WorldWideScience

Sample records for liquid media supplemented

  1. Micropropagation in stationay liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micropropagation of many species is reduced as agar concentration increases. Eliminating agar or other gelling agent completely can improve microshoot proliferation and growth. If established shoot cultures are placed in vitro into shallow layers of liquid media, most of the shoot masses will remain...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2450 - Supplement for culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplement for culture media. 866.2450 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2450 Supplement for culture media. (a) Identification. A supplement for culture media is a device, such as a vitamin or sugar...

  3. Food modification versus oral liquid nutrition supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Oral liquid nutrition supplements (ONS) are widely used in community, residential and healthcare settings. ONS are intended for individuals whose nutrient requirements cannot be achieved by conventional diet or food modification, or for the management of distinctive nutrient needs resulting from specific diseases and/or conditions. ONS appear to be most effective in patients with a body mass index of

  4. 21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 884.6180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6180... used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder versions of...

  5. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  6. Production of sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on semisynthetic liquid and solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, C J; Lubben, A; Steyn, M

    1976-08-01

    Higher yields of sterigmatocystin were obtained with Aspergillus versicolor than with Bipolaris sorokiniana both in liquid and on solid media. The optimum temperature for sterigmatocystin production by A. versicolor was 27 to 29 degrees C and 23 degrees C for B. sorokiniana. In liquid shake cultures, production of sterigmatocystin by B. sorokiniana was negligible, whereas maximal production by A. versicolor was 210 mg/liter. On solid substrates, the highest yields (8 g/kg) were obtained with A. versicolor on still cultures of whole corn supplemented with Soytone.

  7. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 7 CFR 52.773 - Liquid media and Brix measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Liquid... requirements for the liquid media in canned red tart pitted cherries are not incorporated in the grades of the... 15 days or more after the cherries are canned or on the blended homogenized slurry of the...

  9. Reactions and Interactions in Liquid Crystalline Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-30

    effective for chemical reactions as true liquids or gels as against the relative impenetrability of solid crystals . On the other hand, liquid crystals...of order is between the almost perfect long-range positional and orientational order present in solid crystals and the statistical long- range disorder

  10. FEATURES OF MEASURING IN LIQUID MEDIA BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Zhukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper presents results of experimental study of measurement features in liquids by atomic force microscope to identify the best modes and buffered media as well as to find possible image artifacts and ways of their elimination. Method. The atomic force microscope Ntegra Aura (NT-MDT, Russia with standard prism probe holder and liquid cell was used to carry out measurements in liquids. The calibration lattice TGQ1 (NT-MDT, Russia was chosen as investigated structure with a fixed shape and height. Main Results. The research of probe functioning in specific pH liquids (distilled water, PBS - sodium phosphate buffer, Na2HPO4 - borate buffer, NaOH 0.1 M, NaOH 0.5 M was carried out in contact and semi-contact modes. The optimal operating conditions and the best media for the liquid measurements were found. Comparison of atomic force microscopy data with the results of lattice study by scanning electron microscopy was performed. The features of the feedback system response in the «probe-surface» interaction were considered by the approach/retraction curves in the different environments. An artifact of image inversion was analyzed and recommendation for its elimination was provided. Practical Relevance. These studies reveal the possibility of fine alignment of research method for objects of organic and inorganic nature by atomic force microscopy in liquid media.

  11. Conformational fluctuations affect protein alignment in dilute liquid crystal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhivuori, M.; Otten, R.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of dilute liquid crystalline media to align biological macromolecules has opened many new possibilities to study protein and nucleic acid structures by NMR spectroscopy. We inspect the basic alignment phenomenon for an ensemble of protein conformations to deduce relative contributions...... molecular surfaces. Furthermore, we consider the implications of a dynamic bias to structure determination using data from the weak alignment method....

  12. Effects of Synthetic Serum Supplementation in Sperm Preparation Media on Sperm Capacitation and Function Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fu Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Albumin supplementation of culture media induces sperm capacitation in assisted reproduction technique cycles. Synthetic serum supplementation is clinically used to replace albumin for preventing transmission of infectious agents. However, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation have rarely been investigated. Spermatozoa from 30 men with normal basic semen analysis results were collected, divided into five aliquots, and cultured in capacitating conditions in four combinations of two synthetic serum supplements, serum substitute supplement (SSS and serum protein substitute (SPS, and two fertilization media, Quinns Advantage™ Fertilization (QF and human tubular fluid (HTF media. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in spermatozoa were measured through chemiluminescence. Furthermore, acrosome reaction and western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation were used to evaluate sperm capacitation. HTF+SSS had significantly higher ROS levels than QF+SPS did (11,725 ± 1,172 versus 6,278 ± 864 relative light units. In addition, the spermatozoa cultured in QF+SPS had lower motility, acrosome reaction rates, and tyrosine phosphorylation levels compared with those cultured in HTF+SSS. In conclusion, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation varied according to the combination of media. These differences may lead to variations in spermatozoon ROS levels, thus affecting sperm function test results.

  13. Inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by strains of Lactobacillus plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kareem, Karwan Yassen; Hooi Ling, Foo; Teck Chwen, Loh; May Foong, Ooi; Anjas Asmara, Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by L. plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of inulin and to select the best combination based on the modified inhibitory activity (MAU/mL) against pathogens. Methods Postbiotics were produced by 6 strains of L. plantarum (RG11, RG14, RI11, UL4, TL1 and RS5) using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of Inulin (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) yieldi...

  14. A Nanoaquarium for in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media

    CERN Document Server

    Grogan, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of many nanoscale processes occurring in liquids such as colloidal crystal formation, aggregation, nanowire growth, electrochemical deposition, and biological interactions would benefit greatly from real-time, in situ imaging with the nanoscale resolution of transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs). However, these imaging tools cannot readily be used to observe processes occurring in liquid media without addressing two experimental hurdles: sample thickness and sample evaporation in the high vacuum microscope chamber. To address these challenges, we have developed a nano-Hele-Shaw cell, dubbed the nanoaquarium. The device consists of a hermetically-sealed, 100 nm tall, liquid-filled chamber sandwiched between two freestanding, 50 nm thick, silicon nitride membranes. Embedded electrodes are integrated into the device. This fluid dynamics video features particle motion and aggregation during in situ STEM of nanoparticles suspended in liqui...

  15. Organic greenhouse soil media + supplemental fertilizer = better organic tomato transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer perceptions that organic food tastes better and is healthier are two major factors driving the increasing demand for organically produced crops in the U.S. All components entering into the organic crop production system must be approved for organic use, including seed, soil media, and fert...

  16. Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Transport Through Fibrous Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar

    Fluid flow through fibrous media occurs in many industrial processes, including, but not limited, to fuel cell technology, drug delivery patches, sanitary products, textile reinforcement, filtration, heat exchangers, and performance fabrics. Understanding the physical processes involved in fluid flow through fibrous media is essential for their characterization as well as for the optimization and development of new products. Macroscopic porous-media equations require constitutive relations, which account for the physical processes occurring at the micro-scale, to predict liquid transport at the macro-scale. In this study, micro-scale simulations were conducted using conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique (finite-volume method) to determine the macroscopic constitutive relations. The first part of this thesis deals with the single-phase flow in fibrous media, following which multi-phase flow through fibrous media was studied. Darcy permeability is an important parameter that characterizes creeping flow through a fibrous porous medium. It has a complex dependence on the medium's properties such as fibers' in-plane and through-plane orientation, diameter, aspect ratio, curvature, and porosity. A suite of 3D virtual fibrous structures with a wide range of geometric properties were constructed, and the permeability values of the structures were calculated by solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The through-plane permeability was found to be a function of only the fiber diameter, the fibers' through-plane orientation, and the porosity of the medium. The numerical results were used to extend a permeability-porosity relation, developed in literature for 3D isotropic fibrous media, to a wide range of fibers' through-plane orientations. In applications where rate of capillary penetration is important, characterization of porous media usually involves determination of either the effective pore radius from capillary penetration experiments

  17. Characteristics of laterally vibrating resonant microcantilevers in viscous liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Russell; Josse, Fabien; Heinrich, Stephen M.; Brand, Oliver; Dufour, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of microcantilevers vibrating laterally in viscous liquid media are investigated and compared to those of similar microcantilevers vibrating in the out-of-plane direction. The hydrodynamic loading on the vibrating beam is first determined using a numerical model. A semi-analytical expression for the hydrodynamic forces in terms of the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio (beam thickness over beam width) is obtained by introducing a correction factor to Stokes' solution for a vibrating plate of infinite area to account for the effects of the thickness. The results enable the effects of fluid damping and effective fluid mass on the resonant frequency and the quality factor (Q) to be investigated as a function of both the beam's geometry and liquid medium's properties and compared to experimentally determined values given in the literature. The resonant frequency and Q are found to be higher for laterally vibrating microcantilevers compared to those of similar geometry experiencing transverse (out-of-plane) vibration. Compared to transversely vibrating beams, the resonant frequency of laterally vibrating beams is shown to decrease at a slower rate (with respect to changes in viscosity) in media having higher viscosities than water. The theoretical results are compared to experimental data obtained for cantilevers completely immersed in solutions of varying aqueous percent glycerol. The increases in resonant frequency and Q are expected to yield much lower limits of detection in liquid-phase chemical sensing applications.

  18. Arginine and glutamine supplementation to culture media improves the performance of various channel catfish immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Mwangi, Waithaka; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-05-01

    Specific components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems of channel catfish were evaluated after supplementation of culture media with arginine (ARG) and/or glutamine (GLN). Primary cell cultures of head-kidney macrophages (MØ) were used for phagocytic and bactericidal assays against Edwardsiella ictaluri. Additionally, proliferation assays were conducted with naïve peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to non-specific mitogens. To indirectly assess amino acid utilization of both MØ and PBL, amino acid levels, with emphasis on ARG and GLN, were evaluated in the basal medium before and after activation or mitogenic exposure. After bactericidal and proliferation assays, the sum of the media free amino acid pool significantly (P Glutamine levels in medium decreased by 38% and ARG by 18% during the bactericidal assay. Also, decreases of 52 and 46% from initial values were found after the proliferation assay for GLN and ARG, respectively. Macrophage phagocytosis and killing ability was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by ARG supplementation to culture media regardless of GLN supplementation. Proliferation of naïve T- and B-lymphocytes upon mitogenic exposure was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by supplementing ARG and GLN to the media, but limited synergistic effects were observed. These results suggest that in vitro, ARG and GLN are important substrates and immunomodulators of both innate and adaptive responses in fish leukocytes, and further highlights the potential use of ARG and GLN as immunonutrients in aquafeeds.

  19. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  20. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neety; Pal, Shilpa; Sapru, Sunaina; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Singh, N Ibotambi; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C

    2016-01-01

    Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins.

  1. Evaluation of liquid aerosol transport through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.; Murdoch, L.; Falta, R.; Looney, B.; Riha, B.

    2016-07-01

    Application of remediation methods in contaminated vadose zones has been hindered by an inability to effectively distribute liquid- or solid-phase amendments. Injection as aerosols in a carrier gas could be a viable method for achieving useful distributions of amendments in unsaturated materials. The objectives of this work were to characterize radial transport of aerosols in unsaturated porous media, and to develop capabilities for predicting results of aerosol injection scenarios at the field-scale. Transport processes were investigated by conducting lab-scale injection experiments with radial flow geometry, and predictive capabilities were obtained by developing and validating a numerical model for simulating coupled aerosol transport, deposition, and multi-phase flow in porous media. Soybean oil was transported more than 2 m through sand by injecting it as micron-scale aerosol droplets. Oil saturation in the sand increased with time to a maximum of 0.25, and decreased with radial distance in the experiments. The numerical analysis predicted the distribution of oil saturation with only minor calibration. The results indicated that evolution of oil saturation was controlled by aerosol deposition and subsequent flow of the liquid oil, and simulation requires including these two coupled processes. The calibrated model was used to evaluate field applications. The results suggest that amendments can be delivered to the vadose zone as aerosols, and that gas injection rate and aerosol particle size will be important controls on the process.

  2. Pig and goat blood as substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented agar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, C; Gordon, R; Shaw, H; Fonseca, K; Olsen, M

    2000-02-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO(2), but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available.

  3. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  4. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, A. A.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied by changing surfactant type and concentration. We find, indeed, that the effect of foam on liquid-phase mobility is not pronounced and can be ignored. Our new experimental results and analyses resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature. Previously, some researchers erroneously applied relative permeability relationships measured at small to moderate capillary numbers to foam floods at large capillary number. Our results indicate that the water relative permeability in the absence of surfactant should be measured with the capillary pressure ranging up to values reached during the foam floods. This requires conducting a steady-state gas/water core flood with capillary numbers similar to that of foam floods or measuring the water relative-permeability curve using a centrifuge. PMID:28262795

  5. Flow of Dense Granular Media; A Peculiar Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    Rice flowing out of a silo, rocks tumbling down a slope, sand avalanching on a dune, are examples of simple granular flows. Their description still represents a challenge due to the lack of constitutive laws able to describe the rich phenomenology observed with granular materials. However, the numerous experiments and simulations carried out during the last ten years have given keys for a better understanding. This talk will review the general properties of granular flows, before focusing on the dense flow regime where granular media flow like a liquid. In this regime, simple constitutive laws can be proposed, in which the granular fluid is described as a peculiar visco-plastic liquid. This talk will show that this approach gives quantitative predictions in several configurations, providing a relevant framework for adressing granular hydrodynamic problems. The second part of this presentation will discuss the limits of this approach, the important open problems, and the consequences of this development for the more complex case of mixture of grains and fluid. This work has been done with Pierre Jop, Yoel Forterre and Mickael Paihla.

  6. Low evaporation rate storage media for cryogenic liquids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Considerable design work has been devoted to the development of cryogenic liquid storage containers. Containers which hold cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen,...

  7. Effect of media supplementation on ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J.M.; Carrasco, J.C.; Ballesteros, M. (IER-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain))

    In this study, fermentation tests of different initial glucose concentrations, ranging from 100 to 200 g/L, were conducted to identify the ethanol tolerance of Kluyveromyces marxianus (EMS-26 strain) at 42[degrees]C. Lipid and nutrient additions to the fermentation medium were made in order to improve the ethanol production at 42[degrees]C. The results obtained showed that the addition of unsaturated fatty acids and sterols to the SSF media reduced hydrolysis yields and ethanol production as compared to tests carried out on controls without lipid supplementation. These results seem to indicate that cellulases performed better when no lipid supplementation was used. The decrease in the saccharification in the presence of 0.5% Tween 80 (10% decrease in the filter paper activity) seems to be closely related to the denaturation of the cellulase complex rather than lipids interference with cellulase binding. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on body composition and physical functioning in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Hooijdonk, van C.; Wagenaar, L.; Bindels, J.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background & aims: The elderly are at an increased risk of poor nutritional status which is mutually interacting with functional status. We evaluated the effects of a liquid nutrition supplement on anthropometric and functional indices in elderly people. Methods: Subjects (n=68; mean age=82 +/-

  9. Liquid Subjects: News Media and Public Political Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Marcelina; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between news media and political education within consumer society. We argue that political education today needs to be understood as part of consumerism and media culture, in which individuals selectively expose themselves to and scrutinize various media representations not only of…

  10. Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace mineral chemically related to sulfur and tellurium. In the body selenium combines with protein molecules to form selenoproteins and it is distributed in low concentrations and unequally in air, soil and water all over the world. Edible mushrooms are known to be selenium accumulators. Since mushrooms contain relatively high protein levels, and they can accumulate large amounts of selenium, it is reasonable to expect that selenium could be incorporated into proteins. The growth of mycelia and fruit body formation of different medicinal mushroom strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Hk-35 and P70 over the wide range of concentrations of inorganic form of selenium were examined. Mushrooms were cultivated on agar base media and on substrates based on sawdust. Vegetative growths of mycelium were measured as colony diameter in pure cultures supplemented with inorganic form of Se supplements, prepared as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 in concentrations of: 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/l. Inorganic form of Se supplements, showed stimulation effects (in concentration of 1-50 mg/l and toxic effects in higher concentration. On the standard industrial sawdust based substrate, supplemented with 100 mg/kg Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3, accumulation of Se in fruit bodies was determined by the method of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The readings were performed on Varian SpectrAA-10 spectrophotometer equipped with VGA-76. Se as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 was effectively taken up from substrates and accumulated in fruit bodies. Mushrooms accumulated selenium between 120 and 250 mg/kg dry weight. In mushrooms cultivated without Se supplement, Se contents were only about 1 mg/kg and in substrate about 0.1 mg/kg.

  11. Secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum ALL 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with Fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Bloch, Carlos; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2016-02-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by T. harzianum ALL42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (GLU) or with cell walls from Fusarium solani (FSCW), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in Brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. Trichoderma harzianum was able to grow in Trichoderma Liquid Enzyme Production medium (TLE) and Minimal medium (MM) supplemented with FSCW and in TLE+GLU, but was unable to grow in MM+GLU medium. Protein quantification showed that TLE+FSCW and MM+FSCW had 45- and 30- fold, respectively, higher protein concentration on supernatant when compared to TLE+GLU, and this difference was observable on 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 94 out of 105 proteins excised from 2DE maps were identified. The only protein observed in all three conditions was epl1. In the media supplemented with FSCW, different hydrolases such as chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, glucoamylases, α-1,3-glucanases and proteases were identified, along with other proteins with no known functions in mycoparasitism, such as npp1 and cys. Trichoderma harzianum showed a complex and diverse arsenal of proteins that are secreted in response to the presence of FSCW, with novel proteins not previously described in mycoparasitic-related studies.

  12. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements.

  13. Porous liquids: a promising class of media for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song-Hai; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-12

    A porous liquid containing empty cavities has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. Moreover, such a facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to the fabrication of other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.

  14. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  15. Doxycycline supplementation allows for the culture of human ESCs/iPSCs with media changes at 3-day intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Oh, Boram; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Culturing human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/iPSCs) is one of the most costly and labor-intensive tissue cultures, as media containing expensive factors/cytokines should be changed every day to maintain and propagate undifferentiated hESCs/iPSCs in vitro. We recently reported that doxycycline, an anti-bacterial agent, had dramatic effects on hESC/iPSC survival and promoted self-renewal. In this study, we extended the effects of doxycycline to a more practical issue to save cost and labor in hESC/iPSC cultures. Regardless of cultured cell conditions, hESCs/iPSCs in doxycycline-supplemented media were viable and proliferating for at least 3 days without media change, while none or few viable cells were detected in the absence of doxycycline in the same conditions. Thus, hESCs/iPSCs supplemented with doxycycline can be cultured for a long period of time with media changes at 3-day intervals without altering their self-renewal and pluripotent properties, indicating that doxycycline supplementation can reduce the frequency of media changes and the amount of media required by 1/3. These findings strongly encourage the use of doxycycline to save cost and labor in culturing hESCs/iPSCs.

  16. Supported ionic liquids: versatile reaction and separation media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco;

    2006-01-01

    The latest developments in supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) systems for catalysis and separation technology are surveyed. The SILP concept combines the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with heterogeneous process technology, and a variety of reactions have been studied where supported ionic ...... liquid catalysts proved to be more active and selective than common systems. In separation applications the use of supported ionic liquids can facilitate selective transport of substrates across membranes.......The latest developments in supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) systems for catalysis and separation technology are surveyed. The SILP concept combines the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with heterogeneous process technology, and a variety of reactions have been studied where supported ionic...

  17. Assessment of selected media supplements to improve F/HN lentiviral vector production yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Jean-François; Davies, Lee A; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C

    2017-08-31

    The development of lentiviral-based therapeutics is challenged by the high cost of current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) production. Lentiviruses are enveloped viruses that capture a portion of the host cell membrane during budding, which then constitutes part of the virus particle. This process might lead to lipid and protein depletion in the cell membrane and affect cell viability. Furthermore, growth in suspension also causes stresses that can affect virus production yields. To assess the impact of these issues, selected supplements (Cholesterol Lipid Concentrate, Chemically Defined Lipid Concentrate, Lipid Mixture 1, Gelatin Peptone N3, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and Pluronic F-68) were assayed in order to improve production yields in a transient transfection production of a Sendai virus F/HN-pseudotyped HIV-1-based third generation lentiviral vector in FreeStyle 293 (serum-free media) in suspension. None of the supplements tested had a significant positive impact on lentiviral vector yields, but small non-significant improvements could be combined to increase vector production in a cell line where other conditions have been optimised.

  18. In Vitro Cultivation of 'Unculturable' Oral Bacteria, Facilitated by Community Culture and Media Supplementation with Siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R; Adamowska, Aleksandra; Lawlor, Megan; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2016-01-01

    Over a third of oral bacteria are as-yet-uncultivated in-vitro. Siderophores have been previously shown to enable in-vitro growth of previously uncultivated bacteria. The objective of this study was to cultivate novel oral bacteria in siderophore-supplemented culture media. Various compounds with siderophore activity, including pyoverdines-Fe-complex, desferricoprogen and salicylic acid, were found to stimulate the growth of difficult-to-culture strains Prevotella sp. HOT-376 and Fretibacterium fastidiosum. Furthermore, pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated increased proportions of the as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes Dialister sp. HOT-119 and Megasphaera sp. HOT-123 on mixed culture plates supplemented with siderophores. Therefore a culture model was developed, which incorporated 15 μg siderophore (pyoverdines-Fe-complex or desferricoprogen) or 150 μl neat subgingival-plaque suspension into a central well on agar plates that were inoculated with heavily-diluted subgingival-plaque samples from subjects with periodontitis. Colonies showing satellitism were passaged onto fresh plates in co-culture with selected helper strains. Five novel strains, representatives of three previously-uncultivated taxa (Anaerolineae bacterium HOT-439, the first oral taxon from the Chloroflexi phylum to have been cultivated; Bacteroidetes bacterium HOT-365; and Peptostreptococcaceae bacterium HOT-091) were successfully isolated. All novel isolates required helper strains for growth, implying dependence on a biofilm lifestyle. Their characterisation will further our understanding of the human oral microbiome.

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation, gene expression and protein production in human platelet-rich plasma-supplemented media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amable, Paola Romina; Teixeira, Marcus Vinicius Telles; Carias, Rosana Bizon Vieira; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Borojevic, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly used as a cell culture supplement, in order to reduce the contact of human cells with animal-derived products during in vitro expansion. The effect of supplementation changes on cell growth and protein production is not fully characterized. Human mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue and Wharton's Jelly were isolated and cultured in PRP-supplemented media. Proliferation, in vitro differentiation, expression of cell surface markers, mRNA expression of key genes and protein secretion were quantified. 10% PRP sustained five to tenfold increased cell proliferation as compared to 10% fetal bovine serum. Regarding cell differentiation, PRP reduced adipogenic differentiation and increased calcium deposits in bone marrow and adipose tissue-mesenchymal stromal cells. Wharton's Jelly derived mesenchymal stromal cells secreted higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factors than other mesenchymal stromal cells when cultured in PRP-supplemented media. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells secreted higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic proteins. Mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue secreted higher amounts of extracellular matrix components. Mesenchymal stromal cells purified from different tissues have distinct properties regarding differentiation, angiogenic, inflammatory and matrix remodeling potential when cultured in PRP supplemented media. These abilities should be further characterized in order to choose the best protocols for their therapeutic use.

  20. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.

  1. Fluidization of granular media wetted by liquid 4He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Sohaili, M; Schröter, M; Herminghaus, S

    2009-01-01

    We explore experimentally the fluidization of vertically agitated polymethylmethacrylate spheres wetted by liquid 4He . By controlling the temperature around the lambda point, we change the properties of the wetting liquid from a normal fluid (helium I) to a superfluid (helium II). For wetting by helium I, the critical acceleration for fluidization (Gamma_{c}) shows a steep increase close to the saturation of the vapor pressure in the sample cell. For helium II wetting, Gamma_{c} starts to increase at about 75% saturation, indicating that capillary bridges are enhanced by the superflow of the unsaturated helium film. Above saturation, Gamma_{c} enters a plateau regime where the capillary force between particles is independent of the bridge volume. The plateau value is found to vary with temperature and shows a peak at 2.1K , which we attribute to the influence of the specific heat of liquid helium.

  2. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  3. Ionic Liquids as Quasihydrostatic Pressure Media for Diamond Anvil Cell Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Sierra; Moldowan, Kaela; Dan, Ioana; Forster, Paul; Iota, Valentin

    2012-02-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts in which the ions are poorly coordinated to the point where the eutectic mixture remains liquid at room temperature. In general, ILs exhibit high chemical and thermal stability, have extended liquid regions in the pressure-temperature domain, and can be easily obtained. Commercial ionic liquids are relatively inexpensive and custom ionic solutions can be easily synthesized by mixing common reactants. These properties make ionic liquids attractive candidates for high-pressure media in Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) experiments. In this presentation we explore the use of ionic liquids as DAS quasihydrostatic pressure media for pressures up to 50 GPa. As a measure of hydrostaticity we monitor the splitting and peak-widths of the R1 andR 2 fluorescence lines from small ruby chips (Al2O3 :Cr^3+) imbedded in the pressure medium. We present results on a series of commercially available ionic fluids against standard pressure media: methanol-ethanol mixtures, silicone oil, sodium chloride (NaCl) and noble gases (Ar, Ne, He).

  4. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of tetracycline drugs from egg supplements before flow injection analysis coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) method was developed for extraction of tetracycline residues from egg supplement samples, with subsequent determination by flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a controlled temperature heating bath. Tetracyclines react with diazotized p-sulfanilic acid, in a slightly alkaline medium, to form azo compounds that can be measured at 435 nm. The reaction sensitivity improved substantially (5.12-fold) using an in-line heating temperature of 45 °C. Multivariate methodology was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency, considering the volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, sonication time, extraction time, and centrifugation time. Good linearity in the range 30-600 μg L(-1) was obtained for all the tetracyclines, with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9974. The limits of detection ranged from 6.4 to 11.1 μg L(-1), and the recoveries were in the range 85.7-96.4 %, with relative standard deviation lower than 9.8 %. Analyte recovery was improved by approximately 6 % when the microextraction was assisted by ultrasound. The results obtained with the proposed US-DLLME-FIA method were confirmed by a reference HPLC method and showed that the egg supplement samples analyzed were suitable for human consumption.

  5. Reection and refraction of plane waves at the interface between magnetoelectroelastic and liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the reflection and refraction of plane wave incidences at the interface between magnetoelectroelastic (MEE and liquid media. The MEE medium is assumed to be transversely isotropic and the liquid medium to be nonviscous. Three cases, i.e., the coupled quasipressure wave incidence from the MEE medium, the coupled quasi-shear vertical wave incidence from the MEE medium, and the pressure wave incidence from the liquid medium, are discussed. The expressions of reflection and transmission coefficients varying with the incident angle are obtained. This investigation would be useful to the MEE acoustic device field.

  6. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  7. Aza-Michael Addition of Isatin and Phthalimide to Symmetrical Fumaric Esters in Ionic Liquid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMANZADEH Gholam Hassan; MOLLAEI TAVANA Mahdieh; ZAMANLOO Mohammad Reza; MANSOORI Yagoub

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient aza-Michael additions of isatin and phthalimide to symmetrical fumaric esters in ionic liquid media to produce the corresponding Michael adducts in excellent yields are described which were performed at 100 ℃ for 1-5 h. The results show that these aza-Michael additions are not effective with fumaric esters containing sterically hindered alkoxy groups.

  8. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  9. Theory of liquids and other disordered media a short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmacher, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an introduction to the structure, thermodynamics and dynamics of liquids, binary solutions and polymers at a level that will enable graduate students and non-specialist researchers to understand more specialized literature and to possibly start their own work in this field. Part I starts with the introduction of distribution functions, which describe the statistical arrangements of atoms or molecules in a simple liquid. The main concepts involve mean field theories like the Perkus-Yevick theory and the random phase approximation, which relate the forces to the distribution functions. In order to provide a concise, self-contained text, an understanding of the general statistical mechanics of an interacting many-body system is assumed. The fact that in a classic liquid the static and dynamic aspects of such a system can be discussed separately forms the basis of the two-fold structure of this approach. In order to allow polymer melts and solutions to be discussed, a short chapter a...

  10. Interaction of DC Microhollow Cathode Discharge Plasma Micro Jet with Liquid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weidong; Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt

    2008-10-01

    There have been different approaches in studying the interaction between plasma and liquid, such as sustained plasmas in contact with liquids and pulsed electric discharge in liquids. Recently, we have discovered that stable plasma can be sustained within a gas cavity maintained inside liquid media. A prototype device with key dimensions in sub-millimeter range were operated successfully in de-ionized water and turbo molecular pump oil with ambient air, pure nitrogen or pure oxygen used as the operating gas. Hydrogen Peroxide production in de-ionized water with ambient air as the working gas is estimated to be about 80 mg/L after 15 minutes plasma jet-water interaction while energy consumption is only about 8-10 W. With the radicals readily generated and directly introduced into the liquid media, it could lead to applications such as in-liquid bio-waste treatment, bio-rich liquid modification, in-situ monitoring/sensing, and filtration of by-products from VOC treatment by plasma.

  11. Genetic Screening for Bacterial Mutants in Liquid Growth Media By Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have defined in vitro virulence inducing conditions in liquid media which lead to production of virulence factors important during an infection. Identifying mutants that no longer respond to virulence inducing conditions will increase our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. However, traditional genetic screens require growth on solid media. Bacteria in a single colony are in every phase of the growth curve, which complicates the analysis and make screens for growth phase-specific mutants problematic. Here, we utilize fluorescence-activated cell sorting in conjunction with random transposon mutagenesis to isolate bacteria grown in liquid media that are defective in virulence activation. This method permits analysis of an entire bacterial population in real time and selection of individual bacterial mutants with the desired gene expression profile at any time point after induction. We have used this method to identify Vibrio cholerae mutants defective in virulence induction. PMID:21094189

  12. [Automated methods of culture determination of M. tuberculosis in liquid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtuganova, O A; Smirnova, N S; Slogotskaia, L V; Moroz, A M; Litvinov, V I

    2001-01-01

    A hundred and seventy respiratory samples from patients with different forms of tuberculosis were used to test the efficiency of the automatic liquid culture systems BACTEC MGIT 960 and MB/BacT with inoculation into the standard dense media. All these media provided 47 M. tuberculous isolates, of them 41 (87.2%), 38 (80.9%), and 76.6% on the BACTER 960, MB/BacT, and dense media, respectively. The average time of detection of mycobacterial growth by means of automatic systems was much shorter and equal to 10.7 days on the BACTEC 960 and 18.7 days on the MB/BacT versus 33.2 days on the standard dense medium. In terms of their sensitivity and detection rate, the automatic systems were superior to the dense media widely used in laboratory practice.

  13. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, V. D., E-mail: vdborman@mephi.ru; Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Lisichkin, G. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  14. Effects of liquid morphology and distribution on the apparent properties of porous media made of stacked particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of liquid morphology on the apparent transfer properties of porous media formed by stacked particles, the authors investigate the particles’ aggregation state, apparent volume, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of wet stacked glass beads. It shows that the liquid mainly exists as liquid bridges when the liquid content is low and connects each other when high. The transformation of liquid morphology and distribution influences the liquid effects on particles, thus changing the aggregation state of the particles and the apparent properties of the porous media in turn. A model is developed for predicting the critical liquid content at which the liquid morphology shifts from the state of liquid bridges into the state of interconnectedness. The prediction from the model is in good agreement with the experiment.

  15. Adapted MR velocimetry of slow liquid flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Mikolajczyk, Gerd; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Wilhelm, Michaela; Odenbach, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    MR velocimetry of liquid flow in opaque porous filters may play an important role in better understanding the mechanisms of deep bed filtration. With this knowledge, the efficiency of separating the suspended solid particles from the vertically flowing liquid can be improved, and thus a wide range of industrial applications such as wastewater treatment and desalination can be optimized. However, MR velocimetry is challenging for such studies due to the low velocities, the severe B0 inhomogeneity in porous structures, and the demand for high spatial resolution and an appropriate total measurement time during which the particle deposition will change velocities only marginally. In this work, a modified RARE-based MR velocimetry method is proposed to address these issues for velocity mapping on a deep bed filtration cell. A dedicated RF coil with a high filling factor is constructed considering the limited space available for the vertical cell in a horizontal MR magnet. Several means are applied to optimize the phase contrast RARE MRI pulse sequence for accurately measuring the phase contrast in a long echo train, even in the case of a low B1 homogeneity. Two means are of particular importance. One uses data acquired with zero flow to correct the phase contrast offsets from gradient imperfections, and the other combines the phase contrast from signals of both odd and even echoes. Results obtained on a 7T preclinical MR scanner indicate that the low velocities in the heterogeneous system can be correctly quantified with high spatial resolution and an adequate total measurement time, enabling future studies on flow during the filtration process.

  16. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  17. Hydrodynamic sono-voltammetry of ferrocene in [Tf2N]- based ionic liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cédric; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves; Bisel, Isabelle; Moisy, Philippe; Lévêque, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The present work deals with the hydrodynamic behavior of several room-temperature ionic liquids presenting the same bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyles)imide anion, associated with four different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations. Steady state voltammetry was used as an electrochemical technique to characterize mass transfer in both silent and sonicated conditions, using a rotating disk electrode. Results obtained in RTILs media are compared to those acquired in synthetic solutions of controlled viscosity, in order to develop a better understanding of the phenomena involved in such media.

  18. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  19. Liquid anion-exchange separation of vanadium from malonate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R.R.; Khopkar, S.M. (Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry, Bombay (India))

    1992-06-01

    Vanadium (IV) and (V) can be quantitatively extracted with 0.2 mol/l Amberlite LA-2 in xylene at pH 3.0 from 0.02 mol/l malonic acid, stripped with 0.5 mol/l hydrochloric acid, and determined spectrophotometrically. Five other liquid anion exchangers (Amberlite LA-1, Primene JM-T, Aliquat 336S, TOA and TIOA) were examined as possible extractants. The extraction of vanadium(IV) was found to be quantitative only with Amberlite LA-2, while that of vanadium(V) was quantitative with Amberlite LA-1 and LA-2, Primene JM-T and Aliquat 336S. Eight common solvents were tested as diluents; of these hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, and xylene were found to be satisfactory. Vanadium was separated from elements that do not form anionic complexes with malonic acid by selective extraction, from those that form weak complexes by washing the organic extract with water, and from metals that form strong malonato complexes by selective stripping with hydrochloric, nitric, or sulphuric acid. The method has been applied to the determination of vanadium in steel, coal fly ash and fuel oil. The precision of measurement is within {+-}5% and the detection limit of the method for vanadium is 0.5 mg/kg. (orig.).

  20. Bioremediation of kerosene I: A case study in liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Mona K; Omar, Sanaa H; Chekroud, Zohra A; Nour Eldin, Hemdan M

    2007-11-01

    The ability of different local isolates in addition to some isolates from Germany to degrade kerosene in liquid medium was studied. The results showed that the percent of kerosene degradation varied among the different organisms and that 59-94% of kerosene was degraded after 21d. Two local isolates (Pseudomonas sp. AP and Pseudomonas sp. CK) and one German isolate (Gordonia sp. DM) were selected for this study. The addition of wheat bran, as co-substrate, stimulated the kerosene degradation by the two local strains, while glucose inhibited the degradation rate using the three organisms with different rates. Ammonium nitrate and urea was the best nitrogen sources. The use of superphosphate (as phosphorus source) in the presence of urea stimulates the degradation rate. It was also observed that the addition of 1% surfactants, like Triton X-100, Igepal, Tergitol, or Tween 20 and 80 enhanced the kerosene degradation. The degradation percent lied between 94% and 98%. The ability of the tested organisms to degrade kerosene concentration from 2% to 8% was evaluated. It was found that the three organisms degraded about 65-85% from 8% kerosene after 21d. The use of rice straw-immobilized cells reduced the time of degradation and enhanced the degradation ability of the organisms. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a common protein band when the tested organisms were grown on kerosene.

  1. AFM imaging of bacteria in liquid media immobilized on gelatin coated mica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, M.J.; Sullivan, C.J.; Hoyt, P.R.; Pelletier, D.A.; Wu, S.; Allison, D.P

    2003-10-15

    Immobilization of particulates, especially biomolecules and cells, onto surfaces is critical for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper, gelatin coated mica surfaces are shown to be suitable for immobilizing and imaging both gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram negative, Escherichia coli, bacteria in both air and liquid environments. Gelatin coated surfaces are shown to be superior to poly-L-lysine coated surfaces that are commonly used for the immobilization of cells. This cell immobilization technique is being developed primarily for live cell imaging of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The genome of R. palustris has been sequenced and the organism is the target of intensive studies aimed at understanding genome function. Images of R. palustris grown both aerobically and anaerobically in liquid media are presented. Images in liquid media show the bacteria is rod shaped and smooth while images in air show marked irregularity and folding of the surface. Significant differences in the vertical dimension are also apparent with the height of the bacteria in liquid being substantially greater than images taken in air. In air immobilized bacterial flagella are clearly seen while in liquid this structure is not visible. Additionally, significant morphological differences are observed that depend on the method of bacterial growth.

  2. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  3. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  4. On predicting the onset of transient convection in porous media saturated with Non-Newtonian liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. K.; Pua, S. Y.; Yang, A.

    2017-06-01

    The onset of transient convection in non-Newtonian liquid immersing porous media was simulated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package for the thermal boundary condition of Fixed Surface Temperature (FST). Most of the simulated values of stability criteria were found to be in good agreement with the predicted and theoretical values of transient critical Rayleigh number for non-Newtonian liquid defined by Tan and Thorpe (1992) for power-law fluids. The critical transient Rayleigh numbers for convection in porous media were found to be in good agreement with theoretical values by using apparent viscosity µapp at zero shear. The critical time and critical depth for transient heat conduction were then determined accurately that

  5. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling of Mycobacterium smegmatis MC² 155 Cultivated in Minimal Media Supplemented with Cholesterol, Androstenedione or Glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Ge, Fanglan; Tan, Yunya; Zhang, Guangxiang; Li, Wei

    2016-05-07

    Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC² 155 is an attractive model organism for the study of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial pathogens, as it can grow well using cholesterol as a carbon resource. However, its global transcriptomic response remains largely unrevealed. In this study, M. smegmatis MC² 155 cultivated in androstenedione, cholesterol and glycerol supplemented media were collected separately for a RNA-Sequencing study. The results showed that 6004, 6681 and 6348 genes were expressed in androstenedione, cholesterol and glycerol supplemented media, and 5891 genes were expressed in all three conditions, with 237 specially expressed in cholesterol added medium. A total of 1852 and 454 genes were significantly up-regulated by cholesterol compared with the other two supplements. Only occasional changes were observed in basic carbon and nitrogen metabolism, while almost all of the genes involved in cholesterol catabolism and mammalian cell entry (MCE) were up-regulated by cholesterol, but not by androstenedione. Eleven and 16 gene clusters were induced by cholesterol when compared with glycerol or androstenedione, respectively. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the cholesterol responsive transcriptome of M. smegmatis. Our results indicated that cholesterol induced many more genes and increased the expression of the majority of genes involved in cholesterol degradation and MCE in M. smegmatis, while androstenedione did not have the same effect.

  6. Study of the effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on the nutritional status of psycho-geriatric nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Wouters, A.E.J.; Kleijer, C.N.; Bindels, J.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the acceptance of a multinutrient liquid nutrition supplement in psycho-geriatric nursing home patients and the effect on weight, plasma nutrients and activities of daily life. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week intervention study. Setting: Two nursing homes in

  7. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60 000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  8. Liquid effect on the vibration of granular media in cylindrical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Enrique; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    The study of the interactions of granular media with liquid phases is important both, from the academic applied points of view. A particularly interesting problem concerns the dispersion of the granular phase into the liquid phase. To this end, a series of experiments are being conducted in order to determine the conditions under which such dispersion takes place. The experimental apparatus consists of a short transparent cylinder (LvD) with its axis oriented in a horizontal position. The cavity is completely filled with liquid and a prescribed number of glass spheres forms a deposit layer at the bottom. The cylinder, which is initially at rest, is set into a vertical vibrating state of motion by means of an external actuator. While the amplitude of the excitation remains fixed, its frequency is swept (continously) from 5Hz to 15Hz. Synchronized high speed imaging is then used to identify the frequency at which the stratified-to-dispersed transition occurs. Preliminary results clearly indicate the essential role played by the properties of the liquid (i.e. density, viscosity and superficial tension) and of the spheres (i.e. size and number) during the process. The objective of the study is to determine the conditions required to produce appropriate dispersions for different combinations of liquids and spheres.

  9. A New Method for Calculation of Single Seismic Phase of Cylindrically Multilayered Media Including Liquid Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ruo-Long; WANG Ke-Xie; ZHANG Hong-Bing; HAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new method based on generalized reflection and transmission (R/T) coefficients method is proposed to calculate the single seismic phase (SSP) of cylindrically multilayered media including liquid interlayer. The use of normalization factors and normalized Lame coefficients makes the algorithm stable numerically. Using the modified R/T matrices, we derive the iterative expressions of generalized R/T matrices, and by using the iterative relation we determine the SSP of each interface and the full waveforms. To show the superiority of this new approach for investigating of reflection and transmission properties of cylindrically multilayered media, we simulate the full waveforms and SSPs of cased hole model with annulus Ⅰ (casing-cement interface) channelling (or,cross-flow). The generalized reflection coefficient spectra and SSPs of interfaces obtained show the propagation mechanism of each component of full waveform clearly.

  10. Double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for solid-liquid phase change with natural convection in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is developed for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. The model uses two different multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equations, one for the flow field and the other for the temperature field with nonlinear latent heat source term. The model is based on the generalized non-Darcy formulation, and the solid-liquid interface is traced through the liquid fraction which is determined by the enthalpy-based method. The present model is validated by numerical simulations of conduction melting in a semi-infinite space, solidification in a semi-infinite corner, and convection melting in a square cavity filled with porous media. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present model for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media.

  11. Double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for solid-liquid phase change with natural convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is developed for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. The model uses two different multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equations, one for the flow field and the other for the temperature field with nonlinear latent heat source term. The model is based on the generalized non-Darcy formulation, and the solid-liquid phase change interface is traced through the liquid fraction which is determined by the enthalpy method. The model is validated by numerical simulations of conduction melting in a semi-infinite space, solidification in a semi-infinite corner, and convection melting in a square cavity filled with porous media. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present model for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media.

  12. Supplementing consumer insights at Electrolux by mining social media: An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of text mining social media, for consumer insights from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory, single case embedded case study with inductive approach and partially mixed, concurrent, dominant status mixed method research design. The case study contains three different studies to try to triangulate the research findings and support research objective of using social media for consumer insights...

  13. Supplementing consumer insights at Electrolux by mining social media: An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of text mining social media, for consumer insights from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory, single case embedded case study with inductive approach and partially mixed, concurrent, dominant status mixed method research design. The case study contains three different studies to try to triangulate the research findings and support research objective of using social media for consumer insights...

  14. Porous media characterization by the two-liquid method: effect of dynamic contact angle and inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Becky; Marmur, Abraham; Bachmann, Joerg

    2008-03-04

    The validity of using the Lucas-Washburn (LW) equation for porous media characterization by the two-liquid capillary penetration method was tested numerically and experimentally. A cylindrical capillary of known radius and contact angle was used as a model system for the tests. It was found that using the LW equation (i.e., ignoring inertia and dynamic contact angle effects) may lead to very erroneous assessment of the capillary radius and the equilibrium contact angle, for a relatively wide range of capillary radii and equilibrium contact angles. A correct assessment requires the application of a penetration kinetics equation that considers inertia and the dynamic contact angle.

  15. The use of social media to supplement resident medical education - the SMART-ME initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Porto-Carreiro, Fernanda; Hayashi, Jennifer; Zakaria, Sammy; Christmas, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Residents work at variable times and are often unable to attend all scheduled educational sessions. Therefore, new asynchronistic approaches to learning are essential in ensuring exposure to a comprehensive education. Social media tools may be especially useful, because they are accessed at times convenient for the learner. Assess if the use of Twitter for medical education impacts the attitude and behavior of residents toward using social media for medical education. Preintervention and postintervention surveys. Internal medicine resident physicians were surveyed before the launch of a residency-specific Twitter webpage on August 1, 2013, and again 135 days later, to determine their use of the Twitter application and web page, as well as other social media for medical education. Residents at an internal medicine urban academic training program. All residents within our training program were administered web-based surveys. The surveys assessed resident views and their frequency of use of social media for medical education purposes, and consisted of 10 Likert scale questions. Each answer consisted of a datapoint on a 1-5 scale (1=not useful, 3=useful, 5=very useful). The final survey question was open-ended and asked for general comments. Thirty-five of 50 residents (70%) completed the presurvey and 40 (80%) participated in the postsurvey. At baseline, 34 out of 35 residents used social media and nine specifically used Twitter. Twenty-seven (77%) used social media for medical education; however, only three used Twitter for educational purposes. After the establishment of the Twitter page, the percentage of residents using social media for educational purposes increased (34 of 40 residents, 85%), and 22 used Twitter for this purpose (psocial media could be useful as a medical education tool, which slightly increased from 30 out of 35 in the preintervention survey (p=0.01). Residents believe social media could be used for medical education. After we launched a Twitter

  16. The use of social media to supplement resident medical education – the SMART-ME initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagis Galiatsatos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Residents work at variable times and are often unable to attend all scheduled educational sessions. Therefore, new asynchronistic approaches to learning are essential in ensuring exposure to a comprehensive education. Social media tools may be especially useful, because they are accessed at times convenient for the learner. Objective: Assess if the use of Twitter for medical education impacts the attitude and behavior of residents toward using social media for medical education. Design: Preintervention and postintervention surveys. Internal medicine resident physicians were surveyed before the launch of a residency-specific Twitter webpage on August 1, 2013, and again 135 days later, to determine their use of the Twitter application and web page, as well as other social media for medical education. Participants: Residents at an internal medicine urban academic training program. Main Measures: All residents within our training program were administered web-based surveys. The surveys assessed resident views and their frequency of use of social media for medical education purposes, and consisted of 10 Likert scale questions. Each answer consisted of a datapoint on a 1–5 scale (1=not useful, 3=useful, 5=very useful. The final survey question was open-ended and asked for general comments. Key Results: Thirty-five of 50 residents (70% completed the presurvey and 40 (80% participated in the postsurvey. At baseline, 34 out of 35 residents used social media and nine specifically used Twitter. Twenty-seven (77% used social media for medical education; however, only three used Twitter for educational purposes. After the establishment of the Twitter page, the percentage of residents using social media for educational purposes increased (34 of 40 residents, 85%, and 22 used Twitter for this purpose (p<0.001 for the change. The percentage of residents using the application at least once a week also increased from 11.4 to 60.0% (p<0.001. Almost

  17. Effect of Temperature Wave on the Gas Transport in Liquid-Saturated Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of surface temperature oscillations on gas mass transport through liquid-saturated porous media. Temperature wave induced by these oscillations and decaying deep in the massif creates the gas solubility wave along with the corresponding solute diffusion flux wave. When bubbles are immobilized by the surface tension force the only remaining mechanisms of gas mass transport are related to solute flux through liquid in pores. We evaluate analytically the generated time-average mass flux for the case of medium everywhere littered with gas bubbles and reveal the significant effect of the temperature wave on the gas release from the massif and bubble mass redistribution within the massif. Analytical theory is validated with numerical calculations.

  18. ZnO nanorods prepared via ablation of Zn with millisecond laser in liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Taku; Owashi, Tatsuki; Rozhin, Alex G; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Ito, Tsuyohito; Kulinich, Sergei A

    2016-09-14

    ZnO nanomaterials with controlled size, shape and surface chemistry are required for applications in diverse areas, such as optoelectronics, photocatalysis, biomedicine and so on. Here, we report on ZnO nanostructures with rod-like and spherical shapes prepared via laser ablation in liquid using a laser with millisecond-long pulses. By changing laser parameters (such as pulse width and peak power), the size or aspect ratio of such nanostructures could be tuned. The surface chemistry and defects of the products were also strongly affected by applied laser conditions. The preparation of different structures is explained by the intense heating of liquid media caused by millisecond-long pulses and secondary irradiation of already-formed nanostructures.

  19. Rapid determination of silver in nanobased liquid dietary supplements using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Mudalige, Thilak K; Lim, Jin-Hee; Linder, Sean W

    2013-07-31

    This paper reports a rapid and straightforward method for the quantitation of total Ag content in nanobased commercially available liquid dietary supplements using a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) analyzer. Figures of merits were evaluated by analyzing a series of AgNO3 standards. This method was shown to have a detection limit of 3 ppm, a quantitation limit of 10 ppm, and a broad linear range from the detection limit to 10000 ppm (1%). Accurate detection and quantitation of Ag content in well-characterized Ag nanoparticle samples and in nanobased liquid dietary supplements were achieved with good correlation (i.e., percentage difference average values under 15%) between the total Ag concentration obtained by the pXRF analyzer and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Furthermore, accurate quantitation of Ag in the presence of high concentrations of potential spectral interferences was also demonstrated.

  20. Supplementing Literacy Instruction with a Media-Rich Intervention: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Bates, Lauren; Gallagher, Lawrence P.; Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin; Townsend, Eve; Hupert, Naomi; Dominguez, Ximena; VanderBorght, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether a curriculum supplement organized as a sequence of teacher-led literacy activities using digital content from public educational television programs can improve early literacy outcomes of low-income preschoolers. The study sample was 436 children in 80 preschool classrooms in California and New York. Preschool…

  1. Supplementing Literacy Instruction with a Media-Rich Intervention: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Bates, Lauren; Gallagher, Lawrence P.; Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin; Townsend, Eve; Hupert, Naomi; Dominguez, Ximena; VanderBorght, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether a curriculum supplement organized as a sequence of teacher-led literacy activities using digital content from public educational television programs can improve early literacy outcomes of low-income preschoolers. The study sample was 436 children in 80 preschool classrooms in California and New York. Preschool…

  2. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of flow and solidification of liquid water during unidirectional freezing in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruya, Tomotaka; Rempel, Alan; Kurita, Kei

    2014-05-01

    Flow and phase change of liquid in porous media are fundamental processes in earth science and soil physics. Particularly in cold region or periglacial environment, the flow and solidification of pore water in the ground simultaneously occur and their collective interactions control the growth of ice lenses and upward displacement of surface called as frost heave. In the nucleation and growth of ice lenses, the homogeneous mixture of soil particles and pore water is transformed to the heterogeneous structure due to the water redistribution and the particle migration. Unfrozen water that is adsorbed to the particle surface or confined to capillary regions plays an important role in the formation of ice lenses and its behaviors have been investigated from a perspective of premelting dynamics (e.g., Worster and Wettlaufer 2006). In the porous media below the nominal melting temperature, intermolecular forces that act between particles and ice through the liquid thin film produce the net thermomolecular force that is responsible for the particle separation form the ice lenses(Dash et al. 2006). Although the mechanisms of ice lens formation have been investigated by many researchers, still large uncertainties remain and more experimental constraints are required. Here we present experimental results of ice lens formation, particularly focusing on the role of grain size and compare the model by Rempel et al (2004). We have performed the unidirectional freezing experiments using water-saturated glass beads that have uniform structures. Since the flow of water in porous media depends on the particles size and pore throat size (Darcy's law), we have prepared various sizes of glass beads from submicron to submillimeter. Our experiments reveal the clear relationships between the host particle sizes and nucleated location and lens thickness. Part of this work is already published in Saruya et al, PRE but we extended to smaller sized regime. We compared our experimental results

  4. Inductance-based sensing technique for wireless,remote-query measurement in liquid media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel inductance-based sensing technique is presented for remote query measurement in different liquid media including organic solvents and inorganic solutions.The inorganic solutions tested included salt solutions of different concentrations,and the organic solvents detected included 1,4-dioxane and tetrahydrofuran.To extend the application of the sensor,bacterial culture media were also detected,and the growth of Escherichia coli (E.coli) was controlled.The influential factors which may affect the inductance responses were studied in detail.It was found that quantitative relationships exist between the sensor’s inductance response and the physico-chemical parameters of the liquid media.The sensor’s inductance response (L) decreases with the increase of salt concentration (C) and its ionic valence (e) according to a semi-logarithmic equation LgL =-aeC + b,where a and b are constants,which is in accordance with the theoretically deduced equation.The inductance variation rate (ΔK) increases directly with the temperature (T): ΔK = a′ T + b′.As for organic solutions,the sensor’s inductance was found to increase with the increasing permittivity of the organic solution.The wireless sensor we designed is simple and easy to manipulate.It has the potential for remote determination of not only chemical substances but also microbiological species such as bacteria.Using the newly developed inductance-based sensor,the pathogenic E.coli was monitored with a limit of detection of 10 cells/mL and a linear semi-logarithmic range of 1.0 × 101 to 2.5 × 109 cells/mL.

  5. Features of electro-optical characteristics of composite liquid crystal media (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, L. P.; Venediktov, V. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    Main patterns of structure formation of composite liquid crystal (LC) media and their classification according to the percentage content of liquid crystal and polymer are considered. Their properties are compared with the properties of homogeneous LC layers and the opportunities of their practical use in optical modulators are discussed. It is shown that, at small (10 wt %) monomer concentrations in the composite, its polymerization leads to formation of a thin-wall network which separates the liquid crystal into domains and provides an uniform orientation in the bulk. The polymer network increases the elasticity of the layer and decreases the relaxation time, but the devices usually work in polarized light and use the same principle as the devices filled with pure LC; i.e. the phase of the light or its polarization changes due to a change in the effective refraction index. However, the division of the LC volume into relatively autonomous domains also allows one to create a polarization-independent device based on the scattering effect. By increasing the relative content of the monomer, it is possible to ensure formation of a porous polymer matrix with inclusions of isolated from each other LC droplets. Such polymer-dispersed LC in its initial state either scatter the light of any polarization and becomes transparent state when an electric field is applied, or, with the use of special methods, the switch-off and switch-on states are swapped ("reverse mode" devices). The main advantages of the composite media are independence of polarization, mechanical strength, and small relaxation times, while the main disadvantages are increased power consumption, high polarization-independent optical losses, and significantly lower contrast. Possible ways to increase the contrast are described.

  6. Self-assembly of azobenzene bilayer membranes in binary ionic liquid-water nanostructured media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tejwant Singh; Ishiba, Keita; Morikawa, Masa-aki; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2014-03-11

    Anionic azobenzene-containing amphiphile 1 (sodium 4-[4-(N-methyl-N-dodecylamino)phenylazo]benzenesulfonate) forms ordered bilayer membranes in binary ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, [C2mim][C2OSO3])-water mixtures. The binary [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water mixture is macroscopically homogeneous at any mixing ratio; however, it possesses fluctuating nanodomains of [C2mim][C2OSO3] molecules as observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). These nanodomains show reversible heat-induced mixing behavior with water. Although the amphiphile 1 is substantially insoluble in pure water, it is dispersible in the [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water mixtures. The concentration of [C2mim][C2OSO3] and temperature exert significant influences on the self-assembling characteristics of 1 in the binary media, as shown by DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and zeta-potential measurements. Bilayer membranes with rod- or dotlike nanostructures were formed at a lower content of [C2mim][C2OSO3] (2-30 v/v %), in which azobenzene chromophores adopt parallel molecular orientation regardless of temperature. In contrast, when the content of [C2mim][C2OSO3] is increased above 60 v/v %, azobenzene bilayers showed thermally reversible gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition. The self-assembly of azobenzene amphiphiles is tunable depending on the volume fraction of [C2mim][C2OSO3] and temperature, which are associated with the solvation by nanoclusters in the binary [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water media. These observations clearly indicate that mixtures of water-soluble ionic liquids and water provide unique and valiant environments for ordered molecular self-assembly.

  7. The Effect of Media Supplementation with Angiotensin on Developmental Competence of Ovine Embryos Derived from Vitrified-warmed Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Borjian Boroujeni, Sara; Sarvari, Ali; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to assess the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) supplementation to the In Vitro Maturation (IVM) and In Vitro Culture (IVC) media of vitrified-warmed ovine oocytes on their developmental competence and expression of Na+/K+/ATPase in resulting embryos. Methods: The slaughterhouse-derived immature oocytes (n=1069) were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: groups I and II) IVM/IVF and IVC of fresh and vitrified oocytes without angiotensin supplementation (Control-Fresh and Control-Vit groups, respectively); group III) IVM of vitrified oocytes in the presence of Ang II followed by IVF/IVC (Vit-IVM group); and group IV) IVM/IVF of vitrified oocytes followed by IVC wherein the embryos were exposed to Ang II on day 4 of IVC (Vit-D4 group). The embryos were immunostained with primary antibodies against Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits. Results: In Vit-IVM and Vit-D4 groups, the rates of expanded and total blastocysts on day 7 as well as the proportion of blastocysts on day 8 were increased. The expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits were positively influenced by the addition of Ang II on day 4 (Vit-D4 group). Conclusion: The addition of Ang II to the IVM and IVC media could improve blastocysts formation in vitrified sheep oocytes. This improvement might be related to the greater expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits when Ang II was added during IVC. PMID:27563427

  8. Parallel experimental design and multivariate analysis provides efficient screening of cell culture media supplements to improve biosimilar product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühlmann, David; Sokolov, Michael; Butté, Alessandro; Sauer, Markus; Hemberger, Jürgen; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Jordan, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media has a great potential to modulate recombinant protein product quality. We present a process design method based on parallel design-of-experiment (DoE) of CHO fed-batch cultures in 96-deepwell plates to modulate monoclonal antibody (mAb) glycosylation using medium supplements. To reduce the risk of losing valuable information in an intricate joint screening, 17 compounds were separated into five different groups, considering their mode of biological action. The concentration ranges of the medium supplements were defined according to information encountered in the literature and in-house experience. The screening experiments produced wide glycosylation pattern ranges. Multivariate analysis including principal component analysis and decision trees was used to select the best performing glycosylation modulators. Subsequent D-optimal quadratic design with four factors (three promising compounds and temperature shift) in shake tubes confirmed the outcome of the selection process and provided a solid basis for sequential process development at a larger scale. The glycosylation profile with respect to the specifications for biosimilarity was greatly improved in shake tube experiments: 75% of the conditions were equally close or closer to the specifications for biosimilarity than the best 25% in 96-deepwell plates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1448-1458. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Siristatidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure.

  10. Liquid water transport characteristics of porous diffusion media in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunliang; Peng, Fangyuan; Lou, Guofeng; Wen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of liquid water transport in gas diffusion media (GDM) is important to improve the material and structure design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Continuum methods of two-phase flow modeling facilitate to give more details of relevant information. The proper empirical correlations of liquid water transport properties, such as capillary characteristics, water relative permeability and effective contact angle, are crucial to two phase flow modeling and cell performance prediction. In this work, researches on these properties in the last decade are reviewed. Various efforts have been devoted to determine the water transport properties for GDMs. However, most of the experimental studies are ex-situ measurements. In-situ measurements for GDMs and extending techniques available to study the catalyst layer and the microporous layer will be further challenges. Using the Leverett-Udell correlation is not recommended for quantitative modeling. The reliable Leverett-type correlation for GDMs, with the inclusion of the cosine of effective contact angle, is desirable but hard to be established for modeling two-phase flow in GDMs. A comprehensive data set of liquid water transport properties is needed for various GDM materials under different PEM fuel cell operating conditions.

  11. Adhesion forces in liquid media: effect of surface topography and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2008-09-15

    This work was motivated by the unexpected values of adhesion forces measured between an atomic force microscopy tip and the hydrophobic surface of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Two types of samples with different roughness but similar wettability were tested. Adhesion forces of similar magnitude were obtained in air and in polar liquids (water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, a saline solution) with the rougher sample. In contrast, the adhesion forces measured on the smoother sample in air were much higher than those measured in water or in the aqueous solution. Those experimental results suggested the presence of nanobubbles at the interface between the rough sample and the polar liquids. The existence of the nanobubbles was further confirmed by the images of the interface obtained in noncontact tapping mode. The adhesion forces measured in a nonpolar liquid (hexadecane) were small and of the same order of magnitude for both samples and their values were in good agreement with the predictions of the London-Hamaker approach for the van der Waals interactions. Finally, we correlate the appearance of nanobubbles with surface topography. The conclusion of this work is that adhesion forces measured in aqueous media may be strongly affected by the presence of nanobubbles if the surface presents topographical accidents.

  12. The reactivity of Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, sustained on luffa ligno-skeleton in vitrocultures in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko SZABO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Is known the fact that the Cymbidium hybridum orchid protocorms, submersed in liquid culture medium (in hypoxia conditions himself multiply with higher speed in comparison to aerated condition, on surface of agarized (solid culture media. Also, is known the fact that the Luffa ligno-skeleton (obtained from ripe pulp of Luffa cilindrica fruits lends successfully at its usage as wick in supply with nutrients of various plant species inoculs, cultivated “in vitro” on liquid media. In this work, we are presenting the role of Luffa ligno-skeleton in maintaining the Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, cultivated “in vitro”, on culture medium liquid surface (type of Murashige-Skoog, 1962.Behind these experiments, was proved that the ligno-skeleton of Luffa type of bridges for Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, sustained in aerated condition, is more efficient in bearing with those marked on solid culture medium, as in number, as in accumulation of fresh and dry weight, regardless of growth regulators included in media; on liquid culture media containing 1 mg/l AIB or 2 mg/l K as growth regulators, where bearing with the homologue culture variant (solidified media with agar-agar, with same mineral and organic composition, the differences was until 29.3% superior, and bearing with the witness medium (solid – agarized – medium, but without growth regulators until 30.2% biggest, concerning the number of protocorms.

  13. [Rapid determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Ishii, Toshiyasu; Nagata, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and simple method for determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been developed. Theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were extracted from finely powdered samples with water in a boiling water bath for 20 min, then the extracts were filtered and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. Liquid samples were diluted with water and filteres, and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. UPLC separation was performed on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.x50 mm, 1.7 microm, Waters) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile gradient and eluates were monitored at 275 nm. The recoveries of theophylline (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]), theobromine (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]) and caffeine (spiked at 1,000 microg/g [tablet] and 250 microg/mL [liquid]) were 97.6-98.7%, 97.3-99.7%, 97.1-105.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were 10 microg/g (seed, seed powder, tablet and capsule) and 2.0 microg/mL (liquid) each. When this analytical method was applied to commercial dietary supplements, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were found at concentrations of 4.45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients.

  14. Apoptotic-like changes of boar spermatozoa in freezing media supplemented with different antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, M; Bryła, M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplementing the freezing extender with exogenous anti-oxidants on apoptotic-like changes in post-thaw boar spermatozoa. A total of 36 ejaculates were resuspended in standard lactose-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with antioxidant to final concentrations of 0 (as control), 2.5mM GSH (group I), 5.0 mM GSH (group II), 150 IU/mL SOD (group III), 300 IU/mL SOD (group IV), 200 IU/mL CAT (group V), 400 IU/mL CAT (group VI), 150 IU/mL SOD+200 IU/mL CAT (group VII), 300 IU/mL SOD+400 IU/mL CAT (group VIII). Sperm motility and apoptotic-like changes were determined before and after freeze-thawing. The various markers of apoptotic-like changes were measured: plasma membrane permeability by YO-PRO-1/PI assay, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation across the plasma membrane using fluorescein-labeled Annexin-V, mitochondrial transmembrane potential detected by JC-1, and DNA fragmentation evaluated by TUNEL assay. The highest percentage of progressive motile sperm was noticed in group II (PM% 64.2±15.4) compared with control (PM% 36.8±5.5). The supplementation of 400 IU/mL CAT (group VI) revealed significant (Psperm survival compared with the control. Evaluation by TUNEL assay revealed that cryopreservation and thawing did not induce DNA fragmentation in boar spermatozoa.

  15. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefanía M; Martinez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2012-02-03

    In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C(6)mim][PF(6)] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L(-1), while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 μg L(-1) Co level and n=10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of filter domain size on the simulation of gas-liquid filtration in nonwoven and foam media

    OpenAIRE

    Abishek, S.; Mullins, B; King, A.; Kasper, G; Heikamp, W.

    2016-01-01

    The process of coalescence mist filtration in liquid- or gas-liquid systems is strongly controlled by the dynamics of the multi-component fluid transport at the pore- or fibrescales and its interactions with the filter media. However, current designs of mist filters are largely based on empirical data or on single-fibre filtration theory, primarily because of the complexity and difficulty in making accurate measurements at such (small) length scales. Current advancements in high performance c...

  17. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefania M. [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 6}mim][PF{sub 6}] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L{sup -1}, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  18. Tracking bacterial growth in liquid media and a new bacterial life model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘实

    1999-01-01

    By increasing viscosity of liquid media above 8.4 centipoise (cp) i.e. 0.084 g·cm-1·S-1 individual growth and family formation of Escherichia coli was continuously observed in real-time for up to 6 h. The observations showed primarily unidirectional growth and reproduction of E. coli and suggested more than one reproduction in the observed portion of E. coli life span. A new bacterial life model is proposed: each bacterium has a stable cell polarity that ultimately transforms into two bacteria of different generations; the life cycle of a bacterium can contain more than one reproduction cycle; and the age of a bacterium should be defined by its experienced chronological time. This new bacterial life model differs from the dominant concepts of bacterial life but complies with all basic life principles based on direct observation of macroorganisms.

  19. Transformations of Organic Molecules with F-TEDA-BF4 in Ionic Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Stavber

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of organic molecules with F-TEDA-BF4 (1 were investigated in the hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4], 2 and the hydrophobic IL 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6], 3. The range of substrates included alkyl substituted phenols 4a-c, 9, 13, 1,1-diphenylethene (15, alkyl aryl ketones 19-22, aldehydes 23-25 and methoxy-substituted benzene derivatives 26-30. The evaluation of the outcome of reactions performed in IL media in comparison to those of the corresponding reactions in conventional organic solvents revealed that the transformations in IL are less efficient and selective. The effect of the presence of a nucleophile (MeOH, H2O, MeCN on the course of reaction was also studied.

  20. Hierarchical opal grating films prepared by slide coating of colloidal dispersions in binary liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Kim, Seulgi; Kim, Seulki; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-02-15

    There are active researches on well ordered opal films due to their possible applications to various photonic devices. A recently developed slide coating method is capable of rapid fabrication of large area opal films from aqueous colloidal dispersion. In the current study, the slide coating of polystyrene colloidal dispersions in water/i-propanol (IPA) binary media is investigated. Under high IPA content in a dispersing medium, resulting opal film showed a deterioration of long range order, as well as a decreased film thickness due to dilution effect. From the binary liquid, the dried opal films exhibited the unprecedented topological groove patterns with varying periodic distances as a function of alcohol contents in the media. The groove patterns were consisted of the hierarchical structures of the terraced opal layers with periodic thickness variations. The origin of the groove patterns was attributed to a shear-induced periodic instability of colloidal concentration within a thin channel during the coating process which was directly converted to a groove patterns in a resulting opal film due to rapid evaporation of liquid. The groove periods of opal films were in the range of 50-500 μm, and the thickness differences between peak and valley of the groove were significantly large enough to be optically distinguishable, such that the coated films can be utilized as the optical grating film to disperse infra-red light. Utilizing a lowered hydrophilicity of water/IPA dispersant, an opal film could be successfully coated on a flexible Mylar film without significant dewetting problem.

  1. NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC MINI-RELAXOMETER FOR LIQUID AND VISCOUS MEDIA CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Davydov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new method for registration of nuclear magnetic resonance signal of small volume liquid and viscous media being studied (0.5 ml in a weak magnetic field (0.06 –0.08 T, and measuring of longitudinal T1 and transverse T2 relaxation constants. A new construction of NMR mini-relaxometer magnetic system is developed for registration of NMR signal. The nonuniformity of a magnetic field in a pole where registration coil is located is 0,410–3 sm–1 (the induction is В0 = 0.079 T. An electrical circuit of autodyne receiver (weak fluctuations generator has been developed with usage of low noise differential amplifier and NMR signal operating and control scheme (based on microcontroller STM32 for measuring of relaxation constants of liquid and viscous media in automatic operating mode. New technical decisions made it possible to improve relaxometer response time and dynamic range of measurements for relaxation constants T1 and T2 in comparison with small sized nuclear-magnetic spectrometer developed by the authors earlier (with accuracy characteristics conservation. The developed schemes for self-tuning of registration frequency, generating amplitude of magnetic field H1 in registration coil, and amplitude and frequency of modulating field provide measuring of T1 and T2 with error less than 0.5 % and signal to noise ratio about 1.2 in temperature range from 3 to 400 C. A new construction of mini-relaxometer reduced the weight of the device to 4 kg (with independent supply unit and increased transportability and operating convenience.

  2. Locally-calibrated light transmission visualization methods to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid mass in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaguo; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W.

    2008-11-01

    Five locally-calibrated light transmission visualization (LTV) methods were tested to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass and mass reduction in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was released into a two-dimensional laboratory flow chamber packed with water-saturated sand which was then flushed with a surfactant solution (2% Tween 80) until all of the PCE had been dissolved. In all the LTV methods employed here, the water phase was dyed, rather than the more common approach of dyeing the NAPL phase, such that the light adsorption characteristics of NAPL did not change as dissolution progressed. Also, none of the methods used here required the use of external calibration chambers. The five visualization approaches evaluated included three methods developed from previously published models, a binary method, and a novel multiple wavelength method that has the advantage of not requiring any assumptions about the intra-pore interface structure between the various phases (sand/water/NAPL). The new multiple wavelength method is also expected to be applicable to any translucent porous media containing two immiscible fluids (e.g., water-air, water-NAPL). Results from the sand-water-PCE system evaluated here showed that the model that assumes wetting media of uniform pore size (Model C of Niemet and Selker, 2001) and the multiple wavelength model with no interface structure assumptions were able to accurately quantify PCE mass reduction during surfactant flushing. The average mass recoveries from these two imaging methods were greater than 95% for domain-average NAPL saturations of approximately 2.6 × 10 - 2 , and were approximately 90% during seven cycles of surfactant flushing that sequentially reduced the average NAPL saturation to 7.5 × 10 - 4 .

  3. DETERMINATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID MIXTURES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, G

    2006-09-22

    It is important to recognize the presence of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in soils at a waste site in order to design and construct a successful remediation system. NAPLs often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media, such as vadose zone soil, where the mixture will partition and equilibrate with soil particles, pore vapor, and pore water. Complex organic mixtures can greatly complicate the determination and quantification of NAPL in soil due to inter-media transfer. NAPL thresholds can also change because of mixture physical properties and can disguise the presence of NAPL. A unique analytical method and copyrighted software have been developed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site that facilitates solution of this problem. The analytical method uses a classic chemistry approach and applies the principals of solubility limit theory, Raoult's Law, and equilibrium chemistry to derive an accurate estimation of NAPL presence and quantity. The method is unique because it calculates an exact result that is mass balanced for each physical state, chemical mixture component, and mixture characteristics. The method is also unique because the solution can be calculated on both a wet weight and dry weight basis--a factor which is often overlooked. The software includes physical parameters for 300 chemicals in a database that self-loads into the model to save time. The method accommodates up to 20 different chemicals in a multi-component mixture analysis. A robust data display is generated including important parameters of the components and mixture including: NAPL thresholds for individual chemical components within the mixture, mass distribution in soil for each physical state, molar fractions, density, vapor pressure, solubility, mass balance, media concentrations, residual saturation, and modest graphing capabilities. This method and software are power tools to simplify otherwise

  4. New insights into the catalytic cleavage of the lignin β-O-4 linkage in multifunctional ionic liquid media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Martin; Deuss, Peter J.; de Vries, Johannes; Prechtl, Martin H. G.; Barta, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids are attractive reaction media for the solubilisation and depolymerisation of lignin into value-added products. However, mechanistic insight related to the cleavage of specific linkages relevant for efficient lignin depolymerisation in such solvents is still lacking. This study presents

  5. Ionic liquids as recyclable and separable reaction media in Rh-catalyzed decarbonylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied as recyclable reaction media in the decarbonylation of aldehydes in the presence of a rhodium-phosphine complex catalyst. The performance of several new catalytic systems based on imidazolium-based ILs and [Rh(dppp)2]Cl (dppp: 1,3-diphenylphosphinopropane) were...

  6. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth

  7. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella  spp. and Salmonella  spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the

  8. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  9. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  10. Direct identification of mycobacteria from liquid media using a triplex real-time PCR coupled with pyrosequencing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Uk; Cha, Choong-Hwan; Park, Seon-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Culture in enriched broth, as well as on a solid medium, is recommended for primary isolation of mycobacteria. With the introduction of liquid mycobacterial culture methods, a substantial workload regarding the identification of culture-recovered mycobacterial species, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), has been imposed on our laboratory. We thus developed a triplex, real-time PCR coupled with pyrosequencing assay that can directly identify mycobacterial species from liquid media, which can reduce the workload. In this assay, real-time PCR simultaneously detects MTC and Mycobacterium xenopi, and amplifies the region of 16S rRNA gene containing hypervariable region A for pyrosequencing analysis; subsequent, pyrosequencing identifies many other nontuberculous mycobacteria. The assay was evaluated using 333 DNA samples directly prepared from liquid media, including 24 reference strains and 309 clinical isolates. Three hundred and twenty-eight (98.5%) of the 333 samples were correctly identified. The remaining five were determined as indeterminate. In conclusion, this coupled assay would be an alternative method for rapid identification of mycobacteria directly from liquid media in a clinical laboratory with a high workload in regions where tuberculosis is endemic.

  11. STUDI BIODEGRADASI POLI HIDROKSI BUTIRAT DALAM MEDIA CAIR (Biodegradation of Poly Hydroxy Butyrate in Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Sari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Poli hidroksi butirat (PHS termasuk dalam golongan bioplastik. Plastik jenis ini diharapkan dapat menjadi plastik altematif yang ramah lingkungan sebagai pengganti plastik sintetis yang bersifat sangat suI it terdegradasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji potensi biodegradabilitas PHS komersial dalam media cair dengan menggunakan lumpur aktif dan unit pengolahan limbah pabrik plastik sintetik. Identifikasi proses degradasi dilakukan dengan cara mengamati perubahan karakteristik PHS yang meliputi perubahan visual, perubahan morfologi permukaan, penurunan berat, perubahan kristalinitas, dan perubahan berat molekul selama 15 pekan inkubasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kerusakan PHS se1ama proses degradasi dapat dilihat secara visual. Disamping itu, morfologi permukaan mengalami perubahan signifikan. Adapun penurunan berat, kristalinitas, dan berat molekul berturut-turut mencapai 22,91 %,57.44 %, dan 29,52 %.   ABSTRACT  Poly hidroxy butyrate (PHB is a member of bioplastic group. This type of plastic is expected to be alternative plastic which is environmently friendly to replace synthetic plastic that is known to be very difficult to degrade. This research aims to test the biodegradability of commercial PHB in liquid mediums used activated sludge from waste water treatment plant in plastic synthetic factory. Identification of biodegradation process  was done by monitoring the changes of PHB characteristics including visual change, surface morphology change, reduction of weight, reduction of crystallinity, and reduction of molecular weight during 15 weeks incubation. The result shows that  the damage of PHB sample during biodegradation could be seen visually and liquid medium show the existence of change which can be seen visually and the surface morphology of PHB changed significantly. Weight reduction, crystallinity  reduction, and molecular  weight reduction  revealed of 22.91%, 57.44%, and 29.52% respectively.

  12. Media scanning and verification system as a supplemental tool to disease outbreak detection & reporting at National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Karad, A B; Dash, B; Dhariwal, A C; Chauhan, L S; Lal, S

    2012-03-01

    Media scanning for unusual health events can efficiently supplement conventional communicable disease surveillance systems for early detection and response to outbreaks. There is a need to rapidly process and appropriately disseminate the media reports on unusual health events for timely action. Hence to address this need in India a Media Scanning & Verification Cell (MSVC) was established in July 2008 at the National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi. MSVC is supervised by Epidemiologists working in Central Surveillance Unit of IDSP. This unique system monitors Global and National Media sources such as National and Regional print media, news on internet, news wires and websites, news channels and news shared by partners like Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), Canada, WHO and other International and national agencies. The information is shared to the districts affected and District Surveillance Officer (DSO) and his team is expected to investigate and revert through the internet about the correctness and action taken. A mean number of 4 Media Alert reports are generated each day. A total of 1685 alerts were reported in a period between July 2008 to December 2011. Of these 1241 (73.7%) were verified as real events and 183 (10.9%) were considered outbreaks by local health officials. Most events were captured through internet (57%) followed by the print media (24%). The most common disease events identified were food-borne and diarrhea (29.1%), dengue (10.68%), influenza & respiratory disease (8.1%) and malaria (7.4%). The sensitivity of MSVC to detect outbreaks was 14.8% with more than half of outbreaks detected before they were identified by the conventional surveillance system. It has proven to be a highly effective supplemental tool to official surveillance system in the detection of early warning signals and hence timely detection and management of public health threats in India.

  13. Phenol-oxidizing enzyme expression in Lentinula edodes by the addition of sawdust extract, aromatic compounds, or copper in liquid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanesaka, Eiji; Takeda, Hironori; Yoshida, Motonobu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the addition of a sawdust extract from Castanopsis cuspidata, several aromatic compounds, and copper affected the expression of a phenol-oxidizing enzyme in the white-rot basidiomycete, Lentinula edodes. Compared to liquid media that had not been supplemented with sawdust extract (MYPG), MYPG containing low (MYPG-S100) or high (MYPG-S500) concentrations of sawdust extract had a marked effect on the promotion of mycelial growth. No manganese peroxidase (MnP) production was observed in either MYPG or MYPG-S100 media until 35 days after inoculation. However, MnP production was enhanced by culture in MYPG-S500, with a marked increase observed suddenly at 14 days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcription of the lemnp2 gene coding extracellular MnP was initially observed at detectable levels at day 10 after the initial inoculation of MYPG-S500, increasing gradually thereafter until days 22-25. However, laccase (Lcc) production was not observed in any of the media until 35 days after inoculation. Addition of 10 mM aromatic compounds - 1,2-benzenediol, 2-methoxyphenol, hydroquinone, and 4-anisidine--into the MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production and did not enhance any Lcc production. While the addition of 1 or 2 mM Cu2+ (CuSO4 x 5H2O) to MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production, this Cu2+ addition caused a marked increase in Lcc production at 17 and 6 days after the addition, respectively.

  14. Method for determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media and alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, L

    2012-10-01

    Alternative method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The method is based on total decomposition of the solid materials and preconcentration of liquid samples. The separation of uranium from interfering radionuclides and stable matrix elements is attained by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media. After the additional removal of stable iron by extraction with diisopropyl ether, purified uranium is electrodeposited on stainless steel disks and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been successfully applied to the determination of uranium isotopes in water and bottom sediments from the rivers Danube, Ogosta and Tzibritza in Northwestern Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices.

  15. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals.

  16. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  17. Vision Marker-Based In Situ Examination of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Choi, Duckyu; Lim, Hwijoon; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Jeon, Jessie S.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bacterial growth in liquid media is an essential process in determining antibiotic susceptibility or the level of bacterial presence for clinical or research purposes. We have developed a system, which enables simplified and automated detection using a camera and a striped pattern marker. The quantification of bacterial growth is possible as the bacterial growth in the culturing vessel blurs the marker image, which is placed on the back of the vessel, and the blurring results in a decrease in the high-frequency spectrum region of the marker image. The experiment results show that the FFT (fast Fourier transform)-based growth detection method is robust to the variations in the type of bacterial carrier and vessels ranging from the culture tubes to the microfluidic devices. Moreover, the automated incubator and image acquisition system are developed to be used as a comprehensive in situ detection system. We expect that this result can be applied in the automation of biological experiments, such as the Antibiotics Susceptibility Test or toxicity measurement. Furthermore, the simple framework of the proposed growth measurement method may be further utilized as an effective and convenient method for building point-of-care devices for developing countries. PMID:27999349

  18. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( nutritional value of wheat middlings-based diets.

  19. Cell-free spent media obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis grown in media supplemented with 3’-sialyllactose exert virulence modulation on intestinal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondue Pauline

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates. This study focused on the ability of B. bifidum and B. crudilactis to grow in a culture medium supplemented in 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL as sole source of carbon, a main BMO encountered in cow milk. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM were tested against virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3’SL, but B. crudilactis showed the best growth (7.92 ± 0.3 log cfu/ml compared to B. bifidum (6.84 ± 0.9 log cfu/ml. Then, CFSM were tested for their effects on virulence gene expression by ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively, and on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium using RT-qPCR. All CFSM resulted in significant under expression of the ler and hilA genes for the luminescent mutants and ler (ratios of -15.4 and -8.1 respectively and qseA (ratios of -2.1 and -3.1 for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. The 3’SL, a major BMO, combined with some bifidobacteria strains of bovine or human origin could therefore be an interesting synbiotic to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro will be further investigated regarding the exact nature of the active molecules.

  20. The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Rezavandi, Zohreh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Rafiee, Motahereh; Poladchang, Somayyeh; Darooghegi Mofrad, Manijeh; Taheri, Sara; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (-0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, Pvitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance finding.

  1. Pre-culturing of nodal explants in thidiazuron supplemented liquid medium improves in vitro shoot multiplication of Cassia angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, I; Abdullwahab Bukhari, N; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Anis, M

    2013-09-01

    An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5-100 μM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 μM for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies.

  2. Receptor-based high-throughput screening and identification of estrogens in dietary supplements using bioaffinity liquid-chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Gómez Blesa, N.; Major, H.; Pedotti, P.; Varani, L.; Ferrero, V.E.V.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor a (ERa) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay

  3. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum for growth, morphology and production of natural colorants in liquid media and on a solid rice medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    media, and the use of Bis-tris buffer was found to diminish or reduce the pellet formation. Since Monascus is a well known pigment producer on rice. Pigment producing ability of E. nigrum IBT 41028 was tested on rice and compared to liquid media with Monascus ruber IBT 7904 as control. Though, both...

  4. Comparison of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) growth rate in culture media supplemented with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdian, Narges; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahbobe; Doosti, Abbas; Amiri, Beheshteh

    2015-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is a member of the FGF family secreted by different kinds of cells like HDFs and it is an important nutritional factor for cell growth and differentiation. The HDFs release bFGF in culture media at very low. The present study aims to investigate the HDFs growth rate in culture media supplemented either with or without bFGF. In brief, HDFs were isolated from human foreskin sample and were cultured in vitro in media containing bFGF and lack of this factor. The cells growth rate was calculated by trypan blue. The karyotyping was performed using G-banding to investigate the chromosomal abnormality of HDFs in both groups. Total RNA of each groups were extracted and cDNA samples were synthesized then, real-time Q-PCR was used to measure the expression level of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes normalized to internal control gene (GAPDH). The karyotype analysis showed that HDFs cultured in media or without bFGF had normal karyotype (46 chromosomes, XY) and chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. The cell growth rates in both groups were normal with proliferated exponentially but the slope of growth curve in HDFs cultured in media containing bFGF was increased. Karyotyp test showed that bFGF does not affect on cytogenetic stability of cells. The survey of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes by real-time Q-PCR showed that the expression level of these genes were up-regulated when adding bFGF in culture media (p media with growth factor like bFGF could enhance the proliferation and differentiation capacity of cells and improve cells growth rate. Similarly, fibroblast growth factors did not induce any chromosomal abnormality in cells. Furthermore, in HDFs cultured in bFGF supplemented media, the p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes were up-regulated and suggesting an important role for bFGF in cell-cycle regulation and progression and fibroblast division stimulation. It also suggests that the effects of bFGF on different cell types with

  5. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, extract, and related dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-09-05

    Dietary supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African mango, AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the U.S. market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of AM-based dietary supplements (AMDSs) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of AM seeds, AM seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available AMDSs have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry method. Ellagic acid, mono-, di-, and tri-O-methyl-ellagic acids, and their glycosides were found as major components in AM seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of AM extract and related dietary supplements.

  6. General collection efficiency for liquid isooctane and tetramethylsilane used as sensitive media in a parallel-plate ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Wickman, G

    1997-01-01

    The general collection efficiency has been measured in liquid isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4) used as the sensitive media in a parallel-plate ionization chamber, with an electrode distance of 1 mm, intended for photon and electron dosimetry applications. The liquid ionization chamber was irradiated at different dose rates by 140 keV photons from the decay of radioactive 99mTc. The measurements were made at potential differences of 50, 100, 200 and 500 V. Measurements were performed for each liquid and electric field strength, with the decay rate of 99mTc used as the dose-rate reference. The maximum dose rate was about 150 mGy min-1 in each experiment. When the measured general collection efficiency values are compared with the theoretical predictions for collection efficiency in gases, it is found that the latter also describe the general collection efficiency in the two liquids within 1% of the saturation current for collection efficiencies down to 60% when using experimentally determined recombination rate constants and on mobilities characteristic of each of the liquids.

  7. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  8. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Chou

    Full Text Available Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS, a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21 cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1 cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced

  9. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitation of Microcystins in Blue-Green Algal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine H; Stutts, Whitney L; DeGrasse, Stacey L

    2015-12-02

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of seven microcystin congeners (1-7) and nodularin-R (8) in blue-green algal dietary supplements. Single-laboratory method validation data were collected in four supplement matrices (capsule, liquid, powder, and tablet) fortified at toxin concentrations from 0.25-2.00 μg/g (ppm). Average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) using matrix-corrected solvent calibration curves were 101% (6% RSD) for all congeners and supplements investigated. Limits of detection (0.006-0.028 μg/g) and quantitation (0.018-0.084 μg/g) were sufficient to confirm the presence of microcystin contamination at the Oregon-mandated guidance concentration of 1.0 μg of microcystin-LReq/g. Quantitated concentrations of microcystin contamination in market-available Aphanizomenon flos-aquae blue-green algal supplements ranged from 0.18-1.87 μg of microcystin-LReq/g for detected congeners microcystin-LR, microcystin-LA, and microcystin-LY (3-5). Microcystin-RR, -YR, -LW, and -LF and nodularin-R (1, 2, and 6-8) were not detected in the supplements examined.

  10. Viability and proliferation of L929, tumour and hybridoma cells in the culture media containing sericin protein as a supplement or serum substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures often require the addition of animal serum and other supplements. In this study, silk sericin, a bioactive protein, recovered from the waste of silk floss production was hydrolysed into three pepsin-degraded sericin peptides with different ranges of molecular mass. Normal animal cells, tumour cells and hybridoma cells were cultured systematically in FBS culture media containing sericin as a supplement or serum substitute. The culture test and microscopic observation of L929 cells showed that the smaller molecular weight of the degraded sericin is most suitable for cell culture. The cell culture results showed that with the degradation of sericin, for normal mouse fibroblast L929 cells, addition of 0.75 % sericin into FBS culture medium yields cell viability that is superior to FBS culture medium alone. When all serum was replaced by sericin, cell viability in the sericin medium could reach about one half of that in FBS medium. When in a medium containing a mixture of FBS: sericin (6:4, v/v), the cell culture effect is about 80 %. For the cultures of four tumour and one hybridoma cells, regardless of the molecular weight range, these degraded sericin peptides could substitute all serum in FBS media. The cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells are equivalent or superior to that in FBS medium. In other words, cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells in sericin media are more preferable to serum media. The mechanism of the sericin protein to promote cell growth and proliferation will be further investigated later.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of potential iron–platinum drugs and supplements by laser liquid photolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forbes A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Steven S Nkosi,1,2 Bonex W Mwakikunga,4 Elias Sideras-Haddad,2 Andrew Forbes1,31CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa; 2DST/NRF Centre for Excellence in Strong Materials and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 3School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 4DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Pretoria, South AfricaAbstract: Highly crystalline nanospherical iron–platinum systems were produced by 248 nm laser irradiation of a liquid precursor at different laser fluences, ranging from 100–375 mJ/cm2. The influence of laser intensity on particle size, iron composition, and structure was systematically investigated. Different nanostructures of iron–platinum alloy and chemically disordered iron–platinum L10 phase were obtained without annealing. The prepared precursor solution underwent deep photolysis to polycrystalline iron–platinum nanoalloys through Fe(III acetylacetonate and Pt(II acetylacetonate. Fe(II and Pt(I acetylacetone decomposed into Fe0 and Pt0 nanoparticles. We found that the (001 diffraction peak shifted linearly to a lower angle, with the last peak shifting in opposition to the others. This caused the face-centered cubic L10 structure to change its composition according to laser fluence. The nanostructures were shown to contain iron and platinum only by energy-dispersive spectroscopy at several spots. The response of these iron–platinum nanoparticles to infrared depends on their stoichiometric composition, which is controlled by laser fluence.Keywords: nanostructures, iron, platinum, nanoparticles, laser liquid photolysis, composition

  12. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  13. Nucleophilic Hydroxylation in Water Media Promoted by a Hexa-Ethylene Glycol-Bridged Dicationic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Kim, Jin Gwan; Jeong, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-07-17

    Hexaethylene glycol bis(3-hexaethylene glycol imidazolium) dimesylate ionic liquid (hexaEG-DHIM) was designed and prepared as a highly efficient promoter for the nucleophilic hydroxylation of alkyl halides to the corresponding alcohol products in neat water media. It was observed that hexaEG-DHIM promoter enhanced the nucleophilicity of water significantly in the reaction. In addition, the hexaEG-DHIM could be reused several times without loss of activity. Moreover, the hydroxylation reactions of base-sensitive and/or polar alkyl halide substrates proceeded highly chemoselectively in excellent yields.

  14. Basic Ionic Liquid: A Reusable Catalyst for Knoevenagel Condensation in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An efficient, environmentally friendly procedure was developed for the condensation of aldehydes/ketones and activated methylene compounds with basic ionic liquid as thecatalyst in water. This basic ionic liquid catalyst has a very high activity for Knoevenagel condensation to give the corresponding products in 70% -97% isolated yields under mild conditions. The basic ionic liquid catalyst in aqueous system can be reused for six times without any significant loss of activity.

  15. Influence of granulometry in the Hurst exponent of air liquid interfaces formed during capillary rising in a granular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontijo Guilherme L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results concerning the fractal dimension of a air/fluid interface formed during the capillary rising of a fluid into a dense granular media. The system consists in a modified Hele-Shaw cell filled with grains at different granulometries and confined in a narrow gap between the glass plates. The system is then placed onto a water reservoir, and the liquid penetrates the medium due to capillary forces. We measure the Hurst exponent of the liquid/air interface with help of image processing, and follow the temporal evolution of the profiles. We observe that the Hurst exponent can be related with the granulometry, but the range of values are odd to the predicted values from models or theory.

  16. Liquid Helium and Liquid Neon - Sensitive, Low Background Scintillation Media For the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    1999-01-01

    The use of liquid helium and neon as scintillators for neutrino detection is investigated. Several unique properties of these cryogens make them promising candidates for real-time solar neutrino spectroscopy: large ultraviolet scintillation yields from ionizing radiation, transparency to their own scintillation light, and low levels of radioactive impurities. When neutrinos scatter from electrons in liquid helium or neon, ultraviolet light is emitted. The ultraviolet scintillation light can be efficiently converted to the visible with wavelength shifting films. In this way the neutrino-electron scattering events can be detected by photomultiplier tubes at room temperature. We conclude that the solar neutrino flux from the $\\rm p+p\\to e^{+}+d+\

  17. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  18. Determination of β-Carotene in Supplements and Raw Materials by Reversed-Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpylka, John; DeVries, Jonathan W.; Bhandari, S.; Bui, M.H.; Ji, D.; Konings, E.; Lewis, R.; Maas, P.; Parish, H.; Post, B.; Schierle, J.; Sullivan, D.; Taylor, A.; Wang, J.; Ware, G.; Woollard, D.; Wu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve laboratories representing 4 countries participated in an interlaboratory study conducted to determine all-trans-β-carotene and total β-carotene in dietary supplements and raw materials. Thirteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results obtained from 11 laboratories are reported. For products composed as softgels and tablets that were analyzed for total β-carotene, the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 3.35 to 23.09% and the HorRat values ranged from 1.06 to 3.72. For these products analyzed for trans β-carotene, the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 4.28 to 22.76% and the HorRat values ranged from 0.92 to 3.37. The RSDr and HorRat values in the analysis of a beadlet raw material were substantial and it is believed that the variability within the material itself introduced significant variation in subsampling. The method uses high pressure liquid chromatography (LC) in the reversed-phase mode with visible light absorbance for detection and quantitation. If high levels of α-carotenes are present, a second LC system is used for additional separation and quantitation of the carotene species. It is recommended that the method be adopted as an AOAC Official Method. PMID:16385976

  19. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success.

  20. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  1. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  2. Development of a Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography based screening method for adulterations of food supplements for the treatment of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Kamugisha, A; Van Campenhout, P; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2015-06-01

    Illegally adulterated dietary supplements are an increasing problem worldwide. One of the important groups of often adulterated products are the dietary supplements, sold for the treatment of pain. These often contain analgesics, a heterogeneous group of molecules, containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The development of a screening method for these components, especially when mass spectrometric detection is not available, necessitates chromatographic separation, difficult to achieve with traditional chromatographic columns. In this paper Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography was used for the development of a screening method for nine analgesics, codeine and caffeine, often present in this type of dietary supplements. The method shows a good separation of all the compounds, allowing the screening to be performed with diode array detection and is fully compatible with mass spectrometry. The method was validated for its selectivity following the guidelines as described for the screening of pesticide residues and residues of veterinary medicines in food.

  3. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  4. Prediction of adsorption from liquid mixtures in microporous media by the potential theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    . With this approach, few parameters are needed to predict adsorption equilibria. The MPTA has been so far used to successfully predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent gas mixtures. The aim of this work is to extent the MPTA onto adsorption from liquid solutions. We show that such extension is straightforward......Despite its industrial importance, adsorption from the liquid phase has been studied much less extensively than adsorption from the gas phase. In this paper, we study the adsorption of liquid mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). The MPTA is based...

  5. Dendrobium spectabile (Blume Miq in vitro culture and its acclimatization on Mus media with antimicrobial and alcoholic sugar supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination and development of orchid seed of Dendrobium spectabile through in vitro method has been done with good result and yielded many seeds. Different acclimatization approach was developed with sphagnum moss medium which supplemented with the same nutrition as MUS medium. Alcoholic sugar was supplemented to increase medium moisture and antimicrobial was added to minimalized contamination which can harm orchid seeds. Planlet adaptation ability to drought stress which resulted from in vitro culture can be improved using the new medium. The medium will increase the probability of seed survival also it will normalize seed development through the acclimatization process.

  6. Effect of liquid flavor supplementation of the diet on dairy cows in the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M A; Friedman, E J; Bahaa, A O; Murphy, M R

    2004-06-01

    A 9-wk trial was conducted to study the performance of 24 Holstein cows during the transition period (3 wk prepartum to 6 wk postpartum). Cows were assigned to either a control or liquid-flavored (0.52 mL/kg of feed) total mixed ration in a randomized complete block design. The diets contained corn silage, alfalfa haylage, cottonseed, and a grain mix based on ground corn and soybean meal. Cows were fed to ensure 10% orts, and the diet provided (on a dry matter basis) 13% crude protein, 32% acid detergent fiber, 44% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.54 Mcal/kg of NEL prepartum and 17.5% crude protein, 30% acid detergent fiber, 40% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.57 Mcal/kg of NEL postpartum. An additional 2.3 kg of alfalfa hay was fed during the first 5 d postpartum. Weekly means of dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk protein, milk fat, SNF, somatic cell counts, and body weight (BW) were analyzed using a repeated measures procedure. There was no effect of treatment on these variables, and least squares means were 16.9 and 15.7 kg/d for DMI, 38 and 35.3 kg/d for milk yield, 3.10 and 3.11% for milk protein, 3.69 and 3.74% for milk fat, 8.37 and 8.16% for SNF, 1.99 x 10(5) and 4.33 x 10(5) for somatic cell count, and 631 and 651 kg for BW for cows fed control and flavored diets, respectively. Individual cow daily DMI data were fitted to an exponential model describing pre- and postpartum feed consumption [DMI = a - b x e(-c x t), where DMI was measured in kg, a = asymptotic DMI, b = potential fractional increase in DMI, c = fractional rate of increase in DMI, and t = days prior to calving or days in milk]. Fractional rates of increase in DMI were similar: 0.139 and 0.123/d for control and flavored diets, respectively. Data for both groups were separately analyzed using multiple regression with 3.5% fat-corrected milk as the dependent variable and BW and DMI as independent variables. More BW was mobilized per unit increase in 3.5% fat-corrected milk in cows fed the

  7. Ionic Liquids Derived from the Chiral Pool: New Media for Fine Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.C. Gaumont; D. Bregeon; J. Levillain; C. Baudequin; F. Guillen; J.C. Plaquevent

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ionic liquids (Ils) are low melting point salts, which are characterized by properties such as high ability to dissolve organic, organometallic and even inorganic compounds, absence of flammability, lack of measurable vapour pressure and high thermal stability. Due to these peculiar properties, they have recently attracted considerable attention as greener alternatives to volatile organic solvents[1]. A few chiral ionic liquids, which could provide a renewal in the field of chiral solvents, have also been reported recently[2]. Herein, we will present the synthesis of a new family of ionic liquids based on a thiazolinium skeleton. Preliminary results on the use of these chiral ionic liquids in the field of chiral recognition and organic synthesis will also be reported.

  8. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two...

  9. Heat Transfer in a Liquid-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor with Low Surface Tension Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HR Jin; H Lim; DH Lim; Y Kang; Ki-Won Jun

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics between the immersed heater and the bed content were studied in the riser of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed, whose diameter and height were 0.102 m (ID) and 2.5 m, respectively. Effects of liquid velocity, particle size, surface tension of liquid phase and solid circulation rate on the overall heat transfer coefficient were examined. The heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing particle size or solid cir-culation rate due to the higher potential of particles to contact with the heater surface and promote turbulence near the heater surface. The value of heat transfer coefficient increased gradually with increase in the surface tension of liquid phase, due to the slight increase of solid holdup. The heat transfer coefficient increased with the liquid veloc-ity even in the higher range, due to the solid circulation prevented the decrease in solid holdup, in contrast to that in the conventional liquid-solid fluidized beds. The values of heat transfer coefficient were well correlated in terms of dimensionless groups as well as operating variables.

  10. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  12. Glass bead cultivation of fungi: combining the best of liquid and agar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2013-09-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier than from agar plates and the quality was superior. The system allows simple control of nutrient availability throughout fungal cultivation. This combined with the ease of extraction of nucleic acids and metabolites makes the system highly suitable for the study of gene regulation in response to specific nutrient factors. © 2013.

  13. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  14. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki, E-mail: kamiya@cc.tuat.ac.j [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)

  15. Ligninolytic enzymes activities of Oyster mushrooms cultivated on OMW (olive mill waste) supplemented media, spawn and substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodrigues, A.; Polonia, I.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ligninolytic enzymes activities (laccases, peroxidases (total, MnP and MiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO)) were measured during the cultivation of six commercial Pleurotus sp. strains on MMP media, on cereal grains (spawn) and on straw substrates (the three commonly utilized cultivation steps to ob

  16. SLJ's Book Buying Survey: When It Comes to Purchasing Supplemental Books, Librarians' Clout Extends Far beyond the Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2004-01-01

    Media specialists and teachers spend an estimated $1.4 billion annually on nonfiction titles. And even though most librarians, like Shirley Morand of New Richmond High School in Ohio, expect budget cuts this academic year, they still plan to dish out a sizable chunk of money on books that support students' textbooks, according to School Library…

  17. Numerical simulation and measurement of liquid hold-up in biporous media containing discrete stagnant zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, D.; Tallarek, U.; Hlushkou, D.; Hoekstra, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.; As, van H.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied hydrodynamic dispersion in single-phase incompressible liquid flow through a fixed bed made of spherical, permeable (porous) particles. The observed behaviour was contrasted with the corresponding fluid dynamics in a random packing of impermeable (non-porous) spheres with an interpar

  18. Efficient Indium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Aromatics in Ionic Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C. Zacconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient indium-mediated dehalogenation reaction of haloaromatics and haloheteroaromatics in ionic liquids has been studied. This method is simple and effective in the presence of [bmim]Br. Furthermore, this methodology is environmentally friendly compared with conventional ones.

  19. The Macro-Environment for Liquid Biofuels in German Science, Mass Media and Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions under which the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during the time, respectively by German scientists, journalists, and policy-makers, and how these three stakeholders related to each other. Research was carried out on German offic

  20. The Macro-Environment for Liquid Biofuels in German Science, Mass Media and Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions under which the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during the time, respectively by German scientists, journalists, and policy-makers, and how these three stakeholders related to each other. Research was carried out on German

  1. Supplements to in vitro maturation media affect the production of bovine blastocysts and their apoptotic index but not the proportions of matured and apoptotic oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzych, E; Peippo, J; Szydlowski, M; Lechniak, D

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different supplements to the basic IVM medium (TCM199) on the efficiency of cattle oocyte maturation and blastocyst production, and the incidence of apoptosis in both oocytes and blastocysts. Two protein supplements (FBS and fafBSA) and a macromolecule (PVP40) were compared in a 3 treatmentsx9 replicates design. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries were matured for 24h in TCM199 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 6% fafBSA or 4% PVP40 (50-70 COCs in each treatment/replicate), then inseminated and cultured in vitro for 8 days. Immature and mature oocytes as well as Day 8 blastocysts were subjected to TUNEL analysis. Cleavage rate was monitored on Day 2 post-insemination (pi), whereas blastocyst yield on Day 8 pi. The composition of maturation media did not affect zygotic cleavage rate on Day 2 (on average 71.0%), however the blastocyst rate on Day 8 pi was significantly lower (P<0.001) for embryos derived from oocytes matured with PVP40 (16.0%) than for those matured with FBS (22.4%) or fafBSA (22.1%). The rate of TUNEL positive oocytes differed significantly between immature (1.4%) and mature (11.2%) oocytes (P<0.01). Supplements to maturation medium were not related to the incidence of apoptosis in mature oocytes (11.2%) and the rate of oocytes at the second metaphase stage (71.5%). Cumulus cell expansion was reduced by maturation in medium supplemented with PVP40. This macromolecule was also correlated with higher apoptotic index in blastocysts (5.8%) when compared to FBS (3.2%) and fafBSA (3.1%; P<0.001). In conclusion, lower blastocyst rate and elevated apoptotic index in embryos derived from oocytes matured with PVP40 may suggest that synthetic macromolecule provides less balanced environment for oocyte maturation and therefore should be treated with caution.

  2. Modelling and characterization of the roof tile-shaped modes of AlN-based cantilever resonators in liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, V.; Hernando-García, J.; Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Kucera, M.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, roof tile-shaped modes of MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) cantilever resonators with various geometries and mode orders are analysed. These modes can be efficiently excited by a thin piezoelectric film and a properly designed top electrode. The electrical and optical characterization of the resonators are performed in liquid media and the device performance is evaluated in terms of quality factor, resonant frequency and motional conductance. A quality factor as high as 165 was measured in isopropanol for a cantilever oscillating in the seventh order roof tile-shaped mode at 2 MHz. To support the results of the experimental characterization, a 2D finite element method simulation model is presented and studied. An analytical model for the estimation of the motional conductance was also developed and validated with the experimental measurements.

  3. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of chemical markers and principal component analysis of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits (Verbenaceae) and derived food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Montoro, Paola; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2012-11-01

    A validated analytical method for the quantitative determination of seven chemical markers occurring in a hydroalcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruits by liquid chromatography electrospray triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(QqQ)MSMS) is reported. To carry out a comparative study, five commercial food supplements corresponding to hydroalcoholic extracts of V. agnus-castus fruits were analysed under the same chromatographic conditions of the crude extract. Principal component analysis (PCA), based only on the variation of the amount of the seven chemical markers, was applied in order to find similarities between the hydroalcoholic extract and the food supplements. A second PCA analysis was carried out considering the whole spectroscopic data deriving from liquid chromatography electrospray linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(LIT)MS) analysis. High similarity between the two PCA was observed, showing the possibility to select one of these two approaches for future applications in the field of comparative analysis of food supplements and quality control procedures.

  4. A liquid chromatography method for quantifying caffeine dissolution from pharmaceutical formulations into colloidal, fat-rich media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Barrett, David A; Ward, Robert; Hardy, Ian J; Melia, Colin D

    2010-07-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid-chromatography method is presented that permits quantification of caffeine in colloidal fat emulsions proposed as new 'biorelevant' dissolution media (Intralipid and various milks). Using a mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium acetate (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (89.5:10.5, v/v) at 1 ml min(-1), the drug and internal standard (7-beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline) were eluted within 8 min. Caffeine extraction was undertaken by protein precipitation in ice-cold 12% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid and centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 15 min. This simple extraction method generated caffeine recovery values (corrected for % fat content) of 75.4+/-1.4-100.6+/-5.5%. The limit of detection was within the range 0.25-0.4 microg ml(-1) and linearity was demonstrated in each medium up to 125 microg ml(-1). Precision was media. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional properties of fluorescent poly(amidoamine) dendrimers in nematic liquid crystalline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchev, Ivo; Sali, Seher; Chovelon, Jean-Marc

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers from zero generation as a fluorescent guest for liquid crystal displays of the 'guest-host' type is discussed on the basis of their absorption and fluorescent properties. It has been shown that the dendrimers at concentration of 0.3 wt% do not destabilize the orientation of the liquid crystal matrix. The orientation order parameters SA and SF depends on the nature of the substituent at C-4 position of the 1,8-naphthalimide. The effect that poly(amidoamine) dendrimers have upon the phase transition temperature and the electro-optical properties of the LC/dendrimer mixtures has been also presented. All investigations reported have been carried out in surface stabilized display cells.

  6. Pd-catalyzed ethylene methoxycarbonylation with Brønsted acid ionic liquids as promoter and phase-separable reaction media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier;

    2014-01-01

    Brønsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs) were prepared and applied as combined acid promoters and reaction media in Pd–phosphine catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to produce methyl propionate. The BAILs served as alternatives to common mineral acids required for the reaction, e.g. methanesulf...

  7. The infiltration of nonwetting liquid into nanoporous media and the thermal effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, V D; Belogorlov, A A; Byrkin, V A; Tronin, V N; Troyan, V I [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Lisichkin, G V, E-mail: vbyrkin@gmail.com [Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    In the present work we formulate a model of infiltration nonwetting liquid into the nanoporous medium. This model takes into account the correlation effects in a disordered medium and is based on analytic methods of percolation theory. The infiltration of porous medium is treated as a process of filling pores in an infinite cluster of pores connected with each other. In the framework of the developed model we describe thermal effects that accompany the accumulation of energy by system characterized by different porosity.

  8. Multi-scales nuclear spin relaxation of liquids in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(ω) is a rich source of dynamical information for characterizing the molecular dynamics of liquids in confined environments. Varying the magnetic field changes the Larmor frequency ω, and thus the fluctuations to which the nuclear spin relaxation is sensitive. Moreover, this method permits a more complete characterization of the dynamics than the usual measurements as a function of temperature at fixed magnetic field strength, because many common solvent liquids have phase transitions that may alter significantly the character of the dynamics over the temperature range usually studied. Further, the magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T(ω), provides a good test of the theories that relate the measurement to the microdynamical behavior of the liquid. This is especially true in spatially confined systems where the effects of reduced dimensionality may force more frequent reencounters of the studied proton spin-bearing molecules with paramagnetic impurities at the pore surfaces that may alter the correlation functions that enter the relaxation equations in a fundamental way. We show by low field NMR relaxation that changing the amount of surface paramagnetic impurities leads to striking different pore-size dependences of the relaxation times T and T of liquids in pores. Here, we focus mainly on high surface area porous materials including calibrated porous silica glasses, granular packings, heterogeneous catalytic materials, cement-based materials and natural porous materials such as clay minerals and rocks. Recent highlights NMR relaxation works are reviewed for these porous materials, like continuous characterization of the evolving microstructure of various cementitious materials and measurement of wettability in reservoir carbonate rocks. Although, the recent applications of 2-dimensional T-T and T-z-store-T correlation experiments for characterization of

  9. Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Pastore, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The electronic file misses the Nomenclature (p.xx-xii) In the effort to introduce fuel cell technology in the field of decentralized and mobile power generators, a hydrocarbon reformer to syngas seems to be the way for the market uptake. In this thesis, a potential technology is developed and investigated, in order to convert commercial liquid fuel (diesel, kerosene and biodiesel) to syngas. The fundamental concept is to oxidise the fuel in a oxygen depleted environment, obtaining hydrogen...

  10. Characterization of an Implicitly Resistively-Loaded Monopole Antenna in Lossy Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen J. Fox

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomographic imaging of the breast for cancer detection is a topic of considerable interest because of the potential to exploit the apparent high-dielectric property contrast between normal and malignant tissue. An important component in the realization of an imaging system is the antenna array to be used for signal transmission/detection. The monopole antenna has proven to be useful in our implementation because it can be easily and accurately modeled and can be positioned in close proximity to the imaging target with high-element density when configured in an imaging array. Its frequency response is broadened considerably when radiating in the liquid medium that is used to couple the signals into the breast making it suitable for broadband spectral imaging. However, at higher frequencies, the beam patterns steer further away from the desired horizontal plane and can cause unwanted multipath contributions when located in close proximity to the liquid/air interface. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of these antennas and devised strategies for their effective use at higher frequencies, especially when positioned near the surface of the coupling fluid which is used. The results show that frequencies in excess of 2 GHz can be used when the antenna centers are located as close as 2 cm from the liquid surface.

  11. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research i...

  12. Vapor-liquid transitions of dipolar fluids in disordered porous media: Performance of angle-averaged potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spöler, C.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2004-11-01

    Using replica integral equations in the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) approximation we calculate vapor-liquid spinodals, chemical potentials, and compressibilities of fluids with angle-averaged dipolar interactions adsorbed to various disordered porous media. Comparison with previous RHNC results for systems with true angle-dependent Stockmayer (dipolar plus Lennard-Jones) interactions [C. Spöler and S. H. L. Klapp, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3628 (2003); ibid.120, 6734 (2004)] indicate that, for a dilute hard sphere matrix, the angle-averaged fluid-fluid (ff) potential is a reasonable alternative for reduced fluid dipole moments m*2=μ2/(ɛ0σ3)⩽2.0. This range is comparable to that estimated in bulk fluids, for which RHNC results are presented as well. Finally, results for weakly polar matrices suggest that angle-averaged fluid-matrix (fm) interactions can reproduce main features observed for true dipolar (fm) interactions such as the shift of the vapor-liquid spinodals towards lower temperatures and higher densities. However, the effective attraction induced by dipolar (fm) interaction is underestimated rather than overestimated as in the case of angle-averaged ff interactions.

  13. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2003-12-01

    Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

  14. Use of the smart tongue to monitor mold growth and discriminate between four mold species grown in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Guangying, E-mail: zhaogy-user@163.com [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Lin Xiaona; Dou Wenchao; Tian Shiyi; Deng Shaoping; Shi Jinqin [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-04-01

    A novel voltammetric electronic tongue, smart tongue, was employed to monitor the growth of mold and to differentiate between four types of mold grown in liquid medium. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the relevant information obtained by the smart tongue. Reference growth curves were based on measurements of dry weight and pH. The growth detected by the smart tongue was basically consistent with that observed by the measurement of dry weight and pH. The optimal combinations of electrodes and frequencies for monitoring growth were as follows: for Aspergillus, both the Pt and Au electrodes at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and 100 Hz; for Penicillium, the Pt and W electrodes at 100 Hz; for Mucor, the Pt, Pd and W electrodes at the three frequency segments; for Rhizopus, the Pd, Ti and Ag electrodes at the three frequency segments. The Ag electrode at 10 Hz or 100 Hz frequency could differentiate well between the four types of mold for culturing 6 h in the liquid media. Therefore, the smart tongue has a promising future as a modern rapid analytical technology for the real time detection of the growth of mold and for the classification model of mold.

  15. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  16. Berry Phase of Light under Bragg Reflection by Chiral Liquid-Crystal Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Raouf; Bortolozzo, Umberto; Clerc, Marcel G.; Residori, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    A Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg reflected by a chiral liquid-crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  17. Berry phase of light Bragg-reflected by chiral liquid crystal media

    CERN Document Server

    Barboza, Raouf; Residori, Stefania; Clerc, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg-reflected by a chiral liquid crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, then, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  18. Spectroscopic properties and amplified spontaneous emission of fluorescein laser dye in ionic liquids as green media

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Aqmar, Dalal M.; Abdelkader, H. I.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2015-09-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as milieu materials for laser dyes is a promising field and quite competitive with volatile organic solvents and solid state-dye laser systems. This paper investigates some photo-physical parameters of fluorescein dye incorporated into ionic liquids; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate (BMIM AlCl4) and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM BF4) as promising host matrix in addition to ethanol as reference. These parameters are: absorption and emission cross-sections, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield, in addition to the transition dipole moment, the attenuation length and oscillator strength were also investigated. Lasing characteristics such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), the gain, and the photostability of fluorescein laser dye dissolved in different host materials were assessed. The composition and properties of the matrix of ILs were found that it has great interest in optimizing the laser performance and photostability of the investigated laser dye. Under transverse pumping of fluorescein dye by blue laser diode (450 nm) of (400 mW), the initial ASE for dye dissolved in BMIM AlCl4 and ethanol were decreased to 39% and 36% respectively as time progressed 132 min. Relatively high efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yield (11.8% and 0.82% respectively) were obtained with good photostability in case of fluorescein in BMIM BF4 that was decreased to ∼56% of the initial ASE after continuously pumping with 400 mW for 132 min.

  19. Method for the Determination of β-Carotene in Supplements and Raw Materials by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: Single Laboratory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierle, Joseph; Pietsch, Bernd; Ceresa, Alan; Fizet, Christian; Waysek, Edward H.

    2008-01-01

    A single laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted for a liquid Chromatography (LC) method for the determination of total and all-trans-β-carotene in a variety of dietary supplements, including multivitamin tablets, softgels, capsules, and beadlet raw materials. Extraction variants were developed for the different types of supplements tested based upon the supplement type and level of β-carotene. Water dispersible formulations such as powders, emulsions, tablets, and capsules were enzymatically digested with protease and extracted with dichloromethane–ethanol. Oily suspensions were directly dissolved in dichloromethane–ethanol. After appropriate dilution or concentration, the extracts were chromatographed by using either a reversed-phase C18 column or, in products containing high amounts of α-carotene, a reversed-phase C30 column. The LC systems provided linear responses in the range of 0.1–50 μg β-carotene/mL. The main geometrical isomers of β-carotene (all-trans, 9-cis, 13-cis, and 15-cis) were well separated from each other and from other carotenoids such as α-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. Duplicate determinations of total β-carotene performed by 2 technicians in 8 different test materials on 5 different days resulted in relative standard deviations of 1.2–4.4%. Recoveries determined for supplements and beadlet raw material spiked with β-carotene levels of 10 μg to 100 mg/test portion and 0.2–40%, respectively, ranged from 97.5 to 102.1%. On the basis of the accuracy, precision, and recovery results from the SLV study, the method is suggested for a collaborative study on the determination of total and all-trans-β-carotene in dietary supplements. PMID:15493663

  20. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  1. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  2. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  3. Determination of Coenzyme Q10 Content in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV: Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Steven; Roman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubidecarenone) in raw materials and dietary supplements. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the total CoQ10 content in 8 blind duplicate samples. Sample materials included CoQ10 raw material and 4 finished product dietary supplements representing softgels, hardshell gelatin capsules, and chewable wafers. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with CoQ10 at low and high levels to determine recovery. Materials were extracted with an acetonitrile–tetrahydrofuran–water mixture. Ferric chloride was added to the test solutions to ensure all CoQ10 was in the oxidized form. The HPLC analyses were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 275 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.94 to 5.05%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 3.08 to 17.1%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.26 to 5.17. Recoveries ranged from 74.0 to 115%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of CoQ10 in raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing CoQ10 at a concentration of >100 mg CoQ10/g test material. PMID:18727527

  4. Evaluation of alcohol content and metal impurities in liquid dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID and GFAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Ana; Sertić, Miranda; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Stipanović, Ksenija; Nigović, Biljana

    2016-11-15

    Despite efforts by many dietary supplements' manufactures to reduce or replace ethanol, many products containing ethanol in concentrations up to 70% are available on market. Furthermore, botanical dietary supplements can vary in metal content as a function of the environment, processing equipment and product containers. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a new rapid and highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ethanol and its impurities in dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID technique. In addition, contamination with metals by GFAAS technique was evaluated. The proposed sHSS-GC-FID method was successfully applied for analysis of 93 samples containing various amounts of ethanol. It should be highlighted that the dramatic variation from manufacture's claims was found in even one third of products. Furthermore, high amounts of ethanol were found in several products especially designed for children and in one product labeled as "alcohol-free". Metal impurities were below the limits established by USP.

  5. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  6. Judd-Ofelt Analysis on Trifluoroacetate Europium Complexes for Liquid Laser Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Jiang-bo; LI Dong-dong; GAO Fei; QIAO Ze-bang; LIU Huan-huan; WEI Wei; PENG Bo

    2013-01-01

    Four europium trifluoroacetate complexes,Eu(CF3COO)3·bpy(bpy=2,2'-bipyridine)(l),Eu(CF3COO)3 ·phen(phen=1,10-phenanthroline)(2),Eu(CF3COO)3·2bp(bp=benzophenone)(3) and Eu(CF3COO)3·2tppo(tppo=triphenyl-phosphine oxide)(4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis,Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy,photoluminescence(PL) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA).The PL spectra of the complexes at room temperature show the strong typical EU3+ ion red emission,due to the efficient energy "antenna absorption" of ligands and transitions of Eu3+ ion between 5 Do→ 7FJ(J=0-4).The long lifetime and high quantum yield reflect that the multiphonon relaxations by coupling to O—H and C—H vibrations were reduced.According to the photoluminescent spectra,the Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω22 and Ω24 of the complexes were calculated and the radiative properties were also presented.The 5D0 radiative lifetime,quantum yield and the stimulated emission cross-section of the complexes are excellent,which prove that they have promising optical properties for liquid laser.The thermal analyses indicate that they are quite stable to heat.

  7. Determination of Hydrastine and Berberine in Goldenseal Raw Materials, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV: Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N.; Roman, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted on a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method utilizing UV detection, previously validated using AOAC single-laboratory validation guidelines for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements at levels ranging from 0.4 to 6% (w/w). Nine collaborating laboratories determined the hydrastine and berberine content in 8 blind samples. Sample materials included powdered botanical raw materials, whole root material, and 4 finished product dietary supplements containing either goldenseal powdered root material or extract. The materials were extracted with an acidified water and acetonitrile solution. HPLC analyses of the extracts were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 230 nm. Results for powdered root material and capsule products ranged from about 0.2% (w/w) for each alkaloid to about 4% (w/w) for each alkaloid. Liquid tincture results were approximately 4000–5000 μg/mL for each alkaloid. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) for hydrastine ranged from 2.68 to 6.65%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.77 to 1.89. RSDR for berberine ranged from 5.66 to 7.68%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.32 to 2.12. All finished products containing goldenseal extract yielded HorRat values <2.0. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing powdered goldenseal and goldenseal extract. PMID:18727526

  8. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Paclitaxel from Taxus x media Using Ionic Liquids as Adjuvants: Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijian; Li, Qiao; Wang, Chaoyun; Zhou, Wanlai; Yang, Yuanru; Wang, Hongying; Yi, Yongjian; Li, Fenfang

    2017-09-11

    (1) Background: Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered "green" solvents and have been widely used in the extraction and separation field in recent years; (2) Methods: In this study, some common ILs and functionalized magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were used as adjuvants for the solvent extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus x media (T. x media) using methanol solution. The extraction conditions of methanol concentration, IL type and amount, solid-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and ultrasonic irradiation time were investigated in single factor experiments. Then, three factors of IL amount, solid-liquid ratio, and ultrasonic irradiation time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM); (3) Results: The MIL [C₄MIM]FeCl₃Br was screened as the optimal adjuvant. Under the optimization conditions of 1.2% IL amount, 1:10.5 solid-liquid ratio, and 30 min ultrasonic irradiation time, the extraction yield reached 0.224 mg/g; and (4) Conclusions: Compared with the conventional solvent extraction, this ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) using methanol and MIL as adjuvants can significantly improve the extraction yield, reduce the use of methanol, and shorten the extraction time, which has the potentiality of being used in the extraction of some other important bioactive compounds from natural plant resources.

  9. Hysteresis of liquid adsorption in porous media by coarse-grained Monte Carlo with direct experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Benjamin D.; Lu, Ning; Wu, David T.

    2016-05-01

    The effects of path-dependent wetting and drying manifest themselves in many types of physical systems, including nanomaterials, biological systems, and porous media such as soil. It is desirable to better understand how these hysteretic macroscopic properties result from a complex interplay between gasses, liquids, and solids at the pore scale. Coarse-Grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) is an appealing approach to model these phenomena in complex pore spaces, including ones determined experimentally. We present two-dimensional CGMC simulations of wetting and drying in two systems with pore spaces determined by sections from micro X-ray computed tomography: a system of randomly distributed spheres and a system of Ottawa sand. Results for the phase distribution, water uptake, and matric suction when corrected for extending to three dimensions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements on the same systems. This supports the hypothesis that CGMC can generate metastable configurations representative of experimental hysteresis and can also be used to predict hysteretic constitutive properties of particular experimental systems, given pore space images.

  10. Study on the Effects of Liquid Thermal Media on the Irradiation Capsule of High-Temperature Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Soon Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation tests of materials at HANARO have usually been conducted using a standard capsule at temperatures of about 300°C for irradiation of materials used at PWR. Thus, the standard capsule uses aluminum as the specimen holder, which acts to dissipate the thermal energy. Future nuclear systems such as a VHTR and SFR require the irradiation tests at a relatively high temperature. As an alternative to aluminum which has been used as the thermal media in a standard material capsule, the characteristics of liquid metals such as NaK and LBE are reviewed. The temperatures of the capsule are affected by the variation of parameters such as the gap and wall thickness of the container. In particular, the external gap is most important in determining the temperature of the specimen. LBE raises the temperature of the specimen higher than NaK at the same configuration of the capsule. Thus, LBE can lessen the gap of the parts and reduce the vibration for a stable long-term test in reactor.

  11. Supplementation freeze-thawed media with selenium protect adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from freeze-thawed induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadbeygi, Arash; Naji, Tahere; Pirnia, Afshin; Gholami, Mohammadreza

    2016-10-01

    Successful freezed-thaw of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) could be a major step in regenerative medicine as well as in the cloning of animal breeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selenium on the optimizing of freezed-thaw media in the ADMSCs. ADMSCs were extracted from NMRI mice and purified with positive selection Monoclonal CD105 Antibody (PE) and negative selection Monoclonal CD31 and CD45 Antibody using MACS method as well as differentiation to adipose and bone tissue. ADMSCs were divided into four groups. ADMSCs were freezed-thaw under standard condition with or without the addition of 5 ng/ml selenium to both the cryopreservation and thawing solutions. Frozen cells were thawed after four months and viability and cytotoxicity of the cells were analyzed by the Trypan blue test and MTT assay respectively. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and the expression of apoptotic genes (P53, Fas, Bax, Caspase3, and Bcl2) was examined using Real time-PCR Rotor gene 2009. This study compares slow and rapid methods of cryopreservation. After thawing, viability of the cells treated with selenium was higher than the control group in rapid and slow cryopreserved ADMSCs. Also, the percentage of living cells in the slow cooling method was considerably more than with the rapid cooling method. After analysis of the results using Real time-PCR, the Bcl2 gene was shown to be expressed in both the rapid and slow cooling methods. In the rapid cooling group in addition to the BCL-2 gene, p53 was also expressed. It appears that selenium prevented the apoptotic genes from expression due to its anti-apoptotic effects. The slow cooling method is better and more optimized for ADMSCs protecting them from oxidative damage to a greater extent compared to the rapid cooling method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The complete genome sequence of Natrinema sp. J7-2, a haloarchaeon capable of growth on synthetic media without amino acid supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    Full Text Available Natrinema sp. J7-2 is an extreme haloarchaeon capable of growing on synthetic media without amino acid supplements. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Natrinema sp. J7-2 which is composed of a 3,697,626-bp chromosome and a 95,989-bp plasmid pJ7-I. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Natrinema. We demonstrate that Natrinema sp. J7-2 can use gluconate, glycerol, or acetate as the sole carbon source and that its genome encodes complete metabolic pathways for assimilating these substrates. The biosynthetic pathways for all 20 amino acids have been reconstructed, and we discuss a possible evolutionary relationship between the haloarchaeal arginine synthetic pathway and the bacterial lysine synthetic pathway. The genome harbors the genes for assimilation of ammonium and nitrite, but not nitrate, and has a denitrification pathway to reduce nitrite to N(2O. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that most sequenced haloarchaea employ the TrkAH system, rather than the Kdp system, to actively uptake potassium. The genomic analysis also reveals that one of the three CRISPR loci in the Natrinema sp. J7-2 chromosome is located in an integrative genetic element and is probably propagated via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis of haloarchaeal genomes provides clues about evolutionary relationships of haloarchaea.

  13. Surfactant and Gelation Properties of Acetylsalicylate Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquid in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Nandhibatla V; Singh, Dipak K

    2016-10-04

    An amphiphilic room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) containing acetylsalicylate anion of type 1-dodecyl-1-methylpiperidinium acetylsalicylate, [C12mpip][AcSa], is synthesized from the precursor [C12mpip][Cl] by an ion exchange process. The sample is characterized, and its surface active and aggregation behavior in water has been studied and explained. The critical aggregation concentrations (CACs) are determined by a variety of methods, namely, electrical conductivity, surface tension, steady state florescence, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at different temperatures. As compared to its precursor, [C12mpip][AcSa] has low CAC values, indicating enhanced favorable interactions between the [alkylmpip](+) cation···bulky [AcSa](-) anion and also hydrogen bonding of both of the ions with water. The free energy of aggregation ΔG(0)a is always negative, and both enthalpy and entropy of aggregation drive the aggregation process. The micelle-like aggregates are ellipsoidal in shape. The aggregation numbers are determined from translational diffusion coefficients and florescence quenching measurements. Aggregates of [C12mpip][AcSa] are larger than those of its precursor IL with chloride anion. Therefore, it is evident that the close interactions between the ion pairs of [C12mpip](+)···[AcSa](-) facilitate packing of more molecules in an aggregate. The steady state and oscillatory rheology measurements in aqueous solutions consisting of mixtures of [C12mpip][AcSa] and sodium salicylate (SS), an hydrotope additive, were carried out. The analysis of zero shear viscosity and moduli properties as a function of concentration and temperature reveals that the addition of SS promotes the growth of small ellipsoid aggregates into large worm-like structures with a typical viscoelastic gel behavior. The moduli properties vs temperature profiles are complex and no hysteresis was produced in heating and cooling modes, suggesting the thermoirreversibile and complex nature

  14. Evaluation of three real-time PCR assays for differential identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria species in liquid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Jung; Kim, Ji-Youn; Song, Dong Joon; Koh, Won-Jung; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC)/nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) PCR assays for differential identification of MTBC and NTM using culture-positive liquid media. Eighty-five type strains and 100 consecutive mycobacterial liquid media cultures (MGIT 960 system) were analyzed by a conventional PCR assay (MTB-ID(®) V3) and three real-time PCR assays (AdvanSure™ TB/NTM real-time PCR, AdvanSure; GENEDIA(®) MTB/NTM Detection Kit, Genedia; Real-Q MTB & NTM kit, Real-Q). The accuracy rates for reference strains were 89.4%, 100%, 98.8%, and 98.8% for the MTB-ID V3, AdvanSure, Genedia, and Real-Q assays, respectively. Cross-reactivity in the MTB-ID V3 assay was mainly attributable to non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species. The diagnostic performance was determined using clinical isolates grown in liquid media, and the overall sensitivities for all PCR assays were higher than 95%. In conclusion, the three real-time PCR assays showed better performance in discriminating mycobacterium species and non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species than the conventional PCR assay.

  15. Hypothalamic energy balance gene responses in the Sprague-Dawley rat to supplementation of high-energy diet with liquid ensure and subsequent transfer to chow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Z A; Rayner, D V; Barrett, P; Balik, A; Duncan, J S; Moar, K M; Mercer, J G

    2005-11-01

    Energy dense, high fat, high sugar, foods and beverages in our diet are a major contributor to the escalating global obesity problem. Here, we examine the physiological and neuroendocrine effects of feeding rats a solid high-energy (HE) diet with or without a liquid supplement (Ensure) and the consequence of subsequently transferring animals back to chow (C). Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C until 49-56 days of age, and then transferred a HE diet for 3 weeks before allocation to one of two weight-matched groups. Over the next 10 weeks, one group remained on HE diet, whereas the other had access to the liquid diet, chocolate Ensure (EN), in addition to HE diet (HE + EN). Half the rats from each group were then killed, and the remainder were returned to C for 3 weeks. Supplementation of the HE diet with EN accelerated weight gain and increased daily energy intake, adipose tissue mass, and circulating leptin levels. Transferring animals back to C caused a decrease in bodyweight in the HE + EN group, whereas HE animals were weight stable. Both groups also exhibited voluntary hypophagia, although the magnitude and duration of this response was greater in HE + EN animals. The only effect of Ensure on the hypothalamic genes studied was on tyrosine kinase B expression in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), which was increased in rats given the supplement. Withdrawal of the obesogenic diets decreased gene expression for cocaine-and-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and dynorphin (DYN) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and DYN and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the VMH, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the ARC was increased. These changes were independent of previous dietary history. EN supplementation generates distinct physiological responses, yet has a minimal effect on hypothalamic neuropeptide or receptor gene expression, possibly due to the development of leptin resistance. Withdrawal of obesogenic diets induces changes in

  16. Geographic differences in time to culture conversion in liquid media: Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study 28. Culture conversion is delayed in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Mac Kenzie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 28, was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 clinical trial examining smear positive pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Over the course of intensive phase therapy, patients from African sites had substantially delayed and lower rates of culture conversion to negative in liquid media compared to non-African patients. We explored potential explanations of this finding. METHODS: In TBTC Study 28, protocol-correct patients (n = 328 provided spot sputum specimens for M. tuberculosis culture in liquid media, at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of study therapy. We compared sputum culture conversion for African and non-African patients stratified by four baseline measures of disease severity: AFB smear quantification, extent of disease on chest radiograph, cavity size and the number of days to detection of M. tuberculosis in liquid media using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. We evaluated specimen processing and culture procedures used at 29 study laboratories serving 27 sites. RESULTS: African TB patients had more extensive disease at enrollment than non-African patients. However, African patients with the least disease by the 4 measures of disease severity had conversion rates on liquid media that were substantially lower than conversion rates in non-African patients with the greatest extent of disease. HIV infection, smoking and diabetes did not explain delayed conversion in Africa. Some inter-site variation in laboratory processing and culture procedures within accepted practice for clinical diagnostic laboratories was found. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients from non-African sites, African patients being treated for TB had delayed sputum culture conversion and lower sputum conversion rates in liquid media that were not explained by baseline severity of disease, HIV status, age, smoking, diabetes or race. Further investigation is warranted into whether modest

  17. COMPARISON OF POLYSACCHARIDES ISOLATED FROM THE MYCELIA OF A CULTIVATED STRAIN OF PORIA COCOS GROWN IN DIFFERENT LIQUID CULTURE MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Li Chen; Yong Jin; Yu-lu Lin; Peter Chi Keung Cheung; Li-guo Chen

    2003-01-01

    Mycelium of a cultivated strain of Poria cocos was grown by submerged fermentation in a liquid medium containing com steep liquor with orbital shaking. Six polysaccharides coded as ac-PCM 1, ac-PCM2, ac-PCM3-I and II, acPCM4-I and II were isolated from the mycelium by extracting with 0.9% NaC1 aqueous solution, hot water, 0.5 mol/L NaOH aqueous solution and 88% formic acid. Exo-polysaccharide was obtained from the culture medium and coded as ac-PCM0.The monosaccharide composition and molecular weights of these polysaccharides were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, elemental analysis, 13C-NMR, viscometry and light scattering. The results indicated that ac-PCM0, ac-PCM1 and ac-PCM2 are heteropolysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and fucose, and acPCM3-I and ac-PCM3-II mainly consist of D-glucose. The content of the glucose in the polysaccharides increased with the isolation progress. Remarkably, a-glucan and β-glucan coexisted in the extract by NaOH aqueous solution (ac-PCM3), and could be separated by chemical methods. The protein in the ac-PCM polysaccharides cultured from the medium containing com steep liquor was higher than that in the ab-PCM from the medium with bran extract. Therefore, the polysaccharides from Poria cocos mycelia cultured in different media have different chemical composition, molecular weights and conformations.

  18. Multi-class methodology to determine pesticides and mycotoxins in green tea and royal jelly supplements by liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2016-04-15

    A multi-class methodology was developed to determine pesticides and mycotoxins in food supplements. The extraction was performed using acetonitrile acidified with formic acid (1%, v/v). Different clean-up sorbents were tested, and the best results were obtained using C18 and zirconium oxide for green tea and royal jelly, respectively. The compounds were determined using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Exactive-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The recovery rates obtained were between 70% and 120% for most of the compounds studied with a relative standard deviation green tea (10) and royal jelly (8) samples. Nine (eight of green tea and one of royal jelly) samples were found to be positive for pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10.6 (cinosulfuron) to 47.9 μg/kg (paclobutrazol). The aflatoxin B1 (5.4 μg/kg) was also found in one of the green tea samples.

  19. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) determination of stimulants, anorectic drugs and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Odoardi, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2015-03-15

    The paper describes a liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry LC/HRMS method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of stimulants (ephedrines, caffeine, anorectic drugs such as phentermine, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, fenfluramine, benfluorex, mephentermine, fencanfamine, sibutramine) and PDE5I (sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil) in food supplements using a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The mass detector, with a nominal resolving power of 100,000 (FWHM at m/z 200), operated in full scan mode in ESI positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by retention times, accurate masses and correspondence of experimental and calculated isotopic patterns. The limits of detection (LOD) obtained varied from 1 to 25 ng g(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 50 ng g(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all the analytes in the ranges from 50 to 2000 ng g(-1), giving correlation coefficients>0.99. Accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (% CV) were always lower than 15%. The method was applied to the analysis of 36 dietary supplements, revealing the presence of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine in four of them, caffeine in eight of them and sildenafil in four of them. In one case, ephedrine was not reported on the label of the dietary supplement, as well as for caffeine in other two cases. A further confirmation of the analytes identity in positive samples was obtained through in-source fragmentation and comparison of the obtained fragments and their relative abundances with those from certified standards. As the acquisition mode is full scan, it would be also possible to re-process a previously acquired datafile for the investigation of untargeted analytes.

  20. Determination of kava lactones in food supplements by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, I.; Boonzaaijer, G.; Spies-Faber, E.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry was used for the determination of kava extracts in herbal mixtures. One percent of kava extract can be detected, corresponding to approximately 0.05-0.2 mg/g of the individual ka

  1. Comparison of three development approaches for Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography based screening methods Part II: A group of structural analogues (PDE-5 inhibitors in food supplements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Ghijs, L; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2016-02-01

    Three approaches for the development of a screening method to detect adulterated dietary supplements, based on Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography were compared for their easiness/speed of development and the performance of the optimal method obtained. This comparison was performed for a heterogeneous group of molecules, i.e. slimming agents (Part I) and a group of structural analogues, i.e. PDE-5 inhibitors (Part II). The first approach makes use of primary runs at one isocratic level, the second of primary runs in gradient mode and the third of primary runs at three isocratic levels to calculate the optimal combination of segments of stationary phases. In each approach the selection of the stationary phase was followed by a gradient optimisation. For the PDE-5 inhibitors, the group of structural analogues, only the method obtained with the third approach was able to differentiate between all the molecules in the development set. Although not all molecules are baseline separated, the method allows the identification of the selected adulterants in dietary supplements using only diode array detection. Though, due to the mobile phases used, the method could also be coupled to mass spectrometry. The method was validated for its selectivity following the guidelines as described for the screening of pesticide residues and residues of veterinary medicines in food.

  2. Quantitative determination of alkaloids from roots of Hydrastis canadensis L. and dietary supplements using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with UV detection was used for the quantification of alkaloids from roots of Hydrastis canadensis L. (goldenseal) and dietary supplements claiming to contain goldenseal. The analysis was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system with an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column using gradient elution with ammonium formate and acetonitrile containing formic acid. The chromatographic run time was less than 6 min. The detection wavelength used for beta-hydrastine and canadine was 290 nm; for hydrastinine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, and berberine, it was 344 nm. A total of five different extraction solvents, including 100% methanol, 90% methanol, 90% methanol + 1% acetic acid, 90% acetonitrile + 0.1% phosphoric acid, and 100% acetonitrile, were tested for recovery of the major compounds. The samples extracted with the 90% methanol + 1% acetic acid displayed the best recovery (>97%). The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, LOD, and LOQ. The RSDs for intraday and interday experiments were less than 3.5%, and the recovery was 98-103%. UPLC/MS with a quadrupole mass analyzer and electrospray ionization source was used to confirm the identity of seven alkaloids. The analytical method was successfully applied to confirm the identification of seven alkaloids from the roots of H. canadensis, dietary supplements that claimed to contain goldenseal, and possible adulterant species.

  3. Studying the Regularities of High-Energy Flow Localization in Micro- and Nano-Layers at the Interface of Solid and Liquid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of research performed by the modeling method and focusing on the distribution of material and energy flows at the interface of solid and liquid media under non-steady-state conditions. Modeling was performed using the case of two parallel oxidation-reduction reactions that occur under the impact of an external current supply of unlimited power. The identified regularities can be used when designing and arranging specific heterogeneous oxidation-reduction processes, in order to arrange local energy impact, including when one needs to form the nano-structured non-metallic inorganic coatings by microplasma method. Modeling demonstrates that nanosized localization of high-energy flows is possible at the media interface. Depending on pulse duration, the instantaneous energy can exceed the bond energy of chemical compounds. The identified regularities are true for description of non-steady-state heterogeneous oxidation-reduction reactions in chemistry, electrochemistry, catalysis and other areas of science and technology.

  4. Long-term stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreda, Patricia M; Beitman, Gerard H; Gutierrez, Erin C; Harris, James M; Koch, Kristopher R; LaViers, William D; Leitch, Sharon V; Maus, Courtney E; McMillian, Ray A; Nussbaumer, William A; Palmer, Marcus L R; Porter, Michael J; Richart, Gregory A; Schwab, Ryan J; Vaughan, Laurence M

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of storage at 2 to 8°C on the stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. DNA retained the ability to be extracted and PCR amplified for more than 2.5 years in both medium types. Prior inability to detect DNA in archived specimens may have been due to failure of the extraction method to isolate DNA from fixed cells.

  5. Long-Term Stability of Human Genomic and Human Papillomavirus DNA Stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt Liquid-Based Cytology Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreda, Patricia M.; Beitman, Gerard H.; Gutierrez, Erin C.; Harris, James M.; Koch, Kristopher R.; LaViers, William D.; Leitch, Sharon V.; Maus, Courtney E.; McMillian, Ray A.; Nussbaumer, William A.; Palmer, Marcus L. R.; Porter, Michael J.; Richart, Gregory A.; Schwab, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of storage at 2 to 8°C on the stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. DNA retained the ability to be extracted and PCR amplified for more than 2.5 years in both medium types. Prior inability to detect DNA in archived specimens may have been due to failure of the extraction method to isolate DNA from fixed cells. PMID:23678069

  6. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Gu, Tieguang; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Method for the determination of lycopene in supplements and raw material by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, André; Pietsch, Bernd; Faccin, Nicole; Schierle, Joseph; Waysek, Edward H

    2008-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of total and all-trans-lycopene in a variety of dietary supplements and raw materials. Gelatin-based and other water-dispersible beadlets, or tablets, capsules, and softgels containing such product forms, were digested with protease. Alginate formulations and the respective applications were treated with an alkaline sodium EDTA acetate buffer to release lycopene from the matrix. Lycopene and other carotenoids were extracted from the resulting aqueous suspensions with dichloromethane and ethanol. Oily product forms were directly dissolved in dichloromethane and ethanol. The extracts were chromatographed on an isocratic high-performance LC system using a C16 alkylamide modified silica column that provided satisfactory resolution of all-trans-lycopene from its predominant cis-isomers and separated the lycopene isomers from other carotenoids such as alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The within-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of total lycopene ranged from 0.9 to 5.7% over concentration ranges of 50-200 g/kg for raw materials and 0.3-24 g/kg for dietary supplements. The intermediate precision RSD (total RSD) ranged from 0.8 to 8.9%. Recoveries obtained for beadlet and tablet material for the different extraction variants ranged from 95.0 to 102.1% at levels of 0.02-20 g/kg for tablets and from 95.0 to 101.1% at levels of 1-200 g/kg for beadlet material.

  8. Cell-Free Spent Media Obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis Grown in Media Supplemented with 3′-Sialyllactose Modulate Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondue, Pauline; Crèvecoeur, Sébastien; Brose, François; Daube, Georges; Seghaye, Marie-Christine; Griffiths, Mansel W.; LaPointe, Gisèle; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates. This study focused on the ability of B. bifidum and B. crudilactis to grow in a culture medium supplemented in 3′-sialyllactose (3′SL) as the main source of carbon, a major BMO encountered in cow milk. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM) were tested against virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3′SL, but B. crudilactis showed the best growth (7.92 ± 0.3 log cfu/ml) compared to B. bifidum (6.84 ± 0.9 log cfu/ml). Then, CFSM were tested for their effects on virulence gene expression by ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively, and on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium using RT-qPCR. All CFSM resulted in significant under expression of the ler and hilA genes for the luminescent mutants and ler (ratios of −15.4 and −8.1 respectively) and qseA (ratios of −2.1 and −3.1) for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. The 3′SL, a major BMO, combined with some bifidobacteria strains of bovine or human origin could therefore be an interesting synbiotic to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro will be further investigated regarding the overall phenotype of pathogenic agents and the exact nature of the active molecules. PMID:27713728

  9. Cell-Free Spent Media Obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis Grown in Media Supplemented with 3'-Sialyllactose Modulate Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondue, Pauline; Crèvecoeur, Sébastien; Brose, François; Daube, Georges; Seghaye, Marie-Christine; Griffiths, Mansel W; LaPointe, Gisèle; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates. This study focused on the ability of B. bifidum and B. crudilactis to grow in a culture medium supplemented in 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL) as the main source of carbon, a major BMO encountered in cow milk. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM) were tested against virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3'SL, but B. crudilactis showed the best growth (7.92 ± 0.3 log cfu/ml) compared to B. bifidum (6.84 ± 0.9 log cfu/ml). Then, CFSM were tested for their effects on virulence gene expression by ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively, and on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium using RT-qPCR. All CFSM resulted in significant under expression of the ler and hilA genes for the luminescent mutants and ler (ratios of -15.4 and -8.1 respectively) and qseA (ratios of -2.1 and -3.1) for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. The 3'SL, a major BMO, combined with some bifidobacteria strains of bovine or human origin could therefore be an interesting synbiotic to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro will be further investigated regarding the overall phenotype of pathogenic agents and the exact nature of the active molecules.

  10. Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sádaba, Irantzu; Lopez Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed to be a brief tutorial covering the deactivation of solid catalysts in the liquid phase, with specific focus on leaching, which can be especially helpful to researchers not familiarized with catalytic processes in the liquid phase. Leaching refers to the loss of active specie...

  11. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2001-10-15

    The wettability of Berea and chalk samples for gas-oil and gas-water fluids were altered from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. Two polymers, FC-722 and FC-759, were used to alter the wettability. FC-759 is soluble in water and some 20 times less expensive than FC-722. Gas and liquid relative permeabilities were measured before and after wettability alteration. The results demonstrate a significant increase in liquid-phase relative permeability. Gas-phase relative permeability for a fixed saturation may increase or decrease. However, because of the very high liquid mobility and reduced liquid saturation, the gas mobility also increases for a fixed pressure drop. A number of liquid injectivity tests were also carried out. The results reveal that the liquid-phase mobility can increase significantly when the wettability of rocks is altered from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. All the results show clearly that the application of wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting may significantly increase deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs.

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) with Aliquat® 336 from HCl media in microfluidic devices: Combination of micro-unit operations and online ICP-MS determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellé, Gwendolyne; Mariet, Clarisse; Cote, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclides is carried out according to operating protocols which include a series of chemical operations such as separation/purification steps and therefore is usually time-consuming, complex and difficult to put in place in a hostile environment (gloves box). In the present work, the liquid-liquid extraction of uranium in HCl media by Aliquat® 336 was performed in microsystem to demonstrate the potential of miniaturization in radiochemistry compared to classical protocols (decrease in volumes, analysis time, radiations received and feasibility of automation). Through the investigation of the influence of different parameters (flow rates, length of the microchannel, specific interfacial area), it was shown that the same performances of liquid-liquid extraction can be obtained in microsystem and in batch. Then, the coupling of different micro-unit operations for continuous process was performed to highlight the advantages of the miniaturized analytical techniques. The online ICP-MS determination of uranium(VI) was successfully coupled with the stripping of the latter from pre-loaded organic phases in microsystem, which constitutes a proof of concept and a first step towards a global analytical process with continuous flow.

  13. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Sadia; Ali, Tasneem Adam; Skory, Chris; Slininger, Patricia J; Schisler, David A

    2016-02-01

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research in locations where obtaining these products is difficult. A less expensive option for providing components essential to microbial growth in liquid culture is the use of extracts of fresh or dried plant products obtained by using hot water extraction techniques. A total of 13 plant extract-based media were prepared from a variety of plant fruits, pods or seeds of plant species including Allium cepa (red onion bulb), Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean pods), and Lens culinaris (lentil seeds). In shake flask tests, cell production by potato dry rot antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in plant extract-based media was generally statistically indistinguishable from that in commercially produced tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth as measured by optical density and colony forming units/ml produced (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher's protected LSD). The efficacy of biomass produced in the best plant extract-based media or commercial media was equivalent in reducing Fusarium dry rot by 50-96% compared to controls. In studies using a high-throughput microbioreactor, logarithmic growth of P22Y05 in plant extract-based media initiated in 3-5 h in most cases but specific growth rate and the time of maximum OD varied as did the maximum pH obtained in media. Nutrient analysis of selected media before and after cell growth indicated that nitrogen in the form of NH4 accumulated in culture supernatants, possibly due to unbalanced growth conditions brought on by a scarcity of simple sugars in the media tested. The potential of plant extract-based media to economically produce biomass of microbes active in reducing plant disease is considerable and deserves further research.

  14. Mixtures of room temperature ionic liquid/ethanol solutions as electrolytic media for cerium oxide thin layer electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lair, V., E-mail: virginie-lair@chimie-paristech.f [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie, LECIME, CNRS UMR 7575-Chimie Paristech (ENSCP)-Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sirieix-Plenet, J.; Gaillon, L.; Rizzi, C. [UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7195, Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloides et Sciences Analytiques (PECSA), F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195, PECSA, F-75005 Paris (France); ESPCI, UMR 7195, PECSA, F-75005 Paris (France); Ringuede, A. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie, LECIME, CNRS UMR 7575-Chimie Paristech (ENSCP)-Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-12-30

    A cerium oxide thin layer was electrodeposited onto stainless steel, using mixed room temperature ionic liquid (the 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide)/ethanol solutions, as electrolytic medium. The hydrophobic ionic liquid content is one of the main parameters in the morphology control influencing the ceria growth rate and crystallinity. Micro-nano structural properties and electrical behaviour are presented, using XRD, SEM/EDS and impedance spectroscopy, as a function of electrodeposition conditions.

  15. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  16. The non-Newtonian heat and mass transport of He 2 in porous media used for vapor-liquid phase separation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) of He 2 is related to long-term storage of cryogenic liquid. The VLPS system utilizes porous plugs in order to generate thermomechanical (thermo-osmotic) force which in turn prevents liquid from flowing out of the cryo-vessel (e.g., Infrared Astronomical Satellite). An apparatus was built and VLPS data were collected for a 2 and a 10 micrometer sintered stainless steel plug and a 5 to 15 micrometer sintered bronze plug. The VLPS data obtained at high temperature were in the nonlinear turbulent regime. At low temperature, the Stokes regime was approached. A turbulent flow model was developed, which provides a phenomenological description of the VLPS data. According to the model, most of the phase separation data are in the turbulent regime. The model is based on concepts of the Gorter-Mellink transport involving the mutual friction known from the zero net mass flow (ZNMF) studies. The latter had to be modified to obtain agreement with the present experimental VLPS evidence. In contrast to the well-known ZNMF mode, the VLPS results require a geometry dependent constant (Gorter-Mellink constant). A theoretical interpretation of the phenomenological equation for the VLPS data obtained, is based on modelling of the dynamics of quantized vortices proposed by Vinen. In extending Vinen's model to the VLPS transport of He 2 in porous media, a correlation between the K*(GM) and K(p) was obtained which permits an interpretation of the present findings. As K(p) is crucial, various methods were introduced to measure the permeability of the porous media at low temperatures. Good agreement was found between the room temperature and the low temperature K(p)-value of the plugs.

  17. Efficient, validated method for detection of mycobacterial growth in liquid culture media by use of bead beating, magnetic-particle-based nucleic acid isolation, and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Karren M; Waldron, Anna M; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria are difficult to culture, requiring specialized media and a long incubation time, and have complex and exceedingly robust cell walls. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic wasting disease of ruminants, is a typical example. Culture of MAP from the feces and intestinal tissues is a commonly used test for confirmation of infection. Liquid medium offers greater sensitivity than solid medium for detection of MAP; however, support for the BD Bactec 460 system commonly used for this purpose has been discontinued. We previously developed a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, to replace it, with confirmation of growth reliant on PCR. Here, we report an efficient DNA isolation and quantitative PCR methodology for the specific detection and confirmation of MAP growth in liquid culture media containing egg yolk. The analytical sensitivity was at least 10(4)-fold higher than a commonly used method involving ethanol precipitation of DNA and conventional PCR; this may be partly due to the addition of a bead-beating step to manually disrupt the cell wall of the mycobacteria. The limit of detection, determined using pure cultures of two different MAP strains, was 100 to 1,000 MAP organisms/ml. The diagnostic accuracy was confirmed using a panel of cattle fecal (n=54) and sheep fecal and tissue (n=90) culture samples. This technique is directly relevant for diagnostic laboratories that perform MAP cultures but may also be applicable to the detection of other species, including M. avium and M. tuberculosis.

  18. Spectral-Luminescent, Photochemical, and Lasing Characteristics of Boron Dipyrromethene Difluoro (III) Derivatives in Liquid and Solid-State Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, R. T.; Aksenova, Yu. V.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Bashkirtsev, D. E.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Arabei, S. M.; Pavich, T. A.; Solovyov, K. N.; Antina, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    Optical properties of some boron dipyrromethene difluoro (III) (BF2-dipyrromethene) derivatives are studied depending on the ligand structure, the medium in which they are incorporated, irradiation time, and radiation wavelength. Prospects for application of the prepared solid-state media painted by the examined compounds in various optical devices used in modern technologies are demonstrated. These are active laser media in the range 550-565 nm based on three-component silicate matrices with high laser damage threshold and sensor media based on boron difluoride complexes of halogen-substituted dipyrromethenes incorporated into an organic polymer for the determination of oxygen concentration in a gas mixture. Spectral, energy, and resource characteristics of lasing of solid-state elements are presented. The effect of reversible dye photounpainting in three-component silicate matrices with subsequent restoration in the darkness is discovered. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed with allowance for which laser media with increased photostability can be prepared. A high sensitivity of the sensor medium based on diiodinated complex of BF2-dipyrromethene incorporated into polyvinyl butyral is obtained. Reasons for the increase in the response time to the change of the gas mixture when going over to neutral argon and possibilities of its elimination are discussed.

  19. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  20. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  1. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  2. Ionic liquids/[bmim][N3] mixtures: promising media for the synthesis of aryl azides by SNAr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Francesca; Marullo, Salvatore; Noto, Renato

    2008-08-15

    The nucleophilic aromatic substitution of some activated aryl or heteroaryl halides has been performed in ionic liquid solution, using the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium azide as a nucleophile. The reaction course was studied varying the structures of both substrates and ionic liquids. In particular, in the latter case, the reaction of 2-bromo-5-nitrothiophene was carried out in five different ionic liquids ([bmim][BF 4], [bmim][PF 6], [bmim][NTf 2], [bm 2im][NTf 2], and [bmpyrr][NTf 2]). Finally, for all the substrates considered, a comparison with data obtained in MeOH solution in the presence of NaN 3 was also performed. Data collected indicate that in some cases it is possible to obtain aromatic or heteroaromatic azide derivatives in satisfactory yield by means of a S NAr reaction using [bmim][N 3] as the nucleophile.

  3. Effect of Porous Media and Fluid Properties on Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Migration and Dilution Mass Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    system wettability that is directly related to contact angle. Fink (1970) experimentally measured breakthrough pressure for water repellent soils to...this study was to conduct water entry pressure, air and oil entry pressure tests for silica sand with various fractions of organic ( silane ) coated media... Water Repellency Based upon Contact Angle-Surface Tension Relationships, Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 34:841-844, 1970. Wilson, J.L

  4. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications. PMID:25120905

  5. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-10-21

    The authors have performed a number of imbibition tests with the treated and untreated cores in nC{sub 10}, nC{sub 14}, and nC{sub 16} and a natural gas condensate liquid. Imbibition tests for nC{sub 14} and nC{sub 16} were also carried out at elevated temperatures of 100 C and 140 C. An experimental polymer synthesized for the purpose of this project was used in core treatment. Imbibition results are very promising and imply liquid condensate mobility enhancement in the treated core. They also performed flow tests to quantify the increase in well deliverability and to simulate flow under realistic field conditions. In the past we have performed extensive testing of wettability alteration in intermediate gas wetting for polymer FC759 at temperatures of 24 C and 90 C. The results were promising for the purpose of gas well deliverability improvement in gas condensate wells. We used FC759 to lower the surface energy of various rocks. The model fluids nC{sub 10}, and nC{sub 14} were used to represent condensate liquid, and air was used as the gas phase. A new (L-16349) polymer, which has been recently synthesized for the purpose of the project, was used in the work to be presented here. L-16349 is a water-soluble fluorochemical polymer, with low order, neutral PH and very low volatile organic compound (VOC < 9.1 g/l). It is light yellow in appearance and density in 25% solution is 1.1 g/cc. Polymer L-16349 is very safe from environmental considerations and it is economical for our purpose. In this work, in addition to nC{sub 10}, and nC{sub 14}, we used two other liquids nC{sub 16}, and a liquid condensate in order to study the effect of wettability alteration with a broader range of fluids.

  6. A Moraxella catarrhalis two-component signal transduction system necessary for growth in liquid media affects production of two lysozyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Stephanie N; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S; Attia, Ahmed S; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  8. Removal of the insecticide diazinon from liquid media by free and immobilized Streptomyces sp. isolated from agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Gabriela; Fuentes, María S; Rubilar, Olga; Jorquera, Milko; Tortella, Gonzalo; Palma, Graciela; Amoroso, María J; Diez, Maria Cristina

    2015-03-01

    From an agricultural soil that had received continuous applications of organophosphorus pesticides, 30 actinobacteria strains were isolated. Two strains, identified as Streptomyces sp. AC1-6 and Streptomyces sp. ISP4, were selected because of their tolerance to diazinon and based on the relationship between diazinon removal and microbial growth. In liquid medium with diazinon at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg L(-1), both strains were able to remove approximately 40-50% and 70-90% of the initial diazinon after 24 and 96 h of incubation, respectively. This diazinon removal was accompanied by microbial growth of the strains, an initial pH decrease, and glucose consumption in the liquid medium. Evaluation of the diazinon removal achieved by the free actinobacteria and Streptomyces sp. AC1-6 immobilized on alginate beads revealed that the immobilized cells exhibited a 60% higher diazinon removal compared with the free cells. The reusability of the encapsulated biomass was confirmed, and a diazinon removal rate of more than 50% was obtained after the second batch. This work constitutes one of the few reports that describe Streptomyces strains as diazinon degraders. Given the high diazinon removal found, the streptomycetes exhibit suitable potential as diazinon-degrading actinobacteria for elimination of diazinon from liquid residues.

  9. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of a complete transverse electromagnetic cell loaded with liquid biological media in culture dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, M; Hagness, S C; Taflove, A

    1998-08-01

    Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells can be used for exposing biological culture specimens to electromagnetic fields and observing possible anomalous effects. The uniformity of field exposure is critical to quantifying the biological response versus the electromagnetic dose. Standing waves and other electromagnetic field nonuniformities can cause nonuniform exposure. This paper reports the results of high-resolution three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of a complete TEM cell designed for operation at 837 MHz. Several different cases were studied in which the number of culture dishes, the depth of the culture liquid, and the orientation of the culture dishes were varied. Further, the effect of the culture-dish glass bottom thickness and the meniscus of the liquid medium were examined. The FDTD results show that there is a significant nonuniform field and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution within the culture medium for each case examined. Hence, biological dose-response experiments using the TEM cells should account for the possibility of strong localized SAR peaking in the culture media to provide useful data in setting exposure standards for wireless communications.

  10. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  11. Additional zinc delivered in a liquid supplement, but not in a fortified porridge, increased fat-free mass accrual among young Peruvian children with mild-to-moderate stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; López de Romaña, Daniel; Penny, Mary E; Van Loan, Marta D; Brown, Kenneth H

    2008-01-01

    The exact mechanism whereby zinc influences growth is unknown, although it has been postulated that zinc may stimulate appetite and energy intake or enhance fat-free mass (FFM) accrual directly. We compared energy intake, reported appetite, and body composition of 6- to 8-mo-old Peruvian children with initial length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) porridge; or 3) no extra zinc in either the supplement or porridge. There were no group-wise differences in changes in dietary energy intakes or body composition or in the prevalence of reported poor appetite. However, among children with an initial LAZ less than the median (-1.1 SD), those who received zinc as a liquid supplement had a 0.41 kg greater increase in FFM than those who did not receive zinc (P < 0.05). We concluded that daily provision of 3 mg of supplemental zinc did not affect energy intake or reported appetite. Among children with initial mild-to-moderate stunting, those who received the zinc supplement had a greater increase in FFM than those who did not receive additional zinc. It is possible that the growth-restricted children were more likely to be zinc deficient and that FFM accrual may be an early growth response to supplemental zinc. Zinc supplements may be more efficacious than the same dose of zinc provided in fortified food; therefore, further research is needed on the optimal level of zinc fortification that will result in improved health outcomes in populations with high rates of zinc deficiency.

  12. Differences in the glycosylation profile of a monoclonal antibody produced by hybridomas cultured in serum-supplemented, serum-free or chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, J Antonio; Hernández, Vanessa; Estrada-Mondaca, Sandino; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2007-06-01

    SFM (serum-free medium) is preferred to media containing animal-derived components when culturing mammalian cells for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins and mAbs (monoclonal antibodies). Nonetheless, eliminating animal-derived components from media can strongly modify culture performance and alter protein glycosylation. In the present study, mAb glycosylation profiles, extracellular exoglycosidase activities, hybridoma growth and mAb production in traditional medium containing 10% (v/v) FBS (fetal bovine serum) [DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium)/FBS] were compared with those obtained in either SFM or CDM (chemically defined medium). SFM and CDM supported higher cell and mAb concentrations than did DMEM/FBS; however, CE (capillary electrophoresis) analyses revealed important changes in mAb glycosylation patterns. Glycosylation patterns showed a broad microheterogeneity in all the media, ranging from complex to high-mannose and paucimannosidic glycans. mAb produced in DMEM/FBS presented 26 glycan structures, whereas a lower glycan microheterogeneity was found for cultures in CDM or SFM, which presented 24 and 22 structures respectively. In DMEM/FBS and CDM, complex glycans without terminal galactose (G0) represented 28 and 32% of the total glycans respectively and 42 and 46% corresponded to galactosylated structures (G1 plus G2) respectively. In contrast, G0 glycans in SFM accounted for 58%, whereas only 28% corresponded to G1 and G2 structures. Extracellular beta-galactosidase activity increased approx. 3-fold in SFM, which can explain the higher G0 content compared with cultures in the other two media. A desirable decrease in sialylated structures, but an undesirable increase in fucosylated forms, was observed in mAb produced in SFM and CDM media. Approxi. 80% of potential mAb glycosylation sites were occupied, regardless of the culture medium used.

  13. Ionic Liquid Surfactant Mediated Structural Transitions and Self-Assembly of Bovine Serum Albumin in Aqueous Media: Effect of Functionalization of Ionic Liquid Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbir; Kang, Tejwant Singh

    2015-08-20

    The self-assembly of globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solutions of ionic liquid surfactants (ILSs), 1-dodecyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride, [C12mim][Cl], and its amide, [C12Amim][Cl], and ester, [C12Emim][Cl], functionalized counterparts. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) has provided insights into the alterations in hydrodynamic radii (D(h)) of BSA as a function of concentration of ILSs establishing the presence of different types of BSA-ILS complexes in different concentration regimes of ILSs. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been exploited to quantify the ILSs interacting with BSA in dilute concentration regime of ILSs. The zeta-potential measurements shed light on changes in the charged state of BSA. The morphology of various self-assembled structures of BSA in different concentration regimes of ILSs have been explored using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy. The structural variations in ILSs have been found to produce remarkable effect on the nature and morphology of self-assembled structures of BSA. The presence of nonfunctionalized [C12mim][Cl] IL at all investigated concentrations has led to the formation of unordered large self-assembled structures of BSA. On the other hand, in specific concentration regimes, ordered self-assembled structures such as long rods and right-handedly twisted helical amyloid fibers have been observed in the presence of functionalized [C12Amim][Cl] and [C12Emim][Cl] ILSs, respectively. The nature of the formed helical fibers as amyloid ones has been confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. Steady-state fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have provided insights into folding and unfolding of BSA as fashioned by interactions with ILSs in different concentration regimes supporting the observations made from other studies.

  14. The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. L.; Semer, C.; Kucharek, T.; Ferl, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence on transgene expression. In a series of experiments designed to optimize media composition for a recent shuttle mission, the fungicide benomyl and the biocide "Plant Preservative Mixture" (PPM) were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three common fungal contaminants, as well as their impact on the growth and development of arabidopsis seedlings. Benomyl proved to be an effective inhibitor of all three contaminants in concentrations as low as 2 ppm (parts per million) within the agar medium, and no evidence of phytotoxicity was observed until concentrations exceeded 20 ppm. The biocide mix PPM was effective as a fungicide only at concentrations that had deleterious effects on arabidopsis seedlings. As a result of these findings, a concentration of 3 ppm benomyl was used in the media for experiment PGIM-01 which flew on shuttle Columbia mission STS-93 in July 1999.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  16. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbons from Ionic Liquids@MOF: Remarkable Adsorbents for Both Aqueous and Nonaqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Panja, Tandra; Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Sarker, Mithun; Yu, Jong-Sung; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2017-03-22

    Porous carbons were prepared from a metal-organic framework (MOF, named ZIF-8), with or without modification, via high-temperature pyrolysis. Porous carbons with high nitrogen content were obtained from the calcination of MOF after introducing an ionic liquid (IL) (IL@MOF) via the ship-in-bottle method. The MOF-derived carbons (MDCs) and IL@MOF-derived carbons (IMDCs) were characterized using various techniques and used for liquid-phase adsorptions in both water and hydrocarbon to understand the possible applications in purification of water and fuel, respectively. Adsorptive performances for the removal of organic contaminants, atrazine (ATZ), diuron, and diclofenac, were remarkably enhanced with the modification/conversion of MOFs to MDC and IMDC. For example, in the case of ATZ adsorption, the maximum adsorption capacity of IMDC (Q0 = 208 m(2)/g) was much higher than that of activated carbon (AC, Q0 = 60 m(2)/g) and MDC (Q0 = 168 m(2)/g) and was found to be the highest among the reported results so far. The results of adsorptive denitrogenation and desulfurization of fuel were similar to that of water purification. The IMDCs are very useful in the adsorptions since these new carbons showed remarkable performances in both the aqueous and nonaqueous phases. These results are very meaningful because hydrophobic and hydrophilic adsorbents are usually required for the adsorptions in the water and fuel phases, respectively. Moreover, a plausible mechanism, H-bonding, was also suggested to explain the remarkable performance of the IMDCs in the adsorptions. Therefore, the IMDCs derived from IL@MOF might have various applications, especially in adsorptions, based on high porosity, mesoporosity, doped nitrogen, and functional groups.

  17. Ball-milled nano-colloids of rare-earth compounds as liquid gain media for capillary optical amplifiers and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darayas; Blockmon, Avery; Ochieng, Vanesa; Lewis, Ashley; Wright, Donald M.; Lewis, Danielle; Valentine, Rueben; Valentine, Maucus; Wesley, Dennis; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Darwish, Abdalla M.; Sarkisov, Avedik S.

    2017-02-01

    Nano-colloids and nano-crystals doped with ions of rare-earth elements have recently attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community due to their potential applications as biomarkers, fluorescent inks, gain media for lasers and optical amplifiers. Many rare-earth doped materials of different compositions, shapes and size distribution have been prepared by different synthetic methods, such as chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel process, micro-emulsion techniques, gas phase condensation methods, hydrothermal methods and laser ablation. In this paper micro-crystalline powder of the rare-earthdoped compound NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ was synthesized using a simple wet process followed by baking in open air. Under 980 nm diode laser excitation strong fluorescence in the 100 nm band around 1531-nm peak was observed from the synthesized micro-powder. The micro-powder was pulverized using a ball mill and prepared in the form of nano-colloids in different liquids. The particle size of the obtained nano-colloids was measured using an atomic force microscope and a dynamic light scatterometer. The size of the nano-particles was close to 100-nm. The nano-colloids were utilized as a filling media in capillary optical amplifiers and lasers. The gain of a 7-cm-long capillary optical amplifier (150-micron inner diameter) was as high as 6 dB at 200 mW pump power. The synthesized nano-colloids and the active optical components using them can be potentially used in optical communication, signal processing, optical computing, and other applications.

  18. NORIA-SP: A finite element computer program for analyzing liquid water transport in porous media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, P.L.; Eaton, R.R.; Bixler, N.E.

    1991-12-01

    A family of finite element computer programs has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) most recently, NORIA-SP. The original NORIA code solves a total of four transport equations simultaneously: liquid water, water vapor, air, and energy. Consequently, use of NORIA is computer-intensive. Since many of the applications for which NORIA is used are isothermal, we decided to ``strip`` the original four-equation version, leaving only the liquid water equation. This single-phase version is NORIA-SP. The primary intent of this document is to provide the user of NORIA-SP an accurate user`s manual. Consequently, the reader should refer to the NORIA manual if additional detail is required regarding the equation development and finite element methods used. The single-equation version of the NORIA code (NORIA-SP) has been used most frequently for analyzing various hydrological scenarios for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in western Nevada. These analyses are generally performed assuming a composite model to represent the fractured geologic media. In this model the material characteristics of the matrix and the fractures are area weighted to obtain equivalent material properties. Pressure equilibrium between the matrix and fractures is assumed so a single conservation equation can be solved. NORIA-SP is structured to accommodate the composite model. The equations for water velocities in both the rock matrix and the fractures are presented. To use the code for problems involving a single, nonfractured porous material, the user can simply set the area of the fractures to zero.

  19. Liquid–liquid anion exchange extraction studies of samarium(III from salicylate media using high molecular weight amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha M. Mandhare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid–liquid extraction and separation of samarium(III were carried out by using 0.025 mol dm−3 2-octylaminopyridine(2-OAP in xylene at 298 K. The extraction behavior of samarium was studied as a function of pH, weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, and equilibration time. Samarium was quantitatively extracted at pH 7.5 to 10.0 from 0.01 mol dm−3 sodium salicylate solution with 0.025 mol dm−3 2-OAP. The possible composition of the extracted species in organic phase has been determined by using model of slope analysis method and extraction mechanism was found to proceed via an anion exchange mechanism. The stripping efficiency was found to be quantitative in HNO3, HCl and CH3COOH. The robustness of the procedure was demonstrated by the average recoveries obtained (>99.6% for samarium(III extraction in the presence of several cations and anions which are commonly associated with it. The proposed method facilitates the separation and determination of samarium(III from binary and synthetic mixtures. The various thermodynamic functions like free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS of extraction mechanism were discussed.

  20. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future.

  1. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures.

  2. Development of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method for the rapid detection and confirmation of illegal adulterated sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuyin; Tan, Huijie; Guo, Changchuan; Gong, Liping; Shi, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) was developed and validated for the simultaneous screening, identification and quantification of sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements. Chromatographic conditions were optimised and a full data-dependent MS(2) scan (MS/dd-MS(2)) in positive and negative ion mode was used. A single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and identification/quantification of samples. The response showed a good linear relationship with analyte concentrations over wide ranges (e.g., 1.0-1000 ng g(-1) for diazepam) with all the determination coefficients (r(2)) > 0.9985. The method was validated, obtaining accuracy (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 94.5-105.3% and precision (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 0.4-8.9%, respectively. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 0.3-1.0 ng g(-1) for different analytes. Recoveries were performed and ranged from 74.1% to 90.2%, while all matrix effects were over the range of 85.4-93.6%. Finally, this method was used to detect sedative-hypnotics in commercial dietary supplements. Of a total of 45 batches of dietary supplements, only three batches were found to be positive samples with concentrations of diazepam, clonazepam and alprazolam at high levels (≥ 8.22 mg g(-1)).

  3. Effect of soil moisture dynamics on dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) spill zone architecture in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Valocchi, Albert J; Werth, Charles J

    2007-03-20

    The amount, location, and form of NAPL in contaminated vadose zones are controlled by the spatial distribution of water saturation and soil permeability, the NAPL spill scenario, water infiltration events, and vapor transport. To evaluate the effects of these processes, we used the three-phase flow simulator STOMP, which includes a new permeability-liquid saturation-capillary pressure (k-S-P) constitutive model. This new constitutive model considers three NAPL forms: free, residual, and trapped. A 2-D vertical cross-section with five stratigraphic layers was assumed, and simulations were performed for seven cases. The conceptual model of the soil heterogeneity was based upon the stratigraphy at the Hanford carbon tetrachloride (CT) spill site. Some cases considered co-disposal of NAPL with large volumes of wastewater, as also occurred at the Hanford CT site. In these cases, the form and location of NAPL were most strongly influenced by high water discharge rates and NAPL evaporation to the atmosphere. In order to investigate the impact of heterogeneity, the hydraulic conductivity within the lower permeability layer was modeled as a realization of a random field having three different classes. For six extreme cases of 100 realizations, the CT mass that reached the water table varied by a factor of two, and was primarily controlled by the degree of lateral connectivity of the low conductivity class within the lowest permeability layer. The grid size at the top boundary had a dramatic impact on NAPL diffusive flux just after the spill event when the NAPL was present near the ground surface. NAPL evaporation with a fine grid spacing at the top boundary decreased CT mass that reached the water table by 74%, compared to the case with a coarse grid spacing, while barometric pumping had a marginal effect for the case of a continuous NAPL spill scenario considered in this work. For low water infiltration rate scenarios, the distribution of water content prior to a NAPL

  4. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from various parts of many botanicals and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 dietary supplements was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was u...

  5. Extract-filter-shoot liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for analysis of vitamin D2 in a powdered supplement capsule and SRM 3280

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ‘extract-filter-shoot’ method for analysis of vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, in a dry powdered dietary supplement capsule containing rice flour excipient and in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 3280 is reported. Quantification of vitamin D2 was...

  6. Interlaboratory Trial for Measurement of Vitamin D and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Foods and a Dietary Supplement Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseland, Janet Maxwell; Patterson, Kristine Y; Andrews, Karen W;

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of total vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements (DSs) may be incomplete if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] intake is not included. However, 25(OH)D data for such intake assessments are lacking, no food or DS reference materials (RMs) are available, and comparison of laborato...

  7. Interlaboratory trial for measurement of vitamin D and 25(OH)D in foods and a dietary supplement using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of total vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements (DSs) may be incomplete if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] intake is not included. However, 25(OH)D data for such intake assessments are lacking, no food or DS reference materials (RMs) are available, and comparison of laboratory...

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of caffeine and adrenergic stimulants in food supplements sold in Brazilian e-commerce for weight loss and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Carine; Zemolin, Gabriela M; Müller, Larissa S; Dal Molin, Thaís R; Seiffert, Helena; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-xanthines and adrenergic stimulants, such as caffeine and synephrine, are commonly added to food supplements due to their stimulating and thermogenic effects. In addition, the abusive consumption of food supplements with ergogenic and aesthetic purposes has been observed worldwide. This work describes the study of caffeine, p-synephrine, hordenine, octopamine, tyramine, ephedrine and salicin as stimulants in dietary supplements marketed in Brazil for weight loss and physical fitness claims. A total of 94 different products were acquired from 30 Brazilian websites. Thus, the sampling of marketed supplements was performed in virtual commerce (e-commerce) with claims of weight loss, appetite reduction, fat burning and metabolism acceleration. The developed analytical method involved the separation of the stimulants by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) by using a gradient elution of flow rate (0.7-2.5 ml min(-1)) and mobile phase composition (0.1% H3PO4/methanol). The validated method was applied to the study of 46 dietary supplements. Caffeine, p-synephrine and ephedrine were found to be present as stimulants in 52% of the studied samples marketed as encapsulated or bulk forms. Caffeine was found to be present in concentrations that represent doses from 25.0 to 1476.7 mg day(-1). Synephrine was found in concentrations that represent doses from 59.1 to 127.0 mg day(-1). Ephedrine was found to be associated with caffeine in one formulation at a concentration representing a 26.1 mg day(-1) dosage.

  9. Systematic metabolomic analysis of eicosanoids after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation by a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Nan; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-04-03

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects in many pathological processes, especially cardiovascular disease, and their protective eicosanoid metabolites are thought to play important roles. However, how ω-3 PUFAs affect the eicosanoid profile has not been elucidated comprehensively. Here, we systematically analyzed the eicosanoid metabolites induced by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. We developed an LC-MS/MS-based method covering 32 arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites and 37 ω-3 PUFA-derived products. The limits of detection for eicosanoids were between 0.0625 and 1 pg and the detection specificity was optimized. We then quantified eicosanoids in mouse and human plasma and mouse aorta samples after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Levels of EPA hydroxyl products, 4-HDoHE, 17,18-EEQ, 17,18-DiHETE, TXB2, and LXA4 were significantly changed in both mouse samples, and those of 2-series PGs, EDPs and DHA hydroxyl products were changed in aorta samples. Correlation network analysis of mouse plasma data revealed that some eicosanoids had higher connection degree or betweenness centrality score than others after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Eicosanoids in human plasma were profiled across five time points after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm suggested that the time curves of eicosanoid activity could be described with three kinetic patterns: sustained upregulation, short-term upregulation, and downregulation. This is the first systematic profiling of eicosanoids with ω-3 PUFA supplementation. The highly specific eicosanoid metabolomic and related data analysis methods would be powerful tools for comprehensive eicosanoid study.

  10. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  11. The use of fermentation liquid of wastewater primary sedimentation sludge as supplemental carbon source for denitrification based on enhanced anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater primary sedimentation sludge was prepared into fermentation liquid as denitrification carbon source, and the main components of fermentation liquid was short-chain volatile fatty acids. Meanwhile, the acetic acid and propionic acid respectively accounted for about 29.36% and 26.56% in short-chain volatile fatty acids. The performance of fermentation liquid, methanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and glucose used as sole carbon source were compared. It was found that the denitrification rate with fermentation liquid as carbon source was 0.17mgNO3(-)-N/mg mixed liquor suspended solid d, faster than that with methanol, acetic acid, and propionic acid as sole carbon source, and lower than that with glucose as sole carbon source. For the fermentation liquid as carbon source, the transient accumulation of nitrite was insignificantly under different initial total nitrogen concentration. Therefore, the use of fermentation liquid for nitrogen removal could improve denitrification rate, and reduce nitrite accumulation in denitrification process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  13. Accumulation dynamics and some cytogenetical tests at Chelidonium majus and Papaver somniferum callus under the magnetic liquid effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, A.; Trifan, M.; Bara, I. I.; Creanga, D. E.; Cotae, C.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we studied the capacity of magnetic liquids which are biocompatible (as previous literature reports showed) to influence germination, de-differentiation and re-differentiation processes in vitro, as well as to influence both the mitotic index and the chromosomal aberration frequency. In vitro cultures of two species of pharmaceutical interest, Chelidonium majus L. and Papaver somniferum L., on media supplemented with various concentrations of magnetic liquid, for various explant types, revealed a small but significant effect of the petroleum magnetic liquid on the callus accumulation and induced a considerable rate of chromosomal aberrations.

  14. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  15. Effect of Sample Preparation on the Discrimination of Bacterial Isolates Cultured in Liquid Nutrient Media Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Gary R; Park, Bosoon; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used as the basis for discrimination between two genera of gram-negative bacteria and two genera of gram-positive bacteria representing pathogenic threats commonly found in poultry processing rinse waters. Because LIBS-based discrimination relies primarily upon the relative proportions of inorganic cell components including Na, K, Mg, and Ca, this study aims to determine the effects of trace mineral content and pH found in the water source used to isolate the bacteria upon the reliability of the resulting discriminant analysis. All four genera were cultured using tryptic soy agar (TSA) as the nutrient medium, and were grown under identical environmental conditions. The only variable introduced is the source water used to isolate the cultured bacteria. Cultures of each bacterium were produced using deionized (DI) water under two atmosphere conditions, reverse osmosis (RO) water, tap water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) water, and TRIS buffered water. After 3 days of culture growth, the bacteria were centrifuged and washed three times in the same water source. Bacteria were then freeze dried, mixed with microcrystalline cellulose, and a pellet was made for LIBS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract related variations in LIBS spectral data among the four bacteria genera and six water types used to isolate the bacteria, and Mahalanobis discriminant analysis (MDA) was used for classification. Results indicate not only that the four genera can be discriminated from each other in each water type, but that each genus can be discriminated by water type used for isolation. It is concluded that in order for LIBS to be a reliable and repeatable method for discrimination of bacteria grown in liquid nutrient media, care must be taken to insure that the water source used in purification of the culture be precisely controlled regarding pH, ionic strength, and proportionate amounts of mineral cations

  16. Short communication: Effects of vacuum freeze-drying on inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC29544 in liquid media with different initial inoculum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Rui; Gao, Jina; Zhang, Xiyan; Zhang, Maofeng; Chen, Jiren; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Ye, Yingwang

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying is an important food-processing technology for valid retention of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Cronobacter sakazakii has been reported to be associated with severe infections in neonates through consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. In this study, effects of vacuum freeze-drying treatment for 12, 24, and 36 h on inactivation of C. sakazakii with different initial inoculum levels in sterile water, tryptic soy broth (TSB), skim milk, and whole milk were determined. Results indicated that the lethality rate of C. sakazakii in each sample increased with the extension of vacuum freeze-drying time. With initial inoculum levels of 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/mL, the survival of C. sakazakii in different liquid media was significantly affected by vacuum freeze-drying for 12, 24, and 36 h. In addition, the lethality rates of C. sakazakii in whole milk, skim milk, and TSB was significantly reduced compared with those in sterile water. Furthermore, whole milk showed the strongest protective role for C. sakazakii cells, followed by skim milk and TSB medium. Using the scanning electron microscope, the intracellular damage and obvious distortion of C. sakazakii cells were observed after vacuum freeze-drying for 24 and 36 h compared with the untreated sample, and the injured cells increased with the extension of vacuum-drying time. We concluded that inactivation of vacuum freeze-drying on C. sakazakii cells is related to the food matrix, and a combination with other methods for inactivating C. sakazakii is required for ensuring microbial safety of powdered infant formula. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  18. Development of a serum-free liquid medium for Bartonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria.

  19. Extract-filter-shoot liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of vitamin D2 in a powdered supplement capsule and standard reference material 3280.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2014-08-01

    An "extract-filter-shoot" method for the analysis of vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, in a dry powdered dietary supplement capsule containing rice flour excipient and in a National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material 3280 is reported. Quantification of vitamin D2 was done by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring, two transitions of selected reaction monitoring, and extracted ion chromatograms from full scans. UV detection was used for the quantification of Vitamin D2 in the dry powder capsule, whereas interfering species rendered UV detection unreliable for standard reference material 3280. Average values for standard reference material 3280 ranged from 8.27 ± 0.58 to 8.33 ± 0.57 μg/g using internal standard calibration and response factor approaches, compared to the previous National Institute of Standards and Technology internal value for vitamin D2 of 8.78 ± 0.11 μg/g, and the recently updated reference value of 8.6 ± 2.6 μg/g. The powdered supplement capsule was found to contain 28.19 ± 0.35 to 28.67 ± 0.90 μg/capsule for a capsule labeled to contain 25.00 μg. The triacylglycerol composition of the rice flour excipient in the powdered supplement capsule determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is also reported.

  20. Social Media Tips to Enhance Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vikas; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we describe how social media can supplement traditional education, articulate the advantages and disadvantages of various social media platforms for both teachers and learners, discuss best practices to maintain confidentiality of protected health information, and provide tips for implementing social media-based teaching into the training curriculum.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  2. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of limonoids and flavanois in seeds of grapefruits, other citrus species, and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-didode array detector-quadrapole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS) method has been developed to screen grapefruit seeds, and other citrus seed samples for limonoid aglycones, limonoid acids, limonoid glucosides and flavonoid...

  3. Speciation of selenium in a commercial dietary supplement by liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayouni, Linda; Barbier, Frédérique; Imbert, Jean-Louis; Lantéri, Pierre; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2007-05-01

    Size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatographies coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the speciation of selenium (Se) in a dietary supplement. A sequential extraction method resulted in 85% recovery of Se and 78% of the Se extracted could be identified. The results obtained show that selenomethionine and its oxide are the predominant compounds, while selenite and selenomethylcysteine are present at low concentrations. Methane seleninic acid, probably arising from the oxidation of selenomethylcysteine, accounted for 22% of total Se. High-molecular-weight compounds, probably proteins, were detected in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and driselase extracts by size exclusion chromatography.

  4. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  6. Producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: suplementación de los medios de cultivo con suero In vitro production of bovine embryos: serum supplementation to the culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mucci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas para producir embriones bovinos, en estadios de preimplantación mediante la maduración de ovocitos y su posterior fertilización in vitro, ofrece la posibilidad de obtener embriones a bajo costo para ser utilizados con fines de estudio (desarrollo embrionario temprano, transgénesis, clonación o con propósitos comerciales. Las condiciones de cultivo in vitro pueden influenciar significativamente el desarrollo embrionario, determinando cambios responsables de su menor calidad, comparados con los embriones producidos in vivo . En particular, la adición de suero a los medios de cultivo altera tanto la morfología embrionaria como su calidad, y su eliminación posibilitaría producir embriones de buena calidad para ser criopreservados y transferidos. Los objetivos de esta revisión son describir los aspectos generales del cultivo in vitro de embriones y resumir algunas hipótesis referidas a los mecanismos por los cuales el suero podría alterar el desarrollo y la calidad embrionaria.Techniques for producing bovine preimplantation embryos by in vitro maturation and fertilization, offers the potential for a large number of embryos at low cost to be used for basic scientific research (embryo development, transgenesis, cloning or for commercial purposes. Embryo culture conditions can influence in vitro embryo development significantly, provoking deviations responsible for low quality compared with in vivo counterparts. In particular, serum supplementation alters both embryo morphology and quality and eliminating serum from the media could be beneficial to produce good quality embryos for cryopreservation and embryo transfer. The objectives of this review are to describe the general aspects of in vitro embryo culture and summerize some hypotheses about the way serum could alter embryo development and quality.

  7. 考虑固液分子作用的多孔介质动态网络模型%Dynamic network model considering solid-liquid molecule interaction in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小锋; 朱维耀; 邓庆军; 刘启鹏; 隋新光; 娄钰; 高英; 张雪龄

    2014-01-01

    According to the mass conservation law, a dynamic network model which considers interaction between solid walls and liquid molecules was established. This model is on the basis of solid-liquid intermolecular force and in combination with the distribution characteristics of pore throats in porous media. The change in pore pressure at different time steps was simulated through the model. The influences of solid-liquid intermolecular force, pore throat radius and wettability on the saturation distribution of remaining oil and the permeability curve of water flooding phase were analyzed. The results show that when considering solid-liquid intermolecular force the saturation of residual oil increases, thus interaction between rock and fluid molecules cannot be ignored in the study of porous flow in porous media.%根据质量守恒定律,从固液分子力作用出发,结合岩心的孔喉分布特征,建立考虑固壁与流体分子作用的动态网络模型。利用模型模拟得到不同时间步的孔隙压力变化,分析了固液分子间力、喉道半径、润湿性等因素对剩余油饱和度分布和水驱相渗曲线的影响。研究结果表明,考虑固液分子间力作用时剩余油饱和度增大,岩石骨架与流体间的分子作用在多孔介质的孔隙流动中不可忽略。

  8. HUMAN BLOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA SCREENING METHOD FOR PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPOUNDS USING LIQUID EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening assessment methods have been developed for semi- and non-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for human blood and solid environmental media. The specific methodology is developed for measuring the presence of "native" compounds, specifically, a var...

  9. Determination of isoflavone content in soy, red clover, and kudzu dietary supplement materials by liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Increased consumption of dietary supplements brings about important requirements of analytical methods to allow accurate and precise measurements of the chemical composition of these botanical materials. Presented here is the isoflavone content in proposed National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRMs) determined by LC-particle beam/electron ionization MS. Botanical materials (soy, red clover, and kudzu) are characterized for the content of a suite of five isoflavones (puerarin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A). These compounds are of interest due to correlations with certain health benefits. An RP chromatographic separation was first optimized using UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection. The LC output was then introduced to an electron ionization source using a particle beam interface on an Extrel Benchmark MS system. The separation was carried out using a commercial C18 column and a linear gradient using water and methanol (both containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases A and B, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min over 40 min. LOD values for the isoflavones were determined to be at the ng level. Quantitation was performed using an internal standard (IS) approach with 7-hydroxy-4-chromone as the IS compound. The levels of isoflavones in the botanical products were determined for the proposed SRMs.

  10. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Gafner, Stefan; Upton, Roy; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems from having a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have a similar phytochemical profile as the clinically tested extracts. The standardized commercial extracts of G. biloba leaf used in ginkgo supplements contain not less than 6% sesquiterpene lactones and 24% flavonol glycosides. While sesquiterpene lactones are unique constituents of ginkgo leaf, the flavonol glycosides are found in many other botanical extracts. Being a high value botanical, low quality ginkgo extracts may be subjected to adulteration with flavonoids to meet the requirement of 24% flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that adulteration of ginkgo leaf extracts in many of these products is common, the naturally flavonol glycoside-rich extract being spiked with pure flavonoids or extracts made from another flavonoid-rich material, such as the fruit/flower of Japanese sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum), which also contains the isoflavone genistein. Recently, genistein has been proposed as an analytical marker for the detection of adulteration of ginkgo extracts with S. japonicum. This study confirms that botanically authenticated G. biloba leaf and extracts made therefrom do not contain genistein, and the presence of which even in trace amounts is suggestive of adulteration. In addition to the mass spectrometric approach, a high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed as a fast and economic method for chemical fingerprint analysis of ginkgo samples.

  11. Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. spores production in biphasic process utilizing different liquid media/ Produção de esporos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. num processo bifásico utilizando diferentes meios líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Zorzetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic production techniques are developed with the objective of increasing productivity and reducing costs of the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana biomass production in liquid media and conidiogenesis in a biphasic process. The liquid media were: CF (crysalid flour, PD (potato dextrose and CFPD (crysalid flour+potato+dextrose. The evaluation periods for biomass production were: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. For production by biphasic process different quantities of liquid media (5, 10, 15 and 20 mL with different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 hours, were added on the pre-cooked rice (200 g with conidia production evaluation after 10 days. CFPD media was the most productive biomass in all evaluated periods. In the biphasic process, bigger conidia production were attained when it was utilized fungi biomass produced in CF and CFPD (2.7 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1012 conidia/g of rice for rice inoculation. The quantities of 5, 15, 20 mL of liquid media, inoculated on the rice were not statistically different. The incubation periods of 24 and 48 hours of the fungus in the liquid media, gave bigger cionidiogenesis then 72 hours. The data show the necessity of carbon and nitrogen for biomass production in the liquid media and for conidiogenesis in the solid media. Also with these informations it was possible to optimize the biphasic process, adding 5 mL of the liquid media CFPD on the rice (200 g with 24 hours of incubation.Técnicas de produção de fungos entomopatogênicos são desenvolvidas buscando aumentar a produtividade desses patógenos e reduzir custos do processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa de Beauveria bassiana em meios líquidos e a conidiogênese no processo bifásico. Os meios líquidos testados foram: FC (farinha de crisálida, BD (batata+dextrose e FCBD (farinha de crisálida+batata+dextrose. Os períodos de avaliação da produção de biomassa foram

  12. Evaluation of a Method to Determine Flavonol Aglycones in Ginkgo biloba Dietary Supplement Crude Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean; LeVanseler, Kerri; Pan, Meide; Waysek, Edward H.; Baugh, S.; Chandra, A.; Meibos, R.; Peng, T.; Perez, R.; Reif, K.; Roman, M.; Rousch, J.; Skamarack, J.; Solyom, A.; Sullivan, D.; Young, K.

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for evaluation of a method to determine the flavonol aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in Ginkgo biloba products. The method calculates total glycosides based on these aglycones formed after acid hydrolysis. Twelve matrixes were chosen for study by 12 collaborating laboratories in 2 countries. Test materials included crude leaf material, standardized dry powder extract, single and multiple entity finished products, ethanol and glycerol tinctures, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRMs). Results from 11 laboratories were used for the final calculations. Eight of the 12 matrixes evaluated produced acceptable results for total flavonol glycosides, with HorRat scores ranging from 1.31 to 2.05; repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) from 1.46 to 4.14; and reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) from 4.67 to 9.69. These 8 matrixes consisted primarily of simple dosage forms (e.g., dry powder extracts, crude leaf samples, liquid extracts, and SRMs) and a single tablet product (Ginkgo Awareness). Four additional matrixes, consisting of 3 tablets and 1 soft gel product (Ginkgold, Ginkoba, Ginkogen, and Ginkgo Phytosome, respectively), showed greater total flavonol glycoside HorRat scores in comparison, ranging from 2.39 to 5.13, with RSDr values from 2.83 to 8.16, and RSDR values from 8.53 to 20.4. Based on the results presented here, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of total flavonol glycosides calculated from quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in dry powder extracts, crude leaf material, liquid extracts, and a select finished product, Ginkgo Awareness. PMID:17373435

  13. 自由基聚合反应的新介质--离子液体的新应用%The Novel Applications of Ionic Liquids Used as Radical Polymerization Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游倩倩; 张普玉; 张怀敏

    2012-01-01

      离子液体具有独特的理化性能,作为一种环境友好、“可设计性”的溶剂,近年来成为化学领域的热点和前沿。离子液体作为自由基聚合反应的溶剂,对聚合速率、聚合产物结构及性能都有一定的影响。离子液体已经被较为广泛地应用于不同介质、不同物相中的自由基聚合反应,但是并不完全。近两年来已有研究工作者将离子液体应用于微乳液和气相中的自由基聚合反应,并和其他有机溶剂及水溶液共同调控自由基聚合反应。离子液体也首次应用于有机碲调控的自由基聚合反应和氮氧稳定的自由基聚合反应。同时离子液体也可以调控自由基聚合反应后聚合物的结构和形貌,是一种很好的进行聚合物自组装的溶剂。本文主要综述了近年来离子液体对自由基聚合反应的影响,特别是对聚合产物结构及性能的影响,最后展望了离子液体在聚合反应中的应用前景。%  With many unique physical and chemical characteristics, ionic liquids are the novel green and“designable” solvents, and they have become the frontier of chemistry research in recent years. Ionic liquids have an effect on the polymerization rate, the structure and properties of polymerization products as the solvents of radical polymerization. Ionic liquids have been somewhat widely used in the different media, different physical phases of radical polymerization. But there are other media and physical phases, in which ionic liquids have not been used. In the past two years, some researchers have firstly used ionic liquids in the microemulsion radical polymerization and gas phase radical polymerization, and then to control the radical polymerization with other organic solvents and aqueous solutions in common. Ionic liquids have also been used in the Organotellurium-Mediated living radical polymerization (TERP) and Nitroxide-Mediated controlled/living radical

  14. The Novel Applications of Ionic Liquids Used as Radical Polymerization Media%自由基聚合反应的新介质——离子液体的新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游倩倩; 张普玉; 张怀敏

    2012-01-01

    离子液体具有独特的理化性能,作为一种环境友好、"可设计性"的溶剂,近年来成为化学领域的热点和前沿。离子液体作为自由基聚合反应的溶剂,对聚合速率、聚合产物结构及性能都有一定的影响。离子液体已经被较为广泛地应用于不同介质、不同物相中的自由基聚合反应,但是并不完全。近两年来已有研究工作者将离子液体应用于微乳液和气相中的自由基聚合反应,并和其他有机溶剂及水溶液共同调控自由基聚合反应。离子液体也首次应用于有机碲调控的自由基聚合反应和氮氧稳定的自由基聚合反应。同时离子液体也可以调控自由基聚合反应后聚合物的结构和形貌,是一种很好的进行聚合物自组装的溶剂。本文主要综述了近年来离子液体对自由基聚合反应的影响,特别是对聚合产物结构及性能的影响,最后展望了离子液体在聚合反应中的应用前景。%With many unique physical and chemical characteristics,ionic liquids are the novel green and "designable" solvents,and they have become the frontier of chemistry research in recent years.Ionic liquids have an effect on the polymerization rate,the structure and properties of polymerization products as the solvents of radical polymerization.Ionic liquids have been somewhat widely used in the different media,different physical phases of radical polymerization.But there are other media and physical phases,in which ionic liquids have not been used.In the past two years,some researchers have firstly used ionic liquids in the microemulsion radical polymerization and gas phase radical polymerization,and then to control the radical polymerization with other organic solvents and aqueous solutions in common.Ionic liquids have also been used in the Organotellurium-Mediated living radical polymerization(TERP) and Nitroxide-Mediated controlled/living radical copolymerization(NMP) firstly

  15. Determination of Glucosamine in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements Containing Glucosamine Sulfate and/or Glucosamine Hydrochloride by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with FMOC-Su Derivatization: Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joseph Ziqi; Waszkuc, Ted; Mohammed, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted for determination of glucosamine in raw materials and dietary supplements containing glucosamine sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride by high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with N-(9-fluorenyl-methoxycarbonyloxy) succinimide (FMOC-Su) derivatization. Thirteen blind materials, one pair of which were duplicates, were tested by 12 collaborating laboratories. The test samples consisted of various commercial products, including tablets, capsules, drink mix, and liquids as well as raw materials, blanks, and those for spike recovery analyses. The tests with blank products and products spiked with glucosamine showed good specificity of the method. The average recoveries at spike levels of 100 and 150% of the declared amount were 99.0% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.1%, and 101% with an RSD of 2.3%, respectively. The test results between laboratories on each commercial product were reproducible with RSD values of no more than 4.0%, and the results were repeatable in the same laboratory with an average RSD of 0.7%. HorRat values ranged from 0.5 to 1.7 on both tests of spike recovery and reproducibility between laboratories on commercial products. The average determination coefficient of the calibration curves from the laboratories was 0.9995 with an RSD of 0.03%. All of the 12 collaborating laboratories succeeded in the study and none of their reported test results were outliers, partly indicating the robustness of the method. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL as Official First Action. PMID:16152919

  16. A Convenient Method for the Oxidation of Alcohols with KMnO_4 to Their Corresponding Carbonyl Compounds in Ionic Liquid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Safaei-Ghomi; A.R.Hajipour; A.H.Bamoniri; M.Esmaeili

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbonyl compounds constitute an important group of molecules in organic chemistry,which appears in pharmaceuticals,dyes and industrially important chemicals[1-2].The oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl groups is a fundamental transformation in organic chemistry and industrially important[3].There is considerable interest in the use of room temperature ionic liquids as promising substitutes for volatile organic solvents.The ambient-temperature ionic liquids,especially those bas...

  17. Development and validation of a pre-column reversed phase liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of primary phenethylamines in dietary supplements and phytoextracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Rita; Lotti, Cinzia

    2011-07-15

    A sensitive and selective reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed and validated to determine octopamine, tyramine and Tyrosine (Tyr) in complex matrices as formulations and phytoextracts (Citrus aurantium), after pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) reagent. The chromatographic separations were performed at room temperature on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using methanol and sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) by varying composition gradient elution as mobile phase and detected flurometrically at λ(em)=455 nm with λ(ex)=340 nm. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those achieved by a validated direct RP-LC method with fluorescence detection at λ(em)=310 nm with λ(ex)=275 nm, as reference method, using a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column under isocratic elution conditions with acetonitrile and sodium 1-heptanesulphonate (pH 3), as mobile phase. The higher sensitivity of the derivatization method (detection limit about 0.06 pmol) allowed the sure determination of octopamine present in traces in the examined samples. The repeatability of method (RSD) was ≤1.90% and there was no significant difference between repeatability and intermediate precision data. Recovery studies showed good results 99.5-101.3% with RSD ranging from 0.8 to 1.2%. All analyses were performed by mild conditions in absence of preliminary difficult extraction methodologies or laborious step of sample pre-treatment.

  18. 含引流通道的气-液聚结过滤材料的性能试验%Experimental study on the performance of fibrous media with the drainage channels in gas-liquid coalescence filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伊人; 沈恒根; CHASE George G

    2016-01-01

    针对空气中油雾的净化问题,对聚结纤维滤料的织物构造提出了一种优化设计.将纤维细度为2μn和6.5μm的不锈钢(SS)纤维滤料及相对应纤维细度的玻璃(G)纤维滤料分别构成内含4个垂直引流通道的多层复合滤料,用气-液聚结过滤性能试验台进行对比测试,计算分析引流通道的构建对滤料捕集效率、阻力特性及品质因数产生的影响.结果表明,在滤层内加插金属网隔片建立若干垂直引流通道对滤料阻力特性有着显著影响,其过滤性能有所改善.在相同条件下,含引流通道的滤料到达阻力稳态阶段需时更长,而且上升过程中瞬时阻力最多可降低30%~ 50%,品质因数可提高50% ~ 70%.%The paper is aimed at proposing a novel composite medium with large-pore wire mesh spacers in hoping to optimize the performance of the fibrous media in the gas-liquid coalescence filtration for oil mist removal,by which the thin layers of multi-layer media can be separated and created several vertical drainage channels.For the research purpose,we have done experiments and investigated the effects of such drainage channels on the filter media performances,including the capture efficiency (E),pressure drop (△p) and the quality factors (QF).The gas-liquid coalescence experiments of ours have been carried out both on the stainless steel (SS) fiber and the glass (G) fiber of 2 iμm,6 μm and 6.5 μm in diameter and 1 cm thick with and without largepore wire mesh spacers for comparison under low Reynolds number flow conditions (Re < 1).As is well known,the performance of coalescing filter media depends on the material properties and operation conditions.In the coalescing filter media series,the multi-layer form with different characteristic features of each layer can help to optimize the properties of media in some way.What is more,it also makes it easy to create drainage channels by isolating the thin layers with spacers

  19. Single Laboratory Validation of a Method for Determination of Glucosamine in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements Containing Glucosamine Sulfate and/or Glucosamine Hydrochloride by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with FMOC-Su Derivatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joseph ZiQi; Waszkuc, Ted; Mohammed, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Single laboratory validation of a method for determination of glucosamine in raw materials and dietary supplements containing glucosamine sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride by with high-performance liquid Chromatography FMOC-Su derivatization. Tests with 2 blank matrixes containing SAMe, vitamin C, citric acid, chondroitin sulfates, methylsulfonylmethane, lemon juice concentrate, and other potential interferents showed the method to be selective and specific. Eight calibration curves prepared over 7 working days indicated excellent reproducibility with the linear range at least over 2.0–150 μg/mL, and determination coefficients >0.9999. Average spike recovery from the blank matrix (n = 8 over 2 days) was 93.5, 99.4, and 100.4% at respective spike levels of 15,100, and 150%, and from the sample matrix containing glucosamine (n = 3) was 99.9 and 102.8% at respective levels of 10 and 40%, with relative standard deviations <0.9%. The method was also applied to 12 various glucosamine finished products and raw materials. The stability tests confirmed that glucosamine–FMOC-Su derivative once formed is stable at room temperature for at least 5 days. Limit of quantitation was 1 μg/mL and limit of detection was 0.3 μg/mL. The method is ready to proceed for the collaborative study. PMID:15493664

  20. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  1. Media Monitoring, Liquidity Risk and the Cost Effect of Corporate Social Irresponsibility%媒体监督、流动性风险与失责行为的成本效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳建辉; 马潇萌; 李根生

    2015-01-01

    根据失责行为曝光后的企业风险偏好特征,理论构建并实证检验了媒体监督、流动性风险对产品质量问题企业经营成本的经济效应。结果显示:媒体监督效力显著,且非线性影响企业经营成本;高风险偏好机制下,流动性不足的成本效应凸显,媒体监督效力约为低风险偏好机制的2倍;不同风险偏好机制间的阈值所有者权益占比为40.69%;曝光前、后,流动性风险都会增加企业经营成本,高风险偏好企业具有风险溢价效应。失责企业股权结构改革和重配应注重防范流动性风险。%According to firms’ risk preference characteristics of the exposed corporate social irresponsibility, this paper theo-retically constructs and empirically tests the products quality problem’s economic effects result from media monitoring and liquidity risk. Results show that, media owns significant monitoring effect, and nonlinear affects firms’ operating costs. Un-der high-risk preference mechanism, Media monitoring exacerbates firms’ operating cost and its efficiency is about twice of the other mechanism. Different risk preference mechanisms’ threshold value is about 40. 69%. Before or after exposed, liq-uidity risk increases firms’ operating cost, but exists risk premium effect under high-risk preference mechanism. Irresponsi-ble firms’ ownership structural reform and allocation should pay attention to liquidity risk.

  2. Meme media and meme market architectures knowledge media for editing distributing and managing intellectual resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Y

    2003-01-01

    "In this book, Yuzuru Tanaka proposes a powerful new paradigm: that knowledge media, or "memes," operate in a way that closely resembles the biological function of genes, with their network publishing repository working as a gene pool to accelerate the evolution of knowledge shared in our societies. In Meme Media and Meme Market Architectures: Knowledge Media for Editing, Distributing, and Managing Intellectual Resources, Tanaka outlines a ready-to-use knowledge media system, supplemented with sample media objects, which allows readers to experience the knowledge media paradigm."--Jacket.

  3. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode; Un nouveau concept de separation actinides-lanthanides en milieu sel fondu: mise en oeuvre d'une cathode liquide a surface renouvelee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, A.

    2009-12-15

    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  4. Tutorials in complex photonic media

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A; McCall, Martin W; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    The field of complex photonic media encompasses many leading-edge areas in physics, chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. In Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media , leading experts have brought together 19 tutorials on breakthroughs in modern optics, such as negative refraction, chiral media, plasmonics, photonic crystals, and organic photonics. This text will help students, engineers, and scientists entering the field to become familiar with the interrelated aspects of the subject. It also serves well as a supplemental text in introductory and advanced courses on optica

  5. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Elhofy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 105 cells−1 days−1 when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 105 cells−1 days−1; p < 0.05. This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  6. Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br: a green and neutral reaction media for the efficient, catalyst-free synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAASOOMEH KHEDRI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline derivatives were produced in excellent yields and short reaction times via the condensation of 1,2-diamines with 1,2-diketones in the neutral ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br under catalyst-free and microwave irradiation conditions.

  7. Determination of Lycopene in Dietary Supplements by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定保健食品中的番茄红素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬东; 王国民; 郗存显; 彭涛; 王俊苏; 张雷; 李贤良; 李应国; 唐英章; 侯士聪

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/ MS) was developed for the determination of lycopene in dietary supplements.Samples were saponified to remove lipid,followed by vortex-assisted extraction with petroleum ether containing 1 g/100 mL 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol(BHT).The resulting extract was further cleaned up on a neutral alumina solid-phase extraction cartridge.The pooled eluate was determined on LC-MS/MS by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with a multiple reaction-monitoring(MRM) mode.Lycopene was quantified by external standard method.The limit of detection(LOD) was 10 μg/kg,and the limit of quantification(LOQ) was 100 μg/kg.The average recovery rates of lycopene across six spike levels,50.0,100.0,250.0,500.0,2500.0 μg/kg and 5000.0 μg/kg were 88.0%–103.1% with a relative standard deviation less than 15%(n=6).This method is sensitive and provides a new approach for the quantitative analysis and validation of lycopene in dietary supplements.%建立保健食品中番茄红素的液相色谱-串联质谱测定方法。样品经氢氧化钾溶液乙醇皂化,去除脂肪后用质量浓度为1g/100mL的2,6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚(BHT)石油醚溶液提取,提取液经中性氧化铝固相萃取柱净化,采用液相色谱-质谱联用技术-大气压化学电离源多反应监测模式检测,外标法定量。方法的检出限和定量限分别为10μg/kg和100μg/kg,在50~5000μg/kg添加水平范围内,平均回收率为88.0%~103.1%,相对标准偏差低于15%。本方法灵敏,为保健食品中番茄红素的定量检测和确证提供了新的手段。

  8. Media Pedagogy: Media Education, Media Socialisation and Educational Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Qvortrup

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between education and media. These two concepts can be combined in three ways: one can think of media education, i.e. education in the subject of mass media. One can think of media socialisation, i.e. education within the context of a media society in which pupils and students are experienced media users. Finally, one can think of educational media, i.e. media used for educational purposes.After having specified these three subject areas, the paper focuses on the third subject: Media used for educational purposes. According to the paper teaching can be defined as a specialised form of communication, and the basic point of the paper is that all communication is mediated. One cannot talk about such a thing as “non-mediated” communication. Also talking or touching implies media: Language or body language.Consequently, the introduction of new, digital media for teaching does not imply to make teaching more artificial or non-authentic. The introduction of new, digital media for teaching implies that other and older educational media are re-mediated.

  9. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawito .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 3 kinds of dietary supplement in food by liquid chromatography%食品中3种食品强化剂同时测定的液相色谱测定法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明元; 李兰芳

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To establish a new method for simultaneous determination of cholesterol, vitamin A, α-vitamin E in foods by using high performance liquid chromatography. [Methods]the sample was directly saponified by using2.0 mol/L KOH ethanol solution , then the solution was determined after petroleum ether extraction. The sample preparation and determination of the optimum condition was determined through the experiment. [Results] High performance liquid chromatography method could meet the requirements of simultaneous determination of 3 kinds of dietary supplement in food. Within 0-200 mg/L linear range, correlation coefficient r > 0.998, recoveries of cholesterol, vitamin A, and α- vitamin E were all between 85.27 % -101.44%. Relative standard deviation was less than 5%. [Conclusion]This new method can be applicable to determination of cholesterol, vitamin A, α- vitamin E in most of the food sample.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法同时测定食品中胆固醇、维生素A、α-维生素E的含量的方法.方法 采用2.0 mol/L的KOH乙醇溶液对样品直接皂化,石油醚萃取后上机测定,通过实验确定了样品前处理及测定的最佳条件.结果 高效液相色谱法能够满足食品中3种食品强化剂同时测定的要求;在0~ 200μmg/L的线性范围内,r值均大于0.998,胆固醇、维生素A和α-维生素E的回收率均在85.27% ~ 101.44%之间,相对标准偏差均小于5%.结论 该新建方法可适用于大多数食品中胆固醇、维生素A、α-维生素E的测定.

  11. Modulating alignment of membrane proteins in liquid-crystalline and oriented gel media by changing the size and charge of phospholipid bicelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorieau, Justin L; Maltsev, Alexander S.; Louis, John M; Bax, Ad

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that alignment of a structured peptide or small protein solubilized in mixed phospholipid:detergent micelles or bicelles, when embedded in a compressed gel or liquid crystalline medium, can be altered by either changing the phospholipid aggregate shape, charge, or both together. For the hemagglutinin fusion peptide solubilized in bicelles, we show that bicelle shape and charge do not change its helical hairpin structure but impact its alignment relative to the alignment medium, both in charged compressed acrylamide gel and in liquid crystalline d (GpG). The method can be used to generate sets of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) that correspond to orthogonal alignment tensors, and holds promise for high-resolution structural refinement and dynamic mapping of membrane proteins. PMID:23508769

  12. Modulating alignment of membrane proteins in liquid-crystalline and oriented gel media by changing the size and charge of phospholipid bicelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorieau, Justin L.; Maltsev, Alexander S.; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.gov [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We demonstrate that alignment of a structured peptide or small protein solubilized in mixed phospholipid:detergent micelles or bicelles, when embedded in a compressed gel or liquid crystalline medium, can be altered by either changing the phospholipid aggregate shape, charge, or both together. For the hemagglutinin fusion peptide solubilized in bicelles, we show that bicelle shape and charge do not change its helical hairpin structure but impact its alignment relative to the alignment medium, both in charged compressed acrylamide gel and in liquid crystalline d(GpG). The method can be used to generate sets of residual dipolar couplings that correspond to orthogonal alignment tensors, and holds promise for high-resolution structural refinement and dynamic mapping of membrane proteins.

  13. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  14. Effect of antioxidants supplementation on human sperm parameters after freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghasemi Hamidabadi,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Antioxidant reduces oxidative stress during cryo-preservation. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of vitamin E and C on sperm parameters after cryo-preservation.Materials and Methods: Human semen samples were obtained from Vali-e-asr Hospital. The samples were divided in two groups (normal and oligospermia groups. Semen was pooled in liquid nitrogen after thawing, samples were centrifuged, then vitamin E and C were added to medium and the aliquots were incubated for 45 minutes in incubator Co2. In control group, no antioxidant was added to medium. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to WHO criteria. Data was analyzed by ANNOVA test.Results: There was a significant increase in the progressive motility and viability of sperm which was supplemented by vitamin E, with 1, 2 Mm (p<0.05 in the normal groups (the increase in the oligospermia group, after addition of vitamin E with 1, 2, Mm was not significant. Vitamin C did not have a significant effect on sperm parameters with 1, 2 Mm concentration.Conclusion: Supplementation of media with alpha-tocopherol is beneficial for sperm motility and viability rates after cryopreservation and it may be of clinical value in assisted conception procedures.Key words: Alpha-tocopherol, Ascorbic acid, Sperm motility, Sperm morphologyJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(63: 20-27 (Persian

  15. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  16. Media Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern colleges are faced with the dual pressures of university reform and international competition, how to overcome difficulties, to play the role of modern English teaching in colleges and colleges to enhance the core competitiveness of colleges, colleges and colleges modern English teaching problems to be solved. Based on the current situation of modern colleges in the premise of the Modern media platform fully demonstrated the characteristics and viability of the Modern media English teaching, the necessity of modern English teaching of college Modern media. Discusses the Modern media targeting English teaching and important role is in the English teaching to guide the development of modern colleges modern media.

  17. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  18. MRI and intraocular tamponade media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfre, I. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Fabbri, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Avitabile, T. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Biondi, P. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Reibaldi, A. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Pero, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment and injection of intraocular tamponade media (silicone oil, flurosilicone oil, or perfluoro-carbon liquid) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images. The ophthalmic tamponade media showed different signal intensity, according to their chemical structure. Unlike ophthalmoscopy or ultrasonography, MRI showed no oil-related artefact, making possible recognition of recurrent retinal detachment. (orig.)

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Optical and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation/fragmentation technique in different liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B.K., E-mail: bishnu.pandey750@gmail.com [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics (UGC-CAS), University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Shahi, A.K. [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics (UGC-CAS), University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi (India); Gopal, Ram, E-mail: profrgopal@gmail.com [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics (UGC-CAS), University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2014-01-15

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bulk powder have been ablated/fragmented in different liquid medium by Nd:YAG laser beam using 1064 nm wavelength. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and double distilled water (DDW) are used as liquid medium. Crystalline size, lattice strain, phase and structure of ablated particles have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Optical band gap energy of as purchased Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} found 1.92 eV that increased to 2.03 eV after ablation in CTAB determined by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. Magnetic properties have been analyzed by hysteresis loops using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Crystalline sizes have been found in the range of 29.23–16.54 nm and coercivity tailored in the range of 206.91–298.36 Oe using laser ablation. Saturation magnetization and remanence have been found in the range of 0.013–3.41 emu/g and 0.0023–.0.51 emu/g respectively. Particle shape and size have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CTAB (cationic) and SDS (anionic) surfactants are used as capping agent. CTAB produces phase transformation in ablated iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Crystallinity and crystalline size of ablated particles in DDW increased due to presence of rich oxygen in it due to oxidation. Ablated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as MRI contrast enhancement agent, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell separation.

  15. Optical and magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation/fragmentation technique in different liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B. K.; Shahi, A. K.; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Gopal, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) bulk powder have been ablated/fragmented in different liquid medium by Nd:YAG laser beam using 1064 nm wavelength. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and double distilled water (DDW) are used as liquid medium. Crystalline size, lattice strain, phase and structure of ablated particles have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Optical band gap energy of as purchased Fe2O3 found 1.92 eV that increased to 2.03 eV after ablation in CTAB determined by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Magnetic properties have been analyzed by hysteresis loops using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Crystalline sizes have been found in the range of 29.23-16.54 nm and coercivity tailored in the range of 206.91-298.36 Oe using laser ablation. Saturation magnetization and remanence have been found in the range of 0.013-3.41 emu/g and 0.0023-.0.51 emu/g respectively. Particle shape and size have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CTAB (cationic) and SDS (anionic) surfactants are used as capping agent. CTAB produces phase transformation in ablated iron oxide (Fe2O3). Crystallinity and crystalline size of ablated particles in DDW increased due to presence of rich oxygen in it due to oxidation. Ablated Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as MRI contrast enhancement agent, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell separation.

  16. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  17. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  18. Study of 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide as a new ligand for preconcentration of lanthanides from aqueous media by liquid-liquid extraction prior to ICP-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Evelina K; Angelov, Plamen A; Stefanova, Violeta M

    2016-11-01

    In the present work the potential of a new ligand 3-Ethylamino-but-2-enoic acid phenylamide (representing the class of enaminones) for selective preconcentration of lanthanides (La, Ce, Eu, Gd and Er) from aqueous medium is examined. Liquid-liquid extraction parameters, such as pH of the water phase, type and volume of organic solvent, quantity of ligand and reaction time are optimized on model solutions. Recovery of lanthanides by re-extraction with nitric acid makes the LLE procedure compatible with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Spectral and non-spectral interferences are studied. Two isotopes per element are measured (with exception of La) for dynamic evaluation of the potential risk of spectral interference in variable real samples. The selectivity of complex formation reaction towards concomitant alkali and alkali-earth elements eliminates the interferences from sample matrix. Subjecting the standards to the optimized extraction procedure in combination with Re as internal standard is recommended as calibration strategy. The accuracy of developed method is approved by analysis of CRM Bush branches and leaves (NCS DC 73348) and recovery of spiked water and plant samples. The method's limits of detection for both studied objects are in the ranges from 0.2 ((158)Gd) to 3.7 ((139)La) ngl(-1) and 0.02 ((158)Gd) to 0.37((139)La) ngg(-1) for waters and plants respectively. The studied compound is an effective new ligand for preconcentration/separation of lanthanides from aqueous medium by LLE and subsequent determination by ICP-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validación de un método analítico empleando cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia para la determinación de ibuprofeno en medios biorrelevantes Validation of an analytical method by liquid chromatography for determination of ibuprofen in biorelevant media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method by liquid chromatography has been proposed and validated to study the apparent solubility of ibuprofen in biorelevant dissolution media. The main properties of the studied media were pH values of 5.0 and 6.5 and the presence or absence of some natural surfactant agents. The parameters evaluated were specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and detection and quantification limits, as well as the drug stability under the analysis conditions. The developed method was useful to determine the apparent solubility of this drug as a function of temperature and surfactants concentration to demonstrate the validity of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System.

  20. Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquid, [bmim]BF4 – Ethylene Glycol System as a Novel Media for the Rapid Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Manika; Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis revealed relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions. PMID:22238589

  1. New insights in the velocity dependency of the external mass transfer coefficient in 2D and 3D porous media for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert

    2012-03-02

    Numerical calculations of the mobile zone mass transfer rate in a variety of ordered 2D and 3D structures are presented. These calculations are in line with earlier theoretical and experimental findings made in the field of chemical engineering and suggest that the Sherwood-number (Sh(m)) appearing in the mobile phase mass transfer term of the general plate height expression of liquid chromatography is not correctly predicted by the Wilson-Geankoplis--or the Kataoka--or the penetration model expression that have been used up to now to in the field of LC, and that at least more research is needed before these expressions can be continued to be used with confidence. The aforementioned expressions were obtained by neglecting the effect of axial dispersion on the mass transfer process, and it seems that they therefore underestimate the true Sh(m)-number by a factor of 2-5 around the minimum of the van Deemter-curve. New correlations describing the variation of the Sh(m)-coefficient as a function of the reduced velocity for a number of other packing geometries (tetrahedral monolith, 2D pillar array) are proposed. These correlations are in agreement with earlier theoretical and experimental studies showing that at low velocities the local-driving force-based Sh(m)-value is of the order of 10-20 in a packed bed column with an external porosity on the order of 35-40%.

  2. Using hydrophilic ionic liquid, [bmim]BF4-ethylene glycol system as a novel media for the rapid synthesis of copper nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manika Dewan

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF(4 in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD analysis revealed relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

  3. Using hydrophilic ionic liquid, [bmim]BF4-ethylene glycol system as a novel media for the rapid synthesis of copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Manika; Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF(4) in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis revealed relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

  4. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...

  5. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  6. Media places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Per; Messeter, Jörn

    for the Media places project, give some brief insights into the themes of setting up temporary digital streams of media and mobile games. Considering the work-in-progress character of the research and the smaller format of text, no real in-depth analysis will be carried out. The goal is rather to position...

  7. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  8. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  9. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  10. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of Cd(II) from pure and Ni/Cd acidic chloride media using Cyanex 921: a selective treatment of hazardous leachate of spent Ni-Cd batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Young; Nguyen, Viet Tu; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kang, Ho; Pandey, B D

    2014-08-15

    The present paper is focused on solvent extraction of hazardous Cd(II) from acidic chloride media by Cyanex 921, a new extractant mixed with 10% (v/v) TBP in xylene. The optimum conditions for extraction and stripping of Cd(II) were investigated with an aqueous feed of 0.1 mol/L Cd(II) in 2.0 mol/L HCl. McCabe-Thiele diagram was in good agreement with the simulation studies, showing the quantitative extraction (99.9%) of Cd(II) within two counter-current stages utilizing 0.30 mol/L Cyanex 921 at O/A ratio of 3/2 in 10 min. Stoichiometry of the complexes extracted was determined and confirmed by numerical treatment and graphical method, revealing the formation of HCdCl3 · 2L and HCdCl3 · 4L for Cyanex 921(L) concentration in the range 0.03-0.1 mol/L and 0.1-1.0 mol/L, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters for the extraction of cadmium were also determined. The stripping efficiency of cadmium from the loaded organic with 0.10 mol/L HCl was 99.6% in a three-stage counter-current process at an O/A ratio of 2/3. Cyanex 921 was successfully applied for the separation of Cd(II) from Ni(II) in the simulated leach liquor of spent Ni-Cd batteries. The study demonstrates the applicability of the present hydrometallurgical approach for the treatment of hazardous waste, the spent Ni-Cd batteries.

  12. Self-aggregation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media: A conductometric, volumetric and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem21@gmail.com; Pillania, Ankita

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Self-aggregation behaviour of [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] has been studied using various techniques. • Thermodynamic parameters showing aggregation is an entropy-driven process. • Volumetric analysis indicates aggregation is influenced by solute–solvent interactions. • {sup 1}H NMR revealed formation of loosely bound aggregates in the system. - Abstract: Aggregation behaviour of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media has been studied by electrical conductivity, density and speed of sound measurements across temperature range (288.15–308.15) K. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), the standard Gibb’s free energy of aggregation, ΔG°{sub agg}, adiabatic compressibility, β{sub S} and changes in the adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation, Δβ{sub S,agg} for the IL in aqueous solution have been derived from the experimental data. Further to get the deeper insights into the aggregation process spectroscopic study using {sup 1}H NMR measurements have been carried out. The aggregation behaviour observed from conductance and volumetric approaches has been found to be in good agreement with each other. NMR study revealed the formation of loosely bound ion associates as aggregates in the system upon aggregation.

  13. Rapid quantification of Escherichia coli in food and media using bacteriophage T7 amplification and liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Mazlina; Ng, Daniel; Zheng, Lu; Goh, Lin-Tang; Bi, Xuezhi; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei

    2014-12-20

    Conventional microbiological assays have been a valuable tool for specific enumeration of indicative bacteria of relevance to food and public health, but these culture-based methods are time-consuming and require tedious biochemical and morphological identification. In this work, we exploit the ability of bacteriophage T7 to specifically infect Escherichia coli and amplify nearly a 100-fold in 1–2 h. Bacteriophage amplification is integrated with liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MRM–MS/MS) for quantitation of phage-specific peptides. Heavy isotopic 15N labeled T7 is introduced as the inoculum phage and internal standard. Quantification is performed by determining the ratio of phage-specific peptides over the internal standard which value is proportional to E. coli numbers. A broad dynamic range of 6-log orders ranging from 3.0 × 10(3) to 3.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml is attained in LB, while between 4.1 × 10(4)–2.7 × 10(9) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3)–3.0 × 10(7) CFU/ml was enumerated respectively in coconut water and apple juice. With this method, viable E. coli are quantified in 4 h with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 4.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3) CFU/ml in LB, coconut water and apple juice, respectively. This method has potential as a rapid tool for detection of fecal contamination during food bioprocessing and distribution to safeguard public health.

  14. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  15. Detection of OXA-48-type carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in diagnostic laboratories can be enhanced by addition of bicarbonates to cultivation media or reaction buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studentova, Vendula; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Chudackova, Eva; Bergerova, Tamara; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabak, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae has become the main challenge in the treatment and prevention of infections recently. The partially unnoticed spread of OXA-48-type carbapenemase producers is usually assigned to low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems that OXA-48-producing isolates often display. Therefore, there is an urgent need of specific and sensitive methods for isolation and detection of OXA-48 producers in clinical microbiology diagnostics. The influence of bicarbonates on carbapenem MICs against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was tested. We also checked whether the addition of bicarbonates to liquid media supplemented with meropenem may facilitate the selective enrichment of various carbapenemase producers in cultures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of carbapenemase confirmation by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays upon the addition of NH4HCO3 was examined. The addition of NaHCO3 significantly increased MICs of ertapenem and meropenem for OXA-48 producers. Furthermore, liquid media supplemented with NaHCO3 and meropenem were reliable for the selective enrichment of carbapenemase producers. The presence of NH4HCO3 in buffers used in the spectrophotometric and MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase detection increased the sensitivity of that assay. Our results demonstrate that bicarbonates in media or reaction buffers can enhance the sensitivity of screening methods and diagnostic tests for carbapenemase producers.

  16. Selección de un Estabilizante y Comportamiento durante Almacenamiento en Refrigeración de un Complemento Nutricional Líquido Selection of a Stabilizer and Behavior during Cold Storage of a Liquid Nutritional Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Vanegas Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Con el propósito de estabilizar un complemento nutricional líquido para niños, se ensayaron desde el punto de vista reológico; en una primera etapa, tres mezclas de hidrocoloides (T1: 100% goma xántica, T2: 50% goma xántica, 50% goma algarrobo y T3: 33, 3% goma xántica, 33,3% goma algarrobo, 33,3% carragenina kappa, dosificados en un nivel del 0,2% a las que se les determinó el efecto sobre las características sensoriales de importancia para la población a la que estaba dirigida. En una segunda etapa se evaluó la estabilidad reológica, sensorial y microbiológica de una bebida mantenida durante 20 días en refrigeración y estabilizada con 0,1% (T1', 0,2% (T2' y 0,3% (T3' del hidrocoloide seleccionado en la etapa uno. Se concluye que la mezcla en partes iguales de los tres hidrocoloides (T3, fue la preferida por los niños y que los niveles de uso T1' , T2' y T3' no mostraron diferencias significativas para las variables analizadas, pero la mejor opción y la menor varianza fueron para la bebida estabilizada con 0,2% (T2' del hidrocoloide; no obstante, el tratamiento de menor costo fue para la bebida estabilizada con 0,1% (T1' del hidrocoloide.Abstract. With the purpose of stabilizing a liquid nutritional supplement for children, were assayed from the rheological point of view, in a first stage, three mixtures of hydrocolloids (T1:100% xanthan gum, T2: 50% xanthan gum, 50% locust bean gum and T3: 33, 3% xanthan gum, 33% locust bean gum, 33.3% kappa carrageenan, dosed at a level of 0.2%. It was determined the effect on the sensory characteristics of importance to the people which was directed. In a second step we evaluated the rheological, sensory and microbiological stability in a drink maintained for 20 days under refrigeration and stabilized with 0.1% (T1', 0.2% (T2' and 0.3% (T3' of hydrocolloid selected in step one. We conclude that the mixture of equal parts of three hidrocololids (T3, was preferred by children and that

  17. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  18. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced

  19. OTITIS MEDIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to managers of Essential Medicines programmes. ... media (AOM) in children as an example of such a condition, in order Lo explore these challenges more closely. ... pain, fever or deafness) and the ... at 15 and 30 minutes after each morning.

  20. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  1. Media democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present article compendiously presents the interlinked and abruptly developing processes of media democracy and political matters’ personalization. The writer expressly opts for these processes which can radically rejuvenate communication and trust among citizens and politicians and therefore

  2. Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer

    2002-01-01

    There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.

  3. Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Anlässlich der 10. Wissenschaftlichen Tagung „Soziale Medien“ am 27. und 28. Juni 2013 im Statistischen Bundesamt in Wiesbaden und in Fortsetzung des 2010 erschienenen Recherche Spezial Web 2.0 – Alle machen mit! werden in dieser Ausgabe in sechs Kapiteln Nachweise zu Veröffentlichungen und Forschungsprojekte der letzten drei Jahre zusammengestellt, die sich mit der Rolle von Social Media in verschiedenen Nutzungskontexten befassen. Social-Media-Dienste sind mittlerweile fester Bestandtei...

  4. Chemical profiling and quantification of monacolins and citrinin in red yeast rice commercial raw materials and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography-accurate QToF mass spectrometry: Chemometrics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Feng, Wei; Wang, Mei; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Shuangcheng, Ma; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-11-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is prepared by fermenting rice with various strains of the yeast Monascus spp of the Aspergillaceae family. Depending on the Monascus strains and the fermentation conditions, the products may contain monacolins, pigments and citrinin as secondary metabolites. Authentic and commercial RYR samples were analyzed using UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS for monacolins, pigments and citrinin. A separation by UHPLC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. Accurate mass QToF spectrometry was used to distinguish isobaric monacolins. Principle component analysis (PCA), a chemometric technique was used to discriminate between authentic RYR, commercial RYR raw materials and dietary supplements. Three authentic RYR samples, 31 commercial RYR raw materials and 14 RYR dietary supplements were analyzed. Monacolin K content in 600mg of authentic RYR samples ranged from 1.2mg to 1.38mg. Amounts of monacolin K in dietary supplements labeled as containing 600mg of RYR varied more than 40-fold from 0.03mg to 2.18mg. Monacolin K content of dietary supplements labeled as containing 1200mg RYR varied more than 20-fold from 0.22mg to 5.23mg. In addition to large variations in quantity of monacolin K found in dietary supplements, RYR dietary supplements contained ratios of monacolins that differed significantly from authentic samples. The results indicated that RYR commercial products are of variable quality and the analytical method is suitable for quality control testing of a variety of RYR products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Suplementos enterales: ¿complementos o sustitutos de la dieta? Enteral supplements: dietary supplements or substitutes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez Sogues

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización de suplementos nutricionales orales analizando el motivo de su prescripción y su implicación en el aporte calórico-proteico ingerido. Ámbito: Estudio realizado en un hospital universitario de 350 camas, que dispone de especialidades médicas y quirúrgicas. Sujetos, pacientes: La inclusión de pacientes se realizó mediante selección de todas las prescripciones de inicio de suplemento nutricional oral. Los criterios de exclusión fueron ser menor de 18 años, estar ingresado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, presentar problemas cognitivos o de comunicación, seguir tratamiento concomitante con nutrición parenteral o precisar dieta enteral completa, y/o ser portador de sonda nasogástrica para alimentación. También se excluyeron las dietas enterales especiales, que están diseñadas específicamente para algunas patologías. Intervenciones: Estudio longitudinal y prospectivo de la prescripción de suplementos nutricionales por vía oral realizado durante un año. Mediante revisión de la historia clínica y entrevista personalizada, se registraron datos demográficos, parámetros nutricionales, características de la dieta y del suplemento, y aporte calórico-proteico prescrito e ingerido. Los datos fueron introducidos en una base de datos Acces 97 y procesados mediante el programa SPSS para Windows. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas, un análisis de χ2 entre variables cualitativas, un análisis de comparación de medias para datos apareados mediante una t Student y un análisis de la varianza entre variables cuantitativas. El nivel de significación establecido fue p Objective: to assess the use of oral nutritional supplements analyzing the reason for prescription and its implication in caloric-protein intake. Setting: study performed at a university hospital of 350 beds with medical and surgical specialties. Subjects, patients: Patients inclusion was

  6. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  7. Neoteric Media as Tools for Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, C. C.; Mammucari, R.; Foster, N. R.

    2017-06-01

    Process intensification (PI) is a commonly used term in the chemical processing industry. When the concept of PI was first introduced in the late 1970s within the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) company, the main impetus was to reduce the processing cost without impairing the production rate. Neoteric media present as alternatives in chemical processing include gas-expanded liquids, ionic liquids, subcritical water, and combination of gas-expanded liquids and ionic liquids. The applications of neoteric media include particle engineering for improved bioavailability, controlled release of therapeutic implants, pharmaceutical formulations, extraction of natural products, nano-carriers for drug delivery, sterilisation of implants, and chemical reactions. This paper provides an overview of the use of these neoteric media.

  8. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems to have a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have similar phyto...

  9. Social media management and media environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šiđanin Iva

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the system of services that social media management can offer to a variety of users. As social media systems are emerging, social media management can strengthen teams in social media and help to manage numerous social channels and distribution of social information from one place. Social media management is a system of procedures that are used to manage the flow of information in the environment of social media. This involves connecting with social media like Facebook, T...

  10. Media Training

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  11. Use of gamma radiation for preparation of nutrient culture media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for sterilization of nutrient culture media using ..gamma..-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to 3 to 6 Mrad radiation, then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of media and solutions thus obtained is as good as that of preparations sterilized by filtration. The advantage of the proposed sterilization method is that liquid media can be rapidly prepared and dry sterile media can be stored at room temperature for long periods of time.

  12. Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate Content in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection After Enzymatic Hydrolysis: Single-Laboratory Validation First Action 2015.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated method for determination of chondroitin sulfate in raw materials and dietary supplements was submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) for Stakeholder Panel on Dietary Supplements Set 1 Ingredients (Anthocyanins, Chondroitin, and PDE5 Inhibitors) for consideration of First Action Official MethodsSM status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements 2014.009. With recoveries of 100.8–101.6% in raw materials and 105.4–105.8% in finished products and precision of 0.25–1.8% RSDr within-day and 1.6–4.72% RSDr overall, the ERP adopted the method for First Action Official Methods status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action status. PMID:26821980

  13. Streaming Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  14. Otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, MM; Schilder, AGM; Zielhuis, GA; Rosenfeld, RM

    2004-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) continues to be one of the most common childhood infections and is a major cause of morbidity in children. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial, involving the adaptive and native immune system, Eustachian-tube dysfunction, viral and bacterial load, and genetic and environmental

  15. Streaming Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  16. Separation of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptide stereoisomers by micro-liquid chromatography using a quinidine-based monolithic column - Analysis of l-carnosine in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiqin; Sánchez-López, Elena; Han, Hai; Wu, Huihui; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Marina, Maria Luisa; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a new analytical methodology was developed enabling the enantiomeric determination of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides in dietary supplements using chiral micro-LC on a monolithic column consisting of poly(O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). After optimization of the mobile phase conditions, a baseline resolution of the stereoisomers of 24 out of 53 N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides was obtained. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl- and 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl-peptide stereoisomers were separated with exceptionally high selectivity and resolution. The monolithic column was then applied to the quantitative analysis of l-carnosine and its enantiomeric impurity in three different commercial dietary supplements. Method validation demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The determined amounts of l-carnosine in commercial formulations were in agreement with the labeled content for all analyzed samples, and the enantiomeric impurity was found to be below the limit of detection (LOD), showing the potential of the poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA) monolithic column as a reliable tool for the quality control of l-carnosine in dietary supplements by micro-LC.

  17. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pinotti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

  18. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Potential for the speciation of Zn using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and convective interaction media (CIM) fast monolithic chromatography with FAAS and electrospray (ES)-MS-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svete, P; Milacic, R; Mitrovic, B; Pihlar, B

    2001-08-01

    Analytical procedures were developed for the speciation of Zn using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and convective interaction media (CIM) fast monolithic chromatography with FAAS and electrospray (ES)-MS-MS detection. The investigation was performed on synthetic solutions (2 microg cm-3 Zn) of hydrated Zn2+ species and Zn complexes with citrate, oxalate and EDTA (ligand-to-Zn molar ratio 100:1) over a pH range from 5.4 to 7.4. It was found that Zn interacts with various buffers and the careful adjustment of the pH with diluted solutions of KOH is, therefore, required. FPLC separations were carried out on a Mono Q HR 5/5 strong anion-exchange column, applying an aqueous 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 linear gradient elution over 15 min, at a flow rate of 1.0 cm3 min(-1). The separated Zn species were determined in 1.0 cm3 eluate fractions "off line" by FAAS. Speciation of Zn was also performed on a weak anion-exchange CIM DEAE fast monolithic disc by applying an aqueous 0.4 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 linear gradient elution over 7.5 min, at a flow rate of 2.0 cm3 min(-1) and determination of the separated Zn species in 1.0 cm3 eluate fractions "off line" by FAAS. Zn-binding ligands in separated fractions were also characterized by electrospray (ES)-MS-MS analysis. The CIM DEAE disc was found to be more efficient in the separation of negatively charged Zn complexes than the Mono Q FPLC column. On the CIM DEAE disc Zn-citrate was separated from both Zn-oxalate and from Zn-EDTA. All these species were also separated from hydrated Zn2+, which was eluted with the solvent front. This method has an advantage over commonly used analytical techniques for the speciation of Zn which are only able to distinguish between labile and strong Zn complexes. Good repeatability of the measurements (RSD 2-4%), tested for six parallel determinations (2 microg cm(-3) Zn) of Zn-EDTA, Zn-citrate and Zn-oxalate was found at a pH of 6.4 on a CIM DAEA disc

  20. Application of ionic liquid in liquid phase microextraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel nonmolecular solvents. Their unique properties, such as high thermal stability, tunable viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, and good solubility for inorganic and organic compounds, make them excellent candidates as extraction media for a range of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design can be tuned to impart the desired functionality and enhance the analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the applications of ILs in liquid phase microextraction technology, such as single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The sensitivity, linear calibration range, and detection limits for a range of target analytes in the methods were analyzed to determine the advantages of ILs in liquid phase microextraction. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Use of herbal supplements and nutritional supplements in the UK: what do we know about their pattern of usage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, M R

    2007-11-01

    Within the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the sale and use of herbal supplements and food supplements by Western populations and within the UK. This increased usage has coincided with a resurgence of interest in nutritional therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, such as herbal medicine, naturopathy and homeopathy, in which therapists may provide dietary advice and advocate the use of food or herbal supplements. The rise in the use of CAM therapies by the UK population can be attributed to several factors, including: promotion via health programmes and the media; a change in public attitudes; training of more nutritional and CAM therapists as a result of the increased availability of courses; a greater use of CAM and food and herbal supplements, particularly by patients with cancer. The aim of the present paper is to identify the pattern of usage of food and herbal supplements in the UK.

  2. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  3. Gas transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Clifford K

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.

  4. Media Education Initiatives by Media Organizations: The Uses of Media Literacy in Hong Kong Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…

  5. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  6. Germination and Regeneration of Cymbidium findlaysonianum Lindl. on a Medium Supplemented with Some Organic Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supavadee TAWARO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cymbidium findlaysonianum Lindl. were germinated and regenerated on media supplemented with various additives. After germination for 3 months, solidified Vacin and Went (VW medium supplemented with, 15 % coconut water, 5 % banana homogenate, 5 % potato homogenate, 0.2 % activated charcoal and 20 g/l sucrose promoted higher seedling germination than the control medium. The number of protocorm cultured in a modified liquid VW medium with Murashige and Skoog (MS vitamin (VWM increased 4 times for every month of culture, a significant difference from the VW medium, MS medium and half strength MS medium (½ MS. Moreover, the activated charcoal added to the medium stimulated seedlings growth significantly more than when coconut water, banana homogenate and/or potato homogenate were added to the medium. Healthy plants transferred to a plastic tray containing coconut peat successfully acclimatized (70 % in the greenhouse. More than 100,000 plantlets may be obtained from a capsule after being cultured for a year. Thus, organic additives and medium components had an effect on the growth and development of asymbiotic seeds in C. findlaysonianum.

  7. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  8. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...

  9. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  10. Monitoring of the folic add supplementation program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    2008-01-01

    In November of 1993, the Dutch government recommended daily folic acid supplementation of 0.4 or 0.5 mg for all women planning pregnancy, starting 4 weeks before conception until 8 weeks after. In 1995, a one-time mass media campaign was conducted, and due to this campaign, the use of folic acid in

  11. Monitoring of the folic acid supplementation program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    In November of 1993, the Dutch government recommended daily folic acid supplementation of 0.4 or 0.5 mg for all women planning pregnancy, starting 4 weeks before conception until 8 weeks after. In 1995, a one-time mass media campaign was conducted, and due to this campaign, the use of folic acid in

  12. The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... media, e.g. regarding supplements that include weight-loss claims, .... Afr: Afrikaans, B: black, C: coloured, CI: confidence interval, Eng: English, ER: estimated readership, .... Tea); reassuring potential consumers of the product's efficacy and ... It also reduces the absorption of calories and helps your tummy.

  13. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or "found" social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be-say, to replace official statistics-is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys.

  14. [Acceptability of dietary supplements of the national Mexican program "Oportunidades"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, Angel; Mora, Gerardo; Pelcastre, Blanca; Flores, Mario; Bronfman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    To identify cultural beliefs and practices to evaluate the acceptability of dietary supplements of Oportunidades Program. Ethnographic study with in-depth interviews (n=43)--mothers of children less than five years of age and pregnant and breasfeeding women (PBW)--, key informants (n=9); focus groups (n=8) and direct observation, in four communities from North, Central, South and Southwest of Mexico. The supplement was prepared in several different ways. The liquid preparation was best accepted; generally the supplement was mixed with milk. Initially, the supplement caused nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these symptoms disappeared with continued consumption. Acceptance was highest among PBW. The supplement tends to replace milk as a food product in the daily diet. There is a necessity to develop culturally specific evaluations in regions with different food intake practices. The study results should be interpreted in the context of other program components, such as health care and education.

  15. Extraction and Quantification of Tryptophan and Kynurenine from Cultured Cells and Media Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with an Ultra-Sensitive Diode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeffrey; Stewart, Benjamin; Weiss, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the involvement of tryptophan and its metabolite, kynurenine, in various biological processes including cancer is constantly expanding. Analysis of cell extracts and culture media can allow for quick snapshots of the metabolic fluctuations occurring in vitro. Here, we describe a method for metabolite extraction from mammalian cells and analysis of extracted metabolites and cell culture media by HPLC with detection using an ultra-sensitive diode array detector. PMID:27213172

  16. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  17. The Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Larry C. Wadsworth,

    2007-01-01

    The Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media is a new textbook and is one of the few books dealing with the subject of nonwoven filter media through the entire text. It is highly recommended as a prime reference for people in the nonwovens industry. This book culminates a productive career in the field and impressively lives up to the author’s aim, as stated in the “Preface,” “to provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of nonwoven filter media.” Gas, liquid, and engine filtration are dis...

  18. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  19. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  20. Z形狭缝内两种工质沸腾汽液两相特性分析%Study on Gas-liquid Two-phase Flow Characteristics of Two Kinds of Media in Z-shaped Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雷; 张树生; 程林

    2011-01-01

    为深入探索狭缝通道内沸腾换热机制,对2种不同液体在Z形狭缝通道内的沸腾汽液两相流动展开研究.利用数值模拟和自编程的方法分析汽泡生成、长大和脱离的过程,通过几何重构和界面追踪获取相界面移动和变化对系统内压降以及平均表面换热系数的影响,计算中考虑了重力、表面张力和黏性的作用.发现液体黏性的不同对汽泡生长方式和汽泡形态产生很大影响,黏性较小的液体产生汽泡的脱离直径较小,汽泡脱离频率高:表面张力和液体黏性对流动沸腾系统压降都具有较大影响;液体比热和沸点的不同导致换热系数有较大差别;结果与实验数据吻合良好,均表明水沸腾换热系数高于乙醇,Z形通道强化换热效果明显.%To explore the boiling heat transfer mechanism in narrow channels, gas-liquid two-phase flow in z-shaped narrow channels was studied with two different types of media. The bubble generation, growth and departure processes were analyzed using numerical simulation and self-programming. The influence of interface movements and changes on internal pressure difference and average surface heat transfer coefficient was investigated by using geometry reconstruction and interface tracking, taking into account gravity, surface tension and viscosity during calculation. The results show that the viscosity has great influence on generation modes and shapes of bubbles, that is, the lower the viscosity is, the smaller the diameter is when the bubble departs with a higher frequency. In addition, surface tension and viscosity significantly impact the pressure drop of boiling system, and different specific heat and boiling point values result in different heat transfer coefficients. The simulation results in this paper match well with the experimental data revealed in other sources, both show that the heat transfer coefficient of water is higher than that of ethanol and z-shaped channels have

  1. The Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Larry C. Wadsworth,

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media is a new textbook and is one of the few books dealing with the subject of nonwoven filter media through the entire text. It is highly recommended as a prime reference for people in the nonwovens industry. This book culminates a productive career in the field and impressively lives up to the author’s aim, as stated in the “Preface,” “to provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of nonwoven filter media.” Gas, liquid, and engine filtration are discussed in a way as to identify the types of filter media used in these applications. The theoretical presentation based on flow through porous media, which is rather useful as applied to liquid filtration, is developed around a nonwovens or engineered fabrics orientation. In addition, for aerosol filtration, the author has presented in detail “single fiber theory” developed for the filtration of particles from an air stream. Those properties that identify filter and separation media are reviewed. This includes electrostatic media (electrets, coalescing media, adsorptive media, and antimicrobial media. The author describes several mechanisms for imparting an electrostatic charge to a medium; such as electrostatically spun fibers, fibrillated electret film, triboelectric effects, and corona discharge. Four categories of raw materials are identified: polymers, fibers, binders, and additives. The discussion of raw materials is the most extensive chapter in the book. This work will prove to be an essential book for universities offering courses in filtration theory and practice and nonwovens technology, for industry and academic researchers and for supervisors of technical and quality control personnel.

  2. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  3. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  4. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  5. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  7. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  8. Herbal Products and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  9. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  10. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  11. Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by Amycolatopsis keratinophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musallam, A A; Al-Zarban, S S; Al-Sarawi, H K; Kroppenstedt, R M; Stackebrandt, E; Fasasi, Y A

    2003-08-01

    Keratinolytic potential of A. keratinophila (DSM 44409T), a newly described Amycolatopsis sp. isolated from cultivated soil in Kuwait, was demonstrated using keratinazure as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen as estimated by gel diffusion assay. Effects of 12 various nutritional supplements on the keratinolytic and azocollytic activities were determined. NH4H2PO4 and KNO3 in the medium supported a significantly higher keratinolytic activity than other supplements. However, azocollytic activities in all the supplemented media and the control were same. Best combination of carbon and nitrogen supplements (galactose and NH4H2PO4 respectively) used to evaluate the dynamics of growth and enzymes (keratinase and protease) activities of the isolate revealed a luxuriant growth with optimal keratinolytic activity occurring during the log phase. Other parameters of the fermentation medium, including pH, biomass accumulation, total protein and free amino acid concentrations were also studied.

  12. Use of social media by dental educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, M R; Loewen, J M; Romito, L M

    2013-11-01

    Social networking applications have become an established means of communication; applications that did not exist ten years ago are now used daily. Social media can be used for a myriad of reasons including instructional tools to supplement learning. This project was designed to assess the usage of social media applications by dental school faculty members and identify the types of accounts they prefer. Four hundred forty-three full-time dental and dental hygiene faculty members from five U.S. dental schools were invited to complete a twelve-item online survey regarding their social media usage. The response rate was 50 percent (n=221). Of the respondents, nearly half were dentists, and 62 percent were ≥51 years of age. Facebook was the most popular social network, reportedly used by 111 respondents. The most often reported frequency of use was weekly (20.4 percent, n=221); users indicated utilizing a network primarily for personal rather than professional purposes. However, 37 percent of the respondents reported not using any social media. The most frequently cited barriers to the use of social media were time (48 percent) and privacy concerns (48 percent). Although few would dispute the influence social media has on today's students, the suitability and appropriateness of social media technology and its integration into dental curricula require further evaluation.

  13. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  14. Simultaneous analysis of steviol and steviol glycosides by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection on a mixed-mode column: application to Stevia plant material and Stevia-containing dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Karolina; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous separation of steviol and steviol glycosides is challenging because of differences in their polarity and chemical structure. In this study, simultaneous analysis of steviol and steviol glycosides was achieved by LC with UV detection using a mixed-mode RP weak anion exchange chromatography column. Steviol and seven steviol glycosides were analyzed on an Acclaim Mixed-Mode Wax-1 (Dionex) column with a linear gradient of deionized water adjusted to pH 3.00 with phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The extraction was performed by sonicating dry plant material at 40 degreesC in acetonitrile-water (30 + 70, v/v). LOQ values (mg/g dry weight of plant material) were rebaudioside B, 0.50; steviol, 0.70, dulcoside A, 1.0; steviolbioside, 1.2; stevioside and rebaudioside C, 2.0; rebaudioside D, 3.3; and rebaudioside A, 5.0. The method demonstrated suitable performance for all analytes tested with respect to accuracy (mean recoveries 95-99%), intraday and interday precision for retention times (0.070-0.28% and 0.33-1.0% RSD, respectively), and linearity. The method was used to authenticate steviol glycosides in several samples of Stevia plant material as well as to quantitate steviol glycosides in dietary supplements containing Stevia.

  15. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  16. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  17. Media for Campylobacter jejuni and other campylobacters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite their recent elaboration and the many variations in antibiotic combinations designed to attain selectivity, highly selective liquid and solid culture media for Campylobacter jejuni have proved satisfactory provided they are incubated at about 42°C and in a microaerophilic atmosphere such as

  18. Instant and supersaturated dissolution of naproxen and sesamin (poorly water-soluble drugs and supplements) nanoparticles prepared by continuous expansion of liquid carbon dioxide solution through long dielectric nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Toshihiko; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of naproxen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, BCS Class 2) and sesamin (a poorly water-soluble lignan) were investigated. By applying a newly developed rapid expansion system of liquid carbon dioxide solutions equipped with a dielectric nozzle, well-separated and fine both naproxen NPs (averaged particle size (APS) = 46.9 nm) and sesamin NPs (APS = 60.2 nm) were obtained without heating, surfactants, and co-solvents. Obtained naproxen and sesamin NPs had large surface/weight ratio, therefore, they showed instant dissolution to water until about ten percent higher than the saturated concentrations. In addition, the technique developed in the study has big advantage on producing especially drug NPs because the NPs produced by the method never includes neither poisonous additives (especially co-solvents and detergents) nor thermally denatured compounds.

  19. Instant and supersaturated dissolution of naproxen and sesamin (poorly water-soluble drugs and supplements) nanoparticles prepared by continuous expansion of liquid carbon dioxide solution through long dielectric nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Toshihiko, E-mail: tarita@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (Japan); Manabe, Noriyoshi [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Nakahara, Koichi [Suntory Bussiness Expert Limited, Frontier Center for Value Creation (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of naproxen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, BCS Class 2) and sesamin (a poorly water-soluble lignan) were investigated. By applying a newly developed rapid expansion system of liquid carbon dioxide solutions equipped with a dielectric nozzle, well-separated and fine both naproxen NPs (averaged particle size (APS) = 46.9 nm) and sesamin NPs (APS = 60.2 nm) were obtained without heating, surfactants, and co-solvents. Obtained naproxen and sesamin NPs had large surface/weight ratio, therefore, they showed instant dissolution to water until about ten percent higher than the saturated concentrations. In addition, the technique developed in the study has big advantage on producing especially drug NPs because the NPs produced by the method never includes neither poisonous additives (especially co-solvents and detergents) nor thermally denatured compounds.

  20. Social media metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Balvín, Radek

    2013-01-01

    With growing amount of data produced by users on social media the need of extraction of relevant data for marketing, research and other uses grows as well. The bachelor thesis named "Social media metrics" presents the issues of monitoring, measurement and metrics of social media. In the research part it also maps and captures the present Czech practice in measurement and monitoring of social media. I also rate the use of social media monitoring tools and usual methods of social media measurem...

  1. Growth of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandín, I; Santos, Y; Barja, J I; Toranzo, A E

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, the ability of a group of Renibacterium salmoninarum strains to grow in the presence or absence of the amino acid cysteine and other mineral and organic sources of sulfur and nitrogen has been evaluated. Most of the isolates tested were able to grow on a mineral media supplemented with L-cysteine-HCl or other organic compounds, such as the vitamin thiamine and a casein hydrolysate (Bacto Casamino Acids, Difco). Bacterial growth was also recorded on commercial and specific media not supplemented with L-cysteine-HCl, or in which this amino acid was replaced by the compounds cited above.

  2. Social media management and media environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiđanin Iva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the system of services that social media management can offer to a variety of users. As social media systems are emerging, social media management can strengthen teams in social media and help to manage numerous social channels and distribution of social information from one place. Social media management is a system of procedures that are used to manage the flow of information in the environment of social media. This involves connecting with social media like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Plaxo, Ecademy, YouTube and many others, then the aggregation and management of social data. Social media management services are analysed through various fields, such as managing multiple social media profiles, mail scheduling and filtering, reporting and analytics. Social media management enables managing personal business through social media, which contributes to a significant reduction in expenditures. The paper also discusses the importance of social media management in marketing activities and various forms of social promotion, which allow companies to easily reach their customers.

  3. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders...

  4. Xylitol Production from Eucalyptus Wood Hydrolysates in Low-Cost Fermentation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects concerning the bioconversion of xylose-containing hydrolysates (obtained from Eucalyptus wood into xylitol were assessed. Debaryomyces hansenii yeast strains were adapted to fermentation media (obtained either by prehydrolysis or autohydrolysis- posthydrolysis of wood supplemented with low-cost nutrients. Media containing up to 80 g/L xylose were efficiently fermented when the hydrolysates were detoxified by charcoal adsorption and supplemented with corn steep liquor.

  5. Degradation Processes in Corona-Charged Electret Filter-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Warren J. Jasper, Ph.D; Roger Barker, Ph.D.; Anushree Mohan; Juan Hinestroza, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of filtration performance for coronachargedelectret filter media exposed to ethyl benzenewas assessed. Nonwoven corona-charged polypropylenefiber mats were exposed to ethyl-benzene using acustom made apparatus. Evaluated scenarios includedethyl-benzene vapor and liquid exposures. The filtrationperformance was evaluated using DOP as a testaerosol to measure filtration performance. It was observedthat significant filtration degradation occurredonly when liquid ethyl benzene came...

  6. Microscopic interfacial phenomena during flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksis, M.J.; Ida, M.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental process during any multiphase flow in porous media is the breaking apart of one of the phases into smaller components. Here the authors investigate this breaking process as applied to a thin liquid film. They study the breaking of both a two dimensional planar film and a cylindrical thread of liquid using both analytical and numerical methods.

  7. Advertising on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social media? What is the impact of social media on mainstream media, why to advertise on social media? and what should be the strategy for advertising on social media. The author is of the view that in the year 2013, $4 billion will be spent on social media advertising across the globe and social media industry will generate over 1,00,000 new jobs all around the world.

  8. Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnermeier, Markus K; Lasse Heje Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity - i.e., the ease with which it is traded - and traders' funding liquidity - i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding. Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and the margins they are charged, depend on the assets' market liquidity. We show that, under certain conditions, margins are destabilizing and market liquidit...

  9. Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity - i.e., the ease with which it is traded - and traders' funding liquidity - i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding. Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and the margins they are charged, depend on the assets' market liquidity. We show that, under certain conditions, margins are destabilizing and market liquidit...

  10. Supplements and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  11. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  12. Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, P K [Department of Physics, UMIST, PO Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-12

    'Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media' is an unusual book in that it cuts across conventional physics discipline boundaries. The unifying theme allowing this is, quite simply, the physics of magnetic fields in various media. I believe the authors are correct in stating that the book is unique in specifically covering electrodynamic phenomena associated with magnetic fields, though of course some of the more elementary aspects are covered in the classical textbooks on electromagnetism, which are duly acknowledged. This interdisciplinarity makes the book very interesting to people with a range of backgrounds. For example, as a plasma physicist, I was familiar with most of the material on plasmas, but liquid crystals and superconductors were entirely new territory for me. These chapters were indeed both accessible and interesting, and it was surprising for me to see how much commonality there is in the physics of these various media. The first part of the book covers some fundamentals of electrodynamics and magnetostatics, and of electromagnetic waves. Most of this material is covered in textbooks on electromagnetism, and some of it is very basic (for example, LRC circuit theory, surely covered in most first year physics courses, is included) but it is perhaps a useful prelude for what is to come. The generic topic of charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields is well covered. Three main magnetoactive media are then discussed: plasmas (focusing on waves), liquid crystals and superconductors. It is all too easy to criticise a book on the grounds of omitted material, but I do feel that a chapter on magnetostatics in plasmas would have been very helpful, covering force-free fields and so on. Some interesting analogies could then have been exploited. For example, I was intrigued to discover an equation for magnetic fields in superconductors (equation (9.36)) which, apart from a change of sign, is identical to the Helmholtz equation used to model linear

  13. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    CERN Document Server

    van Oss, Carel J

    2006-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  14. Heterogeneous self-assembled media for biopolymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    compartments and lipid-bilayer lattices. Another kind of media is represented by self-assembled phases in the reaction medium, e.g., in water-ice matrices that are formed by two co-existing aqueous phases (a solid phase and a concentrated liquid phase) when an aqueous solution is cooled below its freezing......Heterogeneous media, such as micro-structured aqueous environments, could offer an alternative approach to the synthesis of biopolymers with novel functions. Structured media are here defined as specialized, self-assembled structures that are formed, e.g, by amphiphiles, such as liposomes, emulsion...... point, but above the eutectic point. These media have the capacity to assemble chemical molecules or complex catalytic assemblies into unique configurations that are unstable or unavailable in bulk aqueous phases. Reactions can then proceed which do not readily occur in homogeneous solutions. To gauge...

  15. Otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    OME; Secretory otitis media; Serous otitis media; Silent otitis media; Silent ear infection; Glue ear ... Kerschner JE, Preciado D. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Why Media Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Whether media affect learning has been debated for decades. The discussion of media's effectiveness has raised questions about the usefulness of comparison studies, not only in assessing applications of technology but in other areas as well. Arguments that media do not affect learning are re-examined and issues concerning media effects on expert…

  17. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  18. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  19. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI.

  20. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  1. Accumulation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans in agar cultures and in stationary and agitated liquid cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Bucinski, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2016-05-01

    Schisandra chinensis plant in vitro cultures were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in an agar system and also in two different liquid systems: stationary and agitated. Liquid cultures were grown in batch (30 and 60 days) and fed-batch modes. In the methanolic extracts from lyophilized biomasses and in the media, quantification of fourteen dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans identified based on co-chromatography with authentic standards using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and/or liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) methods. For comparison purposes, phytochemical analyses were performed of lignans in the leaves and fruits of the parent plant. The main lignans detected in the biomass extracts from all the tested systems were schisandrin (max. 65.62 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)), angeloyl-/tigloylgomisin Q (max. 49.73 mg/100 g DW), deoxyschisandrin (max. 43.65 mg/100 g DW), and gomisin A (max. 34.36 mg/100 g DW). The highest total amounts of lignans in the two tested stationary systems were found in extracts from the biomass harvested after 30 days of batch cultivation: 237.86 mg/100 g DW and 274.65 mg/100 g DW, respectively. In the agitated culture, the total content reached a maximum value of 244.80 mg/100 g DW after 60 days of the fed-batch mode of cultivation. The lignans were not detected in the media. This is the first report which documents the potential usefulness of S. chinensis shoot cultures cultivated in liquid systems for practical purposes.

  2. Understanding social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media lo...

  3. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  4. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Perbandingan Angka Positivitas Dan Waktu Deteksi Pertumbuhan Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antara Media Biakan Cair Kolorometrik dan Media Padat Ogawa Pada Spesimen Sputum,Cairan Pleura, dan Cairan Serebrospinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indahwaty

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation is the gold standard in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB. M. tuberculosis needs 3-4 weeks to growth in solid media, but it is growing faster in liquid media. The aim of this study was to compare the positivity rate and detection time of M. tuberculosis growth using colorimetric liquid and Ogawa solid media. This study did in Laboratory of Clinical Pathology Hasan Sadikin Hospital during June-Desember 2007. The subject was pulmonary, pleuritis or meningitis TB patients. The statistic analyzed using chi square and independent t test. The specimens were 71 sputums, 24 pleural fluids, 20 cerebrospinal fluids (CSF. The positivity rate of liquid media for sputums were 69%, pleural fluids 41.7%, CSF 60%. The positivity rate of solid media for sputums were 52.1%, pleural fluids 25%, CSF 20%. The positivity rate in liquid media was significant for sputum and CSF (p=0..05. The mean detection time in liquid media for sputums were 15.2 (±8.7 days, pleural fluids 8 (±12.7 days, CSF 13.5 (±19.5 days. The mean detection time in solid media for sputums 23 (±9 days, pleural fluids 36 (±18.3 days, CSF 32 (±11.4 days. The mean detection time in liquid media was significant for sputum and pleural fluid (p=0.05. The positivity rate and detection time of M. tuberculosis growth in colorimetric liquid media are higher and faster than in Ogawa solid media, so it is better for diagnosing TB.

  6. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  9. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  10. "Friending" Vygotsky: A Social Constructivist Pedagogy of Knowledge Building through Classroom Social Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churcher, Kalen M. A.; Downs, Edward; Tewksbury, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Social media and web 2.0 technologies are an attractive supplement to the higher education experience and are embraced as a way to foster intra-and extracurricular knowledge generation among a class community. However, these collaborative media require a rethinking of the theoretical framework through which we engage student communities of…

  11. Choice of Instructional Media of B.Ed. Students of Ignou from Two Indian Metropolises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa; Sharma, Parveen

    2010-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) of India uses multiple media and modes for reaching out to its distant learners. For most of the programmes offered to these learners, print is the master medium and other media supplement it. Instructions for the Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.), one of the popular programmes of IGNOU, are also…

  12. Changing forms of cross-media news consumption in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    (Abstract for presentation at ECREA 2014) News use across Western Europe is rapidly changing as traditional sources of news are increasingly supplemented and sometimes supplanted by digital media, and as relatively passive forms of media use are sometimes complemented with new forms of sharing...

  13. Media Pluralism and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    challenges for media pluralism policies in the light of a fast changing media environment. The book is unique in that it confronts insights from all parts of the world and from a broad range of disciplines including law, economics, media studies, and sociology.......In the western world, a diverse and pluralistic media landscape is deemed essential for democracy. But how universal is media pluralism as a concept underpinning media policies? To what extent do normative approaches, regulatory dimensions and monitoring systems differ throughout the world......? Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity advances our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism. It identifies common...

  14. Unpacking New Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Thanq “victor” Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century has marked an unprecedented advancement of new media. New media has become so pervasive that it has penetrated into every aspect of our society. New media literacy plays an essential role for any citizen to participate fully in the 21st century society. Researchers have documented that literacy has evolved historically from classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding to audiovisual literacy to digital literacy or information literacy and recently to new media literacy. A review of literature on media literacy reveals that there is a lack of thorough analysis of unique characteristics of new media and its impacts upon the notion of new media literacy. The purpose of the study is to unpack new media literacy and propose a framework for a systematic investigation of new media literacy.

  15. Multi-Media Self-Instruction for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, John P.; Guyton, Rick

    1978-01-01

    A study of 12 individual self-instructional programs comprising six types of media, used to supplement the learning of senior medical students taking elective family practice preceptorships in communities distant from the medical school, is described. These students showed a gain in knowledge from pretest to delayed retention test while a control…

  16. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of pneumococcal otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, E.L.G.M.; Graamans, K.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this review, a state of the art on otitis media research is provided with emphasis on the role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of this disease. Articles have been selected by MEDLINE search supplemented with a manual crosscheck of bibliographies. Pathogenic mechanisms in middle

  17. Multi-Media Self-Instruction for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, John P.; Guyton, Rick

    1978-01-01

    A study of 12 individual self-instructional programs comprising six types of media, used to supplement the learning of senior medical students taking elective family practice preceptorships in communities distant from the medical school, is described. These students showed a gain in knowledge from pretest to delayed retention test while a control…

  18. Oral Microbiota in Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; West, Christina E.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    Background In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants effects on the oral microbiome. Moraxella catarrhalis was less prevalent in infants fed EF than in those fed SF and may be associated with the decrease in otitis media seen in the same group. PMID:28099499

  19. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  20. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  1. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor

    motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation......Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....

  2. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  3. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  4. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  5. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...

  6. Liquid pearls

    CERN Document Server

    Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

  7. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  8. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  9. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Turkish Media Elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ali Arslan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The media is one of the most important institutions in society. It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. In addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. If media owners and elites are so powerful, the identification of media elites is of great importance. Hence, this study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media: A full picture of Turkish media elites in terms of important social, political and demographic indicators will be given in this paper. The managers, editors, influential columnists and reporters of major Turkish media elites are defined as Turkish media elites. Firstly, the paper will focuse on the demographic peculiarities of Turkish media elites. Secondly, the educational background and family structure of Turkish media elites will be examined. Then, social origins and other social characteristics of Contemporary Turkish media elites will be investigated.

  11. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  12. AMAMM - All Media Are Mixed Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    All Media Are Mixed Media Alle medier er blandingsmedier. Alle kunstarter er kompositte. Alle sanser er sammensatte. Alle medialiteter er miksede og mangfoldige. Alle er AMAMM. Denne påstand står centralt i ord-, billed- og medie-teoretikeren W.J.T. Mitchells forfatterskab. I hosstående bog tager...

  13. Using Social Media to Teach Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Howard

    2008-01-01

    By showing students how to use Web-based channels to inform publics, advocate positions, contest claims, and organize action around issues they care about, participatory media education can influence civic behavior positively throughout their lives. Participatory media literacy is necessarily a hands-on enterprise, requiring active use of digital…

  14. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  15. Attitudes towards and use of dietary supplementation in a sample of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, P; Steel, S A; Clifford, E; Bottazzi, M

    2002-12-01

    To assess the reason why people take food supplements in addition to or in place of medication, as well as the perceived efficacy and risk of these supplements. A 20-item, computer-assisted telephone questionnaire was administered to 442 women over 60 years of age in Hull, to assess the prevalence of use and perception of efficacy and safety of food supplements. Data were available for 411 women, of whom 269 (65.4%) were currently taking food supplements, 76 (18.5%) were previous users and 66 (16%) were never-users. There was no difference in terms of age, smoking, consumption of fruit and vegetables, life-style and attitude towards conventional medicine between current or past users of supplements and never-users. The majority of users (n = 229, 66%) thought that food supplements help maintain good health (p food supplement. Information regarding supplements was obtained primarily from the media, particularly magazine and newspaper articles (27%), with health professionals rarely being consulted (16%). Users believed supplements to be effective, although possibly with associated side-effects. However, they would not attribute adverse effects experienced to this form of treatment. Medical practitioners and health professionals are rarely informed or consulted, leaving potentially dangerous side-effects of food supplements to go unreported.

  16. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  17. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  18. MODERN MEDIA EDUCATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups:- educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc., based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education;- educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions, philosophical problems relying on the ethic, religious, ideological, ecological, protectionist theories of media education;- pragmatic models (practical media technology training, based on the uses and gratifications and ‘practical’ theories of media education;- aesthetical models (aimed above all at the development of the artistic taste and enriching the skills of analysis of the best media culture examples. Relies on the aesthetical (art and cultural studies theory; - socio-cultural models (socio-cultural development of a creative personality as to the perception, imagination, visual memory, interpretation analysis, autonomic critical thinking, relying on the cultural studies, semiotic, ethic models of media education.

  19. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  20. The social media revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  1. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Programs for Girls www.womensmediacenter.com/pages/media-programs-for-girls Glossary Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which distorted body image leads a person to diet excessively. Body Mass Index (BMI): A number calculated from height and ...

  2. Trends in Media Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald F. Roberts; Ulla G. Foehr

    2008-01-01

    .... Donald Roberts and Ulla Foehr examine how both media use and media exposure vary with demographic factors such as age, race and ethnicity, and household socioeconomic status, and with psychosocial...

  3. Trends in media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donald F; Foehr, Ulla G

    2008-01-01

    American youth are awash in media. They have television sets in their bedrooms, personal computers in their family rooms, and digital music players and cell phones in their backpacks. They spend more time with media than any single activity other than sleeping, with the average American eight- to eighteen-year-old reporting more than six hours of daily media use. The growing phenomenon of "media multitasking"--using several media concurrently--multiplies that figure to eight and a half hours of media exposure daily. Donald Roberts and Ulla Foehr examine how both media use and media exposure vary with demographic factors such as age, race and ethnicity, and household socioeconomic status, and with psychosocial variables such as academic performance and personal adjustment. They note that media exposure begins early, increases until children begin school, drops off briefly, then climbs again to peak at almost eight hours daily among eleven- and twelve-year-olds. Television and video exposure is particularly high among African American youth. Media exposure is negatively related to indicators of socioeconomic status, but that relationship may be diminishing. Media exposure is positively related to risk-taking behaviors and is negatively related to personal adjustment and school performance. Roberts and Foehr also review evidence pointing to the existence of a digital divide--variations in access to personal computers and allied technologies by socioeconomic status and by race and ethnicity. The authors also examine how the recent emergence of digital media such as personal computers, video game consoles, and portable music players, as well as the media multitasking phenomenon they facilitate, has increased young people's exposure to media messages while leaving media use time largely unchanged. Newer media, they point out, are not displacing older media but are being used in concert with them. The authors note which young people are more or less likely to use several

  4. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  5. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  6. The social media image

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    How do the organization and presentation of large-scale social media images recondition the process by which visual knowledge, value, and meaning are made in contemporary conditions? Analyzing fundamental elements in the changing syntax of existing visual software ontology—the ways current social media platforms and aggregators organize and categorize social media images—this article relates how visual materials created within social media platforms manifest distinct modes of knowledge produc...

  7. Advertising on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...

  8. Vapor-liquid two phase flow simulation in porous media with Lattice-Boltzmann method%孔隙介质中汽液两相流数值模拟的Lattice-Boltzmann方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明; 刘家琦; 刘克安

    2011-01-01

    A single component, two-phase flow simulator is developed to investigate the behavior of isothermal twophase fluid flow in porous media. The simulator is based on the Lattice-Boltzmann method and the Shan-Chen multiphase model of non-ideal fluids that allow coexistence of two phases of a single substance. Some different idealized situations (phase separation, surface tension, contact angle, pipe flow, and fluid droplet motion, et al) )in which the results are already known from theory or laboratory measurements are reproduced, and the validity of the implementation for the physical two-phase flow in porous media is shown. Application of the method to fluid intrusion in porous media is discussed and shows the effect of wettability on the fluid flow. The capability of reproducing critical flooding phenomena ( formation of advancing wetting film, snap off in throats and vapor condensation in pore) under strong wettability conditions is also proved.%基于格子波尔兹曼方法(Lattice-Boltzmann Method,LBM)和Shan-Chen单组分多相流模型,用单组分两相流LBM方法对孔隙介质中等温汽液两相流流动特性进行了研究.通过理想状态下流体特性(相分离、表面张力计算、流固接触角、管道两相流以及变形液滴运动)的研究验证了LBM应用于孔隙介质两相流的可行性,并进一步研究了孔隙介质中润湿相入侵非润湿相的流动特性和固体润湿性对于流体流动的影响,再现了孔隙介质中流体流动的狭长薄膜形成、狭窄孔道流体卡断和非润湿性相聚集等现象.

  9. Managing Media Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuze, M.; Lowe, G.F.; Brown, C.

    2015-01-01

    People are more involved with media than ever but news about media as an industry is less than optimistic. The number of people across the creative industries who are losing jobs illustrates all too well. Media managers seem at a loss in developing survival strategies, and specifically in organizing

  10. Managing Media Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Deuze

    2015-01-01

    People are more involved with media than ever but news about media as an industry is less than optimistic. The number of people across the creative industries who are losing jobs illustrates all too well. Media managers seem at a loss in developing survival strategies, and specifically in organizing

  11. Mapping digital media: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, M.; Leurdijk, A.; Nordeman, L.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political,

  12. New Media, New Citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The use of news media is regarded as a driver for citizens’ engagement with society and their political participation. But as news media use increasingly shifts to digital platforms, it is crucial to understand the interplay between a changing media environment and recent patterns of political pa...

  13. Youth Media and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  14. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  15. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  16. Modern Media Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups: (1) educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc.), based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education; (2) educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions,…

  17. Children's Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  18. News Media Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    absence of a democratic media law and the lasting power monopoly of the state owned media on the other hand (Myagmar, 2000). First, legal basis of...implementation. The censorship authority was abolished already in 1989, but it was not until the 1998 media law that censorship was prohibited

  19. Teenagers Media Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  20. Mapping digital media: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, M.; Leurdijk, A.; Nordeman, L.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, econ

  1. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  2. Nanoparticles in ionic liquids: interactions and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2015-07-28

    Ionic liquids (ILs), defined as low-melting organic salts, are a novel class of compounds with unique properties and a combinatorially great chemical diversity. Ionic liquids are utilized as synthesis and dispersion media for nanoparticles as well as for surface functionalization. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems are governed by a combined effect of several intermolecular interactions between their constituents. For each interaction, including van der Waals, electrostatic, structural, solvophobic, steric, and hydrogen bonding, the characterization and quantitative calculation methods together with factors affecting these interactions are reviewed here. Various self-organized structures based on nanoparticles in ionic liquids are generated as a result of a balance of these intermolecular interactions. These structures, including colloidal glasses and gels, lyotropic liquid crystals, nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-containing emulsions, ionic liquid surface-functionalized nanoparticles, and nanoscale ionic materials, possess properties of both ionic liquids and nanoparticles, which render them useful as novel materials especially in electrochemical and catalysis applications. This review of the interactions within nanoparticle dispersions in ionic liquids and of the structure of nanoparticle and ionic liquid hybrids provides guidance on the rational design of novel ionic liquid-based materials, enabling applications in broad areas.

  3. A influência da suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Influencia de la suplementacion de trigliceridos de cadena media en ejercicios de máxima resistencia The influence of medium-chain triglycerides supplementation in ultra-endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available As competições de ultra-resistência representam um grande desafio no mundo esportivo. O gasto energético de uma prova de ultra-resistência pode variar de 5.000 a 18.000kcal por dia. Por causa dessa grande demanda, várias estratégias para melhora do desempenho têm sido desenvolvidas nos últimos anos, como a suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média (TCM em combinação com carboidratos (CBO. A suplementação de TCM visa aumentar a utilização dos ácidos graxos livres (AGL como fonte de energia, poupando os estoques corporais de glicogênio para o final da competição. Quando comparados com os triglicerídeos de cadeia longa (TCL, os TCM são rapidamente absorvidos e transportados pelo organismo. Além disso, os TCM possuem velocidade de oxidação comparável à dos CBO, mas, por serem lipídios, fornecem uma quantidade de energia maior quando são oxidados. Dessa forma, os TCM parecem ser o combustível ideal para provas de longa duração. Portanto, esta revisão possui como objetivo esclarecer como os TCM podem influenciar o desempenho em provas de ultra-resistência.Las competencias de alta resistencia consituyen un gran desafío en el mundo del deporte. El gasto energético de una prueba da máxima resistencia puede variar entre 5.000 y 18.000 kcalorías por día. Por causa de esa gran demanda, se deben desarrollar varias estrategias para la mejora en el desempeño deportivo en los útimos años como lo es la suplementación con triglicéridos de cadena media (TCM en combinación con carbohidratos (CBO. La suplementación de los TCM aumenta la utilización de los ácidos grasos libres (AGL como fuente de energía, dejando depósitos corporales de glicógeno para el final de la competencia. Cuando son comparados con los trigliceridos de cadena larga (TCL, los TCM son rápidamente absorbidos y transportados por el organismo. Además de eso, los TCM poseen una velocidad de oxidación comparable con los CBO, que por ser l

  4. Lunar Oxygen Production and Metals Extraction Using Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Matthew; Paley, Mark Steven; Donovan, David N.; Karr, Laurel J.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results indicate that ionic liquids are promising media for the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith. IL acid systems can solubilize regolith and produce water with high efficiency. IL electrolytes are effective for water electrolysis, and the spent IL acid media are capable of regeneration.

  5. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  6. Pneumatic fracturing of low permeability media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuring, J.R. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Pneumatic fracturing of soils to enhance the removal and treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids is described. The process involves gas injection at a pressure exceeding the natural stresses and at a flow rate exceeding the permeability of the formation. The paper outlines geologic considerations, advantages and disadvantages, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, efficiency, and costs. Five case histories of remediation using pneumatic fracturing are briefly summarized. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Prosocial effects of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2012-06-01

    Parents, teachers, health care providers, and other caring adults worry about the harmful influence of media messages and images on children and teens and wonder how to recognize and encourage positive and healthy use of media. For decades, experts have commented on the power of media. Media depictions can lead to negative attitudes and behavior in some young viewers. This article discusses whether prosocial, tolerant, and cooperative attitudes and behavior can be learned and imitated by children and adolescents and whether media can nurture or stimulate creativity or actively promote health and well-being in young consumers.

  8. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  9. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  10. Trends in modeling of porous media combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Abdullah, M. Zulkifly [Porous Media Combustion Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mohamad, A.A. [College of Engineering, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, P.O. Box 50927 (Saudi Arabia); Bakar, M.Z. Abu [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Porous media combustion (PMC) has interesting advantages compared with free flame combustion due to higher burning rates, increased power dynamic range, extension of the lean flammability limits, and low emissions of pollutants. Extensive experimental and numerical works were carried out and are still underway, to explore the feasibility of this interesting technology for practical applications. For this purpose, numerical modeling plays a crucial role in the design and development of promising PMC systems. This article provides an exhaustive review of the fundamental aspects and emerging trends in numerical modeling of gas combustion in porous media. The modeling works published to date are reviewed, classified according to their objectives and presented with general conclusions. Numerical modeling of liquid fuel combustion in porous media is excluded. (author)

  11. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  12. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  13. Comprehension of digital media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-15

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  14. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2011-01-01

    throughout the Internet, most notably on web 2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media......We explore how remixing and content sharing can be used as a means for user participation in a digital museum age. Remix culture is seen as a culture that allows and encourages the production of derivative works; works that are based on already existing works. This cultural practice thrives...... content. The media content is created by the user in the museum's physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from web archives. It is the intention that the users learn about media through participatory and creative processes with media where the borders between producing, playing...

  15. Bioabatement with hemicellulase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangli; Ximenes, Eduardo; Nichols, Nancy N; Frazer, Sarah E; Kim, Daehwan; Cotta, Michael A; Ladisch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    A stepwise removal of inhibitory compounds by bioabatement combined with hemicellulase supplementation was conducted to enhance cellulose hydrolysis of liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover. Results showed that the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 eliminated most of the enzyme and fermentation inhibitors from liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover hydrolysates. Moreover, addition of hemicellulases after bioabatement and before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose achieved 20% higher glucose yields compared to non-treated samples. This work presents the mechanisms by which supplementation of the fungus with hemicellulase enzymes enables maximal conversion, and confirms the inhibitory effect of xylo-oligosaccharides in corn stover hydrolysates once the dominant inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds is removed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  17. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  18. Optimization of covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports for cellulose hydrolysis, in buffer and ionic liquids/buffer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ramazan; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports were carried out. The optimal immobilization conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis of cellulose using the free and immobilized cellulase preparations in ionic liquids (IL) using cosolvents was investigated. The hydrolytic activities in buffer medium containing 25% (v/v) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were around 2.6-, 1.6-, and 5.5-fold higher than the activities in buffer medium. The retained initial activities were 32% and 57%, respectively for cellulase preparations immobilized onto Sepabeads EC-EP support and onto modified ReliZyme HA403 support after 5 reuses.

  19. UV-visible spectroscopy as an alternative to liquid chromatography for determination of everolimus in surfactant-containing dissolution media: a useful approach based on solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberi, Marika; Tran, Thu-Ngoc

    2012-11-01

    High-throughput 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) plate with C-18 reversed phase sorbent followed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) microplate reader was applied to the analysis of hydrophobic drugs in surfactant-containing dissolution media, which are often used to evaluate the in-vitro drug release of drug eluting stents (DES). Everolimus and dissolution medium containing Triton X-405 were selected as representatives, and the appropriate SPE conditions (adsorption, washing and elution) were investigated to obtain a practical and reliable sample clean-up. It was shown that the developed SPE procedure was capable of removing interfering components (Triton X-405 and its impurities), allowing for an accurate automated spectrophotometric analysis to be performed. The proposed UV-Vis spectrophotometric method yielded equivalent results compared to a classical LC analysis method. Linear regression analysis indicated that both methods have the ability to obtain test results that are directly proportional to the concentration of analyte in the sample within the selected range of 1.0-10 μg/ml for everolimus, with a coefficient of correlation (r(2)) value of >0.998 and standard deviation of the residuals (Syx) of UV-Vis spectrophotometric method and from 98 to 102 for the HPLC method, respectively. The 95% CI of the mean recovery for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was 99-102% and for the HPLC method was 99-101%. No statistical difference was found between the mean recoveries of the methods (p=0.42). Hence the methods are free from interference due to Triton and other chemicals present in the dissolution medium. The variation in the amount of everolimus estimated by UV-Vis spectrophotometric and HPLC methods was ≤3.5%, and the drug release profiles obtained by both methods were found to be equivalent by evaluation with two-one-sided t-test (two-tailed, p=0.62; mean of differences, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96) and similarity factor f2 (f2 value, 87). The excellent conformity of

  20. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.