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Sample records for liquid injection cvd

  1. MgO by injection CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrutis, A.; Kubilius, V.; Teiserkis, A.; Bigelyte, V.; Vengalis, B.; Jukna, A.; Butkute, R.

    1997-01-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers with 45 in-plane orientation have been grown by injection CVD on MgO substrates polished off-axis to within 1.4-1.9 of the [100] direction. This new single-source CVD process is based on computer-controlled injection of precise microdoses of a metal-organic precursor solution into a CVD reactor. A wide range of solution compositions was tested to investigate compositional effects on phase purity, surface morphology, texturing and superconducting properties of the prepared films. The highest quality films with pure 45 texture had a smooth surface, zero resistance T c (R=0) of 88-89 K, and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.) and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.)

  2. Ambipolar transport in CVD grown MoSe2 monolayer using an ionic liquid gel gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliris N. Ortiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available CVD grown MoSe2 monolayers were electrically characterized at room temperature in a field effect transistor (FET configuration using an ionic liquid (IL as the gate dielectric. During the growth, instead of using MoO3 powder, ammonium heptamolybdate was used for better Mo control of the source and sodium cholate added for lager MoSe2 growth areas. In addition, a high specific capacitance (∼7 μF/cm2 IL was used as the gate dielectric to significantly reduce the operating voltage. The device exhibited ambipolar charge transport at low voltages with enhanced parameters during n- and p-FET operation. IL gating thins the Schottky barrier at the metal/semiconductor interface permitting efficient charge injection into the channel and reduces the effects of contact resistance on device performance. The large specific capacitance of the IL was also responsible for a much higher induced charge density compared to the standard SiO2 dielectric. The device was successfully tested as an inverter with a gain of ∼2. Using a common metal for contacts simplifies fabrication of this ambipolar device, and the possibility of radiative recombination of holes and electrons could further extend its use in low power optoelectronic applications.

  3. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  4. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  5. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waits, C Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion

  6. Did ECB Liquidity Injections Help the Real Economy in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetz, Stine Louise; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tang, Dragon Y.

    on non-financial corporations. In this paper, we show that non-financial firms in the Eurozone indeed ended up with more cash as a consequence of the ECB liquidity injections. However, such an increase in cash holdings was not necessarily employed in a productive manner, but as a form of "carry trade...

  7. Deep injection disposal of liquid radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Ballou, L.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.; Pimenov, M.K.; Kostin, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    Originally published in Russian, Deep Injection Disposal is the most comprehensive account available in the West of the Soviet and Russian practice of disposing of radioactive wastes into deep geological formations. It tells the story of the first 40 years of work in the former Soviet Union to devise, test, and execute a program to dispose by deep injection millions of cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear materials processing. The book explains decisions involving safety aspects, research results, and practical experience gained during the creation and operation of disposal systems. Deep Injection Disposal will be useful for studying other problems worldwide involving the economic use of space beneath the earth's surface. The material in the book is presented with an eye toward other possible applications. Because liquid radioactive wastes are so toxic and the decisions made are so vital, information in this book will be of great interest to those involved in the disposal of nonradioactive waste

  8. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  9. Did ECB Liquidity Injections Help the Real Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetz, Stine Louise; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tang, Dragon Yongjun

    on corporate policies in the Eurozone, is an important but unanswered issue. We analyze a large panel of individual corporations across countries in the Eurozone, and find that non-financial corporations issued more long-term debt and hoarded more cash following the ECB liquidity injections. However......, this increase in corporate liquidity was not employed in a productive manner, as corporations generally did not subsequently increase their investments or employment, regardless of their banking connections. The exceptions to this weak response were corporations in countries with corresponding accommodative...

  10. The Welfare Cost of Sovereign Default and Liquidity Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous default on entrepreneur loans and funds borrowed from the central bank (liquidity injections) and investigates the welfare cost of sovereign default. The results show that sovereign default affects production through households' investment decisions and the bank's asset portfolio adjustment. The effect of sovereign default on entrepreneurs tends to be in favor of production. Sovereign default reduces the variability of th...

  11. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  12. [Impurity removal technology of Tongan injection in liquid preparation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-fang; Wang, Xiu-hai; Bai, Wei-rong; Kang, Xiao-dong; Liu, Jun-chao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively remove the invalid impurities in Tongan injection, optimize the optimal parameters of the impurity removal technology of liquid mixing process, in this paper, taking Tongan injection as the research object, with the contents of celandine alkali, and sinomenine, solids reduction efficiency, and related substances inspection as the evaluation indexes, the removal of impurities and related substances by the combined process of refrigeration, coction and activated carbon adsorption were investigated, the feasibility of the impurity removal method was definited and the process parameters were optimized. The optimized process parameters were as follows: refrigerated for 36 h, boiled for 15 min, activated carbon dosage of 0.3%, temperature 100 degrees C, adsorption time 10 min. It can effectively remove the tannin, and other impurities, thus ensure the quality and safety of products.

  13. Two-stroke engine with gaseous and liquid fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Rene Sejer [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The need to lower emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates as well as rising oil prices have increased engine operators' interest in alternative fuels and fuel flexibility. The low speed two-stroke ME-GI and ME-LGI dual-fuel engines with diesel pilot injection from MAN Diesel and Turbo offer the opportunity of utilising fuels such as LNG, LPG, and methanol in a wide range of liquid to gaseous fuel ratios. (orig.)

  14. Generation of a rotating liquid liner by tangential injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Lanham, R.E.; Cameron, J.; Cooper, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient compression of low mass-density payloads by the implosion of higher mass-density liquid cylinders or liners, as in the NRL LINUS concept for controlled thermonuclear fusion, requires rotation of the liner material to avoid Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities at the liner-payload interface. Experimentally, such implosions have been demonstrated with liners formed within rotating implosion chambers. The present work uses a scale-model experimental apparatus to investigate the possibility of creating liner rotation by tangential injection of the liquid liner material. Different modes of behavior are obtained depending on the fluid exhaust procedures. Right-circular, cylindrical free surfaces are achieved with axial exhaust of fluid at radii interior to the injection nozzles, for which the liner exhibits a combination of solid-body and free vortex flows in different regions. Measurements allow estimates of power losses to viscous shear, turbulence, etc. A simple model based on open-channel flow is then derived, which is in good agreement with experiment, and is used to extrapolate results to the scale of a possible LINUS fusion reactor

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Liquid-liquid mixing by gas injection in a pool configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the mixing process of two immiscible liquids, in a pool configuration, by bottom gas injection. The apparatus consisted of a vertical pyrex conduit of 15.2 centimeters of internal diameter. To the lower part of the conduit was attached a porous plate through which the gas was injected. The experiments were photographically recorded. The pictures were digitized and a method was developed to quantify the mixing region thickness. This method requires knowledge of the void fraction, for each liquid, as a function of the superficial gas velocity. Because of this, void fraction was measured for the bubbly and churn flow regimes, in a pool configuration for every liquid. A new correlation, based on the drift flux model, is proposed for void fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity. It has been observed that mixing can start either in bubbly or churn flow regimes, depending on the liquid pair properties. Three mechanistic models were derived to aid in correlating the data, two for bubbly flow and one for churn flow. A transition region between these two flow regimes, was deduced, but not directly measured. A set of correlations was developed from the models and it is proposed to be implemented in current codes that model Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI). The implications that the present work has on MCCI have been described. It can be deduced that mixing between the oxidic and the metallic phases will occur during the interaction

  17. Injectable biomimetic liquid crystalline scaffolds enhance muscle stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Eduard; McClendon, Mark T.; Preslar, Adam T.; Chen, Charlotte H.; Sangji, M. Hussain; Pérez, Charles M. Rubert; Haynes, Russell D.; Meade, Thomas J.; Blau, Helen M.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle stem cells are a potent cell population dedicated to efficacious skeletal muscle regeneration, but their therapeutic utility is currently limited by mode of delivery. We developed a cell delivery strategy based on a supramolecular liquid crystal formed by peptide amphiphiles (PAs) that encapsulates cells and growth factors within a muscle-like unidirectionally ordered environment of nanofibers. The stiffness of the PA scaffolds, dependent on amino acid sequence, was found to determine the macroscopic degree of cell alignment templated by the nanofibers in vitro. Furthermore, these PA scaffolds support myogenic progenitor cell survival and proliferation and they can be optimized to induce cell differentiation and maturation. We engineered an in vivo delivery system to assemble scaffolds by injection of a PA solution that enabled coalignment of scaffold nanofibers with endogenous myofibers. These scaffolds locally retained growth factors, displayed degradation rates matching the time course of muscle tissue regeneration, and markedly enhanced the engraftment of muscle stem cells in injured and noninjured muscles in mice. PMID:28874575

  18. Calculation of the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascarelli, G.

    1986-01-01

    A model calculation is carried out in which we evaluate the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon. Scattering by both phonons and static density fluctuations is taken into account. The calculation for the mobility limited by phonon scattering differs from the usual calculation in crystals by considering both the local changes in the deformation potential and the changes of the amplitude of the phonons that are caused by the existence of density fluctuations. The calculation of the mobility limited by scattering from density fluctuations is carried out with the assumption that they give rise to a square-well (or barrier) potential that will scatter the electrons. The above perturbation ΔV 0 is related to a density fluctuation Δn by ΔV 0 = V 0 (n-bar+Δn)-V 0 (n-bar). The scattering volumes Ω, where the density fluctuation Δn is located, are weighted by exp(-r/xi) where xi is the correlation length and r is the radius of Ω. The magnitude of the different density fluctuations is weighted by exp[-(Δn) 2 Ω/2nS(0)], where S(0) = nk/sub B/TK/sub T/, K/sub T/ is the isothermal compressibility. The calculation of the mean free path is carried out using partial waves. Both scattering mechanisms, scattering by phonons and static density fluctuations, give comparable contributions to the mobility

  19. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  20. Liquid jets injected into non-uniform crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Samir

    An experimental study has been conducted with liquid jets injected transversely into a crossflow to study the effect of non-uniformities in the crossflow velocity distribution to the jet behavior. Two different non-uniform crossflows were created during this work, a shear-laden crossflow and a swirling crossflow. The shear-laden crossflow was generated by merging two independent, co-directional, parallel airstreams creating a shear mixing layer at the interface between them. The crossflow exhibited a quasi-linear velocity gradient across the height of the test chamber. By varying the velocities of the two airstreams, the sense and the slope of the crossflow velocity gradient could be changed. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to characterize the crossflow. The parameter, UR, is defined as the ratio of the velocities of the two streams and governs the velocity gradient. A positive velocity gradient was observed for UR > 1 and a negative velocity gradient for UR Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) studies were conducted to study the penetration and atomization of 0.5 mm diameter water jets injected into this crossflow. The crossflow velocity gradient was observed to have a significant effect on jet penetration as well as the post breakup spray. For high UR (> 1), jet penetration increased and the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution became more uniform. For low UR (Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the crossflow velocities. The axial (Ux) and the tangential (Utheta) components of the crossflow velocity were observed to decrease with increasing radial distance away from the centerbody. The flow angle of the crossflow was smaller than the vane exit angle, with the difference increasing with the vane exit angle. Water jets were injected from a 0.5 mm diameter orifice located on a cylindrical centerbody. Multi-plane PIV measurements were conducted to study the penetration and droplet velocity distribution of the jets. The jets were

  1. Recent Experimental Efforts on High-Pressure Supercritical Injection for Liquid Rockets and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Chehroudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure and temperature of the liquid rocket thrust chambers into which propellants are injected have been in an ascending trajectory to gain higher specific impulse. It is quite possible then that the thermodynamic condition into which liquid propellants are injected reaches or surpasses the critical point of one or more of the injected fluids. For example, in cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen liquid rocket engines, such as Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME or Vulcain (Ariane 5, the injected liquid oxygen finds itself in a supercritical condition. Very little detailed information was available on the behavior of liquid jets under such a harsh environment nearly two decades ago. The author had the opportunity to be intimately involved in the evolutionary understanding of injection processes at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, spanning sub- to supercritical conditions during this period. The information included here attempts to present a coherent summary of experimental achievements pertinent to liquid rockets, focusing only on the injection of nonreacting cryogenic liquids into a high-pressure environment surpassing the critical point of at least one of the propellants. Moreover, some implications of the results acquired under such an environment are offered in the context of the liquid rocket combustion instability problem.

  2. Deep-well injection of liquid radwaste in Russia - current status and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Foley, M.G.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is submitted as part of a coordinated effort to present the topic of deep-well injection. The companion paper, open-quotes Deep-Well Injection of Liquid Radwaste in Russia - Background and Technical Basis,close quotes focuses on the original decision to inject liquid radwaste, the research behind that decision, and the design and construction of the injection facilities. The emphasis in this paper is on the current status and operation of the well facilities and the control systems used to minimize environmental impact

  3. Transient effects caused by pulsed gas and liquid injections into low pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, D; Goeckner, M; Overzet, L; Chung, C W

    2010-01-01

    The fast injection of liquid droplets into a glow discharge causes significant time variations in the pressure, the chemical composition of the gas and the phases present (liquid and/or solid along with gas). While the variations can be large and important, very few studies, especially kinetic studies, have been published. In this paper we examine the changes brought about in argon plasma by injecting Ar (gas), N 2 (gas) hexane (gas) and hexane (liquid droplets). The changes in the RF capacitively coupled power (forward and reflected), electron and ion density (n e , n i ), electron temperature (T e ) and optical emissions were monitored during the injections. It was found that the Ar injection (pressure change only) caused expected variations. The electron temperature reduced, the plasma density increased and the optical emission intensity remained nearly constant. The N 2 and hexane gas injections (chemical composition and pressure changes) also followed expected trends. The plasma densities increased and electron temperature decreased while the optical emissions changed from argon to the injected gas. These all serve to highlight the fact that the injection of evaporating hexane droplets in the plasma caused very little change. This is because the number of injected droplets is too small to noticeably affect the plasma, even though the shift in the chemical composition of the gas caused by evaporation from those same droplets can be very significant. The net conclusion is that using liquid droplets to inject precursors for low pressure plasmas is both feasible and controllable.

  4. Effectiveness of Nitrous Oxide as a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control Fluid, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nitrous Oxide is proposed as an energetic liquid injection thrust vector control fluid for vehicle attitude control during dynamic vehicle maneuvers. Pulled from the...

  5. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and

  6. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Injecting liquid wastes deep underground is an attractive but not necessarily practical means for disposing of them. For decades, impressive volumes of unwanted oil-field brine have been injected, currently about 10,000 acre-feet yearly. Recently, liquid industrial wastes are being injected in ever-increasing quantity. Dimensions of industrial injection wells range widely but the approximate medians are: depth, 2,660 feet; thickness of injection zone, 185 feet; injection rate, 135 gallons per minute; wellhead injection pressure, 185 pounds per square inch. Effects of deep injection are complex and not all are understood clearly. In a responsible society, injection cannot be allowed to put wastes out of mind. Injection is no more than storage--for all time in the case of the most intractable wastes--in underground space of which little is attainable in some areas and which is exhaustible in most areas. Liquid wastes range widely in character and concentration-some are incompatible one with another or with materials of the prospective injection zone; some which are reactive or chemically unstable would require pretreatment or could not be injected. Standards by which to categorize the wastes are urgently desirable. To the end that injection may be planned effectively and administered in orderly fashion, there is proposed an immediate and comprehensive canvass of all the United States to outline injection provinces and zones according to their capacities to accept waste. Much of the information needed to this end is at hand. Such a canvass would consider (1) natural zone, of groundwater circulation, from rapid to stagnant, (2) regional hydrodynamics, (3) safe injection pressures, and (4) geochemical aspects. In regard to safe pressure, definitive criteria would be sought by which to avoid recurrence of earthquake swarms such as seem to have been triggered by injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well near Denver, Colo. Three of the 50 States--Missouri, .Ohio, and

  7. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms using liquid polymer injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianmin; Huang Qinghai; Xu Yi; Hong Bo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report our preliminary clinical experience in embolization of intracranial aneurysms with liquid polymer (Onyx). Methods: One case of posterior communicating artery aneurysm was treated with Onyx and microcoils, while the other one with multiple basilar aneurysms was treated by Onyx combined with stent-coiling technique. Results: All the aneurysms were totally occluded with patency of parent arteries. There was no procedure-related complication. The patients recovered well during clinical follow-up for 3 months. The angiographic follow-up in one patient showed the result was stable and Onyx was totally apart from the flow in parent artery. Conclusions: Short-term result suggests that endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with liquid polymer is safe and effective, however more experience is needed. (authors)

  8. Replication of microstructures on three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding of liquid silicone rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Mischkot, Michael; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, liquid silicon rubber (LSR) parts with micro pillars are studied. The LSR parts were produced by injection moulding and are used as anchoring device for electrode implants inside humans. Micro-structures with specific dimension on implant surfaces can reduce encapsulation...... by the human body, thereby improving implant performance. This paper presents a method of applying micro structure on 3D parts. A Ni-plate with micro holes on the surface was cut into inserts and stuck in a cavity for injection moulding. 1000 injection moulding cycles were performed. Key dimensions...

  9. Deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia. Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalchenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present there are 3 facilities (polygons) for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia, all of which were constructed in the mid60's. These facilities are operating successfully, and activities have started in preparation for decommissioning. Liquid radioactive waste is injected into deep porous horizons which act as 'collector-layers', isolated from the surface and from groundwaters by a relatively thick sequence of rock of low permeability. The collector-layers (also collector-horizons) contain salt waters or fresh waters of no practical application, lying beneath the main horizons containing potable waters. Construction of facilities for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste was preceded by geological surveys and investigations which were able to substantiate the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste injection, and to obtain initial data for facility design. Operation of the facilities was accompanied by monitoring which confirmed that the main safety requirement was satisfied i.e. localisation of radioactive waste within specified boundaries of the geologic medium. The opinion of most specialists in the atomic power industry in Russia favours deep-well injection as a solution to the problem of liquid radioactive waste management; during the period of active operation of defence facilities (atomic power industry of the former U.S.S.R.), this disposal method prevented the impact of radioactive waste on man and the environment. The experience accumulated concerning the injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia is of interest to scientists and engineers engaged in problems of protection and remediation of the environment in the vicinity of nuclear industry facilities; an example of the utilisation of the deep subsurface for solidified radioactive waste and the disposal of different types of nuclear materials. Information on the scientific principles and background for the development of facilities for the injection

  10. Numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, E V; Lobanov, P D; Pribaturin, N A; Mosunova, N A; Chuhno, V I; Kutlimetov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper contains results of a numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection in water and liquid metal which have been performed at the Institute of Thermophysics Russian Academy of Science (IT RAS). Obtained experimental data are very important to predict processes that take place in the BREST-type reactor during the hypothetical accident with damage of the steam generator tubes, and may be used as a benchmark to validate thermo-hydraulic codes. Detailed description of models to simulate transport of gas phase in a vertical liquid column is presented in a current paper. Two-fluid model with closing relation for wall friction and interface friction coefficients was used to simulate processes which take place in a liquid during injection of gaseous phase. It has being shown that proposed models allow obtaining a good agreement between experimental data and calculation results. (paper)

  11. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A; Harris, E W; Steele, N C

    1985-01-01

    Crossbred pigs weighing 80-110 kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8.8 mg/kg tylosin. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection, and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism. The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0.1 ppm, while the detection limit by bioassay was about 0.5 ppm in tissue. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0.2 ppm at 24 h, except in the injected muscle in one animal. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment.

  12. Interaction of Liquid Film Flow of Direct Vessel Injection Under the Cross Directional Gas Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness and a hydraulic jump in the film flow and boundaries of the film flow. It was found that CFD analysis results without surface tension model showed some difference with the data in surface tension dominated flow region. For the interaction between a liquid film and gas shear flow, CFD results make a good agreement with the real liquid film dynamics in the case of low film Reynolds number or low Weber number flow. In the 1/20 scaled plate type experiment and simulation, the deformed spreading profile results seem to accord with each other at the relatively low We and Re regime.

  13. Thickness and Closure Kinetics of the Suprachoroidal Space Following Microneedle Injection of Liquid Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Venugopal, Nitin; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Jung, Jae Hwan; Edelhauser, Henry F; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of injection volume and formulation of a microneedle injection into the suprachoroidal space (SCS) on SCS thickness and closure kinetics. Microneedle injections containing 25 to 150 μL Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) were performed in the rabbit SCS ex vivo. Distribution of SCS thickness was measured by ultrasonography and three-dimensional (3D) cryo-reconstruction. Microneedle injections were performed in the rabbit SCS in vivo using HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% to 5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in HBSS. Ultrasonography was used to track SCS thickness over time. Increasing HBSS injection volume increased the area of expanded SCS, but did not increase SCS thickness ex vivo. With SCS injections in vivo, the SCS initially expanded to thicknesses of 0.43 ± 0.06 mm with HBSS, 1.5 ± 0.4 mm with Discovisc, and 0.69 to 2.1 mm with 1% to 5% CMC. After injection with HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% CMC solution, the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 19 minutes, 6 hours, and 2.4 days, respectively. In contrast, injections with 3% to 5% CMC solution resulted in SCS expansion to 2.3 to 2.8 mm over the course of 2.8 to 9.1 hours, after which the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 4.5 to 9.2 days. With low-viscosity formulations, SCS expands to a thickness that remains roughly constant, independent of the volume of fluid injected. Increasing injection fluid viscosity significantly increased SCS thickness. Expansion of the SCS is hypothesized to be controlled by a balance between the viscous forces of the liquid formulation and the resistive biomechanical forces of the tissue.

  14. Polymer-Derived In- Situ Metal Matrix Composites Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Polymer into Molten Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan; Terauds, Kalvis; Anilchandra, A. R.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-02-01

    We show that a liquid organic precursor can be injected directly into molten magnesium to produce nanoscale ceramic dispersions within the melt. The castings made in this way possess good resistance to tensile deformation at 673 K (400 °C), confirming the non-coarsening nature of these dispersions. Direct liquid injection into molten metals is a significant step toward inserting different chemistries of liquid precursors to generate a variety of polymer-derived metal matrix composites.

  15. A field test of a waste containment technology using a new generation of injectable barrier liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Apps, J.; Persoff, P.; Myer, L.; Muller, S.; Pruess, K.; Yen, P.

    1996-08-01

    A first stage field injection of a new generation of barrier liquids was successfully completed. Two types of barrier liquids, colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX), were injected into heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and gravel typical of many of the arid DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the conditions of the Hanford Site. Successful injection by commercially available chemical grouting equipment and the tube-a-manchette technique was demonstrated. Excavation of the grout bulbs permitted visual evaluation of the soil permeation by the grout, as well as sample collection. Both grouts effectively permeated all of the formation. The PSX visually appeared to perform better, producing a more uniform and symmetric permeation regardless of heterogeneity, filling large as well as small pores and providing more structural strength than the CS. Numerical simulation of the injection tests incorporated a stochastic field to represent site heterogeneity and was able to replicate the general test behavior. Tiltmeters were used successfully to monitor surface displacements during grout injection

  16. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  17. Low-grade liquid silicone injections as a penile enhancement procedure: Is bigger better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sasidaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report our experience with 5 cases of complications of penile enhancement procedures secondary to liquid silicone injections and our method of management of its debilitating effects. All five patients were treated with excision of penile shaft skin down to buck′s fascia followed by resurfacing with split thickness skin grafting. We conclude that penile enhancement procedures with liquid silicone by non-medical personnel could result in devastating consequences. We also demonstrate that a simple method of excision of the entire penile shaft skin and resurfacing with split skin grafting showed improvement in cosmetic as well as functional outcome.

  18. Advances in the physics modelling of CANDU liquid injection shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Robinson, R.; Guertin, C.

    1993-01-01

    The physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems in CANDU reactors accounts for the major phenomena taking place by combining the effects of both moderator hydraulics and neutronics. This paper describes the advances in the physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems (LISS), discusses some of the effects of the more realistic modelling, and briefly describes the automation methodology. Modifications to the LISS methodology have improved the realism of the physics modelling, showing that the previous methodology significantly overestimated energy deposition during the simulation of a loss of coolant transient in Bruce A, by overestimating the reactivity transient. Furthermore, the automation of the modelling process has reduced the time needed to carry put LISS evaluations to the same level as required for shutoff-rod evaluations, while at the same time minimizing the amount of input, and providing a method for tracing all files used, thus adding a level of quality assurance to the calculation. 5 refs., 11 figs

  19. Systemic embolism produced by subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone for esthetic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Even though its use is not recommended, liquid silicone is a substance that has been used illegally for esthetic purposes for a long time. A case report is presented in which a young woman was injected subcutaneously, by an uncertified practitioner, industrial fluid silicone and subsequently developed a case of systemic embolism with pulmonary, skin and ocular complications. This article explains the physiopathology and the different manifestations of systemic embolism produced by fluid silicone. TAC was used. (The author)

  20. Biomaterials Used in Injectable Implants (Liquid Embolics) for Percutaneous Filling of Vascular Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Olivier; Doelker, Eric; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    The biomaterials currently used in injectable implants (liquid embolics) for minimally invasive image-guided treatment of vascular lesions undergo, once injected in situ, a phase transition based on a variety of physicochemical principles. The mechanisms leading to the formation of a solid implant include polymerization, precipitation and cross-linking through ionic or thermal process. The biomaterial characteristics have to meet the requirements of a variety of treatment conditions. The viscosity of the liquid is adapted to the access instrument, which can range from 0.2 mm to 3 mm in diameter and from a few centimeters up to 200 cm in length. Once such liquid embolics reach the vascular space, they are designed to become occlusive by inducing thrombosis or directly blocking the lesion when hardening of the embolics occurs. The safe delivery of such implants critically depends on their visibility and their hardening mechanism. Once delivered, the safety and effectiveness issues are related to implant functions such as biocompatibility, biodegradability or biomechanical properties. We review here the available and the experimental products with respect to the nature of the polymer, the mechanism of gel cast formation and the key characteristics that govern the choice of effective injectable implants

  1. Synthesis of silicon containing materials using liquid hydrosilane compositions through direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Guruvenket; Sailer, Robert A.; Hoey, Justin

    2018-03-13

    An apparatus and a non-vapor-pressure dependent method of chemical vapor deposition of Si based materials using direct injection of liquid hydrosilane(s) are presented. Liquid silane precursor solutions may also include metal, non-metal or metalloid dopants, nanomaterials and solvents. An illustrative apparatus has a precursor solution and carrier gas system, atomizer and deposit head with interior chamber and a hot plate supporting the substrate. Atomized liquid silane precursor solutions and carrier gas moves through a confined reaction zone that may be heated and the aerosol and vapor are deposited on a substrate to form a thin film. The substrate may be heated prior to deposition. The deposited film may be processed further with thermal or laser processing.

  2. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-06

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Jet flow analysis of liquid poison injection in a CANDU reactor using source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2001-01-01

    For the performance analysis of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor shutdown system number 2 (SDS2), a computational fluid dynamics model of poison jet flow has been developed to estimate the flow field and poison concentration formed inside the CANDU reactor calandria. As the ratio of calandria shell radius over injection nozzle hole diameter is so large (1055), it is impractical to develop a full-size model encompassing the whole calandria shell. In order to reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of one-pitch length segment of the shell was modeled using symmetric nature of the jet; and the injected jet was treated as a source term to avoid the modeling difficulty caused by the big difference of the hole sizes. For the analysis of an actual CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection, the grid structure was determined based on the results of two-dimensional real- and source-jet simulations. The maximum injection velocity of the liquid poison is 27.8 m/s and the mass fraction of the poison is 8000 ppm (mg/kg). The simulation results have shown well-established jet flow field. In general, the jet develops narrowly at first but stretches rapidly. Then, the flow recirculates a little in r-x plane, while it recirculates largely in r-θ plane. As the time goes on, the adjacent jets contact each other and form a wavy front such that the whole jet develops in a plate form. his study has shown that the source term model can be effectively used for the analysis of the poison injection and the simulation result of the CANDU reactor is consistent with the model currently being used for the safety analysis. In the future, it is strongly recommended to analyze the transient (from helium tank to injection nozzle hole) of the poison injection by applying Bernoulli equation with real boundary conditions

  4. Thermodynamic study of the injection of steam bubbles in a subcooled liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besset, Jacqueline.

    1980-10-01

    The behaviour of steam bubbles injected in a subcooled liquid has been studied. Water was the fluid chosen for this experiment for the steam and the liquid. The experiment was carried out at atmospheric pressure and the variable parameters were the ΔT subcooling (difference between the saturation temperature at the pressure under consideration and that of the liquid around the bubbles) and the steam output. We first studied the formation of the bubbles in a wide subcooling range (7 0 C 0 C). In this study a straight correlation was obtained giving the volume of the bubbles formed at the injector outlet, which is valid for a wide range of variables. The implosion of free bubbles in the liquid after they separated from the injector was then studied. In these experiments the significant implosion parameters are the Jakob Ja number, that measures the possibility of the liquid to absorb the heat given off by the condensation, and the Peclet Pe(RO) number, that defines the relative participation of conduction and convection in the heat exchanges. These numbers vary in the areas: 35 [fr

  5. Experimental investigation of liquid jet injection into Mach 6 hypersonic crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloki Perurena, J. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[RWTH Aachen University, Shock Wave Laboratory, Aachen (Germany); Asma, C.O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Ghent University, Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent (Belgium); Theunissen, R. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Chazot, O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    The injection of a liquid jet into a crossing Mach 6 air flow is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a sharp leading edge flat plate with flush mounted injectors. Water jets were introduced through different nozzle shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios. Sufficient temporal resolution to capture small scale effects was obtained by high-speed recording, while directional illumination allowed variation in field of view. Shock pattern and flow topology were visualized by Schlieren-technique. Correlations are proposed on relating water jet penetration height and lateral extension with the injection ratio and orifice diameter for circular injector jets. Penetration height and lateral extension are compared for different injector shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios showing that penetration height and lateral extension decrease and increase, respectively, with injector's aspect ratio. Probability density function analysis has shown that the mixing of the jet with the crossflow is completed at a distance of x/d{sub j}{proportional_to} 40, independent of the momentum-flux ratio. Mean velocity profiles related with the liquid jet have been extracted by means of an ensemble correlation PIV algorithm. Finally, frequency analyses of the jet breakup and fluctuating shock pattern are performed using a fast Fourier algorithm and characteristic Strouhal numbers of St=0.18 for the liquid jet breakup and of St=0.011 for the separation shock fluctuation are obtained. (orig.)

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation of droplet dispersion in venturi scrubbers with axial liquid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Talaei, A.; Karimikhosroabadi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, Shahreza (Iran); Sadeghi, F. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran); Talaie, M.R.

    2009-05-15

    Droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The main objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict droplet dispersion in a Venturi scrubber with axial liquid injection. The effects of the Peclet number and droplet size distribution on droplet dispersion were studied using the developed model. Sampling of the droplets was carried out, isokinetically, in 16 positions at the end of the throat section. The experimental data were used to find the parameters of the developed model, such as the Peclet number. From the results of this study, it was found that the Peclet number was not constant across the cross section of the scrubber channel. In order to achieve a better agreement between the results of the model and the experimental data, it was required to consider Peclet number variations across the Venturi channel. It was also revealed that the parameter representing the width of the Rosin-Rammler distribution of droplet size could not be considered constant and it was influenced significantly by the operating parameters such as liquid flow rate and gas velocity. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Liquid phase epitaxy of abrupt junctions in InAs and studies of injection radiative tunneling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The p-n junction in a InAs crystal, by liquid phase epitaxy is obtained. The processes of injection and tunneling radiative recombination by emitted radiation from active region of p-n junction for low injection current are studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Coury, J.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km. 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jcoury@ufscar.br

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  9. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, V.G.; Goncalves, J.A.S.; Coury, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets

  10. Experimental investigation on the effect of liquid injection by multiple orifices in the formation of droplets in a Venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V G; Gonçalves, J A S; Coury, J R

    2009-01-15

    Venturi scrubbers are widely utilized in gas cleaning. The cleansing elements in these scrubbers are droplets formed from the atomization of a liquid into a dust-laden gas. In industrial scrubbers, this liquid is injected through several orifices so that the cloud of droplets can be evenly distributed throughout the duct. The interaction between droplets when injected through many orifices, where opposite clouds of atomized liquid can reach each other, is to be expected. This work presents experimental measurements of droplet size measured in situ and the evidence of cloud interaction within a Venturi scrubber operating with multi-orifice jet injection. The influence of gas velocity, liquid flow rate and droplet size variation in the axial position after the point of the injection of the liquid were also evaluated for the different injection configurations. The experimental results showed that an increase in the liquid flow rate generated greater interaction between jets. The number of orifices had a significant influence on droplet size. In general, the increase in the velocity of the liquid jet and in the gas velocity favored the atomization process by reducing the size of the droplets.

  11. Effect of Gas- and Liquid-injection Methods on Formation of Bubble and Liquid Slug at Merging Micro T-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Kyoung [Kyungnam Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chi Young [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present experimental study, the effect of gas- and liquid-injected methods on the formation of bubble and liquid slug at the merging micro T-junction of a square microchannel with dimensions 600 μm × 600 μm was investigated. Nitrogen and water were used as test fluids. The superficial velocities of the liquid and gas were in the range of 0.05 - 1 m/s, and 0.1 - 1 m/s, respectively, where the Taylor flow was observed. The bubble length, liquid slug length, bubble velocity, and bubble generation frequency were measured by analyzing the images captured using a high-speed camera. Under similar inlet superficial velocity conditions, in the case of gas injection to the main channel at the merging T-junction (T{sub g}as-liquid), the lengths of the bubble and liquid slug were longer, and the bubble generation frequency was lower than in the case of liquid injection to the main channel at the merging T-junction (T{sub l}iquid-gas). On the other hand, in both cases, the bubble velocity was almost the same. The previous correlation proposed using experimental data for T{sub l}iquid-gas had predicted the present experimental data of bubble length, bubble velocity, liquid slug length, and bubble generation frequency for T{sub g}as-liquid to be ~24%, ~9%, ~39%, ~55%, respectively.

  12. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Lei [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Yu, Yang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Meng, Xingbang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Sharma, Sharanya [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Huang, Siyuan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Shen, Ziqi [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhang, Yao [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wang, Xiukun [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Carey, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nguyen, Phong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mody, Fersheed [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, Warren [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Cook, Tim [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Griffith, Paul [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  13. Analytical model for performance verification of liquid poison injection system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional modelling of shut down system-2. • Semi-empirical correlation poison jet progression. • Validation of code. - Abstract: Shut down system-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting progression of poison jet with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for advanced vertical pressure type reactor

  14. Numerical analysis of isothermal JET injection into a denser liquid pool using RD-MPS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. S. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, G. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In this study, the rigid body dynamics coupled moving particle semi-implicit (RD-MPS) method was used to simulate a plunging liquid jet penetrating into a denser liquid pool. The phenomenon is related to fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) during severe accidents in nuclear power plants when coolant water is forcedly injected into a melt pool. A numerical particle method like MPS enables to simulate the complex multiphase flow in that significant deformation of fluids occurs due to its inherent grid less algorithm. However, the MPS method alone cannot continue the calculation for a long time as shown in the Ikea's work due to the large deformation of fluid surfaces and the difference in both liquid densities. In the RD-MPS method, the rigid body dynamics was coupled with the moving particle semi-implicit method to increase the overall stability of calculations and to calculate the multi-phase behavior of fluids. We performed two and three dimensional calculations to simulate jet penetration behaviors in a denser liquid pool, and the result was in good agreement with that of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the coupled model be useful in simulating dynamic interactions of multi-phase incompressible fluids as well as that the 3-D simulation for the plunging jet in a confined geometry predicted better agreement with experimental results than the 2-D simulation did.

  15. Numerical analysis of isothermal JET injection into a denser liquid pool using RD-MPS Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Park, H. S.; Jeun, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the rigid body dynamics coupled moving particle semi-implicit (RD-MPS) method was used to simulate a plunging liquid jet penetrating into a denser liquid pool. The phenomenon is related to fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) during severe accidents in nuclear power plants when coolant water is forcedly injected into a melt pool. A numerical particle method like MPS enables to simulate the complex multiphase flow in that significant deformation of fluids occurs due to its inherent grid less algorithm. However, the MPS method alone cannot continue the calculation for a long time as shown in the Ikea's work due to the large deformation of fluid surfaces and the difference in both liquid densities. In the RD-MPS method, the rigid body dynamics was coupled with the moving particle semi-implicit method to increase the overall stability of calculations and to calculate the multi-phase behavior of fluids. We performed two and three dimensional calculations to simulate jet penetration behaviors in a denser liquid pool, and the result was in good agreement with that of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the coupled model be useful in simulating dynamic interactions of multi-phase incompressible fluids as well as that the 3-D simulation for the plunging jet in a confined geometry predicted better agreement with experimental results than the 2-D simulation did

  16. Structural features of epitaxial NiFe2O4 thin films grown on different substrates by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Loukya, B.; Li, N.; Gupta, A.

    2012-04-01

    NiFe2O4 (NFO) thin films are grown on four different substrates, i.e., Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Titanate (PZN-PT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), MgAl2O4 (MAO) and SrTiO3 (STO), by a direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition technique (DLI-CVD) under optimum growth conditions where relatively high growth rate (˜20 nm/min), smooth surface morphology and high saturation magnetization values in the range of 260-290 emu/ cm3 are obtained. The NFO films with correct stoichiometry (Ni:Fe=1:2) grow epitaxially on all four substrates, as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. While the films on PMN-PT and PZN-PT substrates are partially strained, essentially complete strain relaxation occurs for films grown on MAO and STO. The formations of threading dislocations along with dark diffused contrast areas related to antiphase domains having a different cation ordering are observed on all four substrates. These crystal defects are correlated with lattice mismatch between the film and substrate and result in changes in magnetic properties of the films. Atomic resolution HAADF imaging and EDX line profiles show formation of a sharp interface between the film and the substrate with no inter-diffusion of Pb or other elements across the interface. Antiphase domains are observed to originate at the film-substrate interface.

  17. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  18. Ultrasonic measurement of gap between calandria tube and liquid injection shutdown system tube in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Sohn, Seok Man; Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jong Po

    2001-01-01

    Sag of CT or liquid injection shutdown system tubes in pressurized heavy water reactor is known to occur due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of CT is big enough, the CT tube possibly comes in contact with liquid injection shutdown system tube (LIN) crossing beneath the CT, which subsequently may prevent the safe operation. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to confirm no contacts when using a proper measure periodically during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be fed through viewing port installed on the calandria was developed and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor in Korea. It was found that the centerlines of CT and LIN can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. But the measured gap data observed at the viewing port were actually not the data at the crossing point of CT and LIN. To get the actual gap between two tubes, mathematical modeling for the deflection curves of two tubes was used. The sags of CT and LIN tubes were also obtained by comparison of the present centerlines with the initial elevations at the beginning of plant operation. The gaps between two tubes in the unmeasurable regions were calculated based on the measurement data and the channel power distribution

  19. Injection and swirl driven flowfields in solid and liquid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anand B.

    In this work, we seek approximate analytical solutions to describe the bulk flow motion in certain types of solid and liquid rocket motors. In the case of an idealized solid rocket motor, a cylindrical double base propellant grain with steady regression rate is considered. The well known inviscid profile determined by Culick is extended here to include the effects of viscosity and steady grain regression. The approximate analytical solution for the cold flow is obtained from similarity principles, perturbation methods and the method of variation of parameters. The velocity, vorticity, pressure gradient and the shear stress distributions are determined and interpreted for different rates of wall regression and injection Reynolds number. The liquid propellant rocket engine considered here is based on a novel design that gives rise to a cyclonic flow. The resulting bidirectional motion is triggered by the tangential injection of an oxidizer just upstream of the chamber nozzle. Velocity, vorticity and pressure gradient distributions are determined for the bulk gas dynamics using a non-reactive inviscid model. Viscous corrections are then incorporated to explain the formation of a forced vortex near the core. Our results compare favorably with numerical simulations and experimental measurements obtained by other researchers. They also indicate that the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical chamber is a physical solution of the Euler equations. In closing, we investigate the possibility of multi-directional flow behavior as predicted by Euler's equation and as reported recently in laboratory experiments.

  20. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leinweber, G.

    1986-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and various gas flow rates. The results of this study clearly show that the rate of gas injection is not the only parameter controlling the mixing of the liquid-liquid system. The effect of non-uniform gas injection is important at high gas flow rates. Within the present experimental conditions, the reduction in the overall mixing rate can be as large as a factor of three

  1. Cavitation control on a 2D hydrofoil through a continuous tangential injection of liquid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, M. V.; Zapryagaev, I. I.; Pervunin, K. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the possibility of active control of a cavitating flow over a 2D hydrofoil that replicates a scaled-down model of high-pressure hydroturbine guide vane (GV) was tested. The flow manipulation was implemented by a continuous tangential liquid injection at different flow rates through a spanwise slot in the foil surface. In experiments, the hydrofoil was placed in the test channel at the attack angle of 9°. Different cavitation conditions were reached by varying the cavitation number and injection velocity. In order to study time dynamics and spatial patterns of partial cavities, high-speed imaging was employed. A PIV method was used to measure the mean and fluctuating velocity fields over the hydrofoil. Hydroacoustic measurements were carried out by means of a pressure transducer to identify spectral characteristics of the cavitating flow. It was found that the present control technique is able to modify the partial cavity pattern (or even totally suppress cavitation) in case of stable sheet cavitation and change the amplitude of pressure pulsations at unsteady regimes. The injection technique makes it also possible to significantly influence the spatial distributions of the mean velocity and its turbulent fluctuations over the GV section for non-cavitating flow and sheet cavitation.

  2. Production of 67Ga citrate injection liquid with butylacetate extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yibing; Li Bo; Liu Peng; Pan Qiyuan; Liu Peihua; Wang Han; Feng Jingling

    1995-01-01

    The distribution ratios D for Ga(III) at trace concentration in the HCl-butylacetate extraction system are measured. It showed that the D in 6 mol/l HCl is 5 x 10 2 which is maximum in 3-8 mol/l HCl. The extraction rates E in 5.5-8 mol/l HCl at phase ratio of 1 are ≥98% and ≥96% respectively when the concentration of ZnCl 2 in the solution are 0 and ≤2 mol/l. A butylacetate extraction method for the production of 67 Ga citrate injection liquid from Zn target irradiated by proton beam is developed. The optimal acidity of extraction is 6 mol/l HCl. The concentration of ZnCl 2 is adjusted to ≤2.0 mol/l and the impurity of Fe(III) in solution is reduced to Fe(II) with 10% TiCl 3 before extraction. The 67 Ga in organic phase is then stripped with water. The radionuclidic purity of the product is 100% while the radiochemical purity >90%. The amounts of Zn, Ti, Fe, Cu, Cd and Pb in the injection are below or near 1 mg/l. The test of abnormal toxicity is negative. The quality of the injection meets the requirements of both the Chinese and the United States Pharmacopoeia. The chemical yield is (92 +- 2)% while the time of operation is <3 h

  3. CVD in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1981-08-01

    CVD-deposited pyrocarbon, especially the coatings of nuclear fuel kernels show a structure depending on many parameters such as deposition temperature, nature and pressure of the pyrolysis gas, nature of the substrate, geometry of the deposition system, etc. Because of the variety of pyrocarbon different characterization methods have been developed or qualified for this new application. Additionally classical characterization procedures are available. Beside theoretical aspects concerning the formation and deposition mechanism of pyrocarbon from the gas phase the behaviour of such coatings under irradiation with fast neutrons is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E.; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  5. CVD refractory metals and alloys for space nuclear power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Gulden, T.D.; Watson, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    CVD technology has made significant contributions to the development of space nuclear power systems during the period 1962 to 1972. For the in-core thermionic concept, CVD technology is essential to the fabrication of the tungsten electron emitter. For the liquid metal cooled fuel pin using uranium nitride as fuel and T-111 and Nb-1 Zr as cladding, a tungsten barrier possibly produced by CVD methods is essential to the fuel-cladding compatibility at the designed operating temperature. Space power reactors may use heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system. CVD technology has been used for fabricating the heat pipe used as cross-flow heat exchanger, including the built-in channels on the condenser wall for liquid lithium return. 28 references, 17 figures

  6. Nitrogen injection in stagnant liquid metal. Eulerian-Eulerian and VOF calculations by fluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Esteban, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    High power spallation sources are devices that can be very useful in different fields, as medicine, material science, and also in the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). This devices use Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM) as the spallation target. Furthermore, HLM are thought to be the coolant of those big energy sources produced by the process. Fast breeder reactors, advanced nuclear reactors, as well as the future designs of fusion reactors, also consider HLM as targets or coolants. Gas injection in liquid metal flows allows the enhancement of this coolant circulation. The difference in densities between the gas and the liquid metal is a big challenge for the multiphase models implemented in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Also the changing shape of the bubbles involves extra difficulties in the calculations. A N 2 flow in stagnant Lead-Bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi), experiment available at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V (FZR) in Germany, was used in one of the work-packages of the ASCHLIM project (EU contract number FIKW-CT-2001-80121). In this paper, calculations made by the UPV/EHU (University of the Basque Country) show measuring data compared with numerical results using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code FLUENT and two multiphase models: the Eulerian-Eulerian and the Volume of Fluid (VOF). The interpretation of the experimental resulting velocities was difficult, because some parameters were not known, bubble trajectory and bubble shape, for example, as direct optical methods cannot be used, like it is done with water experiments. (author)

  7. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Leinweber, G.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and for various gas flow rates

  8. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  9. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  10. CFD Modeling of Swirl and Nonswirl Gas Injections into Liquid Baths Using Top Submerged Lances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, J.; Brooks, G.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2010-02-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in a cylindrical bath stirred by a top submerged lance (TSL) gas injection was investigated by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling technique for an isothermal air-water system. The multiphase flow simulation, based on the Euler-Euler approach, elucidated the effect of swirl and nonswirl flow inside the bath. The effects of the lance submergence level and the air flow rate also were investigated. The simulation results for the velocity fields and the generation of turbulence in the bath were validated against existing experimental data from the previous water model experimental study by Morsi et al.[1] The model was extended to measure the degree of the splash generation for different liquid densities at certain heights above the free surface. The simulation results showed that the two-thirds lance submergence level provided better mixing and high liquid velocities for the generation of turbulence inside the water bath. However, it is also responsible for generating more splashes in the bath compared with the one-third lance submergence level. An approach generally used by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system simulations was applied to predict the convective mixing phenomena. The simulation results for the air-water system showed that mean convective mixing for swirl flow is more than twice than that of nonswirl in close proximity to the lance. A semiempirical equation was proposed from the results of the present simulation to measure the vertical penetration distance of the air jet injected through the annulus of the lance in the cylindrical vessel of the model, which can be expressed as L_{va} = 0.275( {do - di } )Frm^{0.4745} . More work still needs to be done to predict the detail process kinetics in a real furnace by considering nonisothermal high-temperature systems with chemical reactions.

  11. Design of shutdown system no.2 liquid poison injection system for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Balasubrahmanian, A.K.; Pillai, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Defence in depth and two group system concepts form the basic design philosophy for the shutdown systems. There are two independent, diverse and fast acting shutdown systems provided for the 500 MWe PHWR. The design is based on fail-safe principle, sufficient component redundancy and on-line testing. Liquid poison injection system, as shutdown system 2, is newly developed for the 500 MWe PHWRs. The system operates by rapidly injecting gadolinium nitrate solution into bulk moderator using stored helium pressure thereby inserting negative reactivity. A high pressure helium supply tank which provides the energy for system actuation, is connected, through an array of fast acting valves in series-parallel arrangement, to the individual poison tanks storing gadolinium nitrate solution. The valves, belonging to three different channels of reactor Protection System 2, are the only active components in the system. The valves are fail safe and are periodically tested on-line without actually firing the system. The system comprising of in-core assemblies and the external process system has been engineered. Experimental work is being carried out by BARC for design validation and data generation. This paper describes the conceptual development, design basis, design parameters and detailed engineering of the system. (author)

  12. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by direct injection of samples for liquid-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, Wayne M

    2007-03-10

    The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time-consuming, tedious, and frequently overlooked. However, direct on-line injection methods offer the advantage of reducing sample preparation steps and enabling effective pre-concentration and clean-up of biological fluids. These procedures can be automated and therefore reduce the requirements for handling potentially infectious biomaterial, improve reproducibility, and minimize sample manipulations and potential contamination. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the existing literature with emphasis on advances in automated sample preparation methods for liquid-chromatographic methods. More specifically, this review concentrates on the use of direct injection techniques, such as restricted-access materials, turbulent-flow chromatography and other automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures. It also includes short overviews of emerging automated extraction-phase technologies, such as molecularly imprinted polymers, in-tube solid-phase micro-extraction, and micro-extraction in a packed syringe for a more selective extraction of analytes from complex samples, providing further improvements in the analysis of biological materials. Lastly, the outlook for these methods and potential new applications for these technologies are briefly discussed.

  13. BORILAIN. Mobile device for automatic continuous supply of liquid injection system backup of a nuclear plant in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacalle, J.; Traino, J.; Troeung, J.; Arnaldos, A.; Alcaraz, D. A.; Lopez, B.; Ponce, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the first automatic mobile device for the preparation of a neutron absorbing solution, and providing continuous, 30 days, of the injection system liquid reserve of a nuclear emergency. The work has been developed by GD Energy Services (GDES) for Electricite de France (EDF). (Author)

  14. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  15. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  16. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University, Pontstraße 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Piroxicam Using Temperature-Controlled Ionic Liquid Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction Followed By Stopped-Flow Injection Spectrofluorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Piroxicam (PXM belongs to the wide class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. PXM has been widely applied in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gonarthrosis, osteoarthritis, backaches, neuralgia, mialgia. In the presented work, a green and benign sample pretreatment method called temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TCIL-DLPME was followed with stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry (SFIS for quantitation of PXM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.Methods:Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TCIL-DLPME was applied as an environmentally friendly sample enrichment method to extract and isolate PXM prior to quantitation. Dispersion of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF6] ionic liquid (IL through the sample aqueous solution was performed by applying a relatively high temperature. PXM was extracted into the extractor, and after phase separation, PXM in the final solution was determined by stopped-flow injection spectrofluorimetry (SFIS.Results and Major Conclusion:Different factors affecting the designed method such as IL amount, diluting agent, pH and temperature were investigated in details and optimized. The method provided a linear dynamic range of 0.2-150 μg l-1, a limit of detection (LOD of 0.046 μg l-1 and a relative standard deviation (RSD of 3.1%. Furthermore, in order to demonstrate the analytical applicability of the recommended method, it was applied for quantitation of PXM in real samples.

  18. Injection molded lab-on-a-disc platform for screening of genetically modified E. coli using liquid-liquid extraction and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Serioli, Laura; Centorbi, Francesca Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    We present the development of an automated centrifugal microfluidic platform with integrated sample pre-treatment (filtration and liquid-liquid extraction) and detection (SERS-based sensing). The platform consists of eight calibration and four assay modules, fabricated with polypropylene using...... injection molding and bonded with ultrasonic welding. The platform was used for detection of a secondary bacterial metabolite (p-coumaric acid) from bacterial supernatant. The obtained extraction efficiency was comparable to values obtained in batch experiments and the SERS-based sensing showed a good...

  19. Development and validation of a model for high pressure liquid poison injection for CANDU-6 shutdown system no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, B.-W.; Jeong, C.J.; Choi, J.H.; Yoo, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the calandria tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, an AEA Technology CFD code, to simulate the formation and growth of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, the current model is validated against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC, India and another poison jet experiment for Generic CANDU-6 performed at AECL, Canada. In conclusion this set of models is considered to predict the experimental results in a physically reasonable and consistent manner. (author)

  20. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggini, Roberto; Servili, Maurizio; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2006-04-19

    Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil (VOO), in which tocopherols and carotenes are also present. The prevalent classes of hydrophilic phenols found in VOO are phenyl alcohols, phenolic acids, secoiridoids such as the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol or (p-hydroxypheny1)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA or p-HPEA-EDA) and an isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), lignans such as (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and (+)-pinoresinol, and flavonoids. A new method for the analysis of VOO hydrophilic phenols by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the use of a fluorescence detector (FLD) has been proposed and compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by the HPLC analysis utilizing a diode array detector (DAD) and a FLD. Results show that the most important classes of phenolic compounds occurring in VOO can be evaluated using HPLC direct injection. The efficiency of the new method, as compared to the liquid-liquid extraction, was higher to quantify phenyl alcohols, lignans, and 3,4-DHPEA-EA and lower for the evaluation of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  1. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect.

  2. Control of spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geotemperatureby injecting liquid carbon dioxide: inertand cooling characteristics of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenling; Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Wang, Chao; Ma, Li

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geo temperatures is threatening safety production in coalmine. The TG-DSC is employed to study the variation of mass and energy at 4 atmospheres (mixed gases of N2, O2 and CO2) and heating rates (10°C/min) during oxidation of coal samples. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of coal oxidation decrease rapidly with increasing theCO2 concentration. Furthermore, its reaction rate is slow, its heat released reduces. Based on the conditions of 1301 face in the Longgucoalmine, a three-dimensional geometry model is developed to simulate the distributions stream field and temperature field and the variation characteristics ofCO2 concentration field after injecting liquidCO2. The results indicate that oxygen reached to depths of˜120m in goaf, 100m in the side of inlet air, and 10m in the side of outlet air before injecting liquidCO2. After injecting liquidCO2for 28.8min, the width of oxidation and heat accumulation zone is shortened by 20m, and the distance is 80m in the side of working face and 40˜60m in goafin the direction of dip affected by temperature.

  3. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  4. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  5. The influence of technological parameters on the dynamic behavior of "liquid wood" samples obtained by injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavanescu Mazurchevici, Simona; Carausu, Constantin; Comaneci, Radu; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    The plastic products contribute to environmental pollution. Replacing the plastic materials with biodegradable materials with superior properties is an absolute necessity and important research direction for the near future. The first steps in this regard were the creation of composite materials containing natural fibers with positive effects on the environment that have penetrated in different fields. The bioplastics and biocomposites made from natural fibers is a topical solution. The next step was made towards obtaining biodegradable and recyclable materials based on cellulose, lignin and no carcinogens. In this category fall the "liquid wood" with a use up to five times without affecting the mechanical properties. "Liquid wood" is a high quality thermoplastic biocomposite. "Liquid wood" is a biopolymer composite divided in three categories, ARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL®, which have differed composition in terms of lignin percentage, being delivered by Tecnaro, as granules, [1]. The paper's research was focus on Arboform L V3 Nature and Arboform L V3 Nature reinforced with aramid fiber. In the experimental plan were taken into account six parameters (Dinj - direction of injection [°]; Ttop - melting temperature [°C]; Pinj - injection pressure [MPa] Ss - speed [m/min]; tinj - injection time [s] and tc - cooling time [s]) each with two levels, research carried on by Taguchi methodology. Processing Taguchi method allowed both Taguchi setting work parameters influence on storage modulus and damping as the size and influence their ranking. Experimental research concerning the influence technological parameters on storage modulus of samples obtained by injection from Arboform L V3 Nature yielded an average of 6055MPa and descending order as follows: Trac, Ss, Pinj, Dinj and Ttop. The average of model for reinforced material was 6419MPa and descending order of parameters influence such as: Dinj, Trac, Ttop, tinj, Ss and Pinj.

  6. Engineered safety in development of liquid poison injection system (shut down system-2) for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.N.; Mohan, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The provision of shut down systems (SDS) is a mandatory requirement for safety of any nuclear reactor. The SDS shall be capable of making and holding the core adequately subcritical in the event of any anticipated operational occurrence and postulated accident conditions. The shut down function will perform as intended when its design and components are thoroughly evaluated for their reliability and effectiveness. A full scale mock up for one injection unit was designed and developed at Hall No.7, BARC. Experimental studies were carried out to qualify the design and evolve process parameters such as gas tank pressure, poison discharge rate and poison injection time. In liquid poison injection system i.e. shutdown system -2, there is no physical barrier, between the two liquids i.e. the poison and the moderator. A liquid in liquid interface, called poison moderator interface (PMI) separates these fluids. Extensive lab scale studies have been carried out on PMI movement study i.e. the interface movement due to molecular diffusion and due to process disturbances under simulated reactor condition. On the basis of lab scale results, a full-scale PMI setup has been designed and developed to generate plant data. From reactor safety consideration, the floating ball in poison tank is designed in such a way that it prevents the over pressurisation of calandria. For this purpose a non-intrusive ultrasonic ball detection system (U-BDS) has been developed. This paper covers the PMI system for 500 MWe PHWR with relevant safety aspects and describes in detail, the experimental results of PMI study. The engineered safety in design, methodology and qualification of U-BDS and its role intended in performance of SDS-2 have been also discussed in the paper

  7. Development of liquid poison injection system (SDS-2) for 500 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawathe, Shirish; Umashankari, P.; Balakrishnan, Kamala; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1991-01-01

    A secondary shut-down system (SDS-2) in the form of a mecahnism for introducing poison into the moderator of the PHWR is under development in Reactor Engineering Division of BARC. The system, as conceived, consists of a tank containing pressurised helium connected to poison tanks through quick opening solenoid valves. The tanks are connected to horizontal injection tubes in the calandria. On system actuation, gadolinium nitrate solution from the tanks passes to the injection tubes which have a number of holes through which the poison enters the moderator. This report details the development work being done on this poison injection system. An experimental facility was set up to measure the poison jet growth rate and the jet spread after injection, and mathematical models were developed to convert the observed jets into reactivity worth values. A description of the work and the computed results are presented. (author). 21 graphs. , 15 tabs

  8. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  9. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS) determination of 14 lanthanides from ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Karunasagar, D.; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method for the sensitive determination of REEs at a few parts per billion in groundwater by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS). In the developed method, methanol (500 μl) and chloroform (200μl) were used as the disperser and extractant respectively. The REEs were complexed with 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol) (PAR) at a pH of 7. Acetate ion was added as an auxiliary ligand for neutralization of the charge on the lanthanide-PAR complex. The disperser (MeOH) - extraction solvent (CHCl 3 ) mixture was rapidly injected using a disposable syringe, thereby forming a cloudy solution. The lanthanide-PAR complex was extracted into the fine droplets of the chloroform dispersed in the aqueous phase. The solution was centrifuged and the aqueous layer at the top was discarded. The REEs were back extracted from the chloroform layer with nitric acid for determination by ICPMS. Important parameters for complex formation and extraction, such as volume of extraction/disperser solvent, extraction time, pH and concentration of the chelating agent and the auxiliary ligand are being optimized using ICP-MS. The optimization is being carried out at 5 μg L -1 concentration level of REE in the initial water sample. Preliminary studies have shown an extraction recovery of 80-85% for all the 14 lanthanide elements and these will be presented

  11. Simulation of elution profiles in liquid chromatography - II: Investigation of injection volume overload under gradient elution conditions applied to second dimension separations in two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Dwight R; Sajulga, Ray W; Voigt, Bryan N; Larson, Eli J; Jeong, Lena N; Rutan, Sarah C

    2017-11-10

    An important research direction in the continued development of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is to improve the detection sensitivity of the method. This is especially important in applications where injection of large volumes of effluent from the first dimension ( 1 D) column into the second dimension ( 2 D) column leads to severe 2 D peak broadening and peak shape distortion. For example, this is common when coupling two reversed-phase columns and the organic solvent content of the 1 D mobile phase overwhelms the 2 D column with each injection of 1 D effluent, leading to low resolution in the second dimension. In a previous study we validated a simulation approach based on the Craig distribution model and adapted from the work of Czok and Guiochon [1] that enabled accurate simulation of simple isocratic and gradient separations with very small injection volumes, and isocratic separations with mismatched injection and mobile phase solvents [2]. In the present study we have extended this simulation approach to simulate separations relevant to 2D-LC. Specifically, we have focused on simulating 2 D separations where gradient elution conditions are used, there is mismatch between the sample solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program, injection volumes approach or even exceed the dead volume of the 2 D column, and the extent of sample loop filling is varied. To validate this simulation we have compared results from simulations and experiments for 101 different conditions, including variation in injection volume (0.4-80μL), loop filling level (25-100%), and degree of mismatch between sample organic solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program (-20 to +20% ACN). We find that that the simulation is accurate enough (median errors in retention time and peak width of -1.0 and -4.9%, without corrections for extra-column dispersion) to be useful in guiding optimization of 2D-LC separations. However, this requires that real

  12. CVD - main concepts, applications and restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakovska, B.; Milosevski, M.; Krawczynski, S.; Meixner, C.; Koetter, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the existing literature covering the last two decades is plentiful with data related to CVD, this document is an attempt to provide to a reader a concise information about the nature of CVD technique at production of technologically important materials as well as to point at special references. The text is devided into three separate sections. The first section, The Main Features of CVD, is intended to give a complete comprehensive picture of the CVD technique through process description and characterization. The basic principles of thermodynamics, CVD chemical reactions classification, CVD chemical kinetics aspects and physics of CVD (with particular attention on the gas-flow phenomena) are included. As an additional aspect, in CVD unavoidable aspect however, the role of the coating/substrate compatibility on the overall process was outlined. The second section, CVD Equipment, concerns on the pecularities of the complete CVD unit pointing out the individual significances of the separate parts, i.e. pumping system, reactor chamber, control system. The aim of this section is to create to a reader a basic understanding of the arising problems but connected to be actual CVD performance. As a final goal of this review the reader's attention is turned upon the CVD applications for production of an up-to-date important class of coatings such as multilayer coatings. (orig.)

  13. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  14. Injection, Atomization, Ignition and Combustion of Liquid Fuels in High-Speed Air Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    and ~~’m~po 317.6 %Ui es*l11uhes fte e*oints in the heating process for the hot flow case ad te beatl for fte flow p"Islm -to be model led. The task now...Or THIS PA06MRhi DO* Matueoo -r 20. #d) , mitS for ’oe simulated case using chilled Freon-12 injected into the /. ....... .... Tech 23 23 ca. blow...sults showed a clear picture of the meineisms of jet decomposition in the presence of rapid vaporization. -’ Inmedately after injection a vapor

  15. Simulation and Validation of Injection-Compression Filling Stage of Liquid Moulding with Fast Curing Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ffion A.; Warrior, Nicholas A.; Simacek, Pavel; Advani, Suresh; Hughes, Adrian; Darlington, Roger; Senan, Eissa

    2018-03-01

    Very short manufacture cycle times are required if continuous carbon fibre and epoxy composite components are to be economically viable solutions for high volume composite production for the automotive industry. Here, a manufacturing process variant of resin transfer moulding (RTM), targets a reduction of in-mould manufacture time by reducing the time to inject and cure components. The process involves two stages; resin injection followed by compression. A flow simulation methodology using an RTM solver for the process has been developed. This paper compares the simulation prediction to experiments performed using industrial equipment. The issues encountered during the manufacturing are included in the simulation and their sensitivity to the process is explored.

  16. assessment of injection of liquid rhizobial inoculum and traditional inoculation of soybean under furrow and drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean in naturally N 2 -fixing legume, but it needs artificial inoculation with appropriate strains of rhizobia when introduced to land not previously cultivated to the crop. As soybean is being introduced to Syria, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is essential to ensure effective biological nitrogen fixation by the crop. The question is: what is the most effective mean of inoculation?. As Syria is a water-short country, we examined the possibility of applying the rhizobial inoculant in irrigation system (Biofertigation) in contrast with the conventional seed pelleting application. In a 2 year experiment at a research station near Damascus, we compared seed pelleting of the inoculant under furrow and drip irrigation, with repeated inoculation by injection of a liquid culture rhizobial inoculum through the drip system. Drip irrigation enhanced N 2 fixation by soybean regardless of inoculation technique ad repeated inoculation. Injection of the liquid rhizobial inoculum through drip irrigation system was shown to enhances the acquisition of atmospheric N 2 and improve N 2 fixation by soybean.(author)

  17. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in Xingxiong injection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Duan, Li; Liu, Ke; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-09-01

    Xingxiong injection (XXI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formula prepared by the folium ginkgo extract and ligustrazine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with the pharmacological studies, chemical analysis and quality control studies on this formula are relatively limited. In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in XXI. According to the fragmentation rules and previous reports, thirty ginkgo flavonoids, four ginkgo terpene lactones, and one alkaloid were identified. A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ MS) method was then applied to quantify ten major constituents in XXI. The method validation results indicated that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The total contents of ginkgo flavonoids were about 22.05-25.51 μg·mL(-1) and the ginkgo terpene lactones amounts were about 4.41-8.70 μg·mL(-1) in six batches of XXI samples, respectively. Furthermore, cosine ratio algorithm and distance measurements were employed to evaluate the similarity of XXI samples, and the results demonstrated a high-quality consistency. This work could provide comprehensive information on the quality control of Xingxiong injection, which be helpful in the establishment of a rational quality control standard. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of the quantification uncertainty from flow injection and liquid chromatography transient signals in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborda, Francisco; Medrano, Jesus; Castillo, Juan R.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative results obtained from transient signals in high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) and flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS) was investigated under multielement conditions. Quantification methods were based on multiple-point calibration by simple and weighted linear regression, and double-point calibration (measurement of the baseline and one standard). An uncertainty model, which includes the main sources of uncertainty from FI-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS (signal measurement, sample flow rate and injection volume), was developed to estimate peak area uncertainties and statistical weights used in weighted linear regression. The behaviour of the ICPMS instrument was characterized in order to be considered in the model, concluding that the instrument works as a concentration detector when it is used to monitorize transient signals from flow injection or chromatographic separations. Proper quantification by the three calibration methods was achieved when compared to reference materials, although the double-point calibration allowed to obtain results of the same quality as the multiple-point calibration, shortening the calibration time. Relative expanded uncertainties ranged from 10-20% for concentrations around the LOQ to 5% for concentrations higher than 100 times the LOQ

  20. Injecting a liquid bacteria-based repair system to make porous network conrete healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria induced calcite precipitation has been proven to be effective in making concrete structure self-healing. In Microlab TU Delft, the concept has been enhanced by developing a liquid bacteria-based concrete repair system. The solution contains calcite precipitating bacteria, nutrients and

  1. The Injection of Sodium into Liquid Stainless Steel: A Report of the Second Experimental Na - SS/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, M.J.; Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Davies, D.; Sangwinw, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    A second experiment in which liquid sodium was injected beneath the surface of molten steel has been carried out using an experimental technique based on that described in AERE - M 2770 but incorporating several improvements particularly in the instrumentation. The sodium (∼1.5 g) was at 400-450 deg. C and the steel (stainless steel in this instance) was at 1750-1800 deg. C. A vapour explosion occurred after a measured dwell time and two force pulses >100 N and 60 N, separated by an interval of ∼1 ms were transmitted to the base of the crucible containing the molten steel. Most of the sodium vapourised' but only a minor part of the steel was converted into small particles. In conclusion: A vapour explosion occurred when ∼1.5 g of sodium at 400-450 deg. C was injected 1.5 cm beneath the surface of molten stainless steel at 1750-1800 deg. C. The explosion occurred 100 N and the second one ∼60 N compared with one pulse of ∼600 N measured in Na/CS/1. Both pulses had a base width of ∼1 ms and the second one a pulse width of ∼500 μs. There was no indication of the prolonged series of pulses observed in Na-CS/1 and which may have been a feature of the equipment used. Virtually all the sodium was vaporised whereas in the previous experiment much of the sodium was recovered as droplets. The steel temperature was > 200 deg. C higher. The steel was on the whole not so finely dispersed; only ∼2% was less than ∼0.5 mm diameter compared with ∼10% in Na-CS/1. Future experiments of this type could be further instrumented; in particular it would be desirable to measure the exact injection rate for each sodium injection and to measure pressure pulses at other points of the equipment

  2. Analysis of selected antibiotics in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Yi, Xinzhu; Segovia, Elvagris; Zhou, Zhi; Kelly, Barry C

    2014-04-18

    Emerging contaminants such as antibiotics have received recent attention as they have been detected in natural waters and health concerns over potential antibiotic resistance. With the purpose to investigate fast and high-throughput analysis, and eventually the continuous on-line analysis of emerging contaminants, this study presents results on the analysis of seven selected antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, tylosin) in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection of a small sample volume (20μL) in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Notably, direct injection of seawater in the LC-ESI-MS/MS was made possible on account of the post-column switch on the system, which allows diversion of salt-containing solutions flushed out of the column to the waste. Mean recoveries based on the isotope dilution method average 95±14% and 96±28% amongst the compounds for spiked freshwater and seawater, respectively. Linearity across six spiking levels was assessed and the response was linear (r(2)>0.99) for all compounds. Direct injection concentrations were compared for real samples to those obtained with the conventional SPE-based analysis and both techniques concurs on the presence/absence and levels of the compounds in real samples. These results suggest direct injection is a reliable method to detect antibiotics in both freshwater and seawater. Method detection limits for the direct injection technique (37pg/L to 226ng/L in freshwater, and from 16pg/to 26ng/L in seawater) are sufficient for a number of environmental applications, for example the fast screening of water samples for ecological risk assessments. In the present study of real samples, this new method allowed for example the positive detection of some compounds (e.g. lincomycin) down to the sub ng/L range. The direct injection method appears to be relatively cheaper and faster

  3. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  4. Optimization of throughput in semipreparative chiral liquid chromatography using stacked injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammadreza; Fotovati, Mohsen; Hosseini, Seyed-Kiumars; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    An interesting mode of chromatography for preparation of pure enantiomers from pure samples is the method of stacked injection as a pseudocontinuous procedure. Maximum throughput and minimal production costs can be achieved by the use of total chiral column length in this mode of chromatography. To maximize sample loading, often touching bands of the two enantiomers is automatically achieved. Conventional equations show direct correlation between touching-band loadability and the selectivity factor of two enantiomers. The important question for one who wants to obtain the highest throughput is "How to optimize different factors including selectivity, resolution, run time, and loading of the sample in order to save time without missing the touching-band resolution?" To answer this question, tramadol and propranolol were separated on cellulose 3,5-dimethyl phenyl carbamate, as two pure racemic mixtures with low and high solubilities in mobile phase, respectively. The mobile phase composition consisted of n-hexane solvent with alcohol modifier and diethylamine as the additive. A response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize separation factors against the main responses. According to the stacked injection properties, two processes were investigated for maximizing throughput: one with a poorly soluble and another with a highly soluble racemic mixture. For each case, different optimization possibilities were inspected. It was revealed that resolution is a crucial response for separations of this kind. Peak area and run time are two critical parameters in optimization of stacked injection for binary mixtures which have low solubility in the mobile phase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experimental Work at Harwell on the Injection of Sodium into Liquid Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Collett, R.; Davies, D.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment and experimental technique used to inject molten sodium beneath the surface of molten steel (and subsequently molten uranium dioxide) are described. The results of an exploratory experiment, in which 2 g of sodium at 380 deg. C were injected into 54 g of steel at 1530 deg. C, are outlined. A violent reaction occurred, apparently as a result of a vapour explosion, and a number of pulses were recorded by a force transducer. A preliminary examination of the steel debris is reported. In conclusion: The injection of ∼2 g of sodium at ∼380 deg. C beneath the surface of ∼54 g of steel at 1530 deg. C resulted in a vapour explosion. A series of three pulses (perhaps more) at intervals of ∼6 ms were observed; the peak amplitude was at least 600 N (equivalent to a pressure of ∼20 bar on the base of the crucible). The steel was highly dispersed giving material of predominant particle size ∼500 μ and calculated surface area ∼13.5 cm 2 g -1 ; the particles were almost spherical but some had a small indentation on their surface. The apparatus operated very well, especially considering its rudimentary nature and the speed with which it was assembled. Nevertheless experience of the first experiment showed that many improvements are desirable. (a) Interpretation of the pulses recorded by the force transducer was difficult and would be facilitated by the use of a strong crucible and by a redesigned pillar. (b) Instrumentation on the injector would enable t M and t I to be determined and would permit the injection timing to be related to the pulse record, thus giving a measure of the dwell time. (c) The closed circuit television needs to be linked to a video tape recorder. (d) The recording instrumentation should have a better resolution so that short pulses are not lost or inaccurately recorded; a multichannel tape recorder may be desirable. (e) Direct measurement of the surface area of the debris should be carried out using an existing technique (BET low

  6. Method for the determination of carboxylic acids in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with injection port derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2017-09-29

    The paper presents a new method for the determination of 15 carboxylic acids in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using ion-pair dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with injection port derivatization. Several parameters related to the extraction and derivatization efficiency were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the obtained limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.0069 to 1.12μg/mL and 0.014 to 2.24μg/mL, respectively. The precision (RSD ranged 1.29-6.42%) and recovery (69.43-125.79%) were satisfactory. Nine carboxylic acids at concentrations ranging from 0.10μg/mL to 15.06μg/mL were determined in the raw wastewater and in samples of effluents treated by various oxidation methods. The studies revealed a substantial increase of concentration of benzoic acids, in samples of wastewater after treatment, which confirms the need of carboxylic acids monitoring during industrial effluent treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A dispersive liquid--liquid microextraction methodology for copper (II) in environmental samples prior to determination using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II). 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) was used to form a hydrophobic complex of Cu(II) ions in the aqueous phase before extraction. To extract the Cu(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex from the aqueous phase to the organic phase, 2.0 mL of acetone as a disperser solvent and 200 microL of chloroform as an extraction solvent were used. The influences of important analytical parameters, such as the pH, types and volumes of the extraction and disperser solvents, amount of chelating agent, sample volume, and matrix effects, on the microextraction procedure were evaluated and optimized. Using the optimal conditions, the LOD, LOQ, preconcentration factor, and RSD were determined to be 1.4 microg/L, 4.7 microg/L, 120, and 6.5%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was investigated using standard addition/recovery tests. The analysis of certified reference materials produced satisfactory analytical results. The developed method was applied for the determination of Cu in real samples.

  8. CVD diamond sensor for UV-photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Gervino, G; Lamarina, A M; Palmisano, C; Periale, R; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of UV photosensors, based on single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamonds to work optically coupled with large volume two-phase liquid-Ar (LAr) or liquid-Xe (LXe) detectors nowadays under design for the next generation of WIMPs experiments, is under development. Preliminary tests and first calibrations show these devices can have better performance than the existing UV sensitive detectors (higher photosensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratio). I-V characteristics, dark current measurements, linearity response to X-ray irradiation, and alpha-particle energy resolution are reported and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva

    Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.

  10. Exogenous factors contributing to column bed heterogeneity: Part 1: Consequences of 'air' injections in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny; Shalliker, Andrew

    2015-08-07

    It has been shown that not only the packing homogeneity, but also factors external to the column bed, such as, frits and distributors can have important effects on the column performance. This current communication is the first in a series focusing on the impact of exogenous factors on the column bed heterogeneity. This study is based on several observations by us and others that chromatographic runs often, for technical reasons, include more or less portions of air in the injections. It is therefore extremely important to find out the impact of air on the column performance, the reliability of the results derived from analyses where air was injected, and the effect on the column homogeneity. We used a photographic approach for visualising the air transport phenomena, and found that the air transport through the column is comprised of many different types of transport phenomena, such as laminal flow, viscous fingering like flows, channels and bulbs, and pulsations. More particularly, the air clouds within the column definitely interact in the adsorption, i.e. mobile phase adsorbed to the column surface is displaced. In addition, irrespective of the type of air transport phenomena, the air does not penetrate the column homogeneously. This process is strongly flow dependent. In this work we study air transport both in an analytical scale and a semi-prep column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

  12. Liquid poison injection system (LPIS) for KAIGA 1, 2 and RAPP 3, 4, 220 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, K.L.; Aparna; Mohan, L.R.; Nema, M.K.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    LPIS is the modified version of existing Bulk Addition Mode (BAM) of the Automatic Liquid Poison Addition System (ALPAS). This BAM mode of ALPAS serves as slow acting supplementary shutdown system to PSS or SS as the case may be and hence it becomes a part of reactor safety system. The system (LPIS) has been envisaged to perform similar functions of ALPAS mode BAM. Now this is a self standing system. This feature of the system eliminates need of Gravity Addition of Boron System (GRAB). As the concept evolved is to be introduced for first time for the power reactors (from KAIGA-1, 2 and RAPP-3, 4 onwards), it has become necessary to check and verify its working by carrying out the necessary experimental and developmental work

  13. Onset of liquid droplet entrainment on a direct vessel injection system for APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Rok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, a series of visualization works was conducted to understand droplet entrainment of the flow pattern generated in direct vessel injection system(DVI) of Korea nuclear power plant, APR 1400. In the emergency situation of a nuclear power plant, reliability of DVI cooling can be an important issue. It is known that, the amount and the rate of entrainment during the DVI cooling process can significantly affect the total heat removal. To visualize the film Reynolds number closely related with onset of droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, confocal chromatic sensing method for measuring accurately film thickness and depth averaging particle image velocimetry for film velocity were used. The results have been post processed 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. To visualize the droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, shadowgraph method with CCD camera (2200fps, 1280 pixel X 800 pixel, ) on coated plate with super water-repellent agent was used. The results have been post processed using 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. By adopting both super hydrophobic coating method and shadowgraph method, entrainment in a narrow gap was successfully visualized that has rarely performed before and meaningful results for DVI system research fields have been made.

  14. Onset of liquid droplet entrainment on a direct vessel injection system for APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong-Rok; Euh, Dong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, a series of visualization works was conducted to understand droplet entrainment of the flow pattern generated in direct vessel injection system(DVI) of Korea nuclear power plant, APR 1400. In the emergency situation of a nuclear power plant, reliability of DVI cooling can be an important issue. It is known that, the amount and the rate of entrainment during the DVI cooling process can significantly affect the total heat removal. To visualize the film Reynolds number closely related with onset of droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, confocal chromatic sensing method for measuring accurately film thickness and depth averaging particle image velocimetry for film velocity were used. The results have been post processed 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. To visualize the droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, shadowgraph method with CCD camera (2200fps, 1280 pixel X 800 pixel, ) on coated plate with super water-repellent agent was used. The results have been post processed using 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. By adopting both super hydrophobic coating method and shadowgraph method, entrainment in a narrow gap was successfully visualized that has rarely performed before and meaningful results for DVI system research fields have been made

  15. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  16. Delayed-Onset Edematous Foreign Body Granulomas 40 Years After Augmentation Rhinoplasty by Silicone Implant Combined with Liquid Silicone Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao-Chun; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Hsun

    2017-06-01

    Despite the widespread application of augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia, reports on the interaction between alloplastic implants and injectable filler are scarce. This paper reports on a patient with delayed-onset edematous foreign body granuloma that had been caused by augmentation rhinoplasty performed using a silicone implant in conjunction with a liquid silicone injection 40 years earlier. This is the longest reported duration between initial rhinoplasty and the exacerbation of foreign body granuloma. This case report also presents intraoperative findings pertaining to the interlocking structures between silicone implants and injected liquid silicone. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Experience in ultrasonic gap measurement between calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown systems nozzles in Bruce Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abucay, R.C.; Mahil, K.S.; Goszczynski, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gaps between calandria tubes (CT) and Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) nozzles at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station ''A'' (Bruce A) are known to decrease with time due to radiation induced creep/sag of the calandria tubes. If this gap decreases to a point where the calandria tubes come into contact with the LISS nozzle, the calandria tubes could fail as a result of fretting damage. Proximity measurements were needed to verify the analytical models and ensure that CT/LISS nozzle contact does not occur earlier than predicted. The technique used was originally developed at Ontario Hydro Technologies (formerly Ontario Hydro Research Division) in the late seventies and put into practical use by Research and Productivity Council (RPC) of New Brunswick, who carried out similar measurements at Point Lepreau NGS in 1989 and 1991. The gap measurement was accomplished y inserting an inspection probe, containing four ultrasonic transducers (2 to measure gaps and 2 to check for probe tilt) and a Fredericks electrolytic potentiometer as a probe rotational sensor, inside LISS Nozzle number-sign 7. The ultrasonic measurements were fed to a system computer that was programmed to convert the readings into fully compensated gaps, taking into account moderator heavy water temperature and probe tilt. Since the measured gaps were found to be generally larger than predicted, the time to CT/LISS nozzle contact is now being re-evaluated and the planned LISS nozzle replacement will likely be deferred, resulting in considerable savings

  19. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  20. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  1. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  2. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  3. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  4. Spin transport in two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Li, Q. C.; Zhang, Y. F.; Schönenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    We study room-temperature spin transport in graphene devices encapsulated between a layer-by-layer-stacked two-layer-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) tunnel barrier, and a few-layer-thick exfoliated-hBN substrate. We find mobilities and spin-relaxation times comparable to that of SiO2 substrate-based graphene devices, and we obtain a similar order of magnitude of spin relaxation rates for both the Elliott-Yafet and D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanisms. The behavior of ferromagnet/two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN contacts ranges from transparent to tunneling due to inhomogeneities in the CVD-hBN barriers. Surprisingly, we find both positive and negative spin polarizations for high-resistance two-layer-CVD-hBN barrier contacts with respect to the low-resistance contacts. Furthermore, we find that the differential spin-injection polarization of the high-resistance contacts can be modulated by dc bias from -0.3 to +0.3 V with no change in its sign, while its magnitude increases at higher negative bias. These features point to the distinctive spin-injection nature of the two-layer-CVD-hBN compared to the bilayer-exfoliated-hBN tunnel barriers.

  5. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10/sup 16/ Bq (7.5 x 10/sup 5/ Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation and the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant /sup 90/Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. There are no plans to reactivate the hydrofracture process. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations and under provision 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  6. In reactor measurements, modeling and assessments to predict liquid injection shutdown system nozzle to Calandria tube time to contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, K.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an expanding effort to assess the potential for Calandria Tubes (CTs) coming into contact with Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) Nozzles to ensure continued contact-free operation as required by CSA N285.4. LISS Nozzles (LINs), which run perpendicular to and between rows of fuel channels, sag at a slower rate than the fuel channels. As a result certain LINs may come in contact with CTs above them. The CT/LIN gaps can be predicted from calculated CT sag, LIN sag and a number of component and installation tolerances. This method however results in very conservative predictions when compared to measurements, confirmed with the in reactor measurements initiated in 2000, when gaps were successfully measured the first time using images obtained from a camera-assisted measurement tool inserted into the calandria. To reduce the conservatism of the CT/LIN gap predictions, statistical CT/LIN gap models are used instead. They are derived from a comparison between calculated gaps based on nominal dimensions and the visual image based measured gaps. These reactor specific (typically 95% confidence level) CT/LIN gap models account for all uncertainties and deviations from nominal values. Prediction error margins reduce as more in-reactor gap measurements become available. Each year more measurements are being made using this standardized visual CT/LIN proximity method. The subsequently prepared reactor-specific models have been used to provide time to contact for every channel above the LINs at these stations. In a number of cases it has been used to demonstrate that the reactor can be operated to its end of life before refurbishment with no predicted contact, or specific at-risk channels have been identified for which appropriate remedial actions could be implemented in a planned manner. (author)

  7. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10 16 Bq (7.5 x 10 5 Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation of the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant 90 Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations. The facility also falls under the provisions of part 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act pertaining to corrective actions. Nationally, there is an uncertain outlook for the disposal of wastes by underground injection. All wells used for the injection of hazardous wastes (Class I wells) are being reviewed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-wei; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Process design of a new injection method of liquid CO2 at the intermediate depths in the ocean using a static mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hideo; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Kiyono, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    Process design for a new injection method of liquid CO 2 using a static mixer was conducted based on laboratory experimental results on the formation process of liquid CO 2 drops covered with hydrate film by a Kenics-type static mixer, and numerical simulation of the liquid CO 2 drops at 500 and 1500 m. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of the liquid CO 2 drops covered with hydrate film was dramatically decreased with the use of the static mixer; empirical equations were obtained for the SMD, and also the maximum and minimum diameters of the liquid CO 2 drops for a given flow velocity (Weber number, We). The ascending and dissolving behavior of a liquid CO 2 drop with hydrate released in the ocean at an intermediate depth was numerically simulated, and the maximum drop diameter to avoid evaporation of the drop before complete dissolution was estimated. Based on these results, scaling up of the static mixer was conducted by assuming a disposal process of CO 2 emitted from a 100-MW thermal power plant, and the mixer diameter was determined as a function of the given SMD. Moreover, the power consumption of the static mixer was evaluated and found to be almost negligible. (author)

  10. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  12. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  13. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2016-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides in Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector with few markers to determine multicomponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hua Ge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A method with few markers to determine multicomponents was established and validated to evaluate the quality of Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. The separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm2, 1.7 μm column. Methanol and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides could be perfectly separated within 15 minutes. Ginsenoside Rg1 and benzoylmesaconine, the easily available active components, were employed as the maker components to calculate the relative correction factors of other components in Shenfu injection, Panax ginseng and Aconitum carmichaeli. The external standard method was also established to validate the feasibility of the method with few markers to determine multicomponents. Parameter p and the principal component analysis method were employed to investigate the disparities among batches for the effective quality control of Shenfu injection. The results demonstrated that the ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector method with few markers to determine multicomponents could be used as a powerful tool for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations.

  15. Experimental evaluation of desuperheating and oil cooling process through liquid injection in two-staged ammonia refrigeration systems with screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatanović, Ivan; Rudonja, Nedžad

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of achieving desuperheating through liquid injection in two-staged refrigeration systems based on screw compressors. The oil cooling process by refrigerant injection is also included. The basic thermodynamic principles of desuperheating and compressor cooling as well as short comparison with traditional method with a thermosyphon system have also been presented. Finally, the collected data referring to a big refrigeration plant are analyzed in the paper. Specific ammonia system concept applied in this refrigeration plant has demonstrated its advantages and disadvantages. - Highlights: ► An experiment was setup during a frozen food factory refrigeration system reconstruction and adaptation. ► Desuperheating and low-stage compressors oil cooling process were investigated. ► Efficiency of compression process and high-stage compressors functioning were examined. ► Evaporation temperature reduction has great influence on the need for injected liquid refrigerant. ► Several cases in which desuperheating and oil cooling process application are justified were determined.

  16. Determination of dasatinib in the tablet dosage form by ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Aroa Garcia; Taraba, Lukáš; Hraníček, Jakub; Kozlík, Petr; Coufal, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib is a novel oral prescription drug proposed for treating adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Three analytical methods, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis, were developed, validated, and compared for determination of the drug in the tablet dosage form. The total analysis time of optimized ultra high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis methods was 2.0 and 2.2 min, respectively. Direct ultraviolet detection with detection wavelength of 322 nm was employed in both cases. The optimized sequential injection analysis method was based on spectrophotometric detection of dasatinib after a simple colorimetric reaction with folin ciocalteau reagent forming a blue-colored complex with an absorbance maximum at 745 nm. The total analysis time was 2.5 min. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method provided the lowest detection and quantitation limits and the most precise and accurate results. All three newly developed methods were demonstrated to be specific, linear, sensitive, precise, and accurate, providing results satisfactorily meeting the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, and can be employed for the routine determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the tablet dosage form. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  18. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  19. In-Bore Liquid Injection for Barrel Cooling: Comparison of Liquid and Solid Additives Using Constant Breach Pressure Ideal Gun Calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotlar, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    .... These calculations give limiting values for projectile muzzle kinetic energy (KE), assuming complete mixing of the liquid additive and the solid propellant This is a worst-case scenario for the new concept to reduce gun barrel heating...

  20. Gas chromatography-flame ionization determination of benzaldehyde in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug injectable formulations using new ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashayekhi, H.A.; Pourshamsian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In this study, simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction combined with gas chromatography (GC) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of benzaldehyde in injectable formulations of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, Vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions. Fourteen microliters of toluene was injected slowly into 10 mL home-designed centrifuge glass vial containing an aqueous sample without salt addition that was located inside the ultrasonic water bath. The formed emulsion was centrifuged and 2 macro L of separated toluene was injected into a gas chromatographic system equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for analysis. Several factors influencing the extraction efficiency as the nature and volume of organic solvent, extraction temperature, ionic strength and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Using optimum extraction conditions a detection limit of 0.3 macro g L/sup -1/ and a good linearity in a calibration range of 2.0-1000 macro g L/sup -1/ were achieved for analyte. This proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of benzaldehyde in three injection formulations and relative standard deviation (RSD) of analysis (n=3), before spiking with standard benzaldehyde were 3.3, 2.0 and 1.3% for Na-diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and voltaren, respectively and after spiking of standard benzaldehyde (0.3 mg L/sup -1/), the RSD were 6.5, 3.6 and 2.8% for Na-diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and voltaren, respectively. (author)

  1. Low temperature CVD deposition of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.; Yeheskel, J.; Agam, S.; Edelstein, D.; Lebovits, O.; Ron, Y.

    1991-04-01

    The coating of graphite on silicon carbide from the gaseous phase in a hot-well, open flow reactor at 1150degC is described. This study constitutes the first part of an investigation of the process for the coating of nuclear fuel by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

  2. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  3. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  4. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  5. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  6. Simulation of the distribution of radionuclides in the reservoir bed for deep-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.; Zubkov, A.A.; Zakharova, E.V.; Egorov, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for describing the changes in the state of the reservoir bed for dee-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste. The model considers the multicomponent filtration of the solution in the heterogeneous bed, sorption-desorption of radionuclides, taking into account the dependence of the distribution coefficient on the temperature and pH, as well as radioactive decay, interaction of acids with minerals, radiation-chemical and thermochemical decomposition of the acids, and dynamics of the temperature field, taking into account the convective heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat release. The results of the simulation of the migration of radionuclides were reported, as well as of the distribution of the acids and the dynamics of the temperature field in the vicinity of the injection well of the site for deep-well injection disposal of the waste from Siberian Chemical Combine. A man-caused barrier is formed in the vicinity of the injection well, hindering the spread of radionuclides in the reservoir bed [ru

  7. Unsteady three dimensional flow of Casson liquid film over a porous stretching sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and suction/injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.

  8. A fully automated effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on a stepwise injection system. Determination of antipyrine in saliva samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medinskaia, Kseniia; Vakh, Christina; Aseeva, Darina; Andruch, Vasil; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (EA-DLLME) has been reported. The method is based on the aspiration of a sample and all required aqueous reagents into the stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) manifold, followed by simultaneous counterflow injection of the extraction solvent (dichloromethane), the mixture of the effervescence agent (0.5 mol L"−"1 Na_2CO_3) and the proton donor solution (1 mol L"−"1 CH_3COOH). Formation of carbon dioxide microbubbles generated in situ leads to the dispersion of the extraction solvent in the whole aqueous sample and extraction of the analyte into organic phase. Unlike the conventional DLLME, in the case of EA-DLLME, the addition of dispersive solvent, as well as, time consuming centrifugation step for disruption of the cloudy state is avoided. The phase separation was achieved by gentle bubbling of nitrogen stream (2 mL min"−"1 during 2 min). The performance of the suggested approach is demonstrated by determination of antipyrine in saliva samples. The procedure is based on the derivatization of antipyrine by nitrite-ion followed by EA-DLLME of 4-nitrosoantipyrine and subsequent UV–Vis detection using SWIA manifold. The absorbance of the yellow-colored extract at the wavelength of 345 nm obeys Beer's law in the range of 1.5–100 µmol L"−"1 of antipyrine in saliva. The LOD, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 0.5 µmol L"−"1. - Highlights: • First attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. • Automation based on Stepwise injection analysis manifold in flow batch system. • Counterflow injection of extraction solvent and the effervescence agent. • Phase separation performed by gentle bubbling of nitrogen. • Application for the determination of antipyrine in saliva samples.

  9. A multi-objective CFD optimization of liquid fuel spray injection in dry-low-emission gas-turbine combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, Behrad; Amani, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An Eulerian-Lagrangian model for the fuel spray injection is evaluated. •The drop breakup, spray-vortex interaction, and wall-wetting play the key roles. •The injection location and direction are the most important parameters. •The best design candidates are proposed using multi-objective optimizations. •A large central perpendicular injection with high co-rotating swirls is optimal. -- Abstract: The main goal of this research is to investigate the effects of fuel injection strategy on the performance of the premixing chamber of modern Dry-Low-Emission (DLE) Gas-Turbine (GT) combustors. Here, an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for multi-phase multi-component flows is evaluated and used to investigate the effects of different fuel spray design parameters, including the injection location, direction, mass-flow-rate partitioning, and flow Swirl number, on the performance of the premixing chamber. The analysis is enriched by multi-objective optimizations accounting for several goals, including the evaporation efficiency, mixture stratification, entropy generation, and flow recirculation. It is observed that the droplet breakup, spray-vortex interactions, and wall-wetting have significant influences on the performance objectives while the droplet residence time effect is minor. Among the design parameters, the injection location and direction have a profound impact on the droplet breakup which predominately controls the evaporation efficiency. In addition, the interactions between the spray and the two swirling vertices inside the chamber strongly affect the mixture stratification (uniformity), e.g. the location and direction of the injection should not be chosen such that a large proportion of fuel droplets are trapped in the shear layer between the two vortices (otherwise the evaporation efficiency drops significantly) or trapped in the strong outer swirling vortex (if large mixture non-uniformity should be avoided). Finally, the best designs meeting

  10. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  11. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultra trace determination of 31 pesticides in water samples by direct injection-rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Laura; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio; Valor, Ignacio

    2008-08-22

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for the detection of pesticides in tap and treated wastewater was developed and validated according to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Key features of this method include direct injection of 100 microL of sample, an 11 min separation by means of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography system with a 4.6 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 microm particle size reverse phase column and detection by electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS. The limits of detection were below 15 ng L(-1) and correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range of 30-2000 ng L(-1) were higher than 0.99. Precision was always below 20% and accuracy was confirmed by external evaluation. The main advantages of this method are direct injection of sample without preparative procedures and low limits of detection that fulfill the requirements established by the current European regulations governing pesticide detection.

  13. CVD calibration light systems specifications. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcllwain, A. K.

    1992-04-01

    Two prototype Cerenkov Viewing Device Calibration Light systems for the Mark IV CVD have been fabricated. They consist of a maintenance unit that will be used by the IAEA maintenance staff and a field unit that will be used by IAEA inspectors. More detailed information on the design of the calibration units can be obtained from the document SSP-39 and additional information on the Mark IV CVD can be obtained from the operating manual published as Canadian Safeguards Support Program document CSSP 6. The specifications refer to the prototype units which will be demonstrated to the IAEA in 1992 May. Based upon the feedback from the IAEA, the instruments will be changed in the final production models to provide devices that more closely satisfy the needs of the end users

  14. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 {mu}s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm{sup 2} diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  15. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results on the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1*1 cm/sup 2/ diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 mu s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2*4 cm/sup 2/ diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch. (6 refs).

  16. Validation of a stability-indicating hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of vitamin k3 (menadione sodium bisulfite) in injectable solution formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mashhour M; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A; Hallak, Hussein O

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in the injectable solution formulation. The method is based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) coupled with a photodiode array detector. The desired separation was achieved on the ZIC-HILIC column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of 200mM ammonium acetate (NH4AC) solution and acetonitrile (ACN) (20:80; v/v) pH-adjusted to 5.7 by glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.5 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 261 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peak retention, peak USP tailing factor, and column efficiency were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing menadione sodium bisulfite standard and the injectable solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and the excipients, thus proving that the method is a reliable, stability-indicating tool. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of menadione sodium bisulfite in commercially available menadione sodium bisulfite injectable solution dosage forms.

  17. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  18. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  19. Miniaturised pressurised liquid extraction aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and sediment with subsequent large-volume injection-gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Analyte extraction is the main limitation when developing at-line, or on-line, procedures for the preparation of (semi)solid environmental samples. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is an analyte- and matrix-independent technique which provides cleaner extracts than the time-consuming classical

  20. Resonant mode for a dc plasma spray torch by means of pressure–voltage coupling: application to synchronized liquid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krowka, J; Rat, V; Coudert, J F

    2013-01-01

    Electric arc instabilities in dc plasma torches result in non-homogeneous treatment of nanosized solid particles injected into the plasma jets. In the particular case of suspension plasma spraying, large discrepancies in the particles trajectories and thermal histories make the control of coating properties more difficult to achieve. In this paper, a new approach of arc dynamics highlights the existence of different resonant modes and the possibility of their coupling. This study leads us to design a special plasma torch working in a very regular pulsed regime. Then, an innovative injection system based on the drop-on-demand method synchronized with the plasma oscillations is presented as an efficient method to control the dynamics of plasma/particles interactions. (paper)

  1. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  2. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A.; Altamirano, Jorgelina C.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 μl of 9.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 μg L -1 Hg 2+ was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  3. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  4. A review on development of analytical methods to determine monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography using direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Romero, Josep; Albiol-Chiva, Jaume; Peris-Vicente, Juan

    2016-07-05

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is a common practice in clinical studies. It requires the quantification of drugs in biological fluids. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC), a well-established branch of Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), has been proven by many researchers as a useful tool for the analysis of these matrices. This review presents several analytical methods, taken from the literature, devoted to the determination of several monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography. The studied groups are: anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, analgesics and bronchodilators. We detail the optimization strategy of the sample preparation and the main chromatographic conditions, such as the type of column, mobile phase composition (surfactant, organic solvent and pH), and detection. The finally selected experimental parameters, the validation, and some applications have also been described. In addition, their performances and advantages have been discussed. The main ones were the possibility of direct injection, and the efficient chromatographic elution, in spite of the complexity of the biological fluids. For each substance, the measured concentrations were accurate and precise at their respective therapeutic range. It was found that the MLC-procedures are fast, simple, inexpensive, ecofriendly, safe, selective, enough sensitive and reliable. Therefore, they represent an excellent alternative for the determination of drugs in serum and urine for monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuronal Activity Stimulated by Liquid Substrates Injection at Zusanli (ST36 Acupoint: The Possible Mechanism of Aquapuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquapuncture is a modified acupuncture technique and it is generally accepted that it has a greater therapeutic effect than acupuncture because of the combination of the acupoint stimulation and the pharmacological effect of the drugs. However, to date, the mechanisms underlying the effects of aquapuncture remain unclear. We hypothesized that both the change in the local spatial configuration and the substrate stimulation of aquapuncture would activate neuronal signaling. Thus, bee venom, normal saline, and vitamins B1 and B12 were injected into a Zusanli (ST36 acupoint as substrate of aquapuncture, whereas a dry needle was inserted into ST36 as a control. After aquapuncture, activated neurons expressing Fos protein were mainly observed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in lumbar segments L3–5, with the distribution nearly identical among all groups. However, the bee venom injection induced significantly more Fos-expressing neurons than the other substrates. Based on these data, we suggest that changes in the spatial configuration of the acupoint activate neuronal signaling and that bee venom may further strengthen this neuronal activity. In conclusion, the mechanisms for the effects of aquapuncture appear to be the spatial configuration changes occurring within the acupoint and the ability of injected substrates to stimulate neuronal activity.

  6. A fully automated effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on a stepwise injection system. Determination of antipyrine in saliva samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinskaia, Kseniia; Vakh, Christina; Aseeva, Darina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU-198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Andruch, Vasil, E-mail: vasil.andruch@upjs.sk [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of P.J. Šafárik, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Moskvin, Leonid [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU-198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bulatov, Andrey, E-mail: bulatov_andrey@mail.ru [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, RU-198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (EA-DLLME) has been reported. The method is based on the aspiration of a sample and all required aqueous reagents into the stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) manifold, followed by simultaneous counterflow injection of the extraction solvent (dichloromethane), the mixture of the effervescence agent (0.5 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and the proton donor solution (1 mol L{sup −1} CH{sub 3}COOH). Formation of carbon dioxide microbubbles generated in situ leads to the dispersion of the extraction solvent in the whole aqueous sample and extraction of the analyte into organic phase. Unlike the conventional DLLME, in the case of EA-DLLME, the addition of dispersive solvent, as well as, time consuming centrifugation step for disruption of the cloudy state is avoided. The phase separation was achieved by gentle bubbling of nitrogen stream (2 mL min{sup −1} during 2 min). The performance of the suggested approach is demonstrated by determination of antipyrine in saliva samples. The procedure is based on the derivatization of antipyrine by nitrite-ion followed by EA-DLLME of 4-nitrosoantipyrine and subsequent UV–Vis detection using SWIA manifold. The absorbance of the yellow-colored extract at the wavelength of 345 nm obeys Beer's law in the range of 1.5–100 µmol L{sup −1} of antipyrine in saliva. The LOD, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 0.5 µmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • First attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. • Automation based on Stepwise injection analysis manifold in flow batch system. • Counterflow injection of extraction solvent and the effervescence agent. • Phase separation performed by gentle bubbling of nitrogen. • Application for the determination of antipyrine in saliva samples.

  7. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis...

  8. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ∼6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields ( 1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the CVD diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of CVD diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that CVD diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications

  9. Elemental speciation via high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic detection: application of a direct injection nebulizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFreniere, K.E; Fassel, V.A.; Eckels, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) interfaced to a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) detection for simultaneous multielement speciation. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained with the DIN interface in the HPLC mode were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of 4. In addition, the DIN allowed for the direct injection into the ICP of a variety of common HPLC solvents (up to 100% methanol, acetonitrile, methyl isobutyl ketone, pyridine, and water). The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system was compared to other HPLC-atomic spectroscopic detection techniques and was found to offer substantial improvement over the alternative on-line, detection methods in terms of LODs. Representative applications of the HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system to the elemental speciation of coal process streams, shale oil, solvent refined coal, and crude oil are presented

  10. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  12. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  13. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  14. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  15. Experiment and equipment of depositing diamond films with CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Erqing; Song Chang'an

    2002-01-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) emerged in recent years is a new technique for thin film deposition, which play a key role in development of modern physics. It is important to predominate the principle and technology of CVD for studying modern physics. In this paper, a suit of CVD experimental equipment for teaching in college physics is presented, which has simple design and low cost. The good result was gained in past teaching practices

  16. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented.

  17. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Berdermann, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A. [LETI/DEIN/SPE/CEA Saclay (France); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [University of Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W. [LEPSI, IN2P3/CNRS-ULP, Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); D' Angelo, P.; Furetta, C. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Dabrowski, W. [UMM, Cracow (Poland); Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Eijk, B. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fischer, P. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fizzotti, F. [University of Torino (Italy); Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  18. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Furetta, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A.; Eijk, B. van; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  19. Application of CVD diamond film for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haiyang; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhan Rujuan

    2005-01-01

    With the development of diamond synthesis at low pressure, the CVD diamond properties including electronic characteristics have improved continuously. Now the fabrication of electronic devices based on the CVD diamond has been one of hot research subjects in this field. Due to many unique advantages, such as high signal-noise ratio, fast time response, and normal output in extremely harsh surrounding, the CVD diamond radiation detector has attracted more and more interest. In this paper, we have reviewed the development and status of the CVD diamond radiation detector. The prospect of this detector is described. (authors)

  20. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  1. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  2. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  3. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  4. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  5. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  6. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate recent human studies with respect to the interpretation of whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), or whether elevated CRP levels more likely is an innocent bystander. DATA SYNTHESIS: Elevated CRP concentrations...... and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques, and thus simply an innocent bystander in CVD....

  7. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  8. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  9. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  10. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  11. On-line liquid phase micro-extraction based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve platform for metal determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Constantina [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Drop-in-plug micro-extraction based on SI-LAV platform for metal preconcentration. ► Automatic liquid phase micro-extraction coupled with FAAS. ► Organic solvents with density higher than water are used. ► Lead determination in environmental water and urine samples. -- Abstract: A novel automatic on-line liquid phase micro-extraction method based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve (LAV) platform was proposed for metal preconcentration and determination. A flow-through micro-extraction chamber mounted at the selection valve was adopted without the need of sophisticated lab-on-valve components. Coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the potential of this lab-at-valve scheme is demonstrated for trace lead determination in environmental and biological water samples. A hydrophobic complex of lead with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was formed on-line and subsequently extracted into an 80 μL plug of chloroform. The extraction procedure was performed by forming micro-droplets of aqueous phase into the plug of the extractant. All critical parameters that affect the efficiency of the system were studied and optimized. The proposed method offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 10 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 125 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.8 μg L{sup −1} and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) at 50.0 μg L{sup −1} of lead was 2.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and applied for lead determination in natural waters and urine samples.

  12. Direct injection of tissue extracts in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Estrada, Elvagris Segovia; Juhel, Guillaume; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, a straightforward approach was validated for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the mollusk tissues, with a focus on two species commonly consumed in Southeast Asia (green mussels: Perna viridis; lokan clams: Polymesoda expansa). This approach relied on a simple solvent extraction (shaker table) followed by direct injection in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This "cleanup-free" approach was made possible by the use of isotopically labeled surrogates (to correct for matrix effects) and a post-column switch on the LC-MS/MS system (to remove potential interfering material). Altogether, relative recoveries were satisfactory for 36 out of 44 compounds (26-163% range) and excellent for 27 out of 44 compounds (79-107% range). Method detection limits (MDLs) were usually expressed in the nanogram per gram wet weight (ww) range and below. The method was successfully applied to 16 batches of green mussel samples collected in Singapore coastal waters. Trace levels of six compounds were detected in mussel tissues: caffeine (0.22-1.55 ng g(-1) ww), carbamazepine (

  13. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct injection liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric horse urine analysis for the quantification and confirmation of threshold substances for doping control. II. Determination of theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaparti, A; Lyris, E; Panderi, I; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-04-01

    In equine sport, theobromine is prohibited with a threshold level of 2 microg mL(-1) in urine, hence doping control laboratories have to establish quantitative and qualitative methods for its determination. Two simple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods for the identification and quantification of theobromine were developed and validated using the same sample preparation procedure but different mass spectrometric systems: ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Particle-free diluted urine samples were directly injected into the LC/MS systems, avoiding the time-consuming extraction step. 3-Propylxanthine was used as the internal standard. The tested linear range was 0.75-15 microg mL(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated analyzing calibration curves in water and different fortified horse urine samples. A great variation in the signal of theobromine and the internal standard was observed in different matrices. To overcome matrix effects, a standard additions calibration method was applied. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were lower than 8.6 and 7.2%, respectively, for the LC/ITMS method and lower than 5.7 and 5.8%, respectively, for the LC/TOFMS method. The bias was less than 8.7% for both methods. The methods were applied to two case samples, demonstrating simplicity, accuracy and selectivity. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bulk derivatization and direct injection of human cerebrospinal fluid for trace-level quantification of endogenous estrogens using trap-and-elute liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Papouskova, Barbora; Lemr, Karel; Wigginton, Jane G; Schug, Kevin A

    2014-08-01

    Although there are existing methods for determining estrogen in human bodily fluids including blood plasma and serum, very little information is available regarding estrogen levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is critical to assess in studies of neuroprotective functions and diffusion of neuroprotective estrogens across the blood-brain barrier. To address this problem, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of four endogenous estrogens (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estriol) in human CSF was developed. An aliquot (300 μL) of human CSF was bulk derivatized using dansyl chloride in the sample and 10 μL was directly injected onto a restricted-access media trap column for protein removal. No off-line sample extraction or cleanup was needed. The limits of detection of estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estriol were 17, 28, 13, and 30 pg/mL, respectively, which is in the parts-per-trillion regime. The method was then applied to human CSF collected from ischemic trauma patients. Endogenous estrogens were detected and quantified, demonstrating the effectiveness of this method. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  17. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  18. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  19. CVD-Graphene-Based Flexible, Thermoelectrochromic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Januszko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind this work was demonstrated in a form of a new thermoelectrochromic sensor on a flexible substrate using graphene as an electrically reconfigurable thermal medium (TEChrom™. Our approach relies on electromodulation of thermal properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET via mechanical destruction of a graphene layer. Graphene applied in this work was obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on copper substrate and characterized by Raman and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of graphene were evaluated by the van der Pauw method on the transferred graphene layers onto SiO2 substrates by electrochemical delamination method. Two configurations of architecture of sensors, without and with the thermochromic layer, were investigated, taking into account the increase of voltage from 0 to 50 V and were observed by thermographic camera to define heat energy. Current-voltage characteristics obtained for the sensor with damaged graphene layer are linear, and the resistivity is independent from the current applied. The device investigated under 1000 W/m2 exhibited rise of resistivity along with increased temperature. Flexible thermoelectrochromic device with graphene presented here can be widely used as a sensor for both the military and civil monitoring.

  20. A validated stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of cefuroxime sodium and sulbactam sodium in injection dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A fixed dose combination of cefuroxime sodium (β lactam antibiotic and sulbactam sodium (β Lactamase inhibitor is used in ratio of 2:1 as powder for injection for the treatment of resistant lower respiratory tract and other infections. Aims: A simple, precise, and accurate ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of cefuroxime Na(CEF and sulbactam Na(SUL in injection. Materials and Methods: Isocratic RP-HPLC separation was achieved on an ACE C 18 column (150×4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size using the mobile phase 0.002 M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide sulfate (TBAH in 10 mm potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (86:14 v/v, pH 3.7 at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results and Conclusion: The retention time of sulbactam Na and cefuroxime Na were 3.2 min and 10.2 min, respectively. The ion-pairing reagent improved the retention of highly polar sulbactam Na on reverse-phase column. The detection was performed at 210 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, solution stability, and specificity. The method was linear in the concentration range of 10-100 μg/ml for cefuroxime Na and 5-50 μg/ml for sulbactam Na, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for the respective drugs. The intraday precision was 0.13-0.21% and 0.48-0.65%, and the interday precision was 0.32-0.81% and 0.60-0.83% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The accuracy (recovery was found to be in the range of 98.76-100.61% and 98.99-100.30% for cefuroxime Na and sulbactam Na, respectively. The drugs were found to degrade under hydrolytic and oxidative conditions. The drugs could be effectively separated from different degradation products, and hence the method can be used for stability analysis.

  1. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  2. Simplifying and expanding analytical capabilities for various classes of doping agents by means of direct urine injection high performance liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Philipp; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-11-30

    So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for more than 200 analytes of various classes of doping agents far below the required detection limits in sports drug testing. Here, classic groups of drugs as diuretics, stimulants, β 2 -agonists, narcotics and anabolic androgenic steroids as well as various newer target compounds like hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), plasma volume expanders and other doping related compounds, listed in the 2016 WADA prohibited list were implemented. As a main achievement, growth hormone releasing peptides could be implemented, which chemically belong to the group of small peptides (0.99), limit of detection (0.1-25ng/mL; 3'OH-stanozolol glucuronide: 50pg/mL; dextran/HES: 10μg/mL) and matrix effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of phenols by flow injection and liquid chromatography with on-line quinine-sensitized photo-oxidation and quenched luminol chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Danielson, Neil D.

    2003-01-01

    An on-line quinine-sensitized photo-oxidation with quenched chemiluminescence (CL) detection method is developed for phenols using flow injection (FI) and liquid chromatography (LC). This detection method is based on the decrease of light emission from the luminol CL reaction due to the photo-oxidation of phenols that scavenge the photogenerated reactive oxygen species (e.g. singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and superoxide (O 2 · - )). On-line photo-oxidation is achieved using a coil photo-reactor made from fluoroethylene-propylene copolymer tubing (3048 mmx0.25 mm i.d.) coiled around a mercury UV lamp. A buffer of pH 7 and a concentration of 350 μM for quinine sulfate are determined optimum for the sensitized photo-oxidation. Using a carrier system flow rate of 60 μl/min, calibration curves taken by FI for 10 phenolic compounds in aqueous solutions showed this decreasing sensitivity order: 4-chlorophenol, phenol, 4-nitrophenol, 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine, 2-nitrophenol, salicylate, 3-nitrophenol, catechol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. This detection method using two tandem coil photo-reactors is also applied for the LC separation of phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol on an octadecyl (C18) silica LC column using acetonitrile-H 2 O (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase. The quenched CL detection limits (about 1 μM or 20 pmol) for phenol and 4-chlorophenol are comparable to those for UV detection at 254 nm. Some selectivity in the quenched CL detection is evident by no interference in the FI phenol response even when benzaldehyde and phenethanol concentrations are 8 and 15 times that of phenol

  4. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neagu; Georgiana Soceanu; Ana Caterina Bucur

    2015-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validate...

  6. Investigation of defects in CVD diamond: Influence for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M.J.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the potentialities of CVD diamond as an ionisation chamber for radiotherapy applications. Trapping levels present in CVD diamond are characterised using Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method with X-ray sources. The influence of the corresponding defects on the detector response is investigated and compared to those observed in natural diamond. Also, their spatial distribution across a large area polycrystalline diamond ionisation chamber is discussed. Results show the relative influence of two different populations of trapping levels in CVD diamond whose effect is crucial for radiotherapy applications. To partially overcome the defect detrimental effects, we propose to use CVD diamond ionisation chambers at moderate temperatures from 70 to 100 deg. C that could be provided by self heating of the device, for a dramatically improved stability and reproducibility

  7. The gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.W.; Su, W.D.; Chang, S.W.; Tseng, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    CVD tungsten polycide has been demonstrated as a good gate material in recent very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. CVD tungsten silicide offers advantages of low resistivity, high temperature stability and good step coverage. On the other hand, the polysilicon underlayer preserves most characteristics of the polysilicon gate and acts as a stress buffer layer to absorb part of the thermal stress origin from the large thermal expansion coefficient of tungsten silicide. Nevertheless, the gate oxide of CVD tungsten polycide is less stable or reliable than that of polysilicon gate. In this paper, the gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide with various thickness combinations and different thermal processes have been analyzed by several electrical measurements including breakdown yield, breakdown fluence, room temperature TDDB, I-V characteristics, electron traps and interface state density

  8. Verification of thermo-fluidic CVD reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisik, Z; Turczynski, M; Ruta, L; Raj, E

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper describes the numerical model of CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) reactor created in ANSYS CFX, whose main purpose is the evaluation of numerical approaches used to modelling of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor chamber. Verification of the worked out CVD model has been conducted with measurements under various thermal, pressure and gas flow rate conditions. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results confirms correctness of the elaborated model.

  9. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Fleury Frenette, K.; Jamar, C.

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms . Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC . Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 ≠m was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  10. CVD Diamond Sensors In Detectors For High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334150; Trischuk, William

    At the end of the next decade an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is planned which requires the development of new radiation tolerant sensor technology. Diamond is an interesting material for use as a particle detector in high radiation environments. The large band gap ($5.47\\,\\text{eV}$) and the large displacement energy suggest that diamond is a radiation tolerant detector material. In this Thesis the capability of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond as such a sensor technology is investigated. The radiation damage constant for $800\\,\\text{MeV}$ protons is measured using single crystalline CVD (scCVD) and polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamonds irradiated to particle fluences up to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$. In addition the signal response of a pCVD diamond detector after an irradiation to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$ is investigated to determine if such a detector can be operated efficiently in the expected HL-LHC environment. By using electrodes em...

  11. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  12. Electrically insulating films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by reactive CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    In the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors, corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic forces and their influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. Electrically insulating CaO films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti exhibit high-ohmic insulator behavior even though a small amount of vanadium from the alloy become incorporated into the film. However, when vanadium concentration in the film is > 15 wt.%, the film becomes conductive. When the vanadium concentration is high in localized areas, a calcium vanadate phase that exhibits semiconductor behavior can form. The objective of this study is to evaluate electrically insulating films that were deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by a reactive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. To this end, CaO and Ca-V-O coatings were produced on vanadium alloys by CVD and by a metallic-vapor process to investigate the electrical resistance of the coatings. The authors found that the Ca-V-O films exhibited insulator behavior when the ratio of calcium concentration to vanadium concentration R in the film > 0.9, and semiconductor or conductor behavior when R 0.98 were exposed in liquid lithium. Based on these studies, they conclude that semiconductor behavior occurs if a conductive calcium vanadate phase is present in localized regions in the CaO coating

  13. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  14. Low-temperature graphene synthesis using microwave plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Kim, Jaeho; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The graphene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at substrate temperatures around 300 °C by a microwave plasma sustained by surface waves (surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition, SWP-CVD) is discussed. A low-temperature, large-area and high-deposition-rate CVD process for graphene films was developed. It was found from Raman spectra that the deposited films on copper (Cu) substrates consisted of high-quality graphene flakes. The fabricated graphene transparent conductive electrode showed uniform optical transmittance and sheet resistance, which suggests the possibility of graphene for practical electrical and optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing that graphene was successfully deposited on aluminium (Al) substrates, for which we did not expect the catalytic effect to decompose hydrocarbon and hydrogen molecules. We developed a roll-to-roll SWP-CVD system for continuous graphene film deposition towards industrial mass production. A pair of winder and unwinder systems of Cu film was installed in the plasma CVD apparatus. Uniform Raman spectra were confirmed over the whole width of 297 mm of Cu films. We successfully transferred the deposited graphene onto PET films, and confirmed a transmittance of about 95% and a sheet resistance of less than 7 × 10 5 Ω/sq.

  15. Low-temperature graphene synthesis using microwave plasma CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Kim, Jaeho; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2013-02-01

    The graphene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at substrate temperatures around 300 °C by a microwave plasma sustained by surface waves (surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition, SWP-CVD) is discussed. A low-temperature, large-area and high-deposition-rate CVD process for graphene films was developed. It was found from Raman spectra that the deposited films on copper (Cu) substrates consisted of high-quality graphene flakes. The fabricated graphene transparent conductive electrode showed uniform optical transmittance and sheet resistance, which suggests the possibility of graphene for practical electrical and optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing that graphene was successfully deposited on aluminium (Al) substrates, for which we did not expect the catalytic effect to decompose hydrocarbon and hydrogen molecules. We developed a roll-to-roll SWP-CVD system for continuous graphene film deposition towards industrial mass production. A pair of winder and unwinder systems of Cu film was installed in the plasma CVD apparatus. Uniform Raman spectra were confirmed over the whole width of 297 mm of Cu films. We successfully transferred the deposited graphene onto PET films, and confirmed a transmittance of about 95% and a sheet resistance of less than 7 × 105 Ω/sq.

  16. Evaluation of CVD silicon carbide for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) is a recent addition to the list of materials suitable for use in the harsh environment of synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines. SR mirrors for use at normal incidence must be ultrahigh vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish, and must maintain surface figure under thermal loading. CVD SiC exceeds the performance of conventional optical materials in all these areas. It is, however, a relatively new optical material. Few manufacturers have experience in producing optical quality material, and few opticians have experience in figuring and polishing the material. The CVD material occurs in a variety of forms, sensitively dependent upon reaction chamber production conditions. We are evaluating samples of CVD SiC obtained commercially from various manufacturers, representing a range of deposition conditions, to determine which types of CVD material are most suitable for superpolishing. At the time of this writing, samples are being polished by several commercial vendors and surface finish characteristics are being evaluated by various analytical methods

  17. Test of radiation hardness of pcCVD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Enders, Joachim [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Figuera, P.; Salamone, S. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); Fruehauf, J.; Kis, Mladen; Kratz, A.; Kurz, N.; Loechner, S.; Nociforo, Chiara; Schirru, Fabio; Szczepanczyk, B.; Traeger, M.; Visinka, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Musumarra, A. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); University of Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    The new in-flight separator Super-FRS is under construction at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt). Ion rates up to 3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 238}U/spill demand an adaption of detectors to a high radiation environment. A test experiment to investigate the radiation hardness of polycrystalline diamond detectors (pcCVD) was performed at the LNS-INFN in Catania using a {sup 12}C beam at 62 MeV/u and intensities of up to 1.5 pnA. The setup consisted of pcCVD strip detectors to measure the beam profile, a single crystal diamond detector to calibrate the ionisation chamber working in current mode as a beam intensity monitor and a pcCVD sample to be irradiated. The IC used was designed for FAIR and showed a stable counting rate allowing us to calibrate and perform beam intensity measurements with it. The total measured counts on the sample were 8.25 x 10{sup 11} counts/mm{sup 2} over a period of 60 hours. Digital waveforms of the pcCVD signals were taken with an oscilloscope and analysed. The results showed no change of the pcCVD signal properties during the entire irradiation.

  18. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  19. Adhesion of non-selective CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.W.; Wilson, R.H.; Sanchez-Martinez, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of non-selective, CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide is a critical issue in the development of tungsten as a metalization for VLSI circuitry. Without special adhesion promoters, tungsten deposited from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/ has typically failed a standard tape test over all types of silicon oxides and nitrides. The reasons for failure of thin films, and CVD tungsten in particular are explored along with standard techniques for improving adhesion of thin films. Experiments are reported which include a number of sputtered metals as adhesion promoters, as well as chemical and plasma treatment of the oxide surface. Sputtered molybdenum is clearly the superior adhesion promoting layer from these tests. Traditional adhesion layers such as chromium or titanium failed as adhesion layers for CVD tungsten possibly due to chemical reactions between the WF/sub 6/ and Cr or Ti

  20. The formation of tritium permeation barriers by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcey, K.S.; Perujo, A.; Reiter, F.; Lolli-Ceroni, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness as permeation barriers of the following CVD coatings have been investigated: TiC (1 to 2 μm in thickness); a bi-layer of TiN on TiC (3 μm total thickness) and CVD Al 2 O 3 on a TiN/TiC bi-layer. The substrate materials were TZM (a Mo alloy) and 316L stainless steel in the form of discs of diameter 48 mm and thickness 0.1 or 1 mm. Permeation measurements were performed in the temperature range 515-742 K using deuterium at pressures in the range 1-50 kPa. CVD layers were shown to form reasonably effective permeation barriers. At a temperature of 673 K TiC is around 6000 times less permeable to deuterium than 316L stainless steel. (orig.)

  1. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  2. Graphene Synthesis by Plasma-Enhanced CVD Growth with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, T.; Cotto, M.; Márquez, F.; Elizalde, E.; Morant, C.

    2016-01-01

    A modified route to synthesize graphene flakes is proposed using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique, by using copper substrates as supports. The carbon source used was ethanol, the synthesis temperature was 950°C and the pressure was controlled along the whole process. In this CVD synthesis process the incorporation of the carbon source was produced at low pressure and 950°C inducing the appearance of a plasma blue flash inside the quartz tube. Apparently, the presence of this plas...

  3. Correlation of CVD Diamond Electron Emission with Film Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Baumann, P. K.; Ward, B. L.; Nemanich, R. J.; Dreifus, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Electron field emission from metals is affected by surface morphology and the properties of any dielectric coating. Recent results have demonstrated low field electron emission from p-type diamond, and photoemission measurements have identified surface treatments that result in a negative electron affinity (NEA). In this study, the field emission from diamond is correlated with surface treatment, surface roughness, and film properties (doping and defects). Electron emission measurements are reported on diamond films synthesized by plasma CVD. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy indicates that the CVD films exhibit a NEA after exposure to hydrogen plasma. Field emission current-voltage measurements indicate "threshold voltages" ranging from approximately 20 to 100 V/micron.

  4. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F. E-mail: f.hartjes@nikhef.nl; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2002-01-11

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/c pions and 24 GeV/c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  5. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/ c pions and 24 GeV/ c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  6. Application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The ULSI technology has been following Moore's law into the sub-100 nm era, although several challenging technical issues must be resolved. This paper describes possible application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology beyond the 45 nm node. Especially, Cat-CVD SiN film for a transistor gate sidewall and/or a pre-metallic liner layer, and removal of photo resist (ash) by Cat-induced hydrogen atoms in the interconnect structure with an extreme low-k material are mainly discussed

  7. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/c pions and 24 GeV/c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal

  8. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  9. CVD-graphene for low equivalent series resistance in rGO/CVD-graphene/Ni-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Kumar, Sunil; Bae, Joonho; Seo, Yongho

    2018-05-01

    Reduced equivalent series resistance (ESR) is necessary, particularly at a high current density, for high performance supercapacitors, and the interface resistance between the current collector and electrode material is one of the main components of ESR. In this report, we have optimized chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene (CVD-G) on a current collector (Ni-foil) using reduced graphene oxide as an active electrode material to fabricate an electric double layer capacitor with reduced ESR. The CVD-G was grown at different cooling rates—20 °C min‑1, 40 °C min‑1 and 100 °C min‑1—to determine the optimum conditions. The lowest ESR, 0.38 Ω, was obtained for a cell with a 100 °C min‑1 cooling rate, while the sample without a CVD-G interlayer exhibited 0.80 Ω. The CVD-G interlayer-based supercapacitors exhibited fast CD characteristics with high scan rates up to 10 Vs‑1 due to low ESR. The specific capacitances deposited with CVD-G were in the range of 145.6 F g‑1–213.8 F g‑1 at a voltage scan rate of 0.05 V s‑1. A quasi-rectangular behavior was observed in the cyclic voltammetry curves, even at very high scan rates of 50 and 100 V s‑1, for the cell with optimized CVD-G at higher cooling rates, i.e. 100 °C min‑1.

  10. Experimental investigation concerning the influence of fuel type and properties on the injection and atomization of liquid biofuels in an optical combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, J.; Defruyt, S.; Van de Maele, C.; Rodriguez, R. Piloto; Denon, Q.; Verliefde, A.; Verhelst, S.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of fossil fuels and the future stringent emission limits, there is an increasing interest for the use of renewable biofuels in compression ignition engines. However, these fuels have different physical, chemical and thermodynamic properties affecting atomization, spray development and combustion processes. The results reported in this paper have been obtained by experimentation with a constant volume combustion chamber. The influences of physical fuel properties on injections under non-evaporating conditions are studied, using a pump-line-nozzle system from a medium speed diesel engine with injection pressures up to 1200 bar, by changing the fuel type and temperature. Experiments were conducted for diesel, biodiesel, straight vegetable oils and animal fats. Injection pressure and needle lift measurements were analyzed. A high speed camera was used to visualize the spray, which enabled us to study the spray penetration and spray angle. Our results show that the fuel temperature is an important parameter to control because it significantly affects the fuel properties. Both the injection timing and injection duration are affected by the fuel properties. The influences of these properties on the spray development were less pronounced. At low temperatures, a strongly deteriorated atomization of oils and fats was observed. -- Highlights: • Spray measurements in an optical combustion chamber. • Influence on the injections system is compared for different bio-fuels. •Temperature effects the fuel properties, with strong influence on the injection system. • Viscosity has significant influence on atomization, especially for viscous fuels. • No difference for spray penetration and angle unlike the mass distribution

  11. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  12. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  16. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  18. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes for ceramic membrane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.W.; Cao, G.Z.; Meijerink, J.; de Vries, Karel Jan; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process (which takes place in advance of the electrochemical vapour deposition (EVD) process) to deposit ZrO2 inside porous media for the preparation and modification of ceramic membranes. The isobaric

  19. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  20. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  1. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction.

  2. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  4. Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1389, APR (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * in-line coupling * supported liquid membrane extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015

  5. Rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantitative determination of potentially harmful substance 5,5′-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingce Zang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and wide application of traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI, a number of adverse events of some TCMIs have incessantly been reported and have drawn broad attention in recent years. Establishing effective and practical analytical methods for safety evaluation and quality control of TCMI can help to improve the safety of TCMIs in clinical applications. In this study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of potentially harmful substance 5,5′-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural, OMBF in TCMI samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 µm by gradient elution, using methanol–water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. MS/MS detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The method was sensitive with a limit of quantification of 0.3 ng/mL and linear over the range of 0.3–30 ng/mL (r=0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precision for analyte was <9.52% RSD with recoveries in the range 88.0–109.67% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine the compound OMBF in TCMIs and glucose injections. Our study indicates that this method is simple, sensitive, practicable and reliable, and could be applied for safety evaluation and quality control of TCMIs and glucose injections. KEY WORDS: 5,5′-Oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural, LC–MS/MS, Quantitative analytical method, Traditional Chinese medicine injection, Quality control

  6. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO2 phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Vargas-Garcia, J.R.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Romero-Serrano, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac) 4 has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp o , ΔH o and S o for Zr(acac) 4 have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO 2 can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and graphite carbon.

  7. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15 /cm 2 ) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10 15 p/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10 15 π/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations

  8. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B

    2002-01-11

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a {beta}-source and the performance before and after intense (>10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10{sup 15} {pi}/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  9. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dangelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F. E-mail: f.hartjes@nikhef.nl; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; D.Tromson,; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D

    2000-06-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  10. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a $\\beta$-source and the performance before and after intense ($>10^{15}/{\\rm cm^2}$) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiations increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiations with protons ($2.2\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions ($2.9\\times 10^{15}~\\pi/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  11. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S. V.; Thomson, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15/cm 2) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2×10 15 p/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9×10 15 π/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  12. Assessment of CVD diamond as a thermoluminescence dosemeter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchi, E.; Furetta, C.; Leroy, C.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond has a low atomic number (Z = 6) and is therefore essentially soft tissue (Z = 7.4) equivalent. As such, diamond is an attractive material for applications in dosimetry in which the radiation absorption in the sensor material should be as close as possible to that of soft tissue. Synthetic diamond prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) offers an attractive option for this application. The aim of the present work is to report results on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of CVD diamond samples. The annealing procedures, the linearity of the TL response as a function of dose, a short-term fading experiment and some kinetic properties have been investigated and are reported here. (Author)

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) OCRWM Loop Error Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization is specifically identified by the Richland Operations Office (RL) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as requiring application of the requirements in the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (RW-0333P DOE 1997a). Those analyses that provide information that is necessary for repository acceptance require application of the QARD. The cold vacuum drying (CVD) project identified the loops that measure, display, and record multi-canister overpack (MCO) vacuum pressure and Tempered Water (TW) temperature data as providing OCRWM data per Application of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements to the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project HNF-SD-SNF-RPT-007. Vacuum pressure transmitters (PT 1*08, 1*10) and TW temperature transmitters (TIT-3*05, 3*12) are used to verify drying and to determine the water content within the MCO after CVD

  14. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M; Fenyvesi, A; Molnár, J; Sohler, D

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal. (11 refs).

  15. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dangelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; D.Tromson,; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal

  16. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  17. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5 * 10 15 protons/cm 2 . The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10 15 protons/cm 2 . A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels

  18. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5{sup *}10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels.

  19. CVD diamonds as thermoluminescent detectors for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.; Nesladek, M.; Waligorski, M.P.R.; Kerremans, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is believed to be a promising material for medical dosimetry due to its tissue equivalence, mechanical and radiation hardness, and lack of solubility in water or in disinfecting agents. A number of diamond samples, obtained under different growth conditions at Limburg University, using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique, was tested as thermoluminescence dosemeters. Their TL glow curve, TL response after doses of gamma rays, fading, and so on were studied at dose levels and for radiation modalities typical for radiotherapy. The investigated CVD diamonds displayed sensitivity comparable with that of MTS-N (Li:Mg,Ti) detectors, signal stability (reproducibility after several readouts) below 10% (1 SD) and no fading was found four days after irradiation. A dedicated CVD diamond plate was grown, cut into 20 detector chips (3x3x0.5 mm) and used for measuring the dose-depth distribution at different depths in a water phantom, for 60 Co and six MV X ray radiotherapy beams. Due to the sensitivity of diamond to ambient light, it was difficult to achieve reproducibility comparable with that of standard LiF detectors. (author)

  20. Nitrogen and hydrogen related infrared absorption in CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal)]. E-mail: elby@mec.ua.pt; Ali, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Cabral, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Madaleno, J.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Neto, V.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Gracio, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Ramesh Babu, P [Materials Ireland, Polymer research Centre, School of Physics, Dublin (Ireland); Sikder, A.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay (India); Okpalugo, T.I. [Northern Ireland Bio-Engineering Centre, NIBEC, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); Misra, D.S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay (India)

    2006-09-25

    In this paper, we investigate on the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen related infrared absorptions in chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films. Investigations were carried out in cross sections of diamond windows, deposited using hot filament CVD (HFCVD). The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy carried out in a cross section of self-standing diamond sheets are presented. The FTIR spectra showed several features that have not been reported before. In order to confirm the frequency of nitrogen related vibrations, ab-initio calculations were carried out using GAMESS program. The investigations showed the presence of several C-N related peaks in one-phonon (1000-1333 cm{sup -1}). The deconvolution of the spectra in the three-phonon region (2700-3150 cm{sup -1}) also showed a number of vibration modes corresponding to sp {sup m}CH {sub n} phase of carbon. Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) was employed to compare the H content measured using FTIR technique. Using these measurements we point out that the oscillator strength of the different IR modes varies depending upon the structure and H content of CVD diamond sheets.

  1. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  2. Investigation of CVD graphene topography and surface electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Pearce, Ruth; Gallop, John; Patel, Trupti; Pollard, Andrew; Hao, Ling; Zhao, Fang; Jackman, Richard; Klein, Norbert; Zurutuza, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    Combining scanning probe microscopy techniques to characterize samples of graphene, a selfsupporting, single atomic layer hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms, provides far more information than a single technique can. Here we focus on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), grown by passing carbon containing gas over heated copper, which catalyses single atomic layer growth of graphene on its surface. To be useful for applications the graphene must be transferred onto other substrates. Following transfer it is important to characterize the CVD graphene. We combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to reveal several properties of the transferred film. AFM alone provides topographic information, showing ‘wrinkles’ where the transfer provided incomplete substrate attachment. SKPM measures the surface potential indicating regions with different electronic properties for example graphene layer number. By combining AFM and SKPM local defects and impurities can also be observed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy can confirm the structural properties of the graphene films, such as the number of layers and level of disorder, by observing the peaks present. We report example data on a number of CVD samples from different sources. (paper)

  3. Mass production of CNTs using CVD multi-quartz tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Samy; Mohamed, Alaa [Dept. of Production Engineering and Printing Technology, Akhbar Elyom Academy, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become the backbone of modern industries, including lightweight and heavy-duty industrial applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as the most common method used to synthesize high yield CNTs. This work aims to develop the traditional CVD for the mass production of more economical CNTs, meeting the growing CNT demands among consumers by increasing the number of three particular reactors. All reactors housing is connected by small channels to provide the heat exchange possibility between the chambers, thereby decreasing synthesis time and reducing heat losses inside the ceramic body of the furnace. The novel design is simple and cheap with a lower reacting time and heat loss compared with the traditional CVD design. Methane, hydrogen, argon, and catalyzed iron nanoparticles were used as a carbon source and catalyst during the synthesis process. In addition, CNTs were produced using only a single quartz tube for comparison. The produced samples were examined using XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results showed that the yield of CNTs increases by 287 % compared with those synthesized with a single quartz tube. Moreover, the total synthesis time of CNTs decreases by 37 % because of decreased heat leakage.

  4. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  5. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  6. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  7. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  8. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  9. Analysis of linear and cyclic oligomers in polyamide-6 without sample preparation by liquid chromatography using the sandwich injection method. II. Methods of detection and quantification and overall long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengerink, Y; Peters, R; Kerkhoff, M; Hellenbrand, J; Omloo, H; Andrien, J; Vestjens, M; van der Wal, S

    2000-05-05

    By separating the first six linear and cyclic oligomers of polyamide-6 on a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic system after sandwich injection, quantitative determination of these oligomers becomes feasible. Low-wavelength UV detection of the different oligomers and selective post-column reaction detection of the linear oligomers with o-phthalic dicarboxaldehyde (OPA) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) are discussed. A general methodology for quantification of oligomers in polymers was developed. It is demonstrated that the empirically determined group-equivalent absorption coefficients and quench factors are a convenient way of quantifying linear and cyclic oligomers of nylon-6. The overall long-term performance of the method was studied by monitoring a reference sample and the calibration factors of the linear and cyclic oligomers.

  10. Complicações locais após a injeção de silicone líquido industrial: série de casos Local complications after industrial liquid silicone injection: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Mello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar uma série de casos de pacientes submetidos à injeção de silicone líquido industrial de maneira clandestina e por pessoas não habilitadas. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes atendidos no período de setembro de 2003 a dezembro de 2010. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, local e volume de silicone injetado, tempo decorrido entre a aplicação e as manifestações clínicas, complicações, tratamento e evolução. Definiu-se como precoce as manifestações ocorridas até 30 dias da injeção e manifestações tardias após este período. RESULTADOS: Foram atendidos 12 pacientes, oito eram do sexo masculino, sendo sete transexuais. O volume injetado variou de 5ml a 2000ml, sendo desconhecido em três casos. Os locais mais frequentemente utilizados para injeção foram a região de coxas e glúteos. Oito casos apresentaram manifestações precoces, com quadros de inflamação e/ou infecção. Foi necessária a realização de desbridamento cirúrgico em cinco casos. Três pacientes com histórico de injeção na região mamária foram submetidas à adenomastectomia. Houve um óbito por quadro de choque séptico refratário. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do silicone líquido industrial deve ser totalmente contraindicado como material de preenchimento e modificação do contorno corporal, podendo apresentar graves complicações e até mesmo óbito.OBJECTIVE: To analyze a case series of patients who underwent injection of industrial liquid silicone in a clandestine manner and by unauthorized persons. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients treated between September 2003 and December 2010. Data regarding gender, age, location and volume of silicone injected, time between application and clinical manifestations, complications, treatment and outcome were collected. Early manifestations were defined as occurring within 30 days of injection and late manifestations, the ones arising

  11. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  12. Rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantitative determination of potentially harmful substance 5,5'-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural) in traditional Chinese medicine injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qingce; Gao, Yang; Huang, Luojiao; He, Jiuming; Lin, Sheng; Jin, Hongtao; Zhang, Ruiping; Abliz, Zeper

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development and wide application of traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI), a number of adverse events of some TCMIs have incessantly been reported and have drawn broad attention in recent years. Establishing effective and practical analytical methods for safety evaluation and quality control of TCMI can help to improve the safety of TCMIs in clinical applications. In this study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of potentially harmful substance 5,5'-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural, OMBF) in TCMI samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution, using methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. MS/MS detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The method was sensitive with a limit of quantification of 0.3 ng/mL and linear over the range of 0.3-30 ng/mL ( r =0.9998). Intra- and inter-day precision for analyte was <9.52% RSD with recoveries in the range 88.0-109.67% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine the compound OMBF in TCMIs and glucose injections. Our study indicates that this method is simple, sensitive, practicable and reliable, and could be applied for safety evaluation and quality control of TCMIs and glucose injections.

  13. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  14. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  16. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  17. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  18. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  19. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  20. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  2. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  3. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  4. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  7. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  12. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  17. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  18. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  2. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  3. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  4. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  5. Nucleation of microwave plasma CVD diamond on molybdenum (Mo) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderjeet, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2000-01-01

    Molybdenum is a metal, which is gaining increasing significance in industrial applications. The main use of Mo is as all alloying element added in small amounts to steel, irons and non- ferrous alloys in order to enhance the strength, toughness and wear resistance. Mo is also vastly being employed in the automotive and aircraft industries, mainly due to its low coefficient of friction. Diamond, on be other hand, is a unique material for innumerable applications because of its usual combination of physical and chemical properties. Several potential applications can be anticipated for diamond in many sectors including electronics, optics, as protective corrosion resistant coatings, cutting tools, etc. With the enhancement in science and technology, diamond microcrystals and thin films are now being produced from the vapour phase by a variety of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques; such as microwave plasma CVD. With such technology being made available, it is envisage that diamond-coated molybdenum would further enhance the performance and to open up new avenue for Mo in various industries. Therefore, it is the aim of the present work to study the nucleation and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface by employing microwave plasma CVD (MAPCVD). In the present work, diamond deposition was carried out in several stages by varying the deposition distance. The nucleation and growth rate were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the existence of diamond was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It has been found that the nucleation and growth rate of diamond particles were influenced by the deposition height between the substrate and plasma. Under the optimum condition, well defined diamond crystallites distributed homogeneously throughout the surface, could be obtained. Some of the important parameters controlling the deposition and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface are discussed. (author)

  6. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  7. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely...... chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when...... immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified....

  8. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT  0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  9. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk.

  10. Transient CFD studies on multiple jets issuing from injection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumawat, Ganesh Lal; Kansal, Anuj Kumar; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar; Rama Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    Shut down system 2 of Advanced Heavy Water reactor incorporates the injection of liquid poison into moderator through injection tubes. The injection tubes consist of several holes distributed axially and circumferentially. Investigation of the poison jet progression and spreading from the holes of injection tube is important aspect of determining negative reactivity injection rate. This paper presents the CFD simulation to investigate poison jet progression and its spreading from the holes of injection tube. (author)

  11. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  12. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  13. A study of the thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Rebisz, M.; Nesladek, M.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2002-01-01

    A batch of 20 diamond detectors obtained by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method at the Institute for Materials Research at the Limburg University, Belgium, was investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) properties. The investigated detectors demonstrate TL sensitivity similar to that of the standard LiF:Mg, Ti (MTS) thermoluminescent detectors, lack of fading after two weeks from irradiation and apparent linearity of dose response. In spite of the persistent fluctuation of individual detector sensitivity observed in this batch, a new annealing procedure improved the stability of the TL signal. It has been concluded that 1 h annealing at 350 C assures the highest reproducibility for this set of detectors. A 30% discrepancy of the value of the TL signal between individual detectors from the batch may be caused by non-uniform distribution of dopants in the volume of the CVD diamond. A prototype of a planar TL reader equipped with a CCD camera was employed in this investigation. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Castaneda, B.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Gan, B.; Ahn, J.; Zhang, Q.; Yoon, S.F.

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z=6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z=7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220, 320 and 370 deg. C. The 120 and 370 deg. C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 deg. C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. (author)

  15. VOx effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VOx doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86-90%. The optimized VOx-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VOx can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VOx species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VOx doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  16. Management of Hypertension and Other CVD Risk Factors in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the knowledge and practice of PHC physicians toward the detection and management of hypertension (HTN and other CVD risk factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study of all primary health care physicians of the FHU of three rural districts of Egypt was conducted. Each physician was subjected to a prevalidated interview questionnaire on the WHO-CVD risk management package for low and medium resources, and a checklist of observation of daily practices. Results. Hypertension was a priority problem in about two-thirds (62.9% of physicians, yet only 19% have guidelines for HTN patients. Clinical history recording system for HNT was available for 50% of physicians. Levels of knowledge varied with regard to definition of HTN (61.3%, fair, procedures for BP measurement (43.5%, poor, indications for referral (43.5%, poor, patient counseling (61.3%, fair, patient treatment (59.8%, fair. Availability of clinical history recording system for HNT was a significant predictor for physician's level of knowledge (P=0.001. Overall level of practice was fair (68.5%. Conclusion. PHC physicians have unsatisfactory knowledge and practice on hypertension. There is a need of more continuing medical education. Local and international manuals, workshops, and seminars on how to make use of these guidelines would improve doctors' performance.

  17. Response of CVD diamond detectors to alpha radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souw, E.-K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Meilunas, R.J. [Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 (United States)

    1997-11-21

    This article describes some results from an experiment with CVD diamond films used as {alpha} particle detectors. It demonstrates that bulk polarization can be effectively stopped within a reasonable time interval. This will enable detector calibration and quantitative measurement. A possible mechanism for the observed polarization quenching is discussed. It involves two types of carrier traps and a tentative band-gap model derived from the results of photoconductive current measurements. The experiment was set up mainly to investigate {alpha} detection properties of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For comparison, two commercially purchased diamond wafers were also investigated, i.e., one grown by the DC arc jet method, and the other, a type-IIa natural diamond wafer (not preselected). The best response to {alpha} particles was obtained using diamond thin-films grown by the microwave PECVD method, followed by the type-IIa natural diamond, and finally, the CVD diamond grown by the DC arc jet technique. (orig.). 43 refs.

  18. Prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year CVD risk in male steel industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin J; Bracken, Richard M; Turner, Daniel; Morgan, Kerry; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Thomas, Michael; Williams, Sally P; Williams, Meurig; Rice, Sam; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of male steelworkers in South Wales, UK. Male steel industry workers (n = 221) with no prior diagnosis of CVD or diabetes accepted a CVD risk assessment within the work environment. Demographic, anthropometric, family, and medical histories were all recorded and capillary blood samples obtained. The 10-year CVD risk was predicted using the QRISK2-2012 algorithm. Up to 81.5% of workers were either overweight or obese. More than 20% of workers were found to have diastolic hypertension, high total cholesterol, and/or a total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio of six or more. Over one quarter of workers assessed had an increased 10-year CVD risk. Despite a physically demanding occupation, risk assessment in the workplace uncovered significant occult factors in CVD risk in a sample of male heavy industry workers.

  19. BORILAIN. Mobile device for automatic continuous supply of liquid injection system backup of a nuclear plant in emergency; BORILAIN. Dispositivo movil para el abastecimiento automatico en continuo del sistema de inyeccion del liquido de reserva de una central nuclear en situacion de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, J.; Traino, J.; Troeung, J.; Arnaldos, A.; Alcaraz, D. A.; Lopez, B.; Ponce, A. T.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the first automatic mobile device for the preparation of a neutron absorbing solution, and providing continuous, 30 days, of the injection system liquid reserve of a nuclear emergency. The work has been developed by GD Energy Services (GDES) for Electricite de France (EDF). (Author)

  20. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  1. Thermal Analysis of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with N Reactor spent fuel. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility in support of the safety basis documentation

  2. A measure of the interfacial shear strength between SiC(CVD)/B(CVD) filament--aluminum matrix by fragmentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.Q.; Chen, X.J.; Yang, D.M.; Fei, X.; Pan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile specimens used are of dog-bone shape and consist of single axial SiC (CVD) /B (CVD) filament processed by CVD and embedded in a LD-2 aluminum alloy. Model composite specimens have been fabricated by a high pressure squeeze casting technique. This paper describes the application of an Acoustic Emission Technique for locating the position of fiber breaks and thus determining the length distribution of fiber fragments resulting when a composite specimen containing a single fiber is loaded to failure. The critical lengths (minimal lengths) are checked by Corrosion Method

  3. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  4. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  5. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  6. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  7. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, E; Atramentov, O; Yang, Z; Hall-Wilton, R; Schnetzer, S; Patel, R; Bugg, W; Hebda, P; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Marlow, D; Steininger, H; Ryjov, V; Hits, D; Spanier, S; Pernicka, M; Johns, W; Doroshenko, J; Hollingsworth, M; Harrop, B; Farrow, C; Stone, R

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLTs mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Oxidation kinetics of CVD silicon carbide and silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term oxidation behavior of pure, monolithic CVD SiC and Si3N4 is studied, and the isothermal oxidation kinetics of these two materials are obtained for the case of 100 hrs at 1200-1500 C in flowing oxygen. Estimates are made of lifetimes at the various temperatures investigated. Parabolic rate constants for SiC are within an order of magnitude of shorter exposure time values reported in the literature. The resulting silica scales are in the form of cristobalite, with cracks visible after exposure. The oxidation protection afforded by silica for these materials is adequate for long service times under isothermal conditions in 1-atm dry oxygen.

  9. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Hollingsworth, M., E-mail: mhollin3@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Johns, W. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville (United States); Halyo, V.; Harrop, B. [Princeton University, Princeton (United States); and others

    2011-09-11

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  10. Dimensionless Numbers Expressed in Terms of Common CVD Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of dimensionless numbers related to momentum and heat transfer are useful in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) analysis. These numbers are not traditionally calculated by directly using reactor operating parameters, such as temperature and pressure. In this paper, these numbers have been expressed in a form that explicitly shows their dependence upon the carrier gas, reactor geometry, and reactor operation conditions. These expressions were derived for both monatomic and diatomic gases using estimation techniques for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Values calculated from these expressions compared well to previously published values. These expressions provide a relatively quick method for predicting changes in the flow patterns resulting from changes in the reactor operating conditions.

  11. Tests of Hercules/Ultramet CVD coatings in hot hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.; Svandrlik, J.; Adams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The effort by Hercules and Ultramet to produce CVD NbC coatings, which protect carbon-carbon substrates from hot hydrogen, has had some success but with some limitations. The coatings increase the survival time at atmospheric pressure and low flow rate of hydrogen by about a factor of 40 over uncoated graphite at 3000 K. However, the grain structure is not stable at these temperatures, and after about 10--20 minutes, the coating is subject to rapid degradation by spalling in visible chunks. Further experiments would have to be performed to determine the effects of higher pressures and flow rates, for it is not clear how these factors would affect the survival time, considering that one of the main failure mechanisms is independent of the atmosphere

  12. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  13. CVD diamond Brewster window: feasibility study by FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond windows are a crucial component in heating and current drive (H&CD applications. In order to minimize the amount of reflected power from the diamond disc, its thickness must match the desired beam wavelength, thus proper targeting of the plasma requires movable beam reflectors. This is the case, for instance, of the ITER electron cyclotron H&CD system. However, looking at DEMO, the higher heat loads and neutron fluxes could make the use of movable parts close to the plasma difficult. The issue might be solved by using gyrotrons able to tune the beam frequency to the desired resonance, but this concept requires transmission windows that work in a given frequency range, such as the Brewster window. It consists of a CVD diamond disc brazed to two copper cuffs at the Brewster angle. The brazing process is carried out at about 800°C and then the temperature is decreased down to room temperature. Diamond and copper have very different thermal expansion coefficients, therefore high stresses build up during the cool down phase that might lead to failure of the disc. Considering also the complex geometry of the window with the skewed position of the disc, analyses are required in the first place to check its feasibility. The cool down phase was simulated by FEM structural analyses for several geometric and constraint configurations of the window. A study of indirect cooling of the window by water was also performed considering a HE11 mode beam. The results are here reported.

  14. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  15. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  16. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while J sc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge. (paper)

  17. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  18. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9952 and acceptable recovery of 91.8%–104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%, indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  19. Universal Design: Supporting Students with Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Lisa M.; Jain, Neera R.; Herzer, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) is a commonly occurring condition in the general population. For medical students, it has the potential to create unique challenges in the classroom and clinical environments. Few studies have provided medical educators with comprehensive recommendations to assist students with CVD. This article presents a focused…

  20. Urchin-like artificial gallium oxide nanowires grown by a novel MOCVD/CVD-based route for random laser application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ronaldo P. de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Colégio Militar do Recife, Exército Brasileiro, Recife PE 50730-120 (Brazil); Oliveira, Nathalia Talita C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Araújo, Cid B. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino; Luz, Leonis L. da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Chassagnon, Remi [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Sacilotti, Marco [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Nanoform Group, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2016-04-28

    A novel procedure based on a two-step method was developed to obtain β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The first step consists in the gallium micro-spheres growth inside a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment, using an organometallic precursor. Nanoscale spheres covering the microspheres were obtained. The second step involves the CVD oxidization of the gallium micro-spheres, which allow the formation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on the micro-sphere surface, with the final result being a nanostructure mimicking nature's sea urchin morphology. The grown nanomaterial is characterized by several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A discussion about the growth mechanism and the optical properties of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} material is presented considering its unknown true bandgap value (extending from 4.4 to 5.68 eV). As an application, the scattering properties of the nanomaterial are exploited to demonstrate random laser emission (around 570 nm) when it is permeated with a laser dye liquid solution.

  1. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  2. 25th anniversary article: CVD polymers: a new paradigm for surface modification and device fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coclite, Anna Maria; Howden, Rachel M; Borrelli, David C; Petruczok, Christy D; Yang, Rong; Yagüe, Jose Luis; Ugur, Asli; Chen, Nan; Lee, Sunghwan; Jo, Won Jun; Liu, Andong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gleason, Karen K

    2013-10-11

    Well-adhered, conformal, thin (polymers can be achieved on virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. In CVD polymerization, the monomer(s) are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, CVD enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. CVD film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, and thickness control. Initiated-CVD shows successful results in terms of rationally designed micro- and nanoengineered materials to control molecular interactions at material surfaces. The success of oxidative-CVD is mainly demonstrated for the deposition of organic conducting and semiconducting polymers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. NEXAFS Study of the Annealing Effect on the Local Structure of FIB-CVD DLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikubo, Akihiko; Kato, Yuri; Igaki, Jun-ya; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Shinji; Kometani, Reo

    2007-01-01

    Annealing effect on the local structure of diamond like carbon (DLC) formed by focused ion beam-chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) was investigated by the measurement of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. Carbon K edge absorption NEXAFS spectrum of FIB-CVD DLC was measured in the energy range of 275-320 eV. In order to obtain the information on the location of the gallium in the depth direction, incidence angle dependence of NEXAFS spectrum was measured in the incident angle range from 0 deg. to 60 deg. . The peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→σ* originating from carbon-gallium increased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C and decreased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Especially, the intensity of this peak remarkably enhanced in the NEXAFS spectrum of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C at the incident angle of 60 deg. . On the contrary, the peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→π* originating from carbon double bonding of emission spectrum decreased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to that at 400 deg. C and increased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Gallium concentration in the FIB-CVD DLC decreased from ≅2.2% of the as-deposited FIB-CVD DLC to ≅1.5% of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 600 deg. C from the elementary analysis using EDX. Both experimental results indicated that gallium atom departed from FIB-CVD DLC by annealing at the temperature of 600 deg. C

  4. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  5. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new and improved ceramic fibers has spurred the development and application of ceramic composites with improved strength, strength/weight ratio, toughness, and durability at increasingly high temperatures. For many systems, the ceramic fibers can be used without modification because their properties are adequate for the chosen application. However, in order to take maximum advantage of the fiber properties, it is often necessary to coat the ceramic fibers with materials of different composition and properties. Examples include (1) boron nitride coatings on a ceramic fiber, such as Nicalon silicon carbide, to prevent reaction with the ceramic matrix during fabrication and to enhance fiber pullout and increase toughness when the ceramic composite is subjected to stress; (2) boron nitride coatings on ceramic yarns, such as Nicalon for use as thermal insulation panels in an aerodynamic environment, to reduce abrasion of the Nicalon and to inhibit the oxidation of free carbon contained within the Nicalon; and (3) ceramic coatings on carbon yarns and carbon-carbon composites to permit use of these high-strength, high-temperature materials in oxidizing environments at very high temperatures. This paper describes a pilot-plant-sized CVD facility for continuous coating of ceramic fibers and some of the results obtained so far with this equipment

  6. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Growth by CVD on Graphite Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Due to the superior electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), synthesizing CNT on various substances for electronics devices and reinforced composites have been engaged in many efforts for applications. This presentation will illustrate CNT synthesized on graphite fibers by thermal CVD. On the fiber surface, iron nanoparticles as catalysts for CNT growth are coated. The growth temperature ranges from 600 to 1000 C and the pressure ranges from 100 Torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis. At high growth temperatures (greater than or equal to 900 C), the rapid inter-diffusion of the transition metal iron on the graphite surface results in the rough fiber surface without any CNT grown on it. When the growth temperature is relative low (650-800 C), CNT with catalytic particles on the nanotube top ends are fabricated on the graphite surface. (Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis.) (By measuring the samples) Using micro Raman spectroscopy in the breath mode region, single-walled or multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), depending on growth concentrations, are found. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  8. Cyclic voltammetry response of an undoped CVD diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabisiak, K., E-mail: kfab@ukw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Torz-Piotrowska, R. [Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, UTLS Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Staryga, E. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Paprocki, K.; Popielarski, P.; Bylicki, F. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Wrzyszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation was found between diamond quality and its electrochemical performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode sensitivity depends on the content of sp{sup 2} carbon phase in diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sp{sup 2} carbon phase content has little influence on the CV peak separation ({Delta}E{sub p}). - Abstract: The polycrystalline undoped diamond layers were deposited on tungsten wire substrates by using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As a working gas the mixture of methanol in excess of hydrogen was used. The morphologies and quality of as-deposited films were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The electrochemical activity of the obtained diamond layers was monitored by using cyclic voltammetry measurements. Analysis of the ferrocyanide-ferricyanide couple at undoped diamond electrode suggests that electrochemical reaction at diamond electrode has a quasireversibile character. The ratio of the anodic and cathodic peak currents was always close to unity. In this work we showed that the amorphous carbon admixture in the CVD diamond layer has a crucial influence on its electrochemical performance.

  9. A Fast CVD Diamond Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Pernegger, H

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors were installed in the collimation area of the CERN LHC to study their feasibility as Fast Beam Loss Monitors in a high-radiation environment. The detectors were configured with a fast, radiation-hard pre-amplifier with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The readout was via an oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 1 GHz and a sampling rate of 5 GSPS. Despite the 250 m cable run from the detectors to the oscilloscope, single MIPs were resolved with a 2 ns rise time, a pulse width of 10 ns and a time resolution of less than 1 ns. Two modes of operation were applied. For the analysis of unexpected beam aborts, the loss profile was recorded in a 1 ms buffer and, for nominal operation, the histogram of the time structure of the losses was recorded in synchronism with the LHC period of 89.2 μs. Measurements during the LHC start-up (February to December 2010) are presented. The Diamond Monitors gave an unprecedented insight into the time structure of the beam losses resolving the 400...

  10. Investigation of laser ablation of CVD diamond film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Choung-Lii; Chou, W. C.; Ma, Kung-Jen; Chen, Ta-Tung; Liu, Y. M.; Kuo, Y. S.; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2005-04-01

    Diamond, having many advanced physical and mechanical properties, is one of the most important materials used in the mechanical, telecommunication and optoelectronic industry. However, high hardness value and extreme brittleness have made diamond extremely difficult to be machined by conventional mechanical grinding and polishing. In the present study, the microwave CVD method was employed to produce epitaxial diamond films on silicon single crystal. Laser ablation experiments were then conducted on the obtained diamond films. The underlying material removal mechanisms, microstructure of the machined surface and related machining conditions were also investigated. It was found that during the laser ablation, peaks of the diamond grains were removed mainly by the photo-thermal effects introduced by excimer laser. The diamond structures of the protruded diamond grains were transformed by the laser photonic energy into graphite, amorphous diamond and amorphous carbon which were removed by the subsequent laser shots. As the protruding peaks gradually removed from the surface the removal rate decreased. Surface roughness (Ra) was improved from above 1μm to around 0.1μm in few minutes time in this study. However, a scanning technique would be required if a large area was to be polished by laser and, as a consequence, it could be very time consuming.

  11. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚

    1997-01-01

    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  12. Nanofluidic bubble pump using surface tension directed gas injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2002-01-01

    A new concept for liquid manipulation has been developed and implemented in surface-micromachined fluid channels. It is based on the surface tension directed injection of a gas into the liquid flow through micrometer-sized holes in the microchannel wall. The injected gas is directed to an exhaust by

  13. Development of a fully automated sequential injection solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to liquid chromatography to determine free 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Zacarías; Chisvert, Alberto; Balaguer, Angel; Salvador, Amparo

    2010-04-07

    2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid, commonly known as benzophenone-3 (BZ3) and benzophenone-4 (BZ4), respectively, are substances widely used as UV filters in cosmetic products in order to absorb UV radiation and protect human skin from direct exposure to the deleterious wavelengths of sunlight. As with other UV filters, there is evidence of their percutaneous absorption. This work describes an analytical method developed to determine trace levels of free BZ3 and BZ4 in human urine. The methodology is based on a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for clean-up and pre-concentration, followed by the monitoring of the UV filters by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). In order to improve not only the sensitivity and selectivity, but also the precision of the method, the principle of sequential injection analysis was used to automate the SPE process and to transfer the eluates from the SPE to the LC system. The application of a six-channel valve as an interface for the switching arrangements successfully allowed the on-line connection of SPE sample processing with LC analysis. The SPE process for BZ3 and BZ4 was performed using octadecyl (C18) and diethylaminopropyl (DEA) modified silica microcolumns, respectively, in which the analytes were retained and eluted selectively. Due to the matrix effects, the determination was based on standard addition quantification and was fully validated. The relative standard deviations of the results were 13% and 6% for BZ3 and BZ4, respectively, whereas the limits of detection were 60 and 30 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was satisfactorily applied to determine BZ3 and BZ4 in urine from volunteers that had applied a sunscreen cosmetic containing both UV filters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a fully automated sequential injection solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to liquid chromatography to determine free 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Zacarias; Chisvert, Alberto; Balaguer, Angel; Salvador, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid, commonly known as benzophenone-3 (BZ3) and benzophenone-4 (BZ4), respectively, are substances widely used as UV filters in cosmetic products in order to absorb UV radiation and protect human skin from direct exposure to the deleterious wavelengths of sunlight. As with other UV filters, there is evidence of their percutaneous absorption. This work describes an analytical method developed to determine trace levels of free BZ3 and BZ4 in human urine. The methodology is based on a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for clean-up and pre-concentration, followed by the monitoring of the UV filters by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). In order to improve not only the sensitivity and selectivity, but also the precision of the method, the principle of sequential injection analysis was used to automate the SPE process and to transfer the eluates from the SPE to the LC system. The application of a six-channel valve as an interface for the switching arrangements successfully allowed the on-line connection of SPE sample processing with LC analysis. The SPE process for BZ3 and BZ4 was performed using octadecyl (C18) and diethylaminopropyl (DEA) modified silica microcolumns, respectively, in which the analytes were retained and eluted selectively. Due to the matrix effects, the determination was based on standard addition quantification and was fully validated. The relative standard deviations of the results were 13% and 6% for BZ3 and BZ4, respectively, whereas the limits of detection were 60 and 30 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method was satisfactorily applied to determine BZ3 and BZ4 in urine from volunteers that had applied a sunscreen cosmetic containing both UV filters.

  15. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol was done by Waters HPLC system manager using gradient pump system. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofurane, acetonitrile and water in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and 2.0 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 16.50 µg/ml to 11.00 mg/ml for vitamin A, 10.05 µg/ml to 6.70 mg/ml for vitamin E, 0.075 µg/ml to 0.050 mg/ml for vitamin D3 and 1.25 mg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for benzylalcohol. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, benzyl alcohol and impurities.

  16. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.

  17. Development of a CVD silica coating for UK advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Houlton, M.R.; Moore, D.A.; Foster, A.I.; Swidzinski, M.A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Vapour deposited silica coatings could extend the life of the 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised (20/25/Nb) stainless steel fuel cladding of the UK advanced gas cooled reactors. A CVD coating process developed originally to be undertaken at atmospheric pressure has now been adapted for operation at reduced pressure. Trials on the LP CVD process have been pursued to the production scale using commercial equipment. The effectiveness of the LP CVD silica coatings in providing protection to 20/25/Nb steel surfaces against oxidation and carbonaceous deposition has been evaluated. (author)

  18. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, M. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Burchat, P. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Curry, S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)], E-mail: scurry@slac.stanford.edu; Edwards, A.J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Kagan, H.; Kass, R. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kirkby, D. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2007-12-11

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  19. Multilayered and composite PVD-CVD coatings in cemented carbides manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, V.N.; Anikeev, A.I.; Anikin, V.N.; Vereshchaka, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbide cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings deposited by CVD process are widely employed in mechanical engineering to ensure a substantially longer service life of tool systems. However, the relatively high temperature and long time of the process make the substrate decarburise and, as a result, the bend strength and performance characteristics of a tool decrease. The present study suggests the problem of deteriorated strength of CVD-coated carbide tools be solved by the development of a technology that combines arc-PVD and CVD processes to deposit multilayered coatings of titanium and aluminium compounds. (author)

  20. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Lundgren, J; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment ......B, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower CVD risk. Including apoB measurements in clinical practice when monitoring patients with dislipidemia or CVD might prove to be useful....

  1. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  2. Preparation of tantalum-based alloys by a unique CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, W.A.; Meier, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with the formation of alloys by CVD is the achievement of compositional uniformity. In a typical deposition apparatus, wherein reactant gases are made to flow over the substrate in a continuous manner, this nonuniformity is inherent for two reasons. The composition of the gas stream changes as a function of its distance of travel over the substrate and, inevitably, one of the reactant compounds is more easily reduced than the other(s). This problem was overcome by the development of a process termed ''pulsing.'' In it reactant gases are periodically injected into a previously evacuated reaction chamber where they cover the substrate almost instantaneously. By this technique, gas composition at any point in time is not dependent upon distance along the substrate. Formation of alternating layers of the alloy components and subsequent homogenization allows the formation of an alloy of uniform composition with the composition being determined by the duration and relative number of the various cycles. This technique has been utilized to produce dense alloys with the composition Ta--10 wt percent W by depositing alternating layers of TA and W by the hydrogen reduction of TaCl 5 and WCl 6 . The alloys were uniform in thickness and composition over lengths in excess of 20 cm and the target composition was attained. A similar attempt to deposit a Ta--8 wt percent W--2 wt percent Hf alloy was unsuccessful because of the difficulty in reducing HfCl 4 at temperatures below those at which gas phase nucleation of Ta and W occurred (1200 and 1175 0 C respectively). 7 fig

  3. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Schiattarella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sp2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO2, NH3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO2, whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH3. The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO2 and NH3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  4. A study of diaschisis in CVD using MR-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akihiko; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uetsuhara, Koichi; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Igata, Akihiro.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of diaschisis in the non-infarct cerebral areas in a cerebro-vascular disorder (CVD) has been reported using PET and cerebral-blood flowmetry. We are not aware, however, of any report studying this diaschisis by means of the method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this connection, we studied brain MRI in 38 patients with cerebral infarctions. The T 1 relaxation time was estimated in the white and grey matters of the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes and the thalamus, including the cerebral white matter of both the infarct and non-infarct sides. In the major-stroke group, significant increases (all P 1 relaxation time were observed in the thalamus of the infarct side, as well as in the thalamus and the white matter of the occipital lobe on the non-infarct side. In the minor-stroke group, significant increases (all P 1 relaxation time were also observed in all areas except the frontal-lobe white matter of the infarct and non-infarct sides. We have thus proved the presence of diaschisis through the method of MRI by evaluating the T 1 relaxation time. An analysis of the time profile of the T 1 relaxation time in each area demonstrated that the T 1 relaxation time tended to show its greatest value between 2 weeks and 2 months and thereafter gradually decreased, reaching the normal range 2 months later in the white matter of both the infarct and non-infarct sides. The T 1 relaxation time in the thalamus of the infarct side, however, decreased between 2 weeks and 2 months and then increased again. Therefore, we were able to show different time profiles of the diaschisis in various areas of the brain through the analysis of the T 1 relaxation time in MRI. (author)

  5. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattarella, Chiara; Vollebregt, Sten; Polichetti, Tiziana; Alfano, Brigida; Massera, Ettore; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2017-01-01

    The sp 2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO 2 , NH 3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N 2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH) at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO 2 , whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH 3 . The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO 2 and NH 3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2015-09-01

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  7. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  8. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  9. Selective CVD tungsten on silicon implanted SiO/sub 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, W.A.; Ghezzo, M.; Wilson, R.H.; Bakhru, H.

    1988-01-01

    The application range of selective CVD tungsten is extended by its coupling to the ion implantation of insulating materials. This article documents the results of selective CVD tungsten using silicon implanted into SiO/sub 2/ to nucleate the tungsten growth. The role of implant does, energy, and surface preparation in achieving nucleation are described. SEM micrographs are presented to demonstrate the selectivity of this process. Measurements of the tungsten film thickness and sheet resistance are provided for each of the experimental variants corresponding to successful deposition. RBS and XPS analysis are discussed in terms of characterizing the tungsten/oxide interface and to evaluate the role of the silicon implant in the CVD tungsten mechanism. Utilizing this method a desired metallization pattern can be readily defined with lithography and ion implantation, and accurately replicated with a layer of CVD tungsten. This approach avoids problems usually associated with blanket deposition and pattern transfer, which are particularly troublesome for submicron VLSI technology

  10. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho [Dept. of Nano-physics, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho [Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Engineering, HMC, and GRI, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs.

  11. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho; Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs

  12. Evaluating electrically insulating films deposited on V-4% Cr-4% Ti by reactive CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Cho, W.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Previous CaO coatings on V-4%Cr-4%Ti exhibited high-ohmic insulator behavior even though a small amount of vanadium from the alloy was incorporated in the coating. However, when the vanadium concentration in the coatings is > 15 wt%, the coating becomes conductive. When the vanadium concentration is high in localized areas, a calcium vanadate phase that exhibits semiconductor behavior can form. To explore this situation, CaO and Ca-V-O coatings were produced on vanadium alloys by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and by a metallic-vapor process to investigate the electrical resistance of the coatings. Initially, the vanadium alloy specimens were either charged with oxygen in argon that contained trace levels of oxygen, or oxidized for 1.5-3 h in a 1% CO-CO{sub 2} gas mixture or in air to form vanadium oxide at 625-650{degrees}C. Most of the specimens were exposed to calcium vapor at 800-850{degrees}C. Initial and final weights were obtained to monitor each step, and surveillance samples were removed for examination by optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron-energy-dispersive and X-ray diffraction analysis; the electrical resistivity was also measured. The authors found that Ca-V-O films exhibited insulator behavior when the ratio of calcium concentration to vanadium concentration R in the film was > 0.9, and semiconductor or conductor behavior for R < 0.8. However, in some cases, semiconductor behavior was observed when CaO-coated samples with R > 0.98 were exposed in liquid lithium. Based on these studies, the authors conclude that semiconductor behavior occurs if a conductive calcium vanadate phase is present in localized regions in the CaO coating.

  13. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  14. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  15. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  16. Tribological Characteristics and Applications of Superhard Coatings: CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Watanabe, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Sadao; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Results of fundamental research on the tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond, diamondlike carbon, and cubic boron nitride films in sliding contact with CVD diamond in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, humid air, and water are discussed. Furthermore, the actual and potential applications of the three different superhard coatings in the field of tribology technology, particularly for wear parts and tools, are reviewed.

  17. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  18. Defining the relationship between COPD and CVD: what are the implications for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ann D; Zakeri, Rosita; Quint, Jennifer K

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are arguably the most important comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CVDs are common in people with COPD, and their presence is associated with increased risk for hospitalization, longer length of stay and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The economic burden associated with CVD in this population is considerable and the cumulative cost of treating comorbidities may even exceed that of treating COPD itself. Our understanding of the biological mechanisms that link COPD and various forms of CVD has improved significantly over the past decade. But despite broad acceptance of the prognostic significance of CVDs in COPD, there remains widespread under-recognition and undertreatment of comorbid CVD in this population. The reasons for this are unclear; however institutional barriers and a lack of evidence-based guidelines for the management of CVD in people with COPD may be contributory factors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to the prevalence and incidence of CVD in people with COPD and the mechanisms that underlie their coexistence. We discuss the implications for clinical practice and highlight opportunities for improved prevention and treatment of CVD in people with COPD. While we advocate more active assessment for signs of cardiovascular conditions across all age groups and all stages of COPD severity, we suggest targeting those aged under 65 years. Evidence indicates that the increased risks for CVD are particularly pronounced in COPD patients in mid-to-late-middle-age and thus it is in this age group that the benefits of early intervention may prove to be the most effective. PMID:29355081

  19. Fast Ignition and Sustained Combustion of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash B. (Inventor); Piper, Lawrence G. (Inventor); Oakes, David B. (Inventor); Sabourin, Justin L. (Inventor); Hicks, Adam J. (Inventor); Green, B. David (Inventor); Tsinberg, Anait (Inventor); Dokhan, Allan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A catalyst free method of igniting an ionic liquid is provided. The method can include mixing a liquid hypergol with a HAN (Hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based ionic liquid to ignite the HAN-based ionic liquid in the absence of a catalyst. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can be injected into a combustion chamber. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can impinge upon a stagnation plate positioned at top portion of the combustion chamber.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: luisalawliet@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  1. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  2. Surface structuring of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, A.; Berger, T.; Martin, A.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Treffkorn, N.; Kühn, R.

    2018-05-01

    Boron doped diamond materials, which are generated by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), offer a great potential for the application on highly stressed tools, e. g. in cutting or forming processes. As a result of the CVD process rough surfaces arise, which require a finishing treatment in particular for the application in forming tools. Cutting techniques such as milling and grinding are hardly applicable for the finish machining because of the high strength of diamond. Due to its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is independent of hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. EDM is a suitable technology for machining and structuring CVD diamond, since boron doped CVD diamond is electrically conductive. In this study the ablation characteristics of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining are investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different process parameters on the machining result. The impact of tool-polarity, voltage and discharge energy on the resulting erosion geometry and the tool wear was analyzed. A variation in path overlapping during the erosion of planar areas leads to different microstructures. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for finishing of boron doped CVD diamond.

  3. A Hybrid Information Mining Approach for Knowledge Discovery in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pasanisi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare ambit is usually perceived as “information rich” yet “knowledge poor”. Nowadays, an unprecedented effort is underway to increase the use of business intelligence techniques to solve this problem. Heart disease (HD is a major cause of mortality in modern society. This paper analyzes the risk factors that have been identified in cardiovascular disease (CVD surveillance systems. The Heart Care study identifies attributes related to CVD risk (gender, age, smoking habit, etc. and other dependent variables that include a specific form of CVD (diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, etc.. In this paper, we combine Clustering, Association Rules, and Neural Networks for the assessment of heart-event-related risk factors, targeting the reduction of CVD risk. With the use of the K-means algorithm, significant groups of patients are found. Then, the Apriori algorithm is applied in order to understand the kinds of relations between the attributes within the dataset, first looking within the whole dataset and then refining the results through the subsets defined by the clusters. Finally, both results allow us to better define patients’ characteristics in order to make predictions about CVD risk with a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The results obtained with the hybrid information mining approach indicate that it is an effective strategy for knowledge discovery concerning chronic diseases, particularly for CVD risk.

  4. Recent Results from Beam Tests of 3D and Pad pCVD Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wallny, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Results from prototypes of a detector using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond with embedded resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond device are presented. A detector system consisting of 3D devices based on poly-crystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond was connected to a multi-channel readout and successfully tested in a 120 GeV/c proton beam at CERN proving for the first time the feasibility of the 3D detector concept in pCVD for particle tracking applications. We also present beam test results on the dependence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on poly-crystalline CVD diamond. The detectors were tested in a 260 MeV/c pion beam over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2 . The pulse height of the sensors was measured with pad readout electronics at a peaking time of 7 ns. Our data from the 2015 beam tests at PSI indicate that the pulse height of poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensor irradiated to 5×1014 neq/cm2 is independent of particle flux...

  5. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  6. Fast determination of pesticides and other contaminants of emerging concern in treated wastewater using direct injection coupled to highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Mañas, Marina Celia; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2017-07-21

    It is well known that wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents usually contain micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals (or their transformation products, TPs) or pesticides, which is a major issue when evaluating their possible reuse (e.g. for irrigation in agriculture). In search for an improved accuracy and simplicity, methods based on the direct injection of the sample (DI) represent a recent trend taking advantage of the increasing sensitivity of new mass spectrometry (MS) instruments. Thus, the present study shows the development and validation of a DI-based method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-linear ion trap analyser (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS). The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of 115 organic microcontaminants (including pharmaceuticals, TPs and pesticides) at the ngL -1 /μgL -1 level in wastewater effluents from urban WWTPs. Sample pre-treatment was reduced to acetonitrile addition and filtration of the mixture previous to LC-MS analysis. Total analysis time was <15min. A subsequent validation protocol was carried out in treated WW (TWW), following indications of SANTE and Eurachem Guidelines. Linearity and matrix effect were evaluated in the range of 10-1000ngL -1 . 70% of the analytes showed a moderate matrix effect (≤25%). Trueness (expressed as recovery) and precision (calculated as relative standard deviation, RSD) were evaluated at four concentration levels (20, 50, 500 and 1000ngL -1 ) in TWW samples. The LODs ranged from 1 to 357ngL -1 and the LOQs from 10 to 500ngL -1 . 92% of the compounds showed limits of quantification ≤100ngL -1 . In most cases, mean recoveries were in the range 70-120%, and RSD values were ≤20%. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of 10 TWW samples, demonstrating the occurrence of 67 target compounds at concentration levels from 26705ngL -1 (4-aminoantipyrine) to 10ngL -1 (tebuconazole and bezafibrate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV...

  8. How dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD is translated into practice in those with or at high risk of CVD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Neubeck, Lis; Redfern, Julie; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    CVD is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and nutrition is an important lifestyle factor. The aim of the present systematic review was to synthesise the literature relating to knowledge translation (KT) of dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD into practice in populations with or at high risk of CVD. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus) was performed. Studies were included if a nutrition or dietary KT was demonstrated to occur with a relevant separate measureable outcome. Quality was assessed using a tool adapted from two quality checklists. Population with or at high risk of CVD or clinicians likely to treat this population. A total of 4420 titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion, with 354 full texts retrieved to assess inclusion. Forty-three articles were included in the review, relating to thirty-five separate studies. No studies specifically stated their aim to be KT. Thirty-one studies were in patient or high-risk populations and four targeted health professionals. Few studies stated a theory on which the intervention was based (n 10) and provision of instruction was the most common behaviour change strategy used (n 26). KT in nutrition and dietary studies has been inferred, not stated, with few details provided regarding how dietary knowledge is translated to the end user. This presents challenges for implementation by clinicians and policy and decision makers. Consequently a need exists to improve the quality of publications in this area.

  9. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  10. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  11. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  12. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  13. Cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Boyd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5% predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart eGFR 1%-5%, >5% and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR age 42 (36, 49 years, median (IQR baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008. D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1% participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4% participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8% participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001 increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005 increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively. The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints.We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and

  14. Tribosystems based on multilayered micro/nanocrystalline CVD diamond coatings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mohammadmehdi

    A combinacao das caracteristicas do diamante microcristalino (MCD) e nanocristalino (NCD), tais como elevada adesao do MCD e a baixa rugosidade superficial e baixo coeficiente de atrito do NCD, e ideal para aplicacoes tribologicas exigentes. Deste modo, o presente trabalho centrou-se no desenvolvimento de revestimentos em multicamada MCD/NCD. Filmes com dez camadas foram depositados em amostras de cerâmicos de Si3N4 pela tecnica de deposicao quimica em fase vapor assistida por filamento quente (HFCVD). A microestrutura, qualidade do diamante e adesao foram investigadas usando tecnicas como SEM, AFM, espectroscopia Raman, DRX, indentacao Brale e perfilometria otica 3D. Diversas geometrias para aplicacoes distintas foram revestidas: discos e esferas para testes tribologicos a escala laboratorial, e para testes em servico, aneis de empanques mecânicos e pastilhas de corte para torneamento. Nos ensaios tribologicos esfera-sobre-plano em movimento reciproco, sob 10-90% de humidade relativa (RH), os valores medios dos coeficientes de atrito maximo e em estado estacionario sao de 0,32 e 0,09, respetivamente. Em relacao aos coeficientes de desgaste, observou-se um valor minimo de cerca de 5,2x10-8 mm3N-1m-1 para valores intermedios de 20-25% de RH. A humidade relativa tem um forte efeito sobre o valor da carga critica que triplica a partir de 40 N a 10% RH para 120 N a 90% de RH. No intervalo de temperaturas 50-100 °C, as cargas criticas sao semelhantes as obtidas em condicoes de baixa RH ( 10-25%). A vida util das ferramentas com revestimento de dez camadas alternadas MCD/NCD e 24 mum de espessura total no torneamento de um composito de matriz metalica Al- 15 vol% Al2O3 (Al-MMC) e melhor do que a maioria das ferramentas de diamante CVD encontradas na literatura, e semelhante a maioria das ferramentas de diamante policristalino (PCD). A formacao de cratera ocorre por desgaste sucessivo das varias camadas, atrasando a delaminacao total do revestimento de diamante do

  15. High performance liquid chromatography determination of dexamethasone in plasma to evaluate its systemic absorption following intra-space pterygomandibular injection of twin-mix (mixture of 2 % lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg dexamethasone): randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Darpan; Deshpande, Ashwini; Thomas, Shaji; Sharma, Yogesh; Khare, Piush; Sahu, Sanjeev Kumar; Dubey, Suyash; Pandey, Ankit; Sreekumar, K

    2016-09-01

    To determine systemic absorption of dexamethasone by detection of plasma concentration using high performance liquid chromatography following its administration along with local anesthetic agent as a mixture via pterygomandibular space. A prospective randomized double-blind clinical study was undertaken to analyze the plasma concentration of dexamethasone after intra-space pterygomandibular injection along with local anesthesia. The study was performed as per split mouth model where the mandibular quadrant allocation was done on a random basis considering each of the 30 patients is included in the two study interventions (SS and CS). For the study site (SS) procedures, dexamethasone was administered as a mixture (2 % lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg dexamethasone) intra-space. In the control site (CS) procedures, a regular standard inferior alveolar nerve block was administered, and dexamethasone was given as intramuscular injection. The plasma dexamethasone determination was done in venous blood 30- and 60-min post injection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical parameters like pain; swelling; and mouth opening on the first, third, and seventh post-operative day were analyzed and compared. No significant difference was found in the clinical parameters assessed; comparative evaluation showed less swelling in the SS interventions. The plasma concentration of dexamethasone for the CS interventions was 226 ± 47 ng/ml at 30-min and 316 ± 81.6 ng/ml at 60-min post injection, and for SS, it was 221 ± 81.6 ng/ml at 30-min and 340 ± 105 ng/ml at 60-min post injection. On inter-site (CS and SS) comparison, no statistically significant difference was ascertained in dexamethasone plasma concentration at 30-min post injection (P = 0.77) and at 60-min post injection. (P = 0.32). Intra-space (pterygomandibular space) administration of dexamethasone can achieve statistically similar plasma concentration

  16. Movers and stayers: The geography of residential mobility and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel J; Sabel, Clive E; Hanham, Grant; Lee, Arier C; Wells, Susan

    2015-05-01

    The association between area-level disadvantage and health and social outcomes is unequivocal. However, less is known about the health impact of residential mobility, particularly at intra-urban scales. We used an encrypted National Health Index (eNHI) number to link individual-level data recorded in routine national health databases to construct a cohort of 641,532 participants aged 30+ years to investigate the association between moving and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand. Residential mobility was measured for participants according to changes in the census Meshblock of usual residence, obtained from the Primary Health Organisation (PHO) database for every calendar quarter between 1/1/2006 and 31/12/2012. The NZDep2006 area deprivation score at the start and end of a participant's inclusion in the study was used to measure deprivation mobility. We investigated the relative risk of movers being hospitalised for CVD relative to stayers using multi-variable binomial regression models, controlling for age, gender, deprivation and ethnicity. Considered together, movers were 1.22 (1.19-1.26) times more likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD. Using the 5×5 deprivation origin-destination matrix to model a patient's risk of CVD based on upward, downward or sideways deprivation mobility, movers within the least deprived (NZDep2006 Quintile 1) areas were 10% less likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD, while movers within the most deprived (NZDep2006 Q5) areas were 45% more likely than stayers to have had their first CVD hospitalisation in 2006-2012 (RR: 1.45 [1.35-1.55]). Participants who moved upward also had higher relative risks of having a CVD event, although their risk was less than those observed for participants experiencing downward deprivation mobility. This research suggests that residential mobility is an important determinant of CVD in Auckland. Further investigation is required to determine the impact moving has on the risk of

  17. Rapid growth of single-layer graphene on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dai, D.; Chen, G.X.; Yu, J.H. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nishimura, K. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Advanced Nano-processing Engineering Lab, Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kogakuin University (Japan); Lin, C.-T. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, N., E-mail: jiangnan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhan, Z.L., E-mail: zl_zhan@sohu.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A rapid thermal CVD process has been developed to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates. • The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. • Single-layer and few-layer graphene can be formed on quartz and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates, respectively. • The formation of thinner graphene at the interface is due to the fast precipitation rate of carbon atoms during cooling. - Abstract: The advance of CVD technique to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates is particularly significant for further device fabrication. As graphene is catalytically grown on metal foils, the degradation of the sample properties is unavoidable during transfer of graphene on the dielectric layer. Moreover, shortening the treatment time as possible, while achieving single-layer growth of graphene, is worthy to be investigated for promoting the efficiency of mass production. Here we performed a rapid heating/cooling process to grow graphene films directly on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD. The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. In addition, we found that high-quality, single-layer graphene can be formed on quartz, but on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate only few-layer graphene can be obtained. The pronounced substrate effect is attributed to the different dewetting behavior of Ni films on the both substrates at 950 °C.

  18. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  19. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  20. Effect of pulse biasing on the morphology of diamond films grown by hot filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beake, B.D.; Hussain, I.U.; Rego, C.; Ahmed, W.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond due to its unique mechanical, optical and electronic properties, which make it useful for many applications. For use in optical and electronic applications further developments in the CVD process are required to control the surface morphology and crystal size of the diamond films. These will require a detailed understanding of both the nucleation and growth processes that effect the properties. The technique of bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond offers better reproducibility than conventional pre-treatment methods such as mechanical abrasion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used study the surface modification of diamond films on silicon substrates during pulse biased growth in a hot filament CVD reactor. Pre-abraded silicon substrates were subjected to a three-step sequential growth process: (i) diamond deposition under standard CVD conditions, (ii) bias pre-treatment and (iii) deposition under standard conditions. The results show that the bias pre-treatment time is a critical parameter controlling the surface morphology and roughness of the diamond films deposited. Biasing reduces the surface roughness from 152 nm for standard CVD diamond to 68 nm for the 2.5 minutes pulse biased film. Further increase in the bias time results in an increase in surface roughness and crystallite size. (author)

  1. Flavonoids and Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Patrizia; Prinzi, Giulia; Lamonaca, Palma; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo

    2018-05-13

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CV) often coexist. COPD and CVD are complex diseases characterized by a strict interaction between environment and genetic. The mechanisms linking these two diseases are complex, multifactorial and not entirely understood, influencing the therapeutic approach. COPD is characterized by several comorbidities, it is hypothesizable that treatment of cardiovascular co-morbidities may reduce morbidity and mortality. Flavonoids are an important class of plant low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs). Convincing data from laboratory, epidemiological, and human clinical studies point to an important effects on CVD risk prevention. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the ability of Flavonoids to reduce the CVD risk. Current studies support the potential of Flavonoids to prevent the risk of CVD. Well-designed clinical studies are suggested to evaluate advantages and limits of Flavonoids for managing CVD comorbidity in COPD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. High quality aluminide and thermal barrier coatings deposition for new and service exposed parts by CVD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, F.; Tuohy, C.; Whelan, L.; Kennedy, A.D. [SIFCO Turbine Components, Carrigtwohill, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the performance of CVD aluminide coatings is compared to that of coatings deposited by the classical pack cementation technique using standard SIFCO procedures. The CVD coatings always seem to behave better upon exposure to isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. This is explained by a longer term stability of CVD coatings, with higher Al amounts in the diffusion zone and less refractory element precipitation in the additive layer. The qualities of Pt/Al coatings by out-of-pack and CVD are also compared as a previous step for further thermal barrier coating deposition. As an example, YSZ thermal barrier coatings are deposited by MO-CVD on Pt/Al CVD bond coats rendering adherent and thick coatings around the surface of turbine blades. This process under development does not require complex manipulation of the component to be coated. (orig.)

  3. Electrical characteristics of thermal CVD B-doped Si films on highly strained Si epitaxially grown on Ge(100) by plasma CVD without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Katsutoshi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Using an 84% relaxed Ge(100) buffer layer formed on Si(100) by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), influence of strain upon electrical characteristics of B-doped Si film epitaxially grown on the Ge buffer have been investigated. For the thinner B-doped Si film, surface strain amount is larger than that of the thicker film, for example, strain amount reaches 2.0% for the thickness of 2.2 nm. It is found that the hole mobility is enhanced by the introduction of strain to Si, and the maximum enhancement of about 3 is obtained. This value is higher than that of the usually reported mobility enhancement by strain using Si 1 -x Ge x buffer. Therefore, introduction of strain using relaxed Ge film formed by ECR plasma enhanced CVD is useful to improve future Si-based device performance.

  4. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  5. Polymer Adsorption on Graphite and CVD Graphene Surfaces Studied by Surface-Specific Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yudan; Han, Hui-Ling; Cai, Qun; Wu, Qiong; Xie, Mingxiu; Chen, Daoyong; Geng, Baisong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Feng; Shen, Y R; Tian, Chuanshan

    2015-10-14

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was employed to probe polymer contaminants on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and to study alkane and polyethylene (PE) adsorption on graphite. In comparing the spectra from the two surfaces, it was found that the contaminants on CVD graphene must be long-chain alkane or PE-like molecules. PE adsorption from solution on the honeycomb surface results in a self-assembled ordered monolayer with the C-C skeleton plane perpendicular to the surface and an adsorption free energy of ∼42 kJ/mol for PE(H(CH2CH2)nH) with n ≈ 60. Such large adsorption energy is responsible for the easy contamination of CVD graphene by impurity in the polymer during standard transfer processes. Contamination can be minimized with the use of purified polymers free of PE-like impurities.

  6. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  7. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  8. CVD diamond based soft X-ray detector with fast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Hou Lifei; Su Chunxiao; Yang Guohong; Liu Shenye

    2010-01-01

    A soft X-ray detector has been made with high quality chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond and the electrical structure of micro-strip. Through the measurement of response time on a laser with the pulse width of 10 ps, the full width at half maximum of the data got in the oscilloscope was 115 ps. The rise time of the CVD diamond detector was calculated to be 49 ps. In the experiment on the laser prototype facility, the signal got by the CVD diamond detector was compared with that got by a soft X-ray spectrometer. Both signals coincided well. The detector is proved to be a kind of reliable soft X-ray detector with fast response and high signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)

  9. Oxidation protection of multilayer CVD SiC/B/SiC coatings for 3D C/SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongsheng; Cheng Laifei; Zhang Litong; Wu Shoujun; Li Duo; Xu Yongdong

    2007-01-01

    A CVD boron coating was introduced between two CVD SiC coating layers. EDS and XRD results showed that the CVD B coating was a boron crystal without other impurity elements. SEM results indicated that the CVD B coating was a flake-like or column-like crystal with a compact cross-section. The crack width in the CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD B is smaller than that in a CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD SiC coating. After oxidation at 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C, XRD results indicated that the coating was covered by product B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2 film. The cracks were sealed as observed by SEM. There was a large amount of flake-like material on hybrid coating surface after oxidation at 1300 deg. C. Oxidation weight loss and residual flexural strength results showed that hybrid SiC/B/SiC multilayer coating provided better oxidation protection for C/SiC composite than a three layer CVD SiC coating at temperatures from 700 deg. C to 1000 deg. C for 600 min, but worse oxidation protection above 1000 deg. C due to the large amount of volatilization of B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2

  10. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: lianyy@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  11. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  12. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  13. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Bob J H; Ferket, Bart S; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Colkesen, Ersen B; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2012-12-06

    We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC) model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1) internal and 2) predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3) External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets) of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%), 3.60% (3.23%), 4.70% (4.80%), and 7.50% (7.96%), respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%), 9.90% (9.13%), 14.20% (15.12%), and 24.30% (23.42%). After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated) incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95%) and 6.50% (6.29%). All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.

  14. Hard coatings by plasma CVD on polycarbonate for automotive and optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmauder, T.; Nauenburg, K.-D.; Kruse, K.; Ickes, G.

    2006-01-01

    In many applications, plastic surfaces need coatings as a protection against abrasion or weathering. Leybold Optics is developing Plasma CVD processes and machinery for transparent hard coatings (THC) for polycarbonate parts. In this paper we present the current features and remaining challenges of this technique. The coatings generally show excellent adhesion. Abrasion resistance is superior to commonly used lacquers. Climate durability of the coating has been improved to pass the tests demanded by automotive specifications. Current activities are focused on improving the durability under exposure to UV radiation. Estimations show that our high-rate plasma CVD hard coating process is also economically competitive to lacquering

  15. Anisotropy and dimensional characteristics in CVD route Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Awaji, S.; Yamane, H.; Hirai, T.; Muto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The anisotropic behaviors of the upper critical field B c2 and the critical current density J c were investigated in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films prepared by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. The angular dependence of J c at fixed temperature, the field dependence of J c at fixed angle, and the temperature dependence of J c at fixed field were measured. The obtained results were explored in terms of the dimensional superconducting characteristics. The important information on the anisotropic behaviors of J c in CVD-Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ was discussed from a viewpoint of the flux pinning. (orig.)

  16. Effects of injection angles on combustion processes using multiple injection strategies in an HSDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegang Fang; Robert E. Coverdill; Chia-fon F. Lee; Robert A. White [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Effects of injection angles and injection pressure on the combustion processes employing multiple injection strategies in a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine are presented in this work. Whole-cycle combustion and liquid spray evolution processes were visualized using a high-speed video camera. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. Different heat release patterns are seen for two different injectors with a 70-degree tip and a 150-degree tip. No evidence of fuel-wall impingement is found for the first injection of the 150-degree tip, but for the 70-degree tip, some fuel impinges on the bowl wall and a fuel film is formed. For the second injection, a large amount of fuel deposition is observed for the 70-degree tip. Weak flame is seen for the first injection of the 150-degree tip while two sorts of flames are seen for the first injection of the 70-degree tip including an early weak flame and a late luminous film combustion flame. Ignition occurs near the spray tip in the vicinity of the bowl wall for the second injection events of the 150-degree tip, however, it is near the injector tip in the central region of the bowl for the 70-degree tip. The flame is more homogeneous for the 150-degree tip with higher injection pressure with little soot formation similar to a premixed-charge-compression-ignition (PCCI) combustion. For other cases, liquid fuel is injected into flames showing diffusion flame combustion. More soot luminosity is seen for the 70-degree tip due to significant fuel film deposition on the piston wall with fuel film combustion for both injection events. Lower NOx emissions were obtained for the narrow-angle injector due to the rich air-fuel mixture near the bowl wall during the combustion process. 30 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Bob J. H.; Ferket, Bart S.; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Colkesen, Ersen B.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Background: We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods: The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease

  18. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: The rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); B.S. Ferket (Bart); A. Hofman (Albert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.B. Colkesen (Ersen); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); N.J. Wareham (Nick); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established.Methods: The Rotterdam Ischemic

  19. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  20. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  1. Thermodynamic and experimental studies of the CVD of A-15 superconductors. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madar, R.; Weiss, F.; Fruchart, R.; Bernard, C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and thermodynamic study of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of Nb 3 Ga layers on various metallic and insulating substrates using the coreduction of mixed halides by hydrogen. Thermodynamic equilibrium in the seven-component system Nb-Ga-H-Cl-Si-O-Ar has been calculated using the method of minimization of the system Gibbs free energy as a function of the variables directly available in the CVD system. The chosen variables were the chloride ratio, the reduction and dilution parameters and the temperature of the deposition zone. The equilibrium compositions were calculated for the two composition limits of the A-15 phase: NbGasub(0.15) and Nb 3 Ga. They are presented in the form of CVD phase diagrams. A CVD reactor has been set up and more than one hundred measurements have been made in order to check the validity of the equilibrium calculations. The comparisons between equilibrium and experimental results show a good agreement and lead to a better understanding of the chemistry and thermodynamics of the system. (Auth.)

  2. Control of Reaction Surface in Low Temperature CVD to Enhance Nucleation and Conformal Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet

    2009-01-01

    The Holy Grail in CVD community is to find precursors that can afford the following: good nucleation on a desired substrate and conformal deposition in high AR features. Good nucleation is not only necessary for getting ultra-thin films at low thicknesses; it also offers films that are smooth at higher thickness values. On the other hand,…

  3. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  4. CVD growth and characterization of 3C-SiC thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) thin films were grown on (100) and (111) Si substrates by CVD technique using ... of grown films were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray ... the oxide mask gets damaged (Edgar et al 1998). There- fore, lower ...

  5. The effect of percentage carbonon the CVD coating of plain carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two steels En 3 and En 39 were given a TiC-TiN CVD coating in the carburized and uncarburized conditions. The continuity of the coatings and their adherance to the substrate were examined. The thickness of the deposited coatings were also measured, their adherence to the substrate and their thickness was off ected by ...

  6. Hexagonal Boron Nitride assisted transfer and encapsulation of large area CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shautsova, Viktoryia; Gilbertson, Adam M.; Black, Nicola C. G.; Maier, Stefan A.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-07-01

    We report a CVD hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-) assisted transfer method that enables a polymer-impurity free transfer process and subsequent top encapsulation of large-area CVD-grown graphene. We demonstrate that the CVD hBN layer that is utilized in this transfer technique acts as a buffer layer between the graphene film and supporting polymer layer. We show that the resulting graphene layers possess lower doping concentration, and improved carrier mobilities compared to graphene films produced by conventional transfer methods onto untreated SiO2/Si, SAM-modified and hBN covered SiO2/Si substrates. Moreover, we show that the top hBN layer used in the transfer process acts as an effective top encapsulation resulting in improved stability to ambient exposure. The transfer method is applicable to other CVD-grown 2D materials on copper foils, thereby facilitating the preparation of van der Waals heterostructures with controlled doping.

  7. The integration of epigenetics and genetics in nutrition research for CVD risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G x E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supp...

  8. CVD of solid oxides in porous substrates for ceramic membrane modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of yttria-doped zirconia has been experimented systematically in various types of porous ceramic substrates by a modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process operating in an opposing reactant geometry using water vapor and corresponding metal chloride vapors as reactants. The

  9. Large-area selective CVD epitaxial growth of Ge on Si substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Nanver, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Selective epitaxial growth of crystalline Ge on Si in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 CVD reactor is investigated for the fabrication of Ge p+n diodes. At the deposition temperature of 700?C, most of the lattice mismatch-defects are trapped within first 300nm of Ge growth and good quality single crystal

  10. Merging Standard CVD Techniques for GaAs and Si Epitaxial Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Van den Bogaard, A.; Nanver, L.K.

    2010-01-01

    A commercial Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system, the ASMI Epsilon 2000 designed for Si and SiGe epitaxy, has, for the first time, been equipped for the growth of GaAs compounds in a manner that does not exclude the use of the system also for Si-based depositions. With the new system, intrinsic,

  11. Ge-on-Si : Single-Crystal Selective Epitaxial Growth in a CVD Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.B.; Nanver, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    A standard Si/SiGe ASM CVD reactor that was recently modified for merging GaAs and Si epitaxial growth in one system is utilized to achieve intrinsic and doped epitaxial Ge-on-Si with low threading dislocation and defect densities. For this purpose, the system is equipped with 2% diluted GeH4 as the

  12. Synthesis of crystalline Ge nanoclusters in PE-CVD-deposited SiO2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...

  13. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ?50 ml/min (STP) at

  14. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO 2 thin films deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified new method of CVD for formation of pure layers of tin oxide films was developed. This method is very simple and inexpensive and produces films with good electrical properties. The effect of substrate temperature on the sheet resistance, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration and transparency of the films has ...

  15. A beam radiation monitor based on CVD diamonds for SuperB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.

    2013-08-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond particle detectors are in use in the CERN experiments at LHC and at particle accelerator laboratories in Europe, USA and Japan mainly as beam monitors. Nowadays it is considered a proven technology with a very fast signal read-out and a very high radiation tolerance suitable for measurements in high radiation environment zones i.e. near the accelerators beam pipes. The specific properties of CVD diamonds make them a prime candidate for measuring single particles as well as high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the sub-nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems in hostile environments. A single-crystalline CVD (scCVD) diamond sensor, read out with a new generation of fast and high transition frequency SiGe bipolar transistor amplifiers, has been tested for an application as radiation monitor to safeguard the silicon vertex tracker in the SuperB detector from excessive radiation damage, cumulative dose and instantaneous dose rates. Test results with 5.5 MeV alpha particles from a 241Am radioactive source and from electrons from a 90Sr radioactive source are presented in this paper.

  16. Photo-Hall measurements on phosphorus-doped n-type CVD diamond at low temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kalish, R.; Uzan-Saguy, C.; Baskin, E.; Nesládek, M.; Koizumi, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 1 (2003), s. 82-86 ISSN 0031-8965 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : photo-Hall measurements * CVD diamonnd * phosphorus doped Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.950, year: 2003

  17. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition: Temperature effects ..... C are depicted in figure 7. It is observed that the cut-off wave- ... cating that the energy gap of the SnO2 films varies among. 3·54, 3·35 and 1·8 eV.

  18. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped diamond films deposited using HF CVD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.

  19. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nesládek, M.; Mareš, Jiří J.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2006), S41-S44 ISSN 1468-6996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * electrical transport * doping * CVD diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2006

  20. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped and nitrogen-doped CVD diamond exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Favalli, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the thermoluminescence (TL) performance of CVD diamond depends on the impurity concentration and doping materials introduced during growing. We report on the TL properties of undoped and 750 ppm nitrogen-doped CVD diamond grown on (0 0 1) silicon substrate. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation from a Gammacell 200 Nordion irradiator in the 10-500 Gy dose range at 627 mGy/min dose rate. The nitrogen-doped CVD diamond sample exhibited a TL glow curve peaked around 537 K and a small shoulder about 411 K and a linear dose behavior in the 10-60 Gy dose range. In contrast, the undoped specimen showed a 591 K peaked TL glow curve and linear dose response for 10-100 Gy doses. However, both samples displayed a non-linear dose response for doses higher than 100 Gy. The doping effects seem to cause a higher TL efficiency, which may be attributed to the differences in the diamond bonding and amorphous carbon on the CVD samples as well as to the presence of nitrogen. In addition, the nitrogen content may produce some structural and morphological surface effects, which may account for the distinctive TL features and dose response of the diamond samples

  1. Red blood cell rheology in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwała, Maciej; Spannbauer, Anna; Teległów, Aneta; Cencora, Andrzej; Marchewka, Anna; Hardeman, Max R.; Dabrowski, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Rheological studies concerning aggregation and elongation of erythrocytes were carried out in 21 patients (mean age 56 years) with chronic venous disease (CVD) and 10 (mean age 45 years) healthy control subjects, with the use of a LORCA device. Higher values of parameters characterizing both

  2. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  3. Computation of flow and thermal fields in a model CVD reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mixing of coaxial jets within a tube in the presence of blockage has been numerically studied. This configuration is encountered during the modelling of flow and heat transfer in CVD (chemical vapour deposition) reactors. For the conditions prevailing in the reactor, the Reynolds numbers are low and flow can be taken to be ...

  4. The role of (sub)-surface oxygen on the surface electronic structure of hydrogen terminated (100) CVD diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deferme, W.; Tanasa, G.; Amir, J.; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) were applied to investigate the surface morphol. and the surface electronic structure of plasma-treated (100)-oriented CVD diamond films. These films were hydrogenated using a conventional MWPE-CVD

  5. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm...

  6. Correlates of CVD and discussing sexual issues with physicians among male military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Motlagh, Audry S; Ahn, SangNam; Bergeron, Caroline D; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify socio-demographic and health behavior factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) diagnosis and patient-physician communication concerning sexual issues among older Veterans. Cross-sectional data were collected from 635 male Veterans over age 55 years as part of the 2010 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally-representative, population-based study of community-dwelling older Americans. Two independent logistic regression analyses were performed. Over 33% of Veterans were aged 75 years or older. Over one-half of participants reported having a CVD diagnosis (58%) and sexual intercourse within the previous year (58%); over one-third (37%) reported having one or more sexual dysfunctions and discussing sexual issues with their physician (42%). Veterans diagnosed with CVD were significantly more likely to self-identify as racial/ethnic minorities (OR=1.89, P=0.021), have more chronic disease comorbidities (OR=1.23, P=0.041), and have more sexual dysfunctions (OR=1.19, P=0.028). Veterans diagnosed with CVD were significantly less likely to report having sex within the previous year (OR=0.53, P=0.005). Veterans who reported discussing sexual issues with a physician were significantly more likely to be ≥75 years (OR=1.79, P=0.010), and report more than a high school education (OR=1.62, P=0.016), CVD diagnosis (OR=1.59, P=0.015), sex within the previous year (OR=1.69, P=0.033), and trouble achieving/maintaining an erection (OR=3.39, Paging and sexual health/counseling services. These services should promote increased patient-physician communication as well as referrals between physicians and sex health/counseling specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador

    2017-01-11

    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O 2 - and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  8. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and numerical modeling of supercritical injection

    OpenAIRE

    Banuti, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although liquid propellant rocket engines are operational and have been studied for decades, cryogenic injection at supercritical pressures is still considered essentially not understood. This thesis intends to approach this problem in three steps: by developing a numerical model for real gas thermodynamics, by extending the present thermodynamic view of supercritical injection, and finally by applying these methods to the analysis of injection. A new numerical real gas thermodynamics mode...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  12. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  14. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  16. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  17. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  18. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  19. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  1. Comparative study of dlc coatings by pvd against cvd technique on textile dents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film is a hard amorphous carbon hydride film formed by Physical or Chemical vapor deposition (PVD or CVD) techniques. Due to its unique properties especially high hardness, lower coefficient of friction and lubricious nature, these coatings are not only used to extend the life of cutting tools but also for non cutting applications such as for forming dies, molds and on many functional parts of textile. In the present work two techniques were employed i.e. PVD and CVD for deposition of diamond like carbon film on textile dents. These dents are used as thread guider in high speed weaving machine. The measurement of coating thickness, adhesion, hardness and roughness values indicates that overall properties of DLC coating developed by PVD LARC technology reduces abrasion and increases the workability and durability of textile dents as well as suppress the need of lubricants. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO{sub 2} phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.m [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Romero-Serrano, J.A. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac){sub 4} has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp{sup o}, DELTAH{sup o} and S{sup o} for Zr(acac){sub 4} have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO{sub 2} can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and graphite carbon.

  3. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)

  4. Diameter Tuning of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diffusion Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have realized a diameter tuning of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by adjusting process gas pressures with plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Detailed photoluminescence measurements reveal that the diameter distribution of SWNTs clearly shifts to a large-diameter region with an increase in the pressure during plasma CVD, which is also confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Based on the systematical investigation, it is found that the main diameter of SWNTs is determined by the pressure during the heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and the diameter distribution is narrowed by adjusting the pressure during the plasma generation. Our results could contribute to an application of SWNTs to high-performance thin-film transistors, which requires the diameter-controlled semiconductor-rich SWNTs.

  5. The effect of alkaline doped catalysts on the CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Nemeth, Zoltan; Fejes, Dora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount o...... of the dopant alkali compounds varied from 1 to 5%. As prepared CNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman microscopy. Results revealed that both carbon yield and deposit could be increased over doped catalysts.......The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount...

  6. Board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in the annual reports of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in corporate annual reports of Bangladesh. Specifically, examine the relationship between board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosures. The paper is based on a sample of 106 listed non-financial companies in Dhaka Stock Exchanges (DSE from the period 2007-2011 and all the companies are selected by Judgment Sampling. The study is used ordinary least squares regression model to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and voluntary disclosure. Using an unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure, the empirical results indicate that Percentage Female Director (PFD, Board Leadership Structure (BLS and Total Assets (TA are positively association with corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD. In contrast, the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure is negatively associated with a Percentage of equity owned by the insiders to all equity of the firm higher management ownership

  7. Plasma CVD reactor with two-microwave oscillators for diamond film synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsu, M.; Miyake, M.; Maeda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results of a new type of microwave plasma CVD system, where two of 1.5 kW microwave sources were used for enlarging the plasma discharge and the diamond film growth. One of the microwave oscillators was used to produce the microwave plasma as in the conventional microwave plasma CVD device, while the second one was used to enlarge the plasma by introducing microwave from the launcher mounted at the substrate stage. We demonstrated the enlargement of plasma discharge area from 60 mm to 100 mm in diameter by using the two-microwave oscillators system. Characteristics of diamond films deposited using H 2 /CH 4 plasmas were also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  8. Temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond films studied by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of residual stress and its components with increasing temperature in chemical vapor deposited (CVD diamond films has a crucial impact on their high temperature applications. In this work we investigated temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond film deposited on Si(100 substrate in the temperature range of 30 °C to 480 °C by Raman mapping measurement. Raman shift of the characteristic diamond band peaked at 1332 cm-1 was studied to evaluate the residual stress distribution at the diamond surface. A new approach was applied to calculate thermal stress evolution with increasing tempera­ture by using two commonly known equations. Comparison of the residts obtained from the two methods was presented. The intrinsic stress component was calculated from the difference between average values of residual and thermal stress and then its temperature dependence was discussed.

  9. Natural and CVD type diamond detectors as dosimeters in hadrontherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Rafaele, L.; Sabini, M.G.; De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a suitable material for use as radiation dosimeter; the wide band gap results in low dark currents and low sensitivity to visible light, the high carrier mobility can give rapid response, the very high density of strong bonds in the crystal structure make diamond very resistant to radiation damage; moreover it is tissue equivalent. The more recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques have allowed the synthesis of material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetric application. In this paper we will report the results obtained in the study of the response of a natural diamond dosimeter and a CVD one irradiated with 62 AMeV proton beams to demonstrate their possible application in protontherapy

  10. Effect of growth temperature and precursor concentration on synthesis of CVD-graphene from camphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Narasimman; Patel, Biren; Ray, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    Here, we have synthesized CVD-graphene from camphor by using atmospheric pressure (AP)-CVD system on Cu foil. We have studied the effect of growth temperature and camphor concentration by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The domain size of the graphene is increasing with an increase in the temperature and camphor quantity. The complete coverage of graphene on the Cu foil achieved at 1020 °C. Higher camphor quantity leads to growth of multilayer graphene. The graphene is transferred by PMMA-assisted method onto the glass substrate. The sheet resistance and transmittance of the graphene are 1.5 kohm/sq and 92.7%, respectively.

  11. Development of Health Parameter Model for Risk Prediction of CVD Using SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Unnikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of cardiovascular risk assessment are performed using health factors which are often based on the Framingham study. However, these methods have significant limitations due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. We have compared the parameters from the Framingham equation with linear regression analysis to establish the effect of training of the model for the local database. Support vector machine was used to determine the effectiveness of machine learning approach with the Framingham health parameters for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The result shows that while linear model trained using local database was an improvement on Framingham model, SVM based risk assessment model had high sensitivity and specificity of prediction of CVD. This indicates that using the health parameters identified using Framingham study, machine learning approach overcomes the low sensitivity and specificity of Framingham model.

  12. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2008-01-01

    subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusions - Although...... consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic diseases, but also to the broader public. European consumers are convinced that eating fish is healthy, but particular emphasis should be made...

  13. Development of Fe-AI CVD coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrol, C.; Schuster, F.; Le Marois, G.; Serra, E.

    1998-01-01

    A specific method of pack-cementation has been developed in order to perform a CVD deposition of Fe-Al alloys on a martensitic steel at a temperature which respects its mechanical properties ( 2 Al 5 intermetallic phases thanks to a low pressure deposition and using a special cement containing Fe and Al. These coatings coated with an Al 2 O 3 top layer drastically reduce the permeation rate of deuterium with regards to the uncoated substrate. (authors)

  14. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using plasma enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fendrych, František; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vlček, J.; Řezáčová, V.; Petrák, V.; Kluiber, Z.; Fekete, Ladislav; Liehr, M.; Nesládek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 37 (2010), 374018/1-374018/6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanodiamond, * thin films * PE MW CVD * linear antennas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  15. Mediators and Moderators of Dementia Caregiver Depression and CVD Risk Outcomes in the Pleasant Events Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jennefer S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Alzheimer’s disease caregivers demonstrate significant elevations in depression compared with noncaregivers. Addressing caregiver depression is of high public health importance due to its ties with overall wellbeing, increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and ability to sustain caregiving duties. Improving caregiver mental and physical health may not only decrease healthcare costs, but it may also delay institutionalization of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Despite existi...

  16. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Raabe, Dierk; Zaefferer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD). The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  17. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  18. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Security System Design Description. System 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility security system. The system's primary purpose is to provide reasonable assurance that breaches of security boundaries are detected and assessment information is provided to protective force personnel. In addition, the system is utilized by Operations to support reduced personnel radiation goals and to provide reasonable assurance that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter designated security areas

  19. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Obesity, and CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Sallis, James F.; Floyd, Myron F.; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    In industrialized nations like the United States and Sweden, the vast majority of adults do not meet the physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes per week.1 Inactive lifestyles put most adults at risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, obesity, some cancers, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders.2 Physical activity can be effective at all phases of chronic disease management, from primordial prevention (prevention of risk factors) through treatment and rehabilitation.2 There i...

  20. Growth of carbon allotropes and plasma characterization in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Ižák, Tibor; Čada, Martin; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2014), "05FP04-1"-"05FP04-3" ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna linear * CVD system * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2014

  1. Preparación de tamices moleculares de carbono por CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Manso, R.; Pajares, J. A.; Albiniak, A.; Broniek, E.; Siemieniewska, T.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have been prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon from the pyrolysis of benzene molecules on activated carbon surfaces. The pyrolysis of benzene at temperatures in the range 650-850 ºC restricts the accessibility of the micropores due to the creation of constrictions on the microporous network. Temperatures higher than 850 ºC (temperature of carbonisation) add difficulties due to decomposition and sinterization processes. Low flows of nitrogen (30 ...

  2. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  3. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

    2001-01-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio

  4. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Freedom poverty: a new tool to identify the multiple disadvantages affecting those with CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

    2013-06-20

    It is recognised that CVD affects an individual's financial situation, placing them in income poverty. However, recent developments in poverty measurement practice recognises other forms of disadvantage other than low income, such as poor health and insufficient education also affect living standards. Using the Freedom Poverty Measure, the multiple forms of disadvantage experienced by those with no health condition, heart disease, other diseases of the circulatory system, and all other health conditions was assessed using data on the adult Australian population contained in the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. 24% of those with heart disease and 23% of those with other diseases of the circulatory system were in freedom poverty, suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage. Those with heart disease and those with other diseases of the circulatory system were around three times more likely to be in freedom poverty (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.29-3.99, p<.0001; OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.94-3.98, p<.0001) than those with no health condition. Recognising the multiple forms of disadvantage suffered by those with CVD provides a clearer picture of their living standards than just looking at their income alone and the high proportion of individuals with CVD that are suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage should make them a target for policy makers wishing to improve living standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  8. Direct CVD Graphene Growth on Semiconductors and Dielectrics for Transfer-Free Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is the most broadly discussed and studied two-dimensional material because of its preeminent physical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Until now, metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely employed for the scalable production of high-quality graphene. However, in order to incorporate the graphene into electronic devices, a transfer process from metal substrates to targeted substrates is inevitable. This process usually results in contamination, wrinkling, and breakage of graphene samples - undesirable in graphene-based technology and not compatible with industrial production. Therefore, direct graphene growth on desired semiconductor and dielectric substrates is considered as an effective alternative. Over the past years, there have been intensive investigations to realize direct graphene growth using CVD methods without the catalytic role of metals. Owing to the low catalytic activity of non-metal substrates for carbon precursor decomposition and graphene growth, several strategies have been designed to facilitate and engineer graphene fabrication on semiconductors and insulators. Here, those developed strategies for direct CVD graphene growth on semiconductors and dielectrics for transfer-free fabrication of electronic devices are reviewed. By employing these methods, various graphene-related structures can be directly prepared on desired substrates and exhibit excellent performance, providing versatile routes for varied graphene-based materials fabrication. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  10. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Marshall, R. D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-04-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/ c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5×10 15 p/cm 2. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1×10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ≈40% at 5×10 15 p/cm 2. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/ c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1×10 15p/cm 2 without signal loss.

  11. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-04-21

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} and decreases by {approx}40% at 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10{sup 15}p/cm{sup 2} without signal loss.

  12. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ∼40% at 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10 15 p/cm 2 without signal loss

  13. Proton Irradiation of CVD Diamond Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jany, C; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Marshall, R D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardn ess of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24~GeV/$c$ and 500~MeV protons up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. We measured the charge collection distance, the ave rage distance electron hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to $1\\ times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$ and decreases by $\\approx$40~\\% at $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1~pA before and after irradiation. The particle indu ced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage curren t. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radia...

  14. Convection and chemistry effects in CVD: A 3-D analysis for silicon deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.; Tsui, P.; Chait, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT has been adopted to simulate the entire rectangular-channel-like (3-D) geometry of an experimental CVD reactor designed for Si deposition. The code incorporated the effects of both homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (surface) chemistry with finite reaction rates of important species existing in silane dissociation. The experiments were designed to elucidate the effects of gravitationally-induced buoyancy-driven convection flows on the quality of the grown Si films. This goal is accomplished by contrasting the results obtained from a carrier gas mixture of H2/Ar with the ones obtained from the same molar mixture ratio of H2/He, without any accompanying change in the chemistry. Computationally, these cases are simulated in the terrestrial gravitational field and in the absence of gravity. The numerical results compare favorably with experiments. Powerful computational tools provide invaluable insights into the complex physicochemical phenomena taking place in CVD reactors. Such information is essential for the improved design and optimization of future CVD reactors.

  15. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L

    2014-01-01

    equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...... and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk...

  16. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  17. A CVD Diamond Detector for (n,a) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Christina; Griesmayer, Erich; Guerrero, Carlos

    A novel detector based on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond technology has been developed in the framework of this PhD, for the experimental determination of (n,a) cross-sections at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The 59Ni(n,a)56Fe cross-section, which is relevant for astrophysical questions as well as for risk-assessment studies in nuclear technology, has been measured in order to validate the applicability of the detector for such experiments. The thesis is divided in four parts. In the introductory part the motivation for measuring (n,a) cross-sections, the experimental challenges for such measurements and the reasons for choosing the CVD diamond technology for the detector are given. This is followed by the presentation of the n_TOF facility, an introduction to neutron-induced nuclear reactions and a brief summary of the interaction of particles with matter. The CVD diamond technology and the relevant matters related to electronics are given as well in this first part of the t...

  18. RF characteristic of MESFET on H-terminated DC arc jet CVD diamond film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.L.; Li, C.M.; Zhu, R.H.; Guo, J.C.; Chen, L.X.; Wei, J.J.; Hei, L.F.; Wang, J.J.; Feng, Z.H.; Guo, H.; Lv, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be a potential material for high-frequency and high-power electronic devices due to the excellent electrical properties. In this paper, we reported the radio frequency (RF) characteristic of metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on polycrystalline diamond films prepared by direct current (DC) arc jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD). First, 4 in polycrystalline diamond films were deposited by DC arc jet CVD in gas recycling mode with the deposition rate of 14 μm/h. Then the polished diamond films were treated by microwave hydrogen plasma and the 0.2 μm-gate-length MESFET was fabricated by using Au mask photolithography and electron beam (EB) lithography. The surface conductivity of the H-terminated diamond film and DC and RF performances of the MESFET were characterized. The results demonstrate that, the carrier mobility of 24.6 cm 2 /V s and the carrier density of 1.096 × 10 13 cm −2 are obtained on the surface of H-terminated diamond film. The FET shows the maximum transition frequency (f T ) of 5 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 6 GHz at V GS = −0.5 V and V DS = −8 V, which indicates that H-terminated DC arc jet CVD polycrystalline diamond is suitable for the development of high frequency devices.

  19. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) ri...

  20. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...