made the research on the ac loss of the Bi system high temperature oxidation thing superconductor, it is at commercial frequency and liquid nitrogen temperature in the many. In this experiment, ac loss at wide 7K-77K temperatures and various 0.1Hz-500Hz frequencies was measured using conduction cooling GM refrigerating machine. (NEDO)

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Fracture Surface Morphologies of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy at Liquid Nitrogen (Ln2) Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and fracture surface morphologies were evaluated for a commercial epoxy resin toughened with two types of core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening agents (Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and MX960). The impact resistance (R) was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The resulting fracture surface morphologies were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fractographic observations of the CSR toughened epoxy tested at ambient temperature, showed a fracture as characterized by slender dendrite textures with large voids. The increasing number of dendrites and decreasing size of scale-like texture with more CSR particles corresponded with increased R. As the temperature decreased to Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2), the fracture surfaces showed a fracture characterized by a rough, torn texture containing many river markings and deep furrows.

  11. Noise measurements of the lowest frequency longitudinal mode of an aluminum cylinder at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Annual report 1 Nov 75--31 Dec 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.S.; Gretz, D.; Richard, J.P.; Rydbeck, G.; Weber, J.

    1976-08-01

    The lowest frequency longitudinal mode of an aluminum cylinder has been studied over the temperature range 60 K -- 78 K. Lead zirconate titanate crystals were bonded to the cylinder for observation of the thermal fluctuations and relaxation phenomena. Large amounts of excess noise were observed whenever the cylinder was not in thermal equilibrium. The cylinder appeared to have attained thermal equilibrium after its temperature had been maintained near liquid nitrogen temperatures for several weeks. Noise temperatures within a factor 2 of the temperature measured by a platinum resistance thermometer were observed when the mean temperature of the cylinder was drifting less than 0.01 Kelvin per day. The very large fluctuations in noise temperature are not understood and warrant further investigation. (auth)

  12. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  13. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  14. Resistive sensing of gaseous nitrogen dioxide using a dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Prabhash [Solidstate Electronics Research Laboratory (SERL), Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Nanoengineering, Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Pavelyev, V.S. [Department of Nanoengineering, Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Patel, Rajan [Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences (CIRBSc), Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Islam, S.S., E-mail: sislam@jmi.ac.in [Solidstate Electronics Research Laboratory (SERL), Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Ionic liquid ([C6-mim]PF6) used as dispersant agent for SWCNTs: An investigations were carried out to find the structural quality and surface modification for sensor application. - Highlights: • An effective technique based on Ionic liquids (IL) and their use as a dispersant. • Electron microscopy and spectroscopy for structure characterization. • Covalent linkage of ILs with SWNTs and dispersion of SWCNTs. • The IL-wrapped sensing film, capable for detecting trace levels of gas. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in an imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) and investigated in terms of structural quality, surface functionalization and inter-CNT force. Analysis by field emission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy shows the IL layer to coat the SWNTs, and FTIR and Raman spectroscopy confirm strong binding of the ILs to the SWNTs. Two kinds of resistive sensors were fabricated, one by drop casting of IL-wrapped SWCNTs, the other by conventional dispersion of SWCNTs. Good response and recovery to NO{sub 2} is achieved with the IL-wrapped SWCNTs material upon UV-light exposure, which is needed because decrease the desorption energy barrier to increase the gas molecule desorption. NO{sub 2} can be detected in the 1–20 ppm concentration range. The sensor is not interfered by humidity due to the hydrophobic tail of PF6 (ionic liquid) that makes our sensor highly resistant to moisture.

  15. Determination of nicotine and N-nitrosamines in house dust by pressurized liquid extraction and comprehensive gas chromatography--nitrogen chemiluminiscence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Ozel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2012-01-06

    A novel, highly selective method for the determination of nicotine, N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in indoor dust samples is presented in this study. Samples were extracted by in-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) that allows high extraction efficiency with moderate consumption of organic solvents. The extracts were analyzed by comprehensive gas chromatography and detected with a nitrogen chemiluminiscence detector (GC×GC-NCD) that provided enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for organic nitrogen containing compounds. Method validation showed good linearity, repeatability and reproducibility (%RSD<8%). Recovery was higher than 80% for most target compounds and limits of detection lower than 16 ng g(-1). The method was used for the determination of the nitrosamine target compounds in house dust samples from both smoking and non-smoking households. All the analytes were found in the samples, nicotine being the most abundant compound in smokers' dust and one of the most abundant in non-smokers' dust. To our knowledge this is the first time that volatile N-nitrosamines and TSNAs have been determined in indoor dust samples. The results demonstrate the presence of these highly carcinogenic compounds in house dust, with inherent human exposure through inhalation and/or involuntary ingestion of house dust.

  16. Biodegradation of Alachlor in Liquid and Soil Cultures Under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Nasseri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds, the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea and different pH (5.5-8.5 on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%. Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%. Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94% compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74% as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil.

  17. Highly selective separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen and methane by nitrile/glycol-difunctionalized ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojniak, Sandra D; Silverwood, Ian P; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Kazarian, Sergei G; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-07-03

    Novel difunctionalized ionic liquids (ILs) containing a triethylene glycol monomethyl ether chain and a nitrile group on a pyrrolidinium or imidazolium cation have been synthesized and incorporated into supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). These ILs exhibit ca. 2.3 times higher CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas separation selectivities than analogous ILs functionalized only with a glycol chain. Although the glycol moiety ensures room temperature liquidity of the pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs, the two classes of ILs benefit from the presence of a nitrile group in different ways. The difunctionalized pyrrolidinium ILs exhibit an increase in CO2 permeance, whereas the permeances of the contaminant gases rise negligibly, resulting in high gas separation selectivities. In the imidazolium ILs, the presence of a nitrile group does not always increase the CO2 permeance nor does it increase the CO2 solubility, as showed in situ by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic method. High selectivity of these ILs is caused by the considerably reduced permeances of N2 and CH4, most likely due to the ability of the -CN group to reject the nonpolar contaminant gases. Apart from the CO2 solubility, IL-CO2 interactions and IL swelling were studied with the in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Different strengths of the IL-CO2 interactions were found to be the major difference between the two classes of ILs. The difunctionalized ILs interacted stronger with CO2 than the glycol-functionalized ILs, as manifested in the smaller bandwidths of the bending mode band of CO2 for the latter.

  18. Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Production of Nitric Acid by the Use of Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabljanac, Ž.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the dual-pressure process of nitric acid production. The process of selective catalytic reduction is carried out using the TiO2/WO3 heterogeneous catalyst applied on a ceramic honeycomb structure with a high geometric surface area per volume. The process design parameters for nitric acid production by the dual-pressure procedure in a capacity range from 75 to 100 % in comparison with designed capacity for one production line is shown in the Table 1. Shown is the effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction in the temperature range of the tail gas from 180 to 230 °C with direct application of liquid ammonia, without prior evaporation to gaseous state. The results of inlet and outlet concentrations of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the nitric acid production process are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 shows the temperature dependence of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2in the tail gas of nitric acid production with the application of a constant mass flow of liquid ammonia of 13,0 kg h-1 and average inlet mass concentration of the nitrous oxides expressed as NO2of 800,0 mgm-3 during 100 % production capacity. The specially designed liquid-ammonia direct-dosing system along with the effective homogenization of the tail gas resulted in emission levels of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2 in tail gas ranging from 100,0 to 185,0 mg m-3. The applied low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of the nitrous oxides in the tail gases by direct use of liquid ammonia is shown in Figure 4. It is shown that low-temperature selective catalytic reduction with direct application of liquid ammonia opens a new opportunity in the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions during nitric acid production without the risk of dangerous ammonium nitrate occurring in the process of subsequent energy utilization of

  19. Nitrogen Separation and Liquefaction Apparatus for Medical Applications and Its Thermodynamic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Piotrowska, A.; Polinski, J.

    2006-04-01

    Low temperature medicine is becoming a widely appreciated method in surgery, dermatology, gynecology and rheumatology. The cryomedical equipment is usually supplied with liquid nitrogen LN2 stored in a dewar and transferred to a tip, where it is evaporated providing a cooling power. LN2 in quantities sufficient for cryo-surgical and cryo-therapeutical applications can be first separated from air and then liquefied using a system combining polymer membrane gas separation technology and a Joule-Thomson closed-cycle refrigerator filled with a nitrogen-hydrocarbons gas mixture. Nitrogen is separated from the compressed air, then liquefied and throttled to atmospheric pressure. The paper analyzes the demanded cooling capacity of the system resulting from cryomedical treatment requirements. Thermal design and flow scheme of the apparatus are given. The system is thermodynamically optimized.

  20. Combination of a Nd:YAG laser and a liquid cooling device to (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 9}Al{sub 8})Si{sub 0.5} bulk metallic glass welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.S., E-mail: huei@mail.isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu Township, Kaohsiung County 84001, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu Township, Kaohsiung County 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, J.S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chiou, M.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu Township, Kaohsiung County 84001, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-25

    Research highlights: {yields} A liquid cooling device (LCD) helps to produce a lower initial welding temperature. {yields} A lower initial welding temperature leads to a faster welding thermal cycle (WTC). {yields} A faster WTC produces a crystallization free weld for a laser welded Zr-based BMG. - Abstract: Using pre-selected welding parameters, a crystallization-free weld for (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 9}Al{sub 8})Si{sub 0.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) was successfully produced by adopting a Nd:YAG pulse laser in combination with a liquid cooling device (LCD). When a LCD was employed, a faster cooling rate and shorter retention time for the crystallization temperature interval were produced, thus, no crystallization was observed in the weld fusion zone (WFZ) or heat affected zone (HAZ). The hardness in those areas did not differ significantly in comparison to the parent material (PM). For the room temperature laser weld (LCD was not employed), HAZ crystallization seemed unavoidable, although no crystallization occurred within the WFZ. The major crystalline phase in the HAZ was identified as Zr{sub 2}Cu. When the precipitates were greater in the crystallized area (i.e., HAZ), cracks were more likely to form, thus, hardness in the area was decreased.

  1. Energy and Exergy Analysis for Improving the Energy Performance of Air-Cooled Liquid Chillers by Different Condensing-Coil Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Shing Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study constructed a parameter analysis for improving the energy performance of air-cooled water chillers by altering the angle configuration of the condenser coils. The mathematical models for energy and exergy analyses of the individual components and overall system of air-cooled water chillers are presented. This study investigated the potential enhancement of performance efficiency in air-cooled chillers and the energy conversion efficiency of each component, in order to determine how the angle configuration of condenser coils influences chiller performance. This study found that the overall performance of an air-cooled chiller could be improved by approximately 3.4%, and the total irreversibility could be reduced by approximately 2.7%. With each 1% increase in average wind speed over the condenser coils, the overall performance of an air‑cooled chiller was found to be enhanced by approximately 0.43%, and its total irreversibility was reduced by approximately 0.35%. The results of this study can be effectively applied to air-cooled condenser units, and can provide an important basis of reference for developing and enhancing the energy efficiency of air-cooled chillers.

  2. Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Shale Diesel Fraction Using Ionic Liquid [C4mim]HSO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Ma Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulphate ([C4mim]HSO4) was synthesized and its denitroge-nation performance was investigated for diesel fraction with high content of nitride from oil shale. The effects of the tem-perature, the mass ratio of oil to IL, the mass ratio of water to IL, the extraction time, the settling time and the regeneration of IL on the N-removal efficiency were studied. Experimental results showed that the ionic liquid [C4mim]HSO4exhibited excellent denitrogenation performance, and about a 90% basic N-extraction efficiency and a 71% total N-extraction ef-ficiency were achieved under the conditions covering a temperature of 30℃, an oil/IL mass ratio of 7:1, a H2O/ IL mass ratio of 2:1, an extraction time of 20 min and a settling time of 120 min. In addition, the basic N-removal efficiency can still reach 74% during five recycles of the ionic liquid.

  3. Study of a Self-excited and Liquid-cooled Electromagnetic Retarder%液冷自励式电磁缓速器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 李德胜; 郑然; 尹汪雷

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the complicated structure and high prices of the hydraulic retarder and the serious thermal recession problem of braking torque of the conventional eddy current brake,a selfexcited and liquid-cooled eddy current retarder (SL-ECR) structure was proposed.The model of braking system and generating system of the SL-ECR was established and the magnetic circuit structure was analyzed.The electromagnetic field model,the braking performance and thermal field of the SLECR were analyzed by using finite element method.A 2000 N· m SL-ECR was produced and tested.The braking performance and the generator performance were tested.The results show that the difference between the finite element analysis results and the experiment results was 6%.The temperature of the water wipe was 85 ℃ when the braking power was 180 kW.The braking torque decreased by 10.4% in the continuous braking stage.The braking torque could reach 2 000 N ·m when the speed was 1 500 r/min and the coil current was 30 A,while the excitation power was only 720 W by the vehicle.%针对液力缓速器结构复杂、价格高,传统电涡流缓速器制动力矩热衰退严重等问题,提出一种液冷自励式电磁缓速器结构,建立其制动系统以及发电系统分析模型,分析了系统的磁路结构,利用有限元法分别对电磁场模型、制动特性以及温度场进行分析.设计了2 000 N·m样机并进行台架试验,对缓速器制动特性以及发电机特性进行测试,测试结果与有限元分析计算结果的误差在6%以内,在制动功率为180 kW时水道温度为85℃,持续制动时制动力矩热衰退仅为10.4%.在1 500 r/min时制动力矩达到最大值2 000 N·m,而汽车电源只需提供给发电机的励磁功率为720W.

  4. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  5. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  6. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  7. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and compressive performance of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; FENG Hui; QIU Ke-qiang; CHEN Li-jia; LIU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Effect of cooling rate on both microstructure and room temperature compressive performance of the AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated. The experimental results show that with increasing cooling rate, the quantity of the solid solution phase increases and the fraction of secondary phase Mg17Al12 decreases. The almost single solid solution phase can be obtained with using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. The compressive strengths of the rapid solidified AZ91 magnesium alloys are higher than those of normal cast alloy, and decrease with increasing cooling rate. After artificial aging treatment for 14 h at 168 ℃, the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91 magnesium alloy cooled in liquid nitrogen increases from 253.5 to 335.3 MPa, while the compressive yield strength increases from 138.1 to 225.91 MPa. The improvement in the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91magnesium alloys can be attributed to the hardening effect from fine secondary phase.

  8. Magnetocaloric effect of Sr-substituted BaFeO3 in the liquid nitrogen and natural gas temperature regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Kenji; Hayashi, Naoaki; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Takano, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of Ba1-xSrxFe4+O3 (x≤0.2), a series of cubic perovskites showing a field-induced transition from helical antiferromagnetism to ferromagnetism. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSmax) at 50 kOe varies from ˜5.8 J kg-1K-1 (x=0) to ˜4.9 J kg-1K-1 (x=0.2), while the refrigerant capacity remains almost the same at ˜165 J kg-1. Interestingly, the temperature of -ΔSmax decreases from ˜116 K to ˜77 K with increasing x, providing this series of rare-earth-free oxides with potential as a magnetic refrigerant for the liquefaction of nitrogen and natural gas.

  9. Investigating membrane and mitochondrial cryobiological responses of HUVEC using interrupted cooling protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Anthony J F; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-10-01

    The success of cryopreservation protocols is largely based on membrane integrity assessments after thawing, since membrane integrity can be considered to give an upper limit in assessment of cell viability and the plasma membrane is considered to be a primary site of cryoinjury. However, the exposure of cells to conditions associated with low temperatures can induce injury to cellular structure and function that may not be readily identified by membrane integrity alone. Interrupted cooling protocols (including interrupted slow cooling without a hold time (graded freezing), and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing)), can yield important information about cryoinjury by separating the damage that occurs upon cooling to (and possibly holding at) a critical intermediate temperature range from the damage that occurs upon plunging to the storage temperature (liquid nitrogen). In this study, we used interrupted cooling protocols in the absence of cryoprotectant to investigate the progression of damage to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), comparing an assessment of membrane integrity with a mitochondrial polarization assay. Additionally, the membrane integrity response of HUVEC to interrupted cooling was investigated as a function of cooling rate (for interrupted slow cooling) and hold time (for interrupted rapid cooling). A key finding of this work was that under slow cooling conditions which resulted in a large number of membrane intact cells immediately post thaw, mitochondria are predominantly in a non-functional depolarized state. This study, the first to look directly at mitochondrial polarization throughout interrupted cooling profiles and a detailed study of HUVEC response, highlights the complexity of the progression of cell damage, as the pattern and extent of cell injury throughout the preservation process differs by injury site.

  10. Danish Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook Handout exhibition text in English and Chinese by Anne Elisabeth Toft, Curator The exhibition Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook presents the ground-breaking work of late Danish photographer Keld Helmer...

  11. Cryopreservation of encapsulated liver spheroids using a cryogen-free cooler: high functional recovery using a multi-step cooling profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, I; Selden, C; Morris, J; Hodgson, H; Fuller, B

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure has high mortality with unpredictable onset. A bioartificial liver, comprising alginate-encapsulated HepG2 spheroids, could temporarily replace liver function but must be cryopreservable. For clinical use, contamination risks from liquid coolants for cryopreservation and storage should be minimized. A cryogen-free cooler was compared to nitrogen vapour-controlled cryopreservation of alginate-encapsulated liver cell spheroids (AELS). AELS were cooled using a multi-step, slow-cooling profile in 12 percent v/v Me2SO Celsior and stored in liquid nitrogen; temperatures were recorded throughout, and the AELS were assayed at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-warming and results compared to unfrozen control values. Viability was assessed by fluorescent staining and quantified using image analysis; cell numbers were quantified using nuclear counts, and cell function using albumin synthesis. The cryogen-free cooler performed the cooling profile as desired, apart from one step requiring a rapid cool ramp. Viability, cell numbers and function were similarly decreased in both cryopreserved groups to about 90 percent, 70 percent and 65 percent of the controls respectively. This technology offers a clinic alternative to liquid nitrogen-coolant cryopreservation.

  12. Plasma chemistry of the sealed-off slab CO laser active medium pumped by radio-frequency discharge with liquid-nitrogen-cooled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kozlov, A. Yu.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The long-term time behavior of the output power of a sealed-off cryogenic slab CO laser pumped by a repetitively pulsed RF discharge and operating on the overtone (λ = 2.6-3.5 μm) vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO molecule was studied experimentally. It is shown that adding of an anomalously large amount of oxygen (up to 50% with respect to the CO concentration) to the initial gas mixture CO : He = 1 : 10 leads to a manyfold (by several tens of times) increase in the duration of the laser operating cycle (until lasing failure due to the degradation of the active medium). In this case, the laser life-time without replacement of the active medium reaches 105-106 pulses. Using various diagnostics (including luminescence spectroscopy and IR and UV absorption spectroscopy), regularities in the time-behavior of the concentrations of the main component of the active medium (CO molecules) and the products of plasmachemical reactions (O3, CO2) generated in the discharge gap during the laser operating cycle are revealed. Time correlation between the characteristics of the active medium and the laser output power are analyzed. A phenomenological approach to describing the entirety of plasmachemical, purely chemical, gas-dynamic, and diffusion processes determining the behavior of the laser output characteristics throughout the laser operating cycle is offered.

  13. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  14. Cooling Augmentation with Microchanneled Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F.Peng; B.X.Wang

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and cooling performance of subcooled liquid,water,flowing through rectangular cross-section microchanneled structures machined on a stainless steel plate.Heat transfer or flow mode stransition was observed when the heating rate or wall temperature was increased.This transition was found to be suggestively induced by the variation in liquid thermophysical properties due to the significant rise of liquid temperature in the microstructures.The influence of such parameters as liquid velocity,subcooling,property variation,and microchannel geometric configuration on the heat transfer behavior,cooling performance and the heat transfer and liquid flow mode transition were also investigated.The experiments indicated that both single-phase forced convection and flow boiling characteristics were quite different from those in normal-sized tubes and the heat transfer was obviously intensified.

  15. A high-efficiency coaxial pulse tube cryocooler with 500 W cooling capacity at 80 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhu, J.; Chen, S.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.; Li, H. B.

    2014-07-01

    High-temperature superconductivity power-grid technologies require a highly reliable and efficient cryocooler with cooling power of 100 W to kilowatt level at liquid-nitrogen temperatures to produce cryogenic environments. This paper describes the design of a coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler to meet this need. In the designed cryocooler, the regenerator and pulse tube are lengthened to avoid possible temperature inhomogeneity. In an experiment, the azimuthal temperature difference at the middle of the regenerator was less than 30 K. With 7.6 kW electric power input, the cryocooler offers more than 520 W cooling power at 80 K corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18.2%. When the cooling power was less than 370 W, the efficiency is higher than 20%.

  16. Feasibility of Using Conductively Cooled Magnets in Cryomidules of Superconducting Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terechkine, I. [Fermilab; Cheban, Cheban,S. [Fermilab; Nicol. T., Nicol. T. [Fermilab; Poloubotko, V. [Fermilab; Sergatskov, D. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    As part of a search for optimal ways to configure cryomodules of the low-beta section of a high-current, high-power superconducting linac, an option of using conductively cooled superconducting focusing lenses was evaluated. Superconducting magnet was installed inside existing test cryostat, which was modified by adding current feed-throughs and two conductively cooled current leads. Each lead was equipped with heat sinks at the temperatures of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The magnet was mounted inside the cryostat on an individual heat sink plate, and thermometers were installed on the leads, heat sinks, and on the magnet. In this report we provide some details of the test setup and analyse results of the temperature measurements.

  17. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  18. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...

  19. An Optical Cryostat for Use in Microscopy Cooled by Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubiao, Chen; Qiang, Zhou; Xiaoshuang, Zhu; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    The few products of an optical cryostat for use in microscopy in commercialapplications are generally cooled by liquid nitrogen, liquid helium or cryocoolers such as G-M cryocooler or G-M type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC). Sometimes it is not convenient to use G-M cryocooler or G-M type PTC because of its noise and big size; and in some places, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome this limitation, an optical cryostat for use in microscopy cooled by a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has been designed, built and tested. The refrigerator system SPTC is an important component of the optical cryostat; it has the advantages of compactness, high efficiency, and low vibration. For simplification and compactness, single-stage configuration with coaxial arrangement was employed in the developed SPTC. In order to lower the vibration, the separated configuration was adopted; its compressor and pulse tube are connected with a flexible connecting tube. At present, a lowest temperature of 20 K could be achieved. The temperature fluctuation can be controlled at ±10 mK by adjusting the input electric power to the compressor; and some considerations for further improvement will also be described in this paper.

  20. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. This design precludes nucleate boiling in the flow channels as they are too small to handle vapor flow. Consequently, it was necessary to determine boiling incipience under the operating conditions of the magnet system. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of plus or minus 15 percent

  1. Direct enantioseparation of nitrogen-heterocyclic pesticides on cellulose-based chiral column by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tingting; Yang, Wenwen; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Shicong

    2015-01-01

    The enantiomeric separation of eight pesticides including bitertanol (), diclobutrazol (), fenbuconazole (), triticonazole (), imazalil (), triapenthenol (), ancymidol (), and carfentrazone-ethyl () was achieved, using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on two cellulosed-based chiral columns. The effects of isopropanol composition from 2% to 30% in the mobile phase and column temperature from 5 to 40 °C were investigated. Satisfactory resolutions were obtained for bitertanol (), triticonazole (), imazalil () with the (+)-enantiomer eluted first and fenbuconazole () with the (-)-enantiomer eluted first on Lux Cellulose-2 and Lux Cellulose-3. (+)-Enantiomers of diclobutrazol () and triapenthenol () were first eluted on Lux Cellulose-2. (-)-Carfentrazone-ethyl () were eluted first on Lux Cellulose-2 and Lux Cellulose-3 with incomplete separation. Reversed elution orders were obtained for ancymidol (7). (+)-Ancymidol was first eluted on Lux Cellulose-2 while on Lux Cellulose-3 (-)-ancymidol was first eluted. The results of the elution order at different column temperatures suggested that column temperature did not affect the optical signals of the enantiomers. These results will be helpful to prepare and analyze individual enantiomers of chiral pesticides.

  2. Cryopreservation of primordial germ cells by rapid cooling of whole zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shogo; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Akashi, Yuichiro; Yamaha, Etsuro; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2010-04-01

    The feasibility of cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) primordial germ cells (PGCs) by rapid cooling (i.e., vitrification) of dechorionated whole embryos at the 14- to 20-somite stage was investigated. Initially, we examined the glass-forming properties and embryo toxicities of six cryoprotectants: methanol (MeOH), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GC), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG) and 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG). According to the results of glass-forming and embryo toxicity tests, pretreatment solution (PS) containing 2 or 3 M cryoprotectant and vitrification solution (VS) containing 5 M cryoprotectant and 0.5 M sucrose were prepared using each cryoprotectant. Dechorionated embryos, the PGCs of which were visualized by injection of green fluorescence protein-nos1 3'UTR mRNA, were cooled rapidly by plunging into liquid nitrogen after serial exposure to PS and VS. All embryos cooled with MeOH, PG and 1,3-BG showed ice formation during cooling, and few embryos had live PGCs after warming. Most embryos cooled with GC did not show ice formation; however, few embryos had live PGCs. All embryos cooled with EG and most embryos cooled with DMSO had live PGCs when the embryos did not show ice formation during cooling. Based on the number of live PGCs in fresh embryos, the maximum survival rates of PGCs recovered from embryos cooled with EG and DMSO were estimated to be about 40 and 20%, respectively. The present study indicates that rapid cooling of dechorionated whole embryos, especially using EG-based solutions, could be utilized as a simple and promising tool for cryopreservation of PGCs.

  3. How to store plant tissues in the absence of liquid nitrogen? Ethanol preserves the RNA integrity of Cannabis sativa stem tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauralie Mangeot-Peter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of intact RNA is a limiting step when gene expression profiling is performed using field-collected plant material. The use of liquid nitrogen ensures the optimal preservation of RNA, however it is not always practical, especially if the plant material has to be sampled in remote locations. Ethanol is known to preserve DNA in plant tissues even after a long storage period and here its suitability to preserve the RNA of textile hemp cortical tissues was tested. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is an economically important fibre crop because it supplies cellulosic bast fibres used in different industrial sectors. In this study we demonstrate the suitability of ethanol for RNA preservation by analyzing tissues stored at 4 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. We show that in all the cases the extracted RNA is intact. We finally analyze hemp stem tissues stored in ethanol for 1 month and demonstrate the preservation of the tissue structure, particularly of bast fibres.

  4. Effect of long-term preservation of basidiomycetes on perlite in liquid nitrogen on their growth, morphological, enzymatic and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Eichlerová, Ivana; Valášková, Vendula; Baldrian, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The macro- and micro-morphological features, mycelial extension rate, enzymatic activities and possible genetic changes were studied in 30 selected strains of basidiomycetes after 10-year cryopreservation on perlite in liquid nitrogen (LN). Comparisons with the same strains preserved by serial transfers on nutrient media at 4°C were also conducted. Production of ligninolytic enzymes and hydrogen peroxide was studied by quantitative spectrophotometric methods, whereas semiquantitative API ZYM testing was used to compare the levels of a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes. Our results show that cryopreservation in LN did not cause morphological changes in any isolate. The vitality of all fungi was successfully preserved and none of the physiological features were lost, even though the extension rate and enzyme activity were slightly affected. Moreover, sequence analysis of eight strains did not detect any changes in their genetic features after cryopreservation. These findings suggest that the perlite-based freezing protocol is suitable for long-term preservation of large numbers of basidiomycetes.

  5. Quantitation of l-alpha-acetylmethadol and its metabolites in human serum by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and nitrogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebey, K; DePace, A; Mulé, S J

    1985-10-11

    A procedure is described for the simultaneous measurement of l-alpha-acetylmethadol and its two pharmacologically active metabolites: noracetylmethadol and dinoracetylmethadol. In the method an intramolecular conversion reaction of the two metabolites to their amide configuration is utilized. The reaction is performed while the metabolites are still in the serum. Following solvent extraction the samples are analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography coupled with nitrogen detection. Quantitation is achieved by internal standardization. The lower limit of sensitivity is 5 ng/ml in serum. Absolute sensitivity is 0.1 ng for all three compounds. The advantages over other procedures are: speed due to the single extraction step; increased recovery of noracetylmethadol and dinoracetylmethadol due to decreased polarity of the amides; greater stability of the metabolites in the amide configuration; better chromatographic quantitation and separation because detector response for the amides is greater than it is for the original configuration of the metabolites and the area of the chromatographic tracing is free of interfering substances.

  6. Rapid confirmation of enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) cocaine positive urine samples by capillary gas-liquid chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detection (GLC/NPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebey, K; DePace, A

    1989-01-01

    A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method was developed for the confirmation of benzoylecgonine (BE) positive urine samples screened by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) assay. The procedure is performed by solvent extraction of BE from 0.1 or 0.2 mL of urine, followed by an aqueous wash of the solvent and evaporation. The dried residue was derivatized with 50 microL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 microL of pentafluoropropropanol at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatizing reagents were evaporated to dryness, and the derivatized BE, and cocaine if present, were reconstituted and injected into the gas chromatograph. The column was a 15-m by 0.2-mm fused silica capillary column, coated with 0.25 micron of DB-1, terminating in a nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Cocaine and the pentafluoro BE derivatives retention times were 3.2 and 2.6 min, respectively. Nalorphine was used as reference or internal standard with a retention time of 4.78 min. The complete procedure can be performed in approximately 1.5 h. The EMIT cutoff between positive and negative urine samples is 300 ng/mL of BE. The lower limit of sensitivity of this method is 25 ng of BE extracted from urine. Validation studies resulted in confirmation of 101 out of 121 EMIT cocaine positive urine samples that could not be confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This represents 84% confirmation efficiency.

  7. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots from COOH-functional ionic liquid and their sensing application in selective detection of free chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyue; Wang, Chunfeng; Sun, Dong; Li, Aoqi; Chen, Yujuan; Zhuo, Kelei

    2016-09-01

    Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) possess many unique properties and have attracted increasing attention. The precursor is vital for the preparation of highly fluorescent heteroatom doped CDs. Herein, 1, 3-bis(carboxymethyl)imidazolium chloride ([Im(AH)2]Cl, a COOH-functional ionic liquid) and aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) were firstly used as precursors to prepare nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) by a simple one-step pyrolysis approach. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and mass ratio of precursors on the quantum yield (QY) of N-CDs were investigated. The prepared N-CDs are spherical morphology with an average diameter of 2.4 nm, and have blue fluorescence with a QY of 23.2% and excitation-dependent emission behavior. They also possess good water solubility and fluorescent stability. In addition, based on the obtained N-CDs, a sensing method of free chlorine detection in acidic water system was introduced. The proposed method has good sensitivity and selectivity to free chlorine, and exhibits a nice linear response in the concentration range from 0.2 to 22 μM with a detection limit of 0.15 μM. Furthermore, this sensing method was successfully applied to detect free chlorine of tap water with satisfactory recovery (97%-103%), suggesting it has the potential application in water quality monitoring.

  8. Digital Machining System for Nozzle Cooling Channel of Large Liquid Rocket Engine%大型液体火箭发动机喷管数字化铣槽加工系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永青; 刘海波; 李护林; 贾振元

    2012-01-01

    Rocket nozzle is a key structural part of high-thrust liquid rocket engine. There are a hundreds of cooling channels around the nozzle, to ensure the reliable cooling and preheat the fuel. However, it is very difficult to machine the cooling channel due to large size, complex profile, low rigidity, etc. In this article, an integrated digital method for cooling channel machining composed of profile measuring, data processing and channel milling is proposed. Because of large difference between the actual contour and the design model, the channel bottom should be redesigned by using the measured geometric information. Therefore, the varying-thickness and varying-depth cooling channel of nozzle with high order contour or parametric shapes can be machined. Further, a special digital machining system is developed based on an open numerical control platform for the dual-channel vertical milling machine. Finally, an experiment utilizing a typical rocket nozzle is implemented to verify the feasibility of the system. It has been proved that the digital machining system can meet the machining requirements for liquid rocket engine nozzle.%针对大型液体火箭发动机喷管几何尺寸大、廓形复杂、结构刚度低致使其冷却通道加工质量难以保证的难题,提出一种集“测量-数据处理-铣槽”于一体的喷管冷却通道数字化加工新方法,并在开放式数控平台上开发出喷管专用数字化铣槽加工系统.该方法利用喷管几何外廓的实际测量信息再设计出槽底曲面,进而实现高次曲线或参数曲线廓形、变壁厚变槽深喷管冷却通道的数字化加工.通过某型号火箭发动喷管的实际加工,表明所研制的双通道立式铣槽加工专用装备与系统可满足我国新一代大推力液体火箭发动机喷管冷却通道高质量、高效、高可靠的制造要求.

  9. MHD-, ships-, jet engine unit consisting of electrochemical cells producing hydrogen, magneto-caloric hydrogen liquefier, liquid hydrogen-cooled high temperature superconductor-, MHD-, jet engine, liquid hydrogen internal combustion engine as high temperature-, superconductor-, generator-drive. High temperature superconductor coil and permanent magnet superconductor hollow cylinder as battery. MHD-Schiffs-Strahltriebwerks-Aggregat bestehend aus Wasserstoff-produzierenden elektrochemischen Solarzellen, magnetokalorischem Wasserstoffverfluessiger, Fluessigwasserstoff gekuehltem Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-MHD-Strahltriebwerk, Fluessigwasserstoff-Verbrennungsmotor als Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Generator-Antrieb, Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Spule und permanentmagnetischem Supraleiter-Hohlzylinder als Akku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berling, E.

    1991-05-02

    MHD-, ships-, jet engine-unit consisting of electrochemical cells producing hydrogen, magneto-caloric hydrogen liquifier, liquid hydrogen-cooled high temperature superconductor-, MHD-, jet engine, liquid hydrogen internal combustion engine as high temperature-, superconductor-, generator-drive. High temperature superconductor coil and permanent magnet superconductor hollow cylinder as battery. Ships water jet engines with magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) low temperature superconductor drive are known. The invention of the ceramic high temperature superconductor MHD drive, which is cooled with liquid hydrogen. The hydrogen is obtained electro-chemically directly from seawater, and is liquified magneto-calorically. The high temperature superconductor elements of the engine, liquifier, generator, storage coil, permanent magnet hollow cylinder store are coupled by a common liquid hydrogen cooling circuit. The internal combustion engine driving the generator is fuelled by the same liquid hydrogen by which the high temperature superconductor elements are cooled.

  10. Single-particle Cryo-EM data collected on a 300-kV liquid helium-cooled electron cryomicroscope%300千伏液氦冷冻电镜的单颗粒低温电子显微数据的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌东华; JOANITA Jakana; 赵华

    2007-01-01

    液氮和液氦在低温电子显微镜中都可以作为冷冻剂来保持样品处于含水冷冻状态.本文分析了收集于一台300千伏的日本电子(JEOL)低温电镜和样品处于液氦温度4 K的两组生物大分子单颗粒数据:第一组为噬菌体epsilon 15的数据,成像于Gatan 4 k×4 k电荷耦合器件;第二组是记录在Kodak SO-163底片上的噬菌体P22的数据.对这两组数据的频谱分析显示这些数据的信号分辨率均可达5~6埃.并用实验B因子对这两组数据的质量进行了定量分析.本文结果显示液氦冷冻电镜可用来收集单颗粒生物大分子的高分辨三维结构重构所需的数据.%Both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium can be used as cryogens to keep biological specimens in their frozen hydrated state in an electron cryomicroscope. Here we have analyzed two sets of biological single-particle image data collected in a JEOL 300-kV electron cryomicroscope with the specimens kept at liquid helium temperature 4 K. The first dataset was the epsilon 15 bacteriophage recorded on a Gatan Ultrascan 4 k × 4 k charged-coupled device (CCD). The second dataset was the P22 bacteriophage recorded on Kodak SO-163 photographic film. Both data contain detectable signal to at least 5 ~ 6 (A) as judged from the incoherently averaged Fourier transform (FT) of the boxed-out particle images. The data quality of both datasets was further quantified by the experimental B-factor, which describes the overall Fourier amplitude decay for the FT of the boxed-out particle images fiom each CCD frame or electron micrograph. These analyses suggest that the liquid helium-cooled electron cryomicroscope can yield single-particle image data suitable for high resolution reconstruction.

  11. Clinical analysis of Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy combined with Vitiligo Tincture in treatment of focal vitiligo%液氮冷冻联合白癜酊治疗局限性白癜风临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙波; 林兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the clinical efficacy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and vitiligo tincture in treatment of limit vitiligo.Methods :140 cases of limit vitiligo patients were in our hospital from October 2008 to September 2010.80 patients were given liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and vitiligo tincture treatment,60 patients were given liquid nitrogen cryotherapy treatment only,observe treatment effect.Results :To evaluate treatment effect after 2 months treatment,efficient rate of combined treatment group was 93.7%, cryotherapy group was 76.7%, the difference of two groups was statistically significant(x2=14.38,P<0.05).Conclusion:The efficient rate of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy combined with vitiligo tincture in treatment of vitiligo is good, and it is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨液氮冷冻联合白癜酊治疗局限性白癜风的临床疗效.方法:选择2008年10月~2010年9月本院收治的局限性白癜风患者140例,其中80例给予液氮冷冻联合白癜酊治疗,60例给予液氮冷冻治疗,观察两组治疗效果.结果:治疗2个月后评价治疗效果,联合治疗组有效率为93.7%,冷冻治疗组有效率为76.7%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.38,P<0.05).结论:液氮冷冻联合药物外涂治疗白癜风有效率较高,值得临床应用.

  12. Fundamental Research on Convective Heat Transfer in Electronic Cooling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F.Ma; Y.P.Gan; 等

    1992-01-01

    During the past six years comprehensive research programs have been conducted at the Beijing Polytechnic University to provide a better understanding of heat transfer characteristics of existing and condidate cooling techniques for electronic and microelestanding of heat transfer characteristics of existing and condidate cooling techniques for electronic and microleectronic devices.This paper provides a review and summary of the programs with emphasis on direct liquid cooling.Included in this review are the heat transfer investigations related to the following cooling modes:liquid free,mixed and forced convection.liquid jet impingement,flowing liquid film cooling,pool boiling,spray cooling,foreign gas jet impingement in liquid pool,and forced convection air-cooling.

  13. Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tobias K H; Cao, Ping; Ewert, Stephanie; Wohlgemuth, Jonas; Liu, Haiyang; Willett, Thomas C; Theodosiou, Eirini; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2013-04-12

    An integrated approach to temperature-controlled chromatography, involving copolymer modified agarose adsorbents and a novel travelling cooling zone reactor (TCZR) arrangement, is described. Sepharose CL6B was transformed into a thermoresponsive cation exchange adsorbent (thermoCEX) in four synthetic steps: (i) epichlorohydrin activation; (ii) amine capping; (iii) 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) immobilization; and 'graft from' polymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-tert-butylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide). FT-IR, (1)H NMR, gravimetry and chemical assays allowed precise determination of the adsorbent's copolymer composition and loading, and identified the initial epoxy activation step as a critical determinant of 'on-support' copolymer loading, and in turn, protein binding performance. In batch binding studies with lactoferrin, thermoCEX's binding affinity and maximum adsorption capacity rose smoothly with temperature increase from 20 to 50 °C. In temperature shifting chromatography experiments employing thermoCEX in thermally jacketed columns, 44-51% of the lactoferrin adsorbed at 42 °C could be desorbed under binding conditions by cooling the column to 22 °C, but the elution peaks exhibited strong tailing. To more fully exploit the potential of thermoresponsive chromatography adsorbents, a new column arrangement, the TCZR, was developed. In TCZR chromatography, a narrow discrete cooling zone (special assembly of copper blocks and Peltier elements) is moved along a bespoke fixed-bed separation columnfilled with stationary phase. In tests with thermoCEX, it was possible to recover 65% of the lactoferrin bound at 35 °C using 8 successive movements of the cooling zone at a velocity of 0.1mm/s; over half of the recovered protein was eluted in the first peak in more concentrated form than in the feed. Intra-particle diffusion of desorbed protein out of the support pores, and the ratio between the velocities of the cooling

  14. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state...

  15. Reducing the Liquid Helium Consumption of Superconducting Rock Magnetometers (SRMs) used in Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic studies: Gallium Lubrication of Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers Leads to a Dramatic Increase in Cool-down Efficiency, and a Drop in Liquid Helium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium-gas cryocoolers have been used for the past 40+ years in a wide variety of cryogenic applications, including reducing the liquid helium consumption of SRMs. However, the cooling efficiency depends greatly on the friction of the displacement pistons, which need to be replaced every few years. This and the rising cost of liquid helium are major headaches in the operation of modern paleomagnetic laboratories. Although the development of efficient pulse-tube cryocoolers has eliminated the need for liquid helium in new superconducting magnetometers, there are still nearly 100 older SRMs around the globe that use liquid helium. In a failed attempt to replace the Gifford-McMahon unit on one of Caltech's SRMs with a pulse-tube, we irreversibly contaminated the cylindrical surfaces of the stainless-steel heat exchanger with a thin film of gallium, a non-toxic metal that has a melting temperature of ~ 30˚C. Liquid gallium will diffuse into other metals, altering their surface properties. We noticed that the next cryocooler-assisted cool down of the SRM went nearly twice as fast as in previous cycles, and the helium boiloff rate for the past 2 years has stabilized at less than half of its average over the past 30 years. It seems that the thin layer of gallium may be reducing the sliding friction of the Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. We recently tested this on a second SRM, with similar results. We found that the inner cryocooler surface reached its equilibrium temperature in about 1/3 of the time that it took in previous cool-down cycles. WSGI also confirmed that this cool-down was unusually efficient compared to other instruments they have built. Subsequent records of the helium gas boiloff show that this system is also running at about half of its former loss rate. Based on these two results, we tentatively recommend this simple procedure any time cold-head swaps are performed on these cryocoolers.

  16. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...

  17. 无液氮冷冻小鼠精子的研究%Research on Preservation Mouse Spermatozoa without Liquid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢时斌; 李建春; 罗世明; 高国兰

    2012-01-01

    目前实验室通常用液氮加冷冻保护剂法保存小鼠精子,这种方法操作复杂而且会带来一定的安全隐患.通过对受精能力、胚胎发育潜能和胚胎组蛋白H3第4位赖氨酸残基位点上三甲基化(H3K4-TriM)的比较,探讨-20℃不加冷冻保护剂冷冻小鼠精子的效果.结果表明,-20℃不加冷冻保护剂冷冻的精子能通过单精子卵胞浆内注射重建受精能力,保持较好的胚胎发育潜能,不改变其早期胚胎H3K4-TriM的组蛋白修饰模式.可见,-20℃保存小鼠精子的方法简单、有效,有一定的应用价值.%The most accepted protocol of sperm preservation is freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with cryoprotectants. However, this method requires constant supplementation of the LN2 and also involves some safety issues in transporting. Here, we introduced a method without cryoprotectants and preserving mouse spermatozoa with ordinary refrigerator. The simple method could maintain fertilization ability of freezing spermatozoa and support embryo preimplantation development via ICSI. Moreover , we detected dynamic histone H3K4 trimethylation in the embryos derived from the freezing spermatozoa. No difference was found between the fresh sperm and freezing sperm. In conclusion, the method is a simple, effective, and safety spermatozoa preservation.

  18. Effects of pentoxifylline treatment before freezing on motility, viability and acrosome status of poor quality human spermatozoa cryopreserved by the liquid nitrogen vapor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Esteves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the direct addition of pentoxifylline (PF to the ejaculates of men with poor sperm quality before freezing on post-thaw sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and agonist-induced acrosome reaction. Semen specimens from 16 infertile men with impaired sperm count and motility (oligoasthenozoospermia were divided into two equal aliquots: one received no treatment (control while the other was incubated with 5 mM PF (treated. Both aliquots were cryopreserved by the liquid nitrogen vapor method. Motility was assessed according to WHO criteria. Acrosome integrity and spontaneous and calcium ionophore-induced acrosome reactions were assessed with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin combined with a supra-vital dye (Hoechst-33258. Cryopreservation impaired sperm motility (percentage reduction: 87.4 (interquartile range, IQ: 70.3-92.9 vs 89.1 (IQ: 72.7-96.0%, viability (25.9 (IQ: 22.2-29.7 vs 25.6 (IQ: 19.7-40.3% and acrosome integrity (18.9 (IQ: 5.4-38.9 vs 26.8 (IQ: 0.0-45.2% to the same extent in both treated and control aliquots. However, PF treatment before freezing improved the acrosome reaction to ionophore challenge test scores in cryopreserved spermatozoa (9.7 (IQ: 6.6-19.7 vs 4.8 (IQ: 0.5-6.8%; P = 0.002. These data show that pre-freeze treatment of poor quality human sperm with pentoxifylline did not improve post-thaw motility or viability nor did it prevent acrosomal loss during the freeze-thaw process. However, PF, as used, improved the ability of thawed spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction in response to calcium ionophore. The present data indicate that treatment of poor quality human sperm with PF may enhance post-thaw sperm fertilizing ability.

  19. Stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

  20. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.